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Sample records for early events elicited

  1. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  3. Eliciting Systematic Rule Use in Covariation Judgment [the Early Years].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald

    Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…

  4. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  5. Event related potentials elicited by violations of auditory regularities in patients with impaired consciousness.

    PubMed

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Rohaut, Benjamin; Weiss, Nicolas; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Galanaud, Damien; Puybasset, Louis; Bolgert, Francis; Sergent, Claire; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas; Naccache, Lionel

    2012-02-01

    Improving our ability to detect conscious processing in non communicating patients remains a major goal of clinical cognitive neurosciences. In this perspective, several functional brain imaging tools are currently under development. Bedside cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) derived from the EEG signal are a good candidate to explore consciousness in these patients because: (1) they have an optimal time resolution within the millisecond range able to monitor the stream of consciousness, (2) they are fully non-invasive and relatively cheap, (3) they can be recorded continuously on dedicated individual systems to monitor consciousness and to communicate with patients, (4) and they can be used to enrich patients' autonomy through brain-computer interfaces. We recently designed an original auditory rule extraction ERP test that evaluates cerebral responses to violations of temporal regularities that are either local in time or global across several seconds. Local violations led to an early response in auditory cortex, independent of attention or the presence of a concurrent visual task, while global violations led to a late and spatially distributed response that was only present when subjects were attentive and aware of the violations. In the present work, we report the results of this test in 65 successive recordings obtained at bedside from 49 non-communicating patients affected with various acute or chronic neurological disorders. At the individual level, we confirm the high specificity of the 'global effect': only conscious patients presented this proposed neural signature of conscious processing. Here, we also describe in details the respective neural responses elicited by violations of local and global auditory regularities, and we report two additional ERP effects related to stimuli expectancy and to task learning, and we discuss their relations to consciousness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LC-MS-Based Metabolomic Investigation of Chemopreventive Phytochemical-Elicited Metabolic Events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents in blocking or suppressing carcinogenesis. Metabolic interactions between phytochemical and biological system play an important role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of chemopreventive phytochemicals. However, complexities of phytochemical biotransformation and intermediary metabolism pose challenges for studying phytochemical-elicited metabolic events. Metabolomics has become a highly effective technical platform to detect subtle changes in a complex metabolic system. Here, using green tea polyphenols as an example, we describe a workflow of LC-MS-based metabolomics study, covering the procedures and techniques in sample collection, preparation, LC-MS analysis, data analysis, and interpretation.

  7. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  8. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  9. Early cellular events in evolving cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Waldorf, H. A.; Walsh, L. J.; Schechter, N. M.; Murphy, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) in human skin is prototypic for many inflammatory dermatoses. However the cellular events that precede gross lesion formation are unknown. In this study, inflammatory cell populations and adhesion molecule expression in early phases of DHR elicited by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were evaluated. The first discernible event (at 1 hour) was mast cell degranulation, followed by induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) expression on dermal postcapillary venules at 2 hours. Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule expression peaked at 24 hours and declined by 48 hours. In contrast, endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) remained at constitutive levels. Intrafollicular T-cell migration occurred independent of ICAM-1 expression and commenced as early as 4 hours after challenge. Mature, activated CD4-positive lymphocytes that expressed a helper-inducer/memory phenotype predominated in early lesions. These results demonstrate in vivo that mast cell degranulation, ELAM-1 expression, and memory T-cell-follicular interactions are key events in subclinical evolutionary stages of cutaneous DHR. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1704193

  10. Early events in axon/dendrite polarization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei-lin; Poo, Mu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of axons and dendrites is a critical step in neuronal development. Here we review the evidence that axon/dendrite formation during neuronal polarization depends on the intrinsic cytoplasmic asymmetry inherited by the postmitotic neuron, the exposure of the neuron to extracellular chemical factors, and the action of anisotropic mechanical forces imposed by the environment. To better delineate the functions of early signals among a myriad of cellular components that were shown to influence axon/dendrite formation, we discuss their functions by distinguishing their roles as determinants, mediators, or modulators and consider selective degradation of these components as a potential mechanism for axon/dendrite polarization. Finally, we examine whether these early events of axon/dendrite formation involve local autocatalytic activation and long-range inhibition, as postulated by Alan Turing for the morphogenesis of patterned biological structure.

  11. Event-related potentials elicited during working memory are altered in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Asta

    2013-01-01

    Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

  13. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting-in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking-when their children were very young ( M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential "child effects", suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents' educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting.

  14. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting—in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking—when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential “child effects”, suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents’ educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting. PMID:26124539

  15. The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: a foundation for examining variability in elicitation thresholds for food allergens.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Gendel, Steven M; Houben, Geert F; Julien, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Food allergies are caused by immunological reactions in individuals sensitized to normal protein components of foods. For any given sensitized individual, the severity of a reaction is generally assumed to be proportional to the dose of allergenic protein. There is substantial clinical evidence that "threshold" doses exist for the elicitation of an allergic reaction; however, the threshold (i.e., lowest dose that elicits a reaction) varies substantially across the sensitized population. Current approaches to protecting sensitized individuals from exposure to food allergens are highly qualitative (i.e., they rely on food avoidance). The Key Events Dose-Response Framework is an analytical approach for refining understanding of the biological basis of the dose-response. Application of this approach to food allergy provides a foundation for a more rigorous quantitative understanding of variability in allergic response. This study reviews the allergic disease process and the current approaches to identifying thresholds for food allergens. The pathway of key biological events occurring between food intake and allergic response is considered, along with factors that may determine the nature and severity of response to food allergens. Data needs, as well as implications for identifying thresholds, and for characterizing variability in thresholds, are also discussed.

  16. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  17. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments

  18. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  19. The ESSENCE in child psychiatry: Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Co-existence of disorders--including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorder--and sharing of symptoms across disorders (sometimes referred to as comorbidity) is the rule rather than the exception in child psychiatry and developmental medicine. The acronym ESSENCE refers to Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations. It is a term I have coined to refer to the reality of children (and their parents) presenting in clinical settings with impairing child symptoms before age 3 (-5) years in the fields of (a) general development, (b) communication and language, (c) social inter-relatedness, (d) motor coordination, (e) attention, (f) activity, (g) behaviour, (h) mood, and/or (i) sleep. Children with major difficulties in one or more (usually several) of these fields, will be referred to and seen by health visitors, nurses, social workers, education specialists, pediatricians, GPs, speech and language therapists, child neurologists, child psychiatrists, psychologists, neurophysiologists, dentists, clinical geneticists, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, but, usually they will be seen only by one of these specialists, when they would have needed the input of two or more of the experts referred to. Major problems in at least one ESSENCE domain before age 5 years often signals major problems in the same or overlapping domains years later. There is no time to wait; something needs to be done, and that something is unlikely to be just in the area of speech and language, just in the area of autism or just in special education. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-resolution dating of Early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Barragan-Manzo, R.; Company, M.; Nuñez, F.

    2013-05-01

    Ammonoid biostratigraphy is the most accurate relative dating method that exists for the Aptian. It divides the Early Aptian into four zones, for comparison, planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biozonations only divide this substage into two zones (Fig. 1). In the study of the Early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE 1a), the most commonly used biostratigraphy to calibrate its age has been the planktonic foraminifera biozonation. This anoxic event, also known as Livello Selli, was initially believed to be the only oceanic anoxic event that occurred within the Early Aptian. From our own and other published data, we recognized that more than one oceanic anoxic event took place within the Early Aptian. Our purpose is to clearly characterize and date these events using the ammonite biozonation. Four years ago, a second oceanic anoxic event of uppermost Early Aptian age, the Aparein level, was identified in the Basque Cantabrian Basin, in Spain. The age of this event was calibrated using ammonites. More recently, the Aparein level was pinpointed by us in northern Mexico. A potential third oceanic anoxic event was recognized, around fifteen years ago in the section of La Bédoule, in France. The onset of this possible event would correspond to a negative carbon-isotope excursion in the uppermost Late Barremian-lowermost Early Aptian. The latter hypothesis remains un-worked and only some authors have recently started to use the term pre-Selli in reference to this event. The ammonite zonation is precise enough to clearly differentiate these three Early Aptian oceanic anoxic events (Fig. 1). The pre-Selli event, began in the uppermost Late Barremian and ended in the lower part of the Deshayesites oglanlensis Zone. The OAE 1a occurred within the Roloboceras hambrovi Subzone. The Aparein level was coeval with the Dufrenoyia dufrenoyi Subzone.; Figure 1: Chronological position of the known Early Aptian oceanic anoxic events against ammonite, planktonic

  1. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  2. Impact of schizophrenia and schizophrenia treatment-related adverse events on quality of life: direct utility elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew; Wild, Diane; Lees, Michael; Reaney, Matthew; Dursun, Serdar; Parry, David; Mukherjee, Jayanti

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of schizophrenia, its treatment and treatment-related adverse events related to antipsychotics, on quality of life from the perspective of schizophrenia patients and laypersons. Methods Health state descriptions for stable schizophrenia, extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinemia, diabetes, weight gain and relapse were developed based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. The quality of life impact of each health state was elicited using a time trade-off instrument administered by interview to 49 stable schizophrenia patients and 75 laypersons. Regression techniques were employed to examine the importance of subject characteristics on health-related utility scores. Results Patients and laypersons completed the interview in similar times. Stable schizophrenia had the highest mean utility (0.87 and 0.92 for laypersons and patients respectively), while relapse (0.48 and 0.60) had the lowest mean utility. Of the treatment-related adverse events, EPS had the lowest mean utility (0.57 and 0.72, respectively). Age, gender and PANSS score did not influence the utility results independently of health state. On average, patient utilities are 0.077 points higher than utilities derived from laypersons, although the ranking was similar between the two groups. Conclusion Events associated with schizophrenia and treatment of schizophrenia can bring about a significant detriment in patient quality of life, with relapse having the largest negative impact. Results indicate that patients with stable schizophrenia are less willing to trade years of life to avoid schizophrenia-related symptoms compared to laypersons. Both sets of respondents showed equal ability to complete the questionnaire. PMID:19040721

  3. Electroencephalographic study showing that tactile stimulation by fabrics of different qualities elicit graded event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, D; Handel, M; Müller, K-M; Hammer, T R

    2016-11-01

    Neurophysiologic data on reactions of the human brain towards tactile stimuli evoked by fabrics moved on the skin are scarce. Furthermore, evaluation of fabrics' pleasantness using questionnaires suffers subjective biases. That is why we used a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to objectively evaluate real-time brain reactions to fabric-skin interactions. Tactile stimuli were triggered by selected fabrics of different qualities, i.e. modal/polyamide single jersey, cotton double rib and a jute fabric, applied hidden to either the palm or forearm of 24 subjects via a custom-made fabric-to-skin applicator called SOFIA. One-way anova analysis was carried out to verify the EEG data. The modal/polyamide fabric applied to the forearm and palm led to slightly stronger emotional valence scores in the brain than the conventional or baseline fabric. Furthermore, the single jersey elicits significant higher event-related potential (ERP) signals in all subjects when applied to the forearm, suggesting less distraction and better cognitive resources during the fabric/skin interaction. The brain thus reacts with instantaneous ERP to tactile stimulation of fabrics and is able to discriminate different qualities via implicit preferences. The test procedure described here may be a tool to evaluate the fabric feel with the exclusion of subjective biases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Early Eocene Hyperthermal Events: Magnitude, Characteristics and Orbital Chronology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    The early Eocene was characterized by major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and fluctuations in global temperature on both short- (<104 years) and long- (> 106 years) time scales. The Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), at 56 Ma, represents the most extreme episode of abrupt short-lived global warming event superimposed on the late Paleocene- early Eocene long-term warming trend. The PETM was followed by a series of smaller "hyperthermal" events showing similar characteristics, including the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at 54 Ma and the ETM3 (or X-event) at 52.8 Ma, leading up to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These events are recorded in marine and continental sedimentary archives and are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). As for the PETM, the "hyperthermal" events were associated with dramatic increase in temperature and perturbation of the carbon cycle, driven by the release of large amounts of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, possibly triggered by a common orbital forcing mechanism. Here, we present astronomically tuned high-resolution benthic stable isotope records from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic) encompassing the early Eocene hyperthermal events. We discuss the changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle associated with these events in relation to the PETM, and define their timing, duration and the influence of orbital forcing.

  5. Preserving the Past: An Early Interview Improves Delayed Event Memory in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Deirdre A; Lewis, Charlie N; Lamb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an early interview on children's (N = 194) later recall of an experienced event was examined in children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (CWID; 7–12 years) and typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological (7–12 years) or mental (4–9 years) age. Children previously interviewed were more informative, more accurate, and less suggestible. CWID (mild) recalled as much information as TD mental age matches, and were as accurate as TD chronological age matches. CWID (moderate) recalled less than TD mental age matches but were as accurate. Interviewers should elicit CWID's recall as early as possible and consider developmental level and severity of impairments when evaluating eyewitness testimony. PMID:25876042

  6. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  7. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  8. Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to extreme weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on extreme weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent extreme weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on extreme events.

  9. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  11. Early Antipsychotic Treatment in Juvenile Rats Elicits Long-Term Alterations to the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-11-22

    Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D₁ and D₂ receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography. Aripiprazole decreased TH and D₁ receptor levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and p-TH levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of females, whilst TH levels decreased in the PFC of males. Olanzapine decreased PFC p-TH levels and increased D₂ receptor expression in the PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females only. Additionally, risperidone treatment increased D₁ receptor levels in the hippocampus of females, whilst, in males, p-TH levels increased in the PFC and hippocampus, D₁ receptor expression decreased in the NAc, and DAT levels decreased in the caudate putamen (CPu), and elevated in the VTA. These results suggest that early treatment with various APDs can cause different long-term alterations in the adult brain, across both treatment groups and genders.

  12. Assessment of nonlinear interactions in event-related potentials elicited by stimuli presented at short interstimulus intervals using single-trial data

    PubMed Central

    Loizides, Charalambos; Achilleos, Achilleas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The recording of brain event-related potentials (ERPs) is a widely used technique to investigate the neural basis of sensory perception and cognitive processing in humans. Due to the low magnitude of ERPs, averaging of several consecutive stimuli is typically employed to enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before subsequent analysis. However, when the temporal interval between two consecutive stimuli is smaller than the latency of the main ERP peaks, i.e., when the stimuli are presented at a fast rate, overlaps between the corresponding ERPs may occur. These overlaps are usually dealt with by assuming that there is a simple additive superposition between the elicited ERPs and consequently performing algebraic waveform subtractions. Here, we test this assumption rigorously by providing a statistical framework that examines the presence of nonlinear additive effects between overlapping ERPs elicited by successive stimuli with short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The results suggest that there are no nonlinear additive effects due to the time overlap per se but that, for the range of ISIs examined, the second ERP is modulated by the presence of the first stimulus irrespective of whether there is time overlap or not. In other words, two ERPs that overlap in time can still be written as an addition of two ERPs but with the second ERP being different from the first. This difference is also present in the case of nonoverlapping ERPs with short ISIs. The modulation effect elicited on the second ERP by the first stimulus is dependent on the ISI value. PMID:25787953

  13. Impact Constraints on Major Events in Early Mars History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. Thus there appears to have been a northern lowland throughout nearly all of martian history, predating the last of the really large impacts (Hellas, Argyre and Isidis) and their likely very significant environmental consequences.

  14. Effect of telencephalon ablation on the reinforcing and eliciting properties of species-specific events in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Hollis, K L; Overmier, J B

    1982-08-01

    In male Betta splendens, aggressive behavior is drastically attenuated following telencephalon ablation. Because instrumental training and Pavlovian conditioning experiments with intact fish have suggested that associative factors may play an important role in the performance of agonistic behaviors, the effect of ablation on instrumental learning and Pavlovian conditioning was studied. In Experiment 1, ablation had no effect on the learning of the instrumental tunnel-swimming response reinforced by mirror presentation (i.e., viewing a conspecific), although the mirror presentations in yoked-control groups elicited fewer responses in ablates than in normal and sham-operated control fish. Yoked controls further established that instrumental responding was maintained by the reinforcement contingency and was not merely the result of increased motor activity. Experiment 2 studied Pavlovian conditioning of the components of the agonistic display. Unconditioned fin erection, gill erection, and tail beating (i.e., unconditioned responses, URs) to the mirror US all were less frequent in ablates than in normals or shams. Of these, only gill cover erection showed evidence of true conditioning (i.e., conditioned responses; CRs) in which responses to the conditioned stimulus (CS) are due to the pairings of CS and US (unconditioned stimulus). However, ablates suffered no impairment of conditioned gill erections. Ablates performed fewer fin erections to the CS; however, fin erection responses were not due to CS-US pairings but were attributable to pseudoconditioning. These results are related to hypotheses postulating the involvement of learning mechanisms in ablation-produced deficits and normal aggressive behavior.

  15. Gene expression changes and early events in cotton fibre development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinsuk J; Woodward, Andrew W; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2007-12-01

    Cotton is the dominant source of natural textile fibre and a significant oil crop. Cotton fibres, produced by certain species in the genus Gossypium, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fibre development is delineated into four distinct and overlapping developmental stages: fibre initiation, elongation, secondary wall biosynthesis and maturation. Recent advances in gene expression studies are beginning to provide new insights into a better understanding of early events in cotton fibre development. Fibre cell development is a complex process involving many pathways, including various signal transduction and transcriptional regulation components. Several analyses using expressed sequence tags and microarray have identified transcripts that preferentially accumulate during fibre development. These studies, as well as complementation and overexpression experiments using cotton genes in arabidopsis and tobacco, indicate some similar molecular events between trichome development from the leaf epidermis and fibre development from the ovule epidermis. Specifically, MYB transcription factors regulate leaf trichome development in arabidopsis and may regulate seed trichome development in cotton. In addition, transcript profiling and ovule culture experiments both indicate that several phytohormones and other signalling pathways mediate cotton fibre development. Auxin and gibberellins promote early stages of fibre initiation; ethylene- and brassinosteroid-related genes are up-regulated during the fibre elongation phase; and genes associated with calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins are up-regulated in fibre initials. Additional genomic data, mutant and functional analyses, and genome mapping studies promise to reveal the critical factors mediating cotton fibre cell development.

  16. Understanding patients and spouses experiences of patient education following a cardiac event and eliciting attitudes and preferences towards incorporating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Susie; Feldman, Susan; Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Finn, Judith

    2018-01-09

    The aim of this study was to gain a comprehensive perspective about the experience of patient and spousal education following an acute cardiac event. The second objective was to elicit an understanding of patient and spousal attitudes, preferences and intentions towards future cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Patients with cardiovascular disease require comprehensive patient and family education to ensure adequate long-term disease management. As cardiac patients are at risk of future cardiac events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation training to patients and family members has long been advocated. We conducted a qualitative study underpinned by phenomenology and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with cardiac patients and their spouses (N = 12 patient-spouse pairs) between March 2015-April 2016 purposively sampled from a cardiology ward. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Nine male and three female patients and their spouses were recruited. Ages ranged from 47-75 years. Four strongly interrelated themes emerged: the emotional response to the event, information, control and responsibility. There was evidence of positive attitudes and intentions from the TPB towards undertaking cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the future. Only the eldest patient spouse pair were not interested in undertaking training. Findings suggest cardiac patients and spouses have unmet education needs following an acute cardiac event. Information increased control and decreased negative emotions associated with diagnosis. Participants' preferences were for inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in cardiac rehabilitation programs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is elicited with para-foveal hemifield oddball stimulation: An event-related brain potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Berti, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field. This demonstrates that in general vMMN elicitation is not confined to stimulations covering a broad range of the visual field or to the propagation of sensory information to both sensory visual cortices. In addition, the vMMN amplitudes showed a high variability between the different conditions, including non-significant vMMN amplitudes. This suggests that pronounced vMMNs observed in experimental settings relies on salient visual stimuli covering different channels of sensory information in vision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Events in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kadara, Humam; Scheet, Paul; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Spira, Avrum E

    2016-07-01

    The majority of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide are attributed to lung cancer. There are more than 90 million smokers in the United States who represent a significant population at elevated risk for lung malignancy. In other epithelial tumors, it has been shown that if neoplastic lesions can be detected and treated at their intraepithelial stage, patient prognosis is significantly improved. Thus, new strategies to detect and treat lung preinvasive lesions are urgently needed in order to decrease the overwhelming public health burden of lung cancer. Limiting these advances is a poor knowledge of the earliest events that underlie lung cancer development and that would constitute markers and targets for early detection and prevention. This review summarizes the state of knowledge of human lung cancer pathogenesis and the molecular pathology of premalignant lung lesions, with a focus on the molecular premalignant field that associates with lung cancer development. Lastly, we highlight new approaches and models to study genome-wide alterations in human lung premalignancy in order to facilitate the discovery of new markers for early detection and prevention of this fatal disease. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 518-27. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Social contact elicits immediate-early gene expression in dopaminergic cells of the male prairie vole extended olfactory amygdala.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, K V; Lonstein, J S

    2009-09-29

    Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a valuable model in which to study the neurobiology of sociality because, unlike most mammals, they pair bond after mating and display paternal behaviors. Research on the regulation of these social behaviors has highlighted dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in both pair bonding and parenting. We recently described large numbers of dopaminergic cells in the male prairie vole principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd), but such cells were very few in number or absent in the non-monogamous species we examined, including meadow voles. This suggests that DA cells in these sites may be important for sociosexual behaviors in male prairie voles. To gain some insight into the function of these DAergic neurons in male prairie voles, we examined expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) Fos and Egr-1 in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells of the pBST and MeApd after males interacted or not with one of several social stimuli. We found that IEGs were constitutively expressed in some TH-ir neurons under any social condition, but that IEG expression in these cells decreased after a 3.5-h social isolation. Thirty-minute mating bouts (but not 6- or 24-h bouts) that included ejaculation elicited greater IEG expression in TH-ir cells than did non-ejaculatory mating, interactions with a familiar female sibling, or interactions with pups. Furthermore, Fos expression in TH-ir cells was positively correlated with the display of copulatory, but not parental, behaviors. These effects of mating were not found in other DA-rich sites of the forebrain (including the anteroventral periventricular preoptic area, periventricular anterior hypothalamus, zona incerta, and arcuate nucleus). Thus, activity in DAergic cells of the male prairie vole pBST and MeApd is influenced by their social environment, and may be particularly involved in mating and its consequences

  20. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arpawong, Thalida E.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Milam, Joel E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools (n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs. PMID:26640507

  1. Changed lineage composition is an early event in breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Heidi N; Kantimm, Silke; Graham, J Dinny; Clarke, Christine L

    2013-09-01

    The epithelium compartment of the human breast is made up of a branching ductal-lobular system, which is lined by a single layer of luminal epithelial cells surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells. The co-ordinated development of these two cell types, and maintenance of their relative proportions, is fundamentally important for normal breast morphogenesis. Changes in cell type composition is one of the hallmark features of breast cancer progression, and the vast majority of breast tumors are comprised of luminal cells only, with a complete absence of myoepithelial cells. Despite this striking alteration in relative proportions of luminal and myoepithelial cells in invasive breast cancers compared with normal breast tissue, the steps in this dramatic change in cellular composition remain poorly characterised, nor is it known whether loss of myoepithelial cells is an early event in carcinogenesis. In a panel of breast tissues, we quantitated the proportion of luminal cells relative to the surrounding myoepithelial cell layer in a panel of normal and pre-invasive breast tissue samples, including lesions with proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA), columnar cell lesions (CCL), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and DCIS, and correlated these findings with proliferation in the same lesions. The study findings showed that changes in lineage composition correlate with increased proliferation, and are one of the earliest events in breast carcinogenesis. Therefore not only are myoepithelial cells important in distinguishing between invasive and non-invasive tumors, their relative proportion compared with luminal cell numbers may provide a new potential indicator of which premalignant lesions are at higher risk of progression to invasive disease.

  2. A theory of humor elicitation.

    PubMed

    Wyer, R S; Collins, J E

    1992-10-01

    This article presents a general theory of humor elicitation that specifies the conditions in which humor is experienced in both social and nonsocial situations. The theory takes into account the interpretation of a stimulus event that is necessary to elicit humor, the difficulty of identifying the humor-eliciting features of this interpretation, and the cognitive elaboration of implications of the event. The influence of these factors is postulated to depend on subjects' information-processing objectives at the time a stimulus event occurs. The theory is used to conceptualize the humor elicited by jokes, witticisms, and social events that are neither intended nor expected to be humorous. Particular attention is given to the cognitive underpinnings of responses to ethnic humor and to the humor that is elicited by one's own behavior in social situations.

  3. An expert elicitation process to project the frequency and magnitude of Florida manatee mortality events caused by red tide (Karenia brevis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Runge, Michael C.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Landsberg, Jan H.

    2017-11-20

    Red tides (blooms of the harmful alga Karenia brevis) are one of the major sources of mortality for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), especially in southwest Florida. It has been hypothesized that the frequency and severity of red tides may increase in the future because of global climate change and other factors. To improve our ecological forecast for the effects of red tides on manatee population dynamics and long-term persistence, we conducted a formal expert judgment process to estimate probability distributions for the frequency and relative magnitude of red-tide-related manatee mortality (RTMM) events over a 100-year time horizon in three of the four regions recognized as manatee management units in Florida. This information was used to update a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee (the Core Biological Model). We convened a panel of 12 experts in manatee biology or red-tide ecology; the panel met to frame, conduct, and discuss the elicitation. Each expert provided a best estimate and plausible low and high values (bounding a confidence level of 80 percent) for each parameter in each of three regions (Northwest, Southwest, and Atlantic) of the subspecies’ range (excluding the Upper St. Johns River region) for two time periods (0−40 and 41−100 years from present). We fitted probability distributions for each parameter, time period, and expert by using these three elicited values. We aggregated the parameter estimates elicited from individual experts and fitted a parametric distribution to the aggregated results.Across regions, the experts expected the future frequency of RTMM events to be higher than historical levels, which is consistent with the hypothesis that global climate change (among other factors) may increase the frequency of red-tide blooms. The experts articulated considerable uncertainty, however, about the future frequency of RTMM events. The historical frequency of moderate and intense RTMM (combined) in

  4. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a Mode of PPARa-Mediated Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. T...

  5. The Relationship Between Early Life Events, Parental Attachment, and Psychopathic Tendencies in Adolescent Detainees.

    PubMed

    Christian, Erica J; Meltzer, Christine L; Thede, Linda L; Kosson, David S

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in understanding psychopathic traits in youth, the role of early environmental factors in the development of psychopathic traits is not well understood. No prior studies have directly examined the relationship between early life events and psychopathic traits. We examined links between life events in the first 4 years of life and indices of the core affective and interpersonal components of psychopathy. Additionally, we examined relationships between early life events, psychopathic traits, and attachment to parents among 206 adjudicated adolescents. Results indicated that the total number of early life events was positively correlated with indices of the affective component of psychopathy. Moreover, psychopathic traits moderated the relationship between the number of early life events and later reports of attachment to parents. Findings suggest that early environmental factors could have important implications for the development of psychopathic traits and may impact attachment to parents for youth with psychopathic traits.

  6. An Alternative Explanation for "Step-Like" Early VLF Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    A newly-deployed array of VLF receivers along the East Coast of the United States is ideally suited for detecting VLF scattering from lightning-induced disturbances to the lower ionosphere. The array was deployed in May 2016, and one VLF receiver was deployed only 20 km from the NAA transmitter (24.0 kHz) in Cutler, Maine. The phase of the NAA signal at this closest site varies significantly with time, due simply to the impedance match of the transmitter varying with time. Additionally, both the amplitude and phase exhibit periods of rapid shifts that could possibly explain at least some "step-like" VLF scattering events. Here, we distinguish between "step-like" VLF scattering events and other events in that "step-like" events are typically not closely associated with a detected causative lightning flash and also tend to exhibit little or no recovery to ambient conditions after the event onset. We present an analysis of VLF observations from the East Coast array that demonstrates interesting examples of step-like VLF events far from the transmitter that are associated with step-like events very close to the transmitter. We conclude that step-like VLF events should be treated with caution, unless definitively associated with a causative lightning flash and/or detected using observations of multiple transmitter signals.

  7. Early Responsivity to Moral Events: Physiological and Behavioral Correlates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; And Others

    This study investigated toddlers' reactions to morally related events to determine whether age was a factor in emotional reaction, whether the middle of the second year was a salient time for the emergence of emotional reactions to such events, and whether heart rate change could be used as a new measure of moral responsivity. While their heart…

  8. Early Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic intraplate tectonic and magmatic events in the Cathaysia Block, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Liangshu; Wang, Bo; Cawood, Peter A.; Santosh, M.; Xu, Zhiqin

    2015-08-01

    The geodynamic framework of the South China Craton in the Early Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic has been modeled as developing through either oceanic convergence or intracontinental settings. On the basis of an integrated structural, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, and mica 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic study we establish that an intracontinental setting is currently the best fit for the available data. Our results suggest that widespread tectonomagmatic activity involving granite emplacement and mylonitic deformation occurred during two distinct stages: ~435-415 Ma and ~230-210 Ma. The coeval nature of emplacement of the plutons and their ductile deformation is corroborated by the subparallel orientation of the mylonitic foliation along the pluton margins, gneissose foliation in the middle part of pluton, the magmatic foliation within the plutons, and the schistosity in the surrounding metamorphosed country rocks. The 435-415 Ma granitoids exhibit peraluminous, high-K characteristics, and zircons show negative ɛHf(t) values (average -6.2, n = 66), and Paleoproterozoic two-stage model ages of circa 2.21-1.64 Ga (average 1.84 Ga). The data suggest that the Early Paleozoic plutons were derived from the partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic basement of the Cathaysia Block. The 230-210 Ma granites are potassic and have zircons with ɛHf(t) values of -2.8--8.7 (average -5.4, n = 62), corresponding to TDM2 ages ranging from 2.0 to 1.44 Ga (average 1.64 Ga), suggesting that the Early Mesozoic partial melts in Cathaysia were also derived from basement. The geochemical distinction between the two phases of granites traces continental crustal evolution with time, with the Early Mesozoic crust enriched in potassium, silicon, and aluminum, but deficient in calcium, relative to the Paleozoic crust. Kinematical investigations provide evidence for an early-stage ductile deformation with a doubly vergent thrusting pattern dated at 433 ± 1 to 428 ± 1 Ma (40Ar/39Ar furnace

  9. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Event-related brain potentials reveal the time-course of language change detection in early bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Using event-related brain potentials, we investigated the temporal course of language change detection in proficient bilinguals as compared to matched controls. Welsh-English bilingual participants and English controls were presented with a variant of the oddball paradigm involving picture-word pairs. The language of the spoken word was manipulated such that English was the frequent stimulus (75%) and Welsh the infrequent stimulus (25%). We also manipulated semantic relatedness between pictures and words, such that only half of the pictures were followed by a word that corresponded with the identity of the picture. The P2 wave was significantly modulated by language in the bilingual group only, suggesting that this group detected a language change as early as 200 ms after word onset. Monolinguals also reliably detected the language change, but at a later stage of semantic integration (N400 range), since Welsh words were perceived as meaningless. The early detection of a language change in bilinguals triggered stimulus re-evaluation mechanisms reflected by a significant P600 modulation by Welsh words. Furthermore, compared to English unrelated words, English words matching the picture identity elicited significantly greater P2 amplitudes in the bilingual group only, suggesting that proficient bilinguals validate an incoming word against their expectation based on the context. Overall, highly proficient bilinguals appear to detect language changes very early on during speech perception and to consciously monitor language changes when they occur. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B. D.; Bastlund, Jesper F.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  12. Temperature variability and early clustering of record-breaking events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Amalia; Kostinski, Alex

    2016-05-01

    As the number of climatological studies using record-breaking statistics is growing rapidly, understanding the sensitivity of the chosen time period becomes essential. To that end, here we examine the evolving variability of monthly mean temperatures and its dependence on beginning and final year. Specifically, we use an index, α, based on record-breaking statistics and employing reversibility such that < α>=0 indicates no trend in variability. Generally, < α> has decreased between 1900 and 2013, indicating decreasing variability relative to early decades for stations from the contiguous USA (United States Historical Climatology Network, version 2.5). We find, somewhat surprisingly, that the observed decrease is due to an early excess of records beginning in 1917 (record low value) and 1921 (record high value). While detailed results depend on whether the data is gridded, detrended, etc., the general finding appears remarkably robust and holds globally as well.

  13. Events Surrounding the Early Development of Euglena Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Freyssinet, Georges; Harris, Gary C.; Nasatir, Maimon; Schiff, Jerome A.

    1979-01-01

    Lack of a suitable assay has thwarted attempts to measure cytochrome c-552 in dark-grown wild type cells of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris in mutants and in other situations where the concentrations are low. Purification methods are described based on electrofocusing which provide a cytochrome c-552 preparation homogeneous enough to elicit a single reactive antibody in rabbits; this antibody is then used as a specific and sensitive assay for cytochrome c-552. Dark-grown cells of wild type and of mutants O1BS, O2BX, G1BU and P1BXL (which make normal sized chloroplasts with abnormal internal structure in the light) have 0.02 to 0.1 × 10−11 micromoles of cytochrome c-552 per cell, 10 to 150 times less than light-grown cells. Light-grown cells of these mutants and of wild type show a ratio of chlorophyll to cytochrome of about 300 (mole to mole). Cytochrome c-552 is undetectable in dark-grown Y1BXD, Y3BUD, and W34ZUD which cannot carry plastid development beyond the proplastid in light; the light-grown cells of these mutants have levels of cytochrome similar to or lower than dark-grown wild type cells. Cytochrome c-552 is undetectable in light- and dark-grown mutants in which plastid DNA is undetectable (such as Y2BUL, W3BUL, W8BHL, and W10BSmL) consistent with the view, but not proving, that this molecule may be coded, at least in part, in plastid DNA. During light-induced chloroplast development in resting cells, cytochrome c-552 formation behaves in all respects like chlorophyll except that the dark-grown cells contain low amounts of the cytochrome c-552 but lack chlorophyll. Thus, both cytochrome c-552 and chlorophyll show the same lag period even when the length is changed by nutritional manipulation; preillumination largely eliminates the lag in the formation of both molecules, cycloheximide and streptomycin both inhibit the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and cytochrome c-552 in the same manner, and the formation of both during chloroplast development is

  14. Global Health Security: Building Capacities for Early Event Detection, Epidemiologic Workforce, and Laboratory Response.

    PubMed

    Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Arthur, Ray; Mounts, Anthony W

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) was launched in February 2014 to bring countries with limited capacity into compliance with the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). Recent international public health events, such as the appearance of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the reappearance of Ebola in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of early detection of disease events and the interconnectedness of countries. Surveillance systems that allow early detection and recognition of signal events, a public health infrastructure that allows rapid notification and information sharing within countries and across borders, a trained epidemiologic workforce, and a laboratory network that can respond appropriately and rapidly are emerging as critical components of an early warning and response system. This article focuses on 3 aspects of the GHSA that will lead to improved capacities for the detection and response to outbreaks as required by the IHR: (1) early detection and reporting of events, (2) laboratory capacity, and (3) a trained epidemiologic workforce.

  15. Language context elicits native-like stop voicing in early bilinguals’ productions in both L1 and L2

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kroos, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The way that bilinguals produce phones in each of their languages provides a window into the nature of the bilingual phonological space. For stop consonants, if early sequential bilinguals, whose languages differ in voice onset time (VOT) distinctions, produce native-like VOTs in each of their languages, it would imply that they have developed separate first and second language phones, that is, language-specific phonetic realisations for stop-voicing distinctions. Given the ambiguous phonological status of Greek voiced stops, which has been debated but not investigated experimentally, Greek-English bilinguals can offer a unique perspective on this issue. We first recorded the speech of Greek and Australian-English monolinguals to observe native VOTs in each language for /p, t, b, d/ in word-initial and word-medial (post-vocalic and post-nasal) positions. We then recorded fluent, early Greek–Australian-English bilinguals in either a Greek or English language context; all communication occurred in only one language. The bilinguals in the Greek context were indistinguishable from the Greek monolinguals, whereas the bilinguals in the English context matched the VOTs of the Australian-English monolinguals in initial position, but showed some modest differences from them in the phonetically more complex medial positions. We interpret these results as evidence that bilingual speakers possess phonetic categories for voiced versus voiceless stops that are specific to each language, but are influenced by positional context differently in their second than in their first language. PMID:21743759

  16. The Importance of First Impressions: Early Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Influence Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Anthony M.; Fortune, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains a major health threat in much of the world. New vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for preventing infection, disease, and transmission. However, the host immune responses that need to be induced by an effective vaccine remain unclear. Increasingly, it has become clear that early events in infection are of major importance in the eventual outcome of the infection. Studying such events in humans is challenging, as they occur within the lung and thoracic lymph nodes, and any clinical signs of early infection are relatively nonspecific. Nonetheless, clinical studies and animal models of tuberculosis have provided new insights into the local events that occur in the first few weeks of tuberculosis. Development of an effective vaccine requires a clear understanding of the successful (and detrimental) early host responses against M. tuberculosis, with the goal to improve upon natural immune responses and prevent infection or disease. PMID:27048801

  17. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  18. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  19. Early Folding Events, Local Interactions, and Conservation of Protein Backbone Rigidity

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Raimondi, Daniele; Cilia, Elisa; Vranken, Wim F.

    2016-01-01

    Protein folding is in its early stages largely determined by the protein sequence and complex local interactions between amino acids, resulting in lower energy conformations that provide the context for further folding into the native state. We compiled a comprehensive data set of early folding residues based on pulsed labeling hydrogen deuterium exchange experiments. These early folding residues have corresponding higher backbone rigidity as predicted by DynaMine from sequence, an effect also present when accounting for the secondary structures in the folded protein. We then show that the amino acids involved in early folding events are not more conserved than others, but rather, early folding fragments and the secondary structure elements they are part of show a clear trend toward conserving a rigid backbone. We therefore propose that backbone rigidity is a fundamental physical feature conserved by proteins that can provide important insights into their folding mechanisms and stability. PMID:26840723

  20. The role of parent, teacher, and peer events in maintaining depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger

    2015-02-01

    Negative interpersonal events have been consistently identified as both antecedents and sequalae of adolescent depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the relative contributions of specific domains of interpersonal events (parents, peers or teachers) to the maintenance of depressive symptoms during early adolescence or whether a lack of positive interpersonal interactions plays a direct role in maintaining depressive symptoms. Further, few studies have examined whether positive interpersonal events moderate associations between negative events and adolescents' depressive symptoms. This study combined stress generation and exposure models to evaluate the contribution of daily events to the maintenance of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 adolescents (53 % female) followed from ages 13 to 15. Daily phone diaries collected at age 14 assessed adolescents' negative and positive interactions with parents, teachers, and peers in a sample of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families. Negative peer events uniquely accounted for the maintenance of depressive symptoms over the 2 years period. Results did not differ by gender; however, positive parent events buffered the effects of negative parent events for females but not for males. Findings highlight the significance of peer relationships during a period of vulnerability for depressive symptoms.

  1. Detection of rain events in radiological early warning networks with spectro-dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Dombrowski, H.; Kessler, P.; Röttger, A.; Neumaier, S.

    2017-10-01

    Short-term pronounced increases of the ambient dose equivalent rate, due to rainfall are a well-known phenomenon. Increases in the same order of magnitude or even below may also be caused by a nuclear or radiological event, i.e. by artificial radiation. Hence, it is important to be able to identify natural rain events in dosimetric early warning networks and to distinguish them from radiological events. Novel spectrometric systems based on scintillators may be used to differentiate between the two scenarios, because the measured gamma spectra provide significant nuclide-specific information. This paper describes three simple, automatic methods to check whether an dot H*(10) increase is caused by a rain event or by artificial radiation. These methods were applied to measurements of three spectrometric systems based on CeBr3, LaBr3 and SrI2 scintillation crystals, investigated and tested for their practicability at a free-field reference site of PTB.

  2. Transcriptomic changes in relation to early-life events in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, E; Tsalafouta, A; Sundaram, A Y M; Gilfillan, G D; Kotoulas, G; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2016-07-26

    Teleosts are exposed to a broad range of external stimuli, which may be either of acute or chronic nature. The larval phase of certain fish species offer a unique opportunity to study the interactions between genes and environmental factors during early life. The present study investigates the effects of early-life events, applied at different time points of early ontogeny (first feeding, flexion and development of all fins; Phase 1) as well as on the subsequent juvenile stage after the application of an additional acute stressor (Phase 2) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a commercially important European aquaculture species. Animal performance, the cortisol response and gene expression patterns during early development as well as on the subsequent phases (juveniles) after the application of additional acute stressors were investigated. Significant differences on fish performance were found only for juveniles exposed to early-life events at the phase of the formation of all fins. On the transcriptome level distinct expression patterns were obtained for larvae as well as for juveniles with the most divergent expression pattern found to be again at the phase of the development of all fins, which showed to have also an impact later on in the acute stress response of juveniles. The present study showed that applying an early-life protocol, characterized by the unpredictable, variable and moderate intensity of the applied stimuli provides a relative realistic model to evaluate the impact of daily aquaculture practices on fish performance. In addition, the power of investigating global gene expression patterns is shown, providing significant insights regarding the response of early-life events during development and as juveniles after the application of extra acute stressors.

  3. Serious adverse events in a hospital using early warning score - what went wrong?

    PubMed

    Petersen, John Asger; Mackel, Rebecca; Antonsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of a new early warning score (EWS) system by reviewing all serious adverse events in our hospital over a 6-month time period. All incidents of unexpected death (UD), cardiac arrest (CA) and unanticipated intensive care unit admission(UICU) of adult patients on general wards were reviewed to see if the escalation protocol that is part of the EWS system was followed in the 24h preceding the event, and if not where in the chain of events failure occurred. We found 77 UICU and 67 cases of the combined outcome (CO) of CA and UD. At least two full sets of EWS were recorded in 87, 94 and 75% of UICU, CA and UD. Patients were monitored according to the escalation protocol in 13, 31 and 13% of UICU, CA and UD. Nurses escalated care and contacted physicians in 64% and 60% of events of UICU and the corresponding proportions for CO were 58% and 55%. On call physicians provided adequate care in 49% of cases of UICU and 29% of cases of the CO. Senior staff was involved according to protocol in 53% and 36% of cases of UICU and CO, respectively. Poor compliance with the escalation protocol was commonly found when serious adverse events occurred but level of care provided by physicians was also a problem in a hospital with implemented early warning system. This information may prove useful in improving performance of EWS systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  5. Identification of alternative splicing events by RNA sequencing in early growth tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Xiao, Han

    2015-11-16

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates multiple biological processes including flowering, circadian and stress response in plant. Although accumulating evidences indicate that AS is developmentally regulated, how AS responds to developmental cues is not well understood. Early fruit growth mainly characterized by active cell division and cell expansion contributes to the formation of fruit morphology and quality traits. Transcriptome profiling has revealed the coordinated complex regulation of gene expression in the process. High throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology is advancing the genome-wide analysis of AS events in plant species, but the landscape of AS in early growth fruit is still not available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a model plant for fleshy fruit development study. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed the AS patterns in tomato seedlings, flowers and young developing fruits and found that 59.3 % of expressed multi-exon genes underwent AS in these tissues. The predominant type of AS events is intron retention, followed by alternative splice donor and acceptor, whereas exon skipping has the lowest frequency. Although the frequencies of AS events are similar among seedlings, flowers and early growth fruits, the fruits generated more splice variants per gene. Further comparison of gene expression in early growth fruits at 2, 5 and 10 days post anthesis revealed that 5206 multi-exon genes had at least one splice variants differentially expressed during early fruit development, whereas only 1059 out of them showed differential expression at gene level. We also identified 27 multi-exon genes showing differential splicing during early fruit growth. In addition, the study discovered 2507 new transcription regions (NTRs) unlinked to the annotated chromosomal regions, from where 956 putative protein coding transcripts and 1690 putative long non-coding RNAs were identified. Our genome-wide analysis of AS events reveals a distinctive AS pattern in early growth

  6. Observations of Early/Fast VLF Events on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Wood, T. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Mathews, J. D.; George, J. J.; Fong, N. T.

    2002-12-01

    Early/Fast VLF events are registered as sudden (i.e., "fast" < 20 ms) subionospheric VLF signal changes, occurring simultaneously (i.e., "early", <20 ms) with lightning discharges [e.g., Inan et al., GRL, 20, 2355, 1993]. These events constitute evidence of the direct energetic coupling between tropospheric thunderstorms and the overlying mesospheric and lower ionospheric regions. In August-September 2001 Penn State University organized an experimental campaign in Puerto Rico to perform correlative studies of lightning and lightning-induced ionospheric effects. A set of instruments employed for these studies included Arecibo Observatory 430 MHz UHF radar, New Mexico Tech Interferometer, and a video system. As part of this campaign Stanford University deployed broadband and narrowband VLF receivers at Casa Cielo, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico (18.12 deg N, 65.50 deg W), which were operated continuously during the time period August 21- September 15, 2001. The narrowband measurements of the NAU (Aguadilla, Puerto Rico), NLK (Jim Creek, Washington) and NAA (Cutler, Maine) signals were performed every day from 1500UT to 1400UT while broadband recordings were made 1 minute out of every 5 minutes from 1630UT to 1000UT. In this talk we report observations of spectacular early/fast VLF events, which were detected on the 40.75 kHz NAU signal on multiple occasions during August 31, September 1, 2 and 13, 2001. The observed signal amplitude changes ranged from a fraction of a dB up to 19 dB, with both positive and negative field changes. The unusually large events were superposed on top of a very high degree of variability of signal amplitude, caused by the fact that the magnetic loop antenna was aligned to null the ground signal and was thus disposed to only detect the sky wave signal. Some of the observed events exhibited recovery signatures with duration on the order of several tens of seconds, while a subset of events did not exhibit clear recovery signatures, possibly

  7. Early Events in Helix Unfolding Under External Forces: A Milestoning Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Steven M; Elber, Ron; Moon, Tess J

    2012-01-01

    Initial events of helix breakage as a function of load are considered using Molecular Dynamics simulations and Milestoning analysis. A helix length of ~100 amino acids is considered as a model for typical helices found in molecular machines and as a model that minimizes end effects for early events of unfolding. Transitions of individual amino acids (averaged over the helix’s interior residues) are examined and its surrounding hydrogen bonds are considered. Dense kinetic networks are constructed that, with Milestoning analysis, provide the overall kinetics of early breakage events. Network analysis and selection of MaxFlux pathways illustrate that load impacts unfolding mechanisms in addition to time scales. At relatively high (100pN) load levels, the principal intermediate is the 310-helix, while at relatively low (10pN) levels the π-helix is significantly populated, albeit not as an unfolding intermediate. Coarse variables are examined at different levels of resolution; the rate of unfolding illustrates remarkable stability under changes in the coarsening. Consistent prediction of about ~5ns for the time of a single amino-acid unfolding event are obtained. Hydrogen bonds are much faster coarse variables (by about 2 orders of magnitude) compared to backbone torsional transition, which gates unfolding and thereby provides the appropriate coarse variable for the initiation of unfolding. PMID:22471347

  8. Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lawrence H; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Butler, Andrew C; Parrish, Brendt P; Wenze, Susan J; Beck, Judith S

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to compute each patient's within-day relationship between daily stressors and daily NA (within-day reactivity), as well as the relationship between daily stressors and next-day NA (next-day reactivity; affective spillover). In growth model analyses, the authors evaluated the predictive role of patients' NA reactivity in their early (Sessions 1-4) and late (Sessions 5-12) response to CT. Within-day NA reactivity did not predict early or late response to CT. However, next-day reactivity predicted early response to CT, such that patients who had greater NA spillover in response to negative events had a slower rate of symptom change during the first 4 sessions. Affective spillover did not influence later response to CT. The findings suggest that depressed patients who have difficulty bouncing back the next day from their NA reactions to a relative increase in daily negative events will respond less quickly to the early sessions of CT.

  9. Early and Late Inhibitions Elicited by a Peripheral Visual Cue on Manual Response to a Visual Target: Are They Based on Cartesian Coordinates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawryszewski, Luiz G.; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R.; Magalhaes, Fabio V.

    2005-01-01

    A non-informative cue (C) elicits an inhibition of manual reaction time (MRT) to a visual target (T). We report an experiment to examine if the spatial distribution of this inhibitory effect follows Polar or Cartesian coordinate systems. C appeared at one out of 8 isoeccentric (7[degrees]) positions, the C-T angular distances (in polar…

  10. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  11. Can Older Adults Resist the Positivity Effect in Neural Responding: The Impact of Verbal Framing on Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited by Emotional Images

    PubMed Central

    Rehmert, Andrea E.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice, or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision-making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late-positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive (“more or less positive”) or negative (“more or less negative”). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults but for positively valenced images such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared to the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition. PMID:23731435

  12. Can older adults resist the positivity effect in neural responding? The impact of verbal framing on event-related brain potentials elicited by emotional images.

    PubMed

    Rehmert, Andrea E; Kisley, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information, presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive ("more or less positive") or negative ("more or less negative"). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition, thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults, but for positively valenced images, such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared with the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated, even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition.

  13. Stressful Events in Early Childhood and Developmental Trajectories of Bedwetting at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah; von Gontard, Alexander; Heron, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether early stressful events are associated with developmental trajectories of bedwetting. Methods This is a prospective cohort study comprising 8,761 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Stressful events were measured using a maternal questionnaire completed at 3 time points before their child was 4 years old. The association between stressful events and trajectories of bedwetting from 4 to 9 years was examined using multinomial regression. Results The association with stressful events was strongest for the frequent persistent bedwetting trajectory (wetting at least twice a week up to age 9). A 1 standard deviation increase in the stressful events score was associated with a 29% (13–47%) increase in the odds of experiencing frequent persistent bedwetting compared with normal attainment of nighttime bladder control. Conclusions Clinicians and parents should be aware that continence is a developmental outcome that is associated with high levels of stress in the family. PMID:27072719

  14. The impact of the early Sun and space weather events on the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Thiemann, Edward; Dong, Chuanfei; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Brain, David; DiBraccio, Gina; Jakosky, Bruce; Ma, Yingjuan; Espley, Jared; Lee, Christina; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack; McFadden, James; Hara, Takuya

    2017-04-01

    Observations of Sun-like stars have indicated that the early Sun can be characterized by extreme EUV and X-ray fluxes, as well as a more intense solar wind and higher occurrences of powerful solar transient events. The nature of the early Sun is a critical aspect for understanding atmospheric evolution among the terrestrial planets. In particular, the interaction of the solar wind with Mars has been a topic of recent interest with the arrival of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the upper atmosphere and magnetic topology of Mars during solar transient events such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) spanning from November 2014 to the present. Observations include dramatic changes in heavy ion acceleration along open, closed and draped magnetic field lines, and significant enhancements of escaping and precipitating planetary ions. We will present MAVEN observations of ICMEs and SIRs within the context of the current declining phase of solar cycle 24. With the use of global MHD and test particle simulations, we will also discuss the influence of the observed space weather events on the global loss rates of the Martian atmosphere. Finally, using observations of the magnitude and frequency of M and X class flares at younger, Sun-like stars, we have extrapolated the frequency of ICMEs at earlier stages of the Sun and will present simulations of the Mars-early solar wind interaction. The extreme conditions in the Sun's early history may have had a significant influence on the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and may also have implications for exoplanets interacting with the stellar winds of younger, more active stars.

  15. Notch pathway regulates female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in fetal mouse.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Pan, Bo; Qin, Xun-Si; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Lei; Li, Lan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A critical process of early oogenesis is the entry of mitotic oogonia into meiosis, a cell cycle switch regulated by a complex gene regulatory network. Although Notch pathway is involved in numerous important aspects of oogenesis in invertebrate species, whether it plays roles in early oogenesis events in mammals is unknown. Therefore, the rationale of the present study was to investigate the roles of Notch signaling in crucial processes of early oogenesis, such as meiosis entry and early oocyte growth. Notch receptors and ligands were localized in mouse embryonic female gonads and 2 Notch inhibitors, namely DAPT and L-685,458, were used to attenuate its signaling in an in vitro culture system of ovarian tissues from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) fetus. The results demonstrated that the expression of Stra8, a master gene for germ cell meiosis, and its stimulation by retinoic acid (RA) were reduced after suppression of Notch signaling, and the other meiotic genes, Dazl, Dmc1, and Rec8, were abolished or markedly decreased. Furthermore, RNAi of Notch1 also markedly inhibited the expression of Stra8 and SCP3 in cultured female germ cells. The increased methylation status of CpG islands within the Stra8 promoter of the oocytes was observed in the presence of DAPT, indicating that Notch signaling is probably necessary for maintaining the epigenetic state of this gene in a way suitable for RA stimulation. Furthermore, in the presence of Notch inhibitors, progression of oocytes through meiosis I was markedly delayed. At later culture periods, the rate of oocyte growth was decreased, which impaired subsequent primordial follicle assembly in cultured ovarian tissues. Taken together, these results suggested new roles of the Notch signaling pathway in female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in mammals.

  16. Notch pathway regulates female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in fetal mouse

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Pan, Bo; Qin, Xun-Si; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Lei; Li, Lan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A critical process of early oogenesis is the entry of mitotic oogonia into meiosis, a cell cycle switch regulated by a complex gene regulatory network. Although Notch pathway is involved in numerous important aspects of oogenesis in invertebrate species, whether it plays roles in early oogenesis events in mammals is unknown. Therefore, the rationale of the present study was to investigate the roles of Notch signaling in crucial processes of early oogenesis, such as meiosis entry and early oocyte growth. Notch receptors and ligands were localized in mouse embryonic female gonads and 2 Notch inhibitors, namely DAPT and L-685,458, were used to attenuate its signaling in an in vitro culture system of ovarian tissues from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) fetus. The results demonstrated that the expression of Stra8, a master gene for germ cell meiosis, and its stimulation by retinoic acid (RA) were reduced after suppression of Notch signaling, and the other meiotic genes, Dazl, Dmc1, and Rec8, were abolished or markedly decreased. Furthermore, RNAi of Notch1 also markedly inhibited the expression of Stra8 and SCP3 in cultured female germ cells. The increased methylation status of CpG islands within the Stra8 promoter of the oocytes was observed in the presence of DAPT, indicating that Notch signaling is probably necessary for maintaining the epigenetic state of this gene in a way suitable for RA stimulation. Furthermore, in the presence of Notch inhibitors, progression of oocytes through meiosis I was markedly delayed. At later culture periods, the rate of oocyte growth was decreased, which impaired subsequent primordial follicle assembly in cultured ovarian tissues. Taken together, these results suggested new roles of the Notch signaling pathway in female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in mammals. PMID:24398584

  17. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  18. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a Mode of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ABSTRACT Strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. The goal of this study was to evaluate short-term key event indicators using qualitative and quantitative methods in an established pathway of mouse liver tumorigenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed for 7 days to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), which vary in PPARα activity and liver tumorigenicity. Each phthalate increased expression of select PPARα target genes at 7 days, while only DEHP significantly increased liver cell proliferation labeling index (LI). Transcriptional benchmark dose (BMDT) estimates for dose-related genomic markers stratified phthalates according to hypothetical tumorigenic potencies, unlike BMDs for non-genomic endpoints (liver weights or proliferation). The 7-day BMDT values for Acot1 as a surrogate measure for PPARα activation were 29, 370, and 676 mg/kg-d for DEHP, DNOP, and BBP, respectively, distinguishing DEHP (liver tumor BMD of 35 mg/kg-d) from non-tumorigenic DNOP and BBP. Effect thresholds were generated using linear regression of DEHP effects at 7 days and 2-year tumor incidence values to anchor early response molec

  19. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    CMUiSEI-92-TR-12 2 The Process of Requirements Elicitation Rzepka decomposes the requirements engineering process into three activities [ Rzepka 89]: 1...Requirements elicitation Itself can be broken down into the activities of fact-finding, information gathering, and integration. For example, Rzepka ...further decomposes the elicitation process as follows [ Rzepka 89]: 1. Identify the relevant parties which are sources of requirements. The party might be

  20. Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event.

    PubMed

    Rainisch, Gabriel; Meltzer, Martin I; Shadomy, Sean; Bower, William A; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Health officials lack field-implementable tools for forecasting the effects that a large-scale release of Bacillus anthracis spores would have on public health and hospitals. We created a modeling tool (combining inhalational anthrax caseload projections based on initial case reports, effects of variable postexposure prophylaxis campaigns, and healthcare facility surge capacity requirements) to project hospitalizations and casualties from a newly detected inhalation anthrax event, and we examined the consequences of intervention choices. With only 3 days of case counts, the model can predict final attack sizes for simulated Sverdlovsk-like events (1979 USSR) with sufficient accuracy for decision making and confirms the value of early postexposure prophylaxis initiation. According to a baseline scenario, hospital treatment volume peaks 15 days after exposure, deaths peak earlier (day 5), and recovery peaks later (day 23). This tool gives public health, hospital, and emergency planners scenario-specific information for developing quantitative response plans for this threat.

  1. Criteria for categorizing early biochemical events occurring during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, B N; Mandelstam, J

    1975-01-01

    Two criteria are suggested for assessing the relevance of biochemical events occurring early in sporulation. The first is thymidine starvation, a condition known to inhibit sporulation. This also inhibits the production of metalloprotease, serine protease, and ribonuclease; alpha-amylase production, however, is unaffected. The second is the effect of a regulator mutation which increases the production of the proteases. In the mutant, ribonuclease is produced in correspondingly large quantities whereas alpha-amylase production is unaffected. We conclude that, whereas the serine protease is part of the main sequence of events leading to formation of the spore, the metalloprotease is a side effect, i.e., connected with the main sequence but not part of it. Ribonuclease could, on present evidence, be either in the main sequence or a side effect associated with it. Amylase, however, seems to be separately regulated and neither directly nor indirectly connected with the sporulation sequence. PMID:803478

  2. Rapid eye movement sleep behavioral events: a new marker for neurodegeneration in early Parkinson disease?

    PubMed

    Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Trautmann, Ellen; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    To analyze potential markers in sleep for early recognition of neurodegenerative disease in newly diagnosed, unmedicated patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared to controls. Videopolysomnography (vPSG) was available in 158 newly diagnosed, unmedicated patients with PD and 110 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was analyzed for REM without atonia (RWA) and studied by review of time-synchronized video. Motor behaviors and/or vocalizations in REM sleep with a purposeful component other than comfort moves were identified as REM sleep behavioral events (RBE). Two or more events had to be present to be classified as "RBE positive." RBE subjects included rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and non-RBD subjects based on the presence or absence of RWA > 18.2%. RBE were detected in 81 of 158 patients with de novo PD (51%) and 17 of 110 HC (15%) (P < 0.001). RBD was identified in 40/81 RBE-positive patients with PD (25% of all PD patients) and 2 of 17 RBE-positive HC (2% of all controls). RBE-positive patients showed no specific motor or neuropsychological features compared to RBE-negative patients. Patients with PD and HC with RBE had more REM sleep (P = 0.002) and a higher periodic leg movements in sleep index (P = 0.022) compared to subjects without RBE. This first description of REM sleep behavioral events (RBE) shows it occurs more frequently in patients with de novo Parkinson disease (PD) than in healthy controls and may be an early sign of neurodegeneration and precede rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). There is no specific phenotype of PD associated with newly defined RBE or RBD at this early stage.

  3. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  4. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  5. Exposure to potentially traumatic events in early childhood: differential links to emergent psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Clark, Roseanne; Augustyn, Marilyn; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Ford, Julian D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and clinical patterns of symptoms and disorders in preschool children. Method Two hundred and thirteen referred and non-referred children, ages 24 to 48 months (MN = 34.9, SD = 6.7 months) were studied. Lifetime exposure to PTEs (family violence and non-interpersonal events) and recent stressful life events were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) and Child Life Events Scale. Child psychiatric symptoms and disorders were assessed with parent-reports in the PAPA, a comprehensive, developmentally sensitive interview. Sociodemographic risk, parental anxiety and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, Beck Anxiety Inventory), and child developmental level (Mullen Scales of Early Learning) also were assessed. Results Violence exposure was broadly associated with psychiatric status in the areas of depression, separation anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and conduct problems, whereas potentially traumatic non-interpersonal exposure was associated with phobic anxiety. The majority of the associations between violence exposure and preschoolers’ symptoms were significant even when other key factors, including economic disadvantage and parental mood and anxiety symptoms, were controlled statistically. However, parental depressive/anxious symptoms may have partially or fully mediated the relationships between violence exposure and depressive and conduct symptoms. Conclusions Evidence of robust associations between violence exposure and early childhood internalizing and externalizing disorders and symptoms highlights the need for longitudinal prospective research concerning neurodevelopmental mechanisms and pathways. Findings underscore the relevance of assessing trauma exposure, particularly interpersonal violence, to identify young children at risk. PMID:20840502

  6. Early maritime economy and El Nino events at Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.; DeFrance, Susan D.; Moseley, M.E.; Richardson, J. B.; Satterlee, D.R.; Day-Lewis, A.

    1998-01-01

    The archaeological site of Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru, dates to 12,700 to 12,500 calibrated years before the present (10,770 to 10,530 carbon-14 years before the present). It contains some of the oldest evidence of maritime- based economic activity in the New World. Recovered materials include a hearth, lithic cutting tools and flakes, and abundant processed marine fauna, primarily seabirds and fish. Sediments below and above the occupation layer were probably generated by El Nino events, indicating that El Nino was active during the Pleistocene as well as during the early and middle Holocene.

  7. Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gareth R.; Macalinao, Danilo G.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Walden, Michael; Soto, Ileana; Kneeland, Stephen C.; Barbay, Jessica M.; King, Benjamin L.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; Hibbs, Matthew; Stevens, Beth; Barres, Ben A.; Clark, Abbot F.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this, the earliest stages of this complex disease are still unclear. This study was specifically designed to identify early stages of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. To do this, we used genome-wide expression profiling of optic nerve head and retina and a series of computational methods. Eyes with no detectable glaucoma by conventional assays were grouped into molecularly defined stages of disease using unbiased hierarchical clustering. These stages represent a temporally ordered sequence of glaucoma states. We then determined networks and biological processes that were altered at these early stages. Early-stage expression changes included upregulation of both the complement cascade and the endothelin system, and so we tested the therapeutic value of separately inhibiting them. Mice with a mutation in complement component 1a (C1qa) were protected from glaucoma. Similarly, inhibition of the endothelin system with bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, was strongly protective against glaucomatous damage. Since endothelin 2 is potently vasoconstrictive and was produced by microglia/macrophages, our data provide what we believe to be a novel link between these cell types and vascular dysfunction in glaucoma. Targeting early molecular events, such as complement and endothelin induction, may provide effective new treatments for human glaucoma. PMID:21383504

  8. Divergent response of the neritic carbonate factory to environmental changes during the Early Bajocian Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Hönig, Martin; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Danisch, Jan; Kabiri, Lahcen

    2017-04-01

    The Early Bajocian witnessed a global environmental perturbation, characterized by faunal and floral turnovers and a positive carbon isotope excursion. In Italy, this environmental perturbation coincided with an eutrophication event and a carbonate crisis, but this has so far not been adequately reported from other settings, leaving doubt about the extent and nature of these phenomena. Here, we are reporting on an extensive neritic carbonate factory demise that occurs in the upper Lower Bajocian of the Central High Atlas of Morocco, more precisely in the upper Propinquans - lower Humphriesianum Zones. This demise coincided with the acme of the global carbon isotope perturbation, recorded by a 3‰ positive carbon isotope excursion in the bulk organic matter of Morocco. Recovery of the neritic carbonate system occurs during the Early to Late Bajocian transition. The duration of the neritic carbonate factory demise was therefore in the order of 1 Myr. Furthermore, we observe that the Lower Bajocian of Morocco is relatively enriched in arenitic siliciclastic deposits, suggesting increased weathering and nutrient levels along the northwestern margin of Africa during the Early Bajocian. However, comparison with neighboring European basins highlights the non-uniqueness and different timing of the response of shallow-water carbonates to the Early Bajocian environmental perturbations, as some regions present no sign of carbonate factory crisis. Hence, we postulate that local factors were important in mediating the response of neritic carbonate factories to this global environmental perturbation. We notably highlight the role of large Early Bajocian sea-level fluctuation as a trigger for carbonate factory change and demise in Morocco. Indeed, in the Central High Atlas Basin, transgressive intervals are seeing the development of a mud-dominated carbonate factory whereas regressive intervals are associated with grain-dominated carbonate factory. We speculate that the

  9. A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Som D; Coombes, Megan E; Levine, Mitch; Cosby, Jarold; Kowaleski, Brenda; Arnold, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical reasoning, tools used and challenges faced by the researchers who assign causality to SAE's. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists and trial coordinators at six Canadian academic cancer centres. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Individual interview content analysis was followed by thematic analysis across the interview set. Our study found that causality assessment tends to be a rather complex process, often without complete clinical and investigational data at hand. Researchers described using a common processing strategy whereby they gather pertinent information, eliminate alternative explanations, and consider whether or not the study drug resulted in the SAE. Many of the interviewed participants voiced concern that causality assessments are often conducted quickly and tend to be highly subjective. Many participants were unable to identify any useful tools to help in assigning causality and welcomed more objectivity in the overall process. Attributing causality to SAE's is a complex process. Clinical trial researchers apply a logical system of reasoning, but feel that the current method of assigning causality could be improved. Based on these findings, future research involving the development of a new causality assessment tool specifically for use in early phase oncology clinical trials may be useful.

  10. Environmental controls on marine ecosystems during the early Toarcian extinction event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    The fossil record has the potential to provide valuable insights into species response to past climate change if paleontological data are combined with appropriate proxies of environmental change. In the early Toarcian (Early Jurassic, ˜183Ma ago) rapid warming coincided with a main perturbation in the carbon cycle, seal level rise, widespread deposition of organic-rich, black shales under anoxic conditions, increased weathering rates and a biotic crisis in the marine realm, with the extinction of approximately 5% of families and 26% of genera. Because of this complex suite of inter-linked environmental and oceanographic changes, a key challenge is to determine which of these were most influential in controlling specific aspects of extinction and ecological collapse. In this study we combine high resolution palaeontological and palaeoenvironmental data from the coastal sections of the Whitby Mudstone Formation in North Yorkshire, UK, to reconstruct how climate changes controlled the structure of benthic and nektonic communities through the event, over a time period of ˜1.7 Ma. We show that benthic and nektonic ecosystems became decoupled and were driven by different environmental variables. Although rapid warming has been invoked as the main trigger of this event, the palaeotemperature proxy was a poor predictor of marine community dynamics, and abiotic factors indirectly linked to temperature, such as change in seawater dissolved oxygen concentration and nutrient inputs, were more important.

  11. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    PubMed Central

    Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene

  12. Eliciting the child’s voice in adverse event reporting in oncology trials: Cognitive interview findings from the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events initiative

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Bryce B.; McFatrich, Molly; Pinheiro, Laura C.; Weaver, Meaghann S.; Sung, Lillian; Withycombe, Janice S.; Baker, Justin N.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Waldron, Mia K.; Gibson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Deborah; Freyer, David R.; Mowbray, Catriona; Jacobs, Shana; Palma, Diana; Martens, Christa E.; Gold, Stuart H.; Jackson, Kathryn D.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology trials is required, but current practice does not directly integrate the child’s voice. The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) is being developed to assess symptomatic AEs via child/adolescent self-report or proxy-report. This qualitative study evaluates the child’s/adolescent’s understanding and ability to provide valid responses to the PRO-CTCAE to inform questionnaire refinements and confirm content validity. Procedure From seven pediatric research hospitals, children/adolescents ages 7–15 years who were diagnosed with cancer and receiving treatment were eligible, along with their parent-proxies. The Pediatric PRO-CTCAE includes 130 questions that assess 62 symptomatic AEs capturing symptom frequency, severity, interference, or presence. Cognitive interviews with retrospective probing were completed with children in the age groups of 7–8, 9–12, and 13–15 years. The children/adolescents and proxies were interviewed independently. Results Two rounds of interviews involved 81 children and adolescents and 74 parent-proxies. Fifteen of the 62 AE terms were revised after Round 1, including refinements to the questions assessing symptom severity. Most participants rated the PRO-CTCAE AE items as “very easy” or “somewhat easy” and were able to read, understand, and provide valid responses to questions. A few AE items assessing rare events were challenging to understand. Conclusions The Pediatric and Proxy PRO-CTCAE performed well among children and adolescents and their proxies, supporting its content validity. Data from PRO-CTCAE may improve symptomatic AE reporting in clinical trials and enhance the quality of care that children receive. PMID:27650708

  13. Eliciting the child's voice in adverse event reporting in oncology trials: Cognitive interview findings from the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events initiative.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Bryce B; McFatrich, Molly; Pinheiro, Laura C; Weaver, Meaghann S; Sung, Lillian; Withycombe, Janice S; Baker, Justin N; Mack, Jennifer W; Waldron, Mia K; Gibson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Deborah; Freyer, David R; Mowbray, Catriona; Jacobs, Shana; Palma, Diana; Martens, Christa E; Gold, Stuart H; Jackson, Kathryn D; Hinds, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology trials is required, but current practice does not directly integrate the child's voice. The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) is being developed to assess symptomatic AEs via child/adolescent self-report or proxy-report. This qualitative study evaluates the child's/adolescent's understanding and ability to provide valid responses to the PRO-CTCAE to inform questionnaire refinements and confirm content validity. From seven pediatric research hospitals, children/adolescents ages 7-15 years who were diagnosed with cancer and receiving treatment were eligible, along with their parent-proxies. The Pediatric PRO-CTCAE includes 130 questions that assess 62 symptomatic AEs capturing symptom frequency, severity, interference, or presence. Cognitive interviews with retrospective probing were completed with children in the age groups of 7-8, 9-12, and 13-15 years. The children/adolescents and proxies were interviewed independently. Two rounds of interviews involved 81 children and adolescents and 74 parent-proxies. Fifteen of the 62 AE terms were revised after Round 1, including refinements to the questions assessing symptom severity. Most participants rated the PRO-CTCAE AE items as "very easy" or "somewhat easy" and were able to read, understand, and provide valid responses to questions. A few AE items assessing rare events were challenging to understand. The Pediatric and Proxy PRO-CTCAE performed well among children and adolescents and their proxies, supporting its content validity. Data from PRO-CTCAE may improve symptomatic AE reporting in clinical trials and enhance the quality of care that children receive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Early Coagulopathy is Associated With Increased Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Events Among Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Younan, Duraid; Griffin, Russell; Thompson, Maxwell; Swain, Thomas; Honkanen, Matthew; Crosby, James C; Ellis, Chandra V; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Kerby, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Coagulopathy is known to be associated with burn injury. Our group has shown that, in spinal cord injury patients, coagulopathy is associated with an increase in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We hypothesized that the same association exists between coagulopathic burn patients and ventilator-associated events. Patients admitted for burn care between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 who required mechanical ventilation were included in the study. Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) as defined by the Center for Disease Control were categorized as no event, ventilator-associated condition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication, and possible VAP. Demographic, injury characteristics were compared among four international normalized ratio (INR) categories using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Four hundred four patients were admitted for burn care, of whom 263 met the inclusion criteria. One hundred eleven had normal INR, 59 had a slightly elevated INR (1.2-1.4), 33 had a moderately elevated INR (1.4-1.6), and 60 had a severely elevated INR (>1.6). Those with moderately and severely elevated INR were ventilated for a longer period (P = 0.0034), had more days in the ICU (P = 0.0010), and had longer hospital stay (P = 0.0016). After adjusting for inhalation injury and total body surface area, patients with severely elevated INR were over four times as likely to have any VAE (OR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.33-13.05) and 4.5 times as likely to develop infection-related ventilator-associated complication or possible ventilator-associated pneumonia combined (OR: 4.59, 1.35-15.67). Early coagulopathy is associated with a significantly increased incidence of VAEs in burn patients. While additional studies need to be conducted to verify these findings, early recognition and treatment could decrease VAEs.

  15. Assemblage level and intraspecific response of calcareous nannofossils during early Eocene hyperthermal events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, C.; Mutterlose, J.

    2012-04-01

    The composition of calcareous nannofossils across the early Eocene has been investigated at the equatorial Atlantic (Demerara Rise; ODP Site 1260A, 277.17 - 227.04 mbsf & 1260B, 256.16 - 235.10 mbsf), including the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), Eocene thermal maximum 2 (ETM2) = Eocene layer of mysterious origin (Elmo) and ETM3 ("X"-event). These hyperthermal events are marked by a substantial input of isotopically light carbon into the oceans, related to a general warming trend, which led to ocean acidification. Perturbations of the carbon system are thought to have caused significant changes in the composition of marine biota. The PETM interval of Site 1260, defined by the onset and the termination of a negative carbon isotope anomaly with a value of ~ - 2 ‰, is 1.39 m thick (1260A, 276.87 - 275.48 mbsf). The lowermost 65 cm thick interval (1260A, 276.87 - 276.22 mbsf) with a carbonate content lower than 20 % includes a distinctive basal clay layer of approximately 40 cm thickness. The ETM2 is 78 cm thick (1260B, 238.93 - 238.15 mbsf) and marked by a negative carbon isotope excursion of ~ - 1 ‰. The final ETM3 is 17cm thick (1260A, 227.06 - 226.89 mbsf) and shows a negative shift of the carbon isotopes of - 1.2 ‰. The PETM is preceded by two short eutrophic events, where the nannofossil-based productivity index shows very high values, with concomitant low temperatures, the latter eutrophic event is directly preceding the onset of the carbon isotope excursion. The PETM excursion flora can be divided in three groups: 1) Small taxa - or taxa with a big aperture, like Coccolithus minimus, Coccolithus latus and Coccolithus foraminis, which are regarded as stress forms of Coccolithus pelagicus, reacting to possible surface water acidification during the initial phase of the PETM. 2) The large sized Coccolithus bownii, which appears as an acme during the body and early recovery, may profit from increasing pH and decreasing DIC conditions. 3) Teratoid

  16. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Petrogenesis of the EET 92023 achondrite and implications for early impact events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Okamoto, C.; Ebihara, M.

    2017-04-01

    We report petrology and geochemistry of an achondrite EET 92023 and compare it with normal and anomalous eucrites. EET 92023 is an unbrecciated achondrite and shows a granular texture mainly composed of low-Ca pyroxene and plagioclase, petrologically similar to normal cumulate eucrites such as Moore County. However, this rock contains a significant amount of kamacite and taenite not common in unbrecciated, crystalline eucrites. EET 92023 contains a significant amount of platinum group elements (PGEs) (ca. 10% of CI), several orders of magnitude higher than those of monomict eucrites. We suggest that the metallic phases carrying PGEs were incorporated by a projectile during or before igneous crystallization and thermal metamorphism. The projectile was likely to be an iron meteorite rather than chondritic materials, as indicated by the lack of olivine and the presence of free silica. Therefore, the oxygen isotopic signature is indigenous, rather than due to contamination of the projectile material with different oxygen isotopic compositions. A significant thermal event involving partial melting and metamorphism after the impact event indicates that EET 92023 records early impact events which took place shortly after the crust formation on a differentiated protoplanet when the crust was still hot.

  18. Early molecular events in murine gastric epithelial cells mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G.; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R.; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine if similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. Materials and Methods The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA, and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Results Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. PMID:26817586

  19. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a PPARα-Mediated Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Wood, Charles E; Bhat, Virunya S; Chorley, Brian N; Carswell, Gleta K; Sey, Yusupha M; Kenyon, Elaina M; Padnos, Beth; Moore, Tanya M; Tennant, Alan H; Schmid, Judith E; George, Barbara Jane; Ross, David G; Hughes, Michael F; Corton, J Christopher; Simmons, Jane Ellen; McQueen, Charlene A; Hester, Susan D

    2016-02-01

    Current strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. The goal of this study was to evaluate short-term key event indicators using qualitative and quantitative methods in an established pathway of mouse liver tumorigenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed for 7 days to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), which vary in PPARα activity and liver tumorigenicity. Each phthalate increased expression of select PPARα target genes at 7 days, while only DEHP significantly increased liver cell proliferation labeling index (LI). Transcriptional benchmark dose (BMDT) estimates for dose-related genomic markers stratified phthalates according to hypothetical tumorigenic potencies, unlike BMDs for non-genomic endpoints (relative liver weights or proliferation). The 7-day BMDT values for Acot1 as a surrogate measure for PPARα activation were 29, 370, and 676 mg/kg/day for DEHP, DNOP, and BBP, respectively, distinguishing DEHP (liver tumor BMD of 35 mg/kg/day) from non-tumorigenic DNOP and BBP. Effect thresholds were generated using linear regression of DEHP effects at 7 days and 2-year tumor incidence values to anchor early response molecular indicators and a later phenotypic outcome. Thresholds varied widely by marker, from 2-fold (Pdk4 and proliferation LI) to 30-fold (Acot1) induction to reach hypothetical tumorigenic expression levels. These findings highlight key issues in defining thresholds for biological adversity based on molecular changes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  1. Spatiotemporal relationships among early events of fertilization in sea urchin eggs revealed by multiview microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Tanaka, Y; Nakajima, Y; Hirano, K; Itoh, H; Miyata, H; Hayakawa, T; Kinosita, K

    1995-01-01

    Four early events of egg fertilization, changes in intracellular calcium concentration and intracellular pH, reorientation of the surface membrane, and the elevation of the fertilization envelope, were imaged in real time and in pairs in single sea urchin eggs. The paired imaging allowed the correlation of the four events spatially and temporally. Three of them propagated as waves starting at the sperm entry site. The earliest was the calcium wave, visualized with fluorescent indicator dyes. After a delay of 10 s there followed a large decrease in the fluorescence polarization of membrane-bound dyes, which we interpret as arising from membrane reorientation as a result of cortical granule exocytosis and microvillar elongation. With a further delay of 15 s the fertilization envelope was seen to rise in transmitted light. All three waves propagated with similar velocities of approximately 10 microns/s, supporting the view that calcium triggers the latter two events. The fluorescence polarization changed in two steps with a clear pause of 10-20 s in between. The second step, which also propagated as wave, reflects either further elongation of microvilli or straightening of irregular microvilli. This second step was abolished by cytochalasin B and was coincident with an increase in cytoplasmic pH, suggesting that pH-induced actin reorganization may play a role. The cytoplasmic alkalinization, imaged with a fluorescent probe, was quite different from the other events in that it took place homogeneously throughout the egg and slowly (over 100 s). Apparently, the alkalinization is not on a direct downstream pathway of calcium origin. An opposing possibility, that the alkalinization may in fact be triggered by the traveling calcium wave, is also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7756541

  2. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  3. New Early Jurassic Tetrapod Assemblages Constrain Triassic-Jurassic Tetrapod Extinction Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Shubin, N. H.; Anders, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The discovery of the first definitively correlated earliest Jurassic (200 million years before present) tetrapod assemblage (Fundy basin, Newark Supergroup, Nova Scotia) allows reevaluation of the duration of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinction event. Present are tritheledont and mammal-like reptiles, prosauropod, theropod, and ornithischian dinosaurs, protosuchian and sphenosuchian crocodylomorphs, sphenodontids, and hybodont, semionotid, and palaeonisciform fishes. All of the families are known from Late Triassic and Jurassic strata from elsewhere; however, pollen and spore, radiometric, and geochemical correlation indicate an early Hettangian age for these assemblages. Because all ``typical Triassic'' forms are absent from these assemblages, most Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinctions occurred before this time and without the introduction of new families. As was previously suggested by studies of marine invertebrates, this pattern is consistent with a global extinction event at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The Manicouagan impact structure of Quebec provides dates broadly compatible with the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and, following the impact theory of mass extinctions, may be implicated in the cause.

  4. Dephosphorylation of Ezrin as an Early Event in Renal Microvillar Breakdown and Anoxic Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Cohn, Jonathan A.; Mandel, Lazaro J.

    1995-08-01

    Disruption of the renal proximal tubule (PT) brush border is a prominent early event during ischemic injury to the kidney. The molecular basis for this event is unknown. Within the brush border, ezrin may normally link the cytoskeleton to the cell plasma membrane. Anoxia causes ezrin to dissociate from the cytoskeleton and also causes many cell proteins to become dephosphorylated in renal PTs. This study examines the hypothesis that ezrin dephosphorylation accompanies and may mediate the anoxic disruption of the rabbit renal PT. During normoxia, 73 ±. 3% of the cytoskeleton-associated (Triton-insoluble) ezrin was phosphorylated, but 88 ± 6% of dissociated (Triton-soluble) ezrin was dephosphorylated. Phosphorylation was on serine/threonine residues, since ezrin was not detectable by an antibody against phosphotyrosine. After 60 min of anoxia, phosphorylation of total intracellular ezrin significantly decreased from 72 ± 2% to 21 ± 9%, and ezrin association with the cytoskeleton decreased from 91 ± 2% to 58 ± 2%. Calyculin A (1 μM), the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, inhibited the dephosphorylation of ezrin during anoxia by 57% and also blocked the dissociation of ezrin from the cytoskeleton by 53%. Our results demonstrate that (i) the association of ezrin with the renal microvillar cytoskeleton is correlated with phosphorylation of ezrin serine/threonine residues and (ii) anoxia may cause disruption of the renal brush border by dephosphorylating ezrin and thereby dissociating the brush border membrane from the cytoskeleton.

  5. Performance of four current risk algorithms in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Arts, E E A; Popa, C; Den Broeder, A A; Semb, A G; Toms, T; Kitas, G D; van Riel, P L; Fransen, J

    2015-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the predictive ability of 4 established cardiovascular (CV) risk models for the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal CV diseases in European patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Prospectively collected data from the Nijmegen early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inception cohort was used. Discriminatory ability for CV risk prediction was estimated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Calibration was assessed by comparing the observed versus expected number of events using Hosmer-Lemeshov tests and calibration plots. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values of 10% and 20% predicted risk. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.78-0.80, indicating moderate to good discrimination between patients with and without a CV event. The CV risk models Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Framingham risk score (FRS) and Reynolds risk score (RRS) primarily underestimated CV risk at low and middle observed risk levels, and mostly overestimated CV risk at higher observed risk levels. The QRisk II primarily overestimated observed CV risk. For the 10% and 20% cut-off values used as indicators for CV preventive treatment, sensitivity ranged from 68-87% and 40-65%, respectively and specificity ranged from 55-76% and 77-88%, respectively. Depending on the model, up to 32% of observed CV events occurred in patients with RA who were classified as low risk (<10%) for CV disease. Established risk models generally underestimate (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation score, Framingham Risk Score, Reynolds risk score) or overestimate (QRisk II) CV risk in patients with RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Understanding the Early Support Needs of Survivors of Traumatic Events: The Example of Severe Injury Survivors.

    PubMed

    Brand, Rachel M; Chisholm, Katherine; Terhaag, Sonia; Lau, Winnie; Forbes, David; Holmes, Alex; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2017-05-29

    In the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event, people may experience a range of mental health outcomes, including subclinical symptoms and distress. There is growing evidence that trauma survivors with subclinical symptoms are at increased risk of developing later psychiatric disorders, and this is especially the case with severe injury survivors. There is a need to develop evidence-based, early, brief interventions for those who are at risk of developing trauma-related psychopathology. To date, interventions for this at-risk group have largely been derived from expert consensus. This study therefore aimed to understand the early psychosocial difficulties and perceived needs from the perspective of trauma survivors to further inform intervention development. Forty-three survivors of a serious injury, identified as high risk for developing trauma-related psychopathology, were interviewed and qualitative methods (Thematic Analysis) were used to synthesize the data gathered. Participants described 5 main stressors: trauma-related psychological reactions, relationship stress, unsatisfactory services and support systems, reduced functioning, and negative thoughts and emotions in relation to recovery. In addition, participants described 3 main factors that were helpful in recovery: positive coping, professional support, and social support. These findings can inform posttrauma intervention development for those at risk of later psychological symptoms. In particular, the results support approaches focusing on promoting activity, supporting social relationships, stress and arousal management, and cognitive restructuring. In addition, future interventions might helpfully target rumination, worry, and reexperiencing symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  8. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Chelsea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2014-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013). We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibition accelerates the early events of stem cell differentiation: transcriptomic and epigenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karantzali, Efthimia; Schulz, Herbert; Hummel, Oliver; Hubner, Norbert; Hatzopoulos, AK; Kretsovali, Androniki

    2008-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression patterns affecting cell function and differentiation. In this report, we examine the role of histone acetylation in gene expression regulation in mouse embryonic stem cells employing transcriptomic and epigenetic analysis. Results Embryonic stem cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), undergo morphological and gene expression changes indicative of differentiation. Gene profiling utilizing Affymetrix microarrays revealed the suppression of important pluripotency factors, including Nanog, a master regulator of stem cell identity, and the activation of differentiation-related genes. Transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced after 6-12 hours of TSA treatment mimic those that appear during embryoid body differentiation. We show here that the early steps of stem cell differentiation are marked by the enhancement of bulk activatory histone modifications. At the individual gene level, we found that transcriptional reprogramming triggered by histone deacetylase inhibition correlates with rapid changes in activating K4 trimethylation and repressive K27 trimethylation of histone H3. The establishment of H3K27 trimethylation is required for stable gene suppression whereas in its absence, genes can be reactivated upon TSA removal. Conclusion Our data suggest that inhibition of histone deacetylases accelerates the early events of differentiation by regulating the expression of pluripotency- and differentiation-associated genes in an opposite manner. This analysis provides information about genes that are important for embryonic stem cell function and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. PMID:18394158

  10. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Cao, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:26265791

  12. KIWI: A technology for public health event monitoring and early warning signal detection

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shamir N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To introduce the Canadian Network for Public Health Intelligence’s new Knowledge Integration using Web-based Intelligence (KIWI) technology, and to pefrom preliminary evaluation of the KIWI technology using a case study. The purpose of this new technology is to support surveillance activities by monitoring unstructured data sources for the early detection and awareness of potential public health threats. Methods: A prototype of the KIWI technology, adapted for zoonotic and emerging diseases, was piloted by end-users with expertise in the field of public health and zoonotic/emerging disease surveillance. The technology was assessed using variables such as geographic coverage, user participation, and others; categorized by high-level attributes from evaluation guidelines for internet based surveillance systems. Special attention was given to the evaluation of the system’s automated sense-making algorithm, which used variables such as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Event-based surveillance evaluation was not applied to its full capacity as such an evaluation is beyond the scope of this paper. Results: KIWI was piloted with user participation = 85.0% and geographic coverage within monitored sources = 83.9% of countries. The pilots, which focused on zoonotic and emerging diseases, lasted a combined total of 65 days and resulted in the collection of 3243 individual information pieces (IIP) and 2 community reported events (CRE) for processing. Ten sources were monitored during the second phase of the pilot, which resulted in 545 anticipatory intelligence signals (AIS). KIWI’s automated sense-making algorithm (SMA) had sensitivity = 63.9% (95% CI: 60.2-67.5%), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 87.3-89.8%), positive predictive value = 59.8% (95% CI: 56.1-63.4%), and negative predictive value = 90.3% (95% CI: 89.0-91.4%). Discussion: Literature suggests the need for internet based monitoring and surveillance systems that are customizable

  13. KIWI: A technology for public health event monitoring and early warning signal detection.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shamir N

    2016-01-01

    To introduce the Canadian Network for Public Health Intelligence's new Knowledge Integration using Web-based Intelligence (KIWI) technology, and to pefrom preliminary evaluation of the KIWI technology using a case study. The purpose of this new technology is to support surveillance activities by monitoring unstructured data sources for the early detection and awareness of potential public health threats. A prototype of the KIWI technology, adapted for zoonotic and emerging diseases, was piloted by end-users with expertise in the field of public health and zoonotic/emerging disease surveillance. The technology was assessed using variables such as geographic coverage, user participation, and others; categorized by high-level attributes from evaluation guidelines for internet based surveillance systems. Special attention was given to the evaluation of the system's automated sense-making algorithm, which used variables such as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Event-based surveillance evaluation was not applied to its full capacity as such an evaluation is beyond the scope of this paper. KIWI was piloted with user participation = 85.0% and geographic coverage within monitored sources = 83.9% of countries. The pilots, which focused on zoonotic and emerging diseases, lasted a combined total of 65 days and resulted in the collection of 3243 individual information pieces (IIP) and 2 community reported events (CRE) for processing. Ten sources were monitored during the second phase of the pilot, which resulted in 545 anticipatory intelligence signals (AIS). KIWI's automated sense-making algorithm (SMA) had sensitivity = 63.9% (95% CI: 60.2-67.5%), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 87.3-89.8%), positive predictive value = 59.8% (95% CI: 56.1-63.4%), and negative predictive value = 90.3% (95% CI: 89.0-91.4%). Literature suggests the need for internet based monitoring and surveillance systems that are customizable, integrated into collaborative networks of public

  14. ( sup 125 I)fibrin deposition occurs at both early and late intervals of IgE-dependent or contact sensitivity reactions elicited in mouse skin. Mast cell-dependent augmentation of fibrin deposition at early intervals in combined IgE-dependent and contact sensitivity reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mekori, Y.A.; Galli, S.J. )

    1990-12-01

    When elicited in the skin of mice, either IgE-dependent immediate hypersensitivity reactions or T cell-dependent contact sensitivity (CS) reactions result in local extravasation of (125I)fibrinogen and deposition of (125I)fibrin. However, these two types of reaction differ in kinetics and in requirement for IgE, mast cells, or T cells. In the present study, we investigated the kinetics and magnitude of (125I)fibrin deposition in combined IgE-dependent and CS reactions elicited simultaneously at the same site and compared the results with those obtained when the two reactions were elicited at separate sites. We found that (125I)fibrin deposition in pure IgE-dependent reactions was greater at 2 or 6 h after challenge than at 24 h, but that significant fibrin deposition persisted at those sites 24 h after challenge. In CS reactions, (125I)fibrin deposition was detected as early as 2 h after challenge, indicating that fibrin deposition accompanies the early component of CS detected by Van Loveren et al. with the use of measurements of tissue swelling. But much more (125I)fibrin deposition was present in CS reactions at 24 h than at 2 or 6 h after Ag challenge. When IgE-dependent and CS reactions were elicited at the same site, (125I)fibrin deposition at early intervals (2 to 6 h) after challenge was increased three- to 25-fold compared with that seen in isolated CS reactions, but at 24 h the results in the combined reactions were virtually identical to those in CS responses. Studies in genetically mast cell-deficient and congenic normal mice indicated that mast cells were required for expression of the IgE-dependent augmentation of (125I)fibrin deposition observed at early intervals in combined IgE-dependent and CS reactions, but not for the (125I)fibrin deposition associated with pure CS reactions.

  15. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: A Southern Hemisphere record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bernárdez, Enrique; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The Early Toarcian was marked by important environmental changes, marine oxygen deficiency and extensive organic-rich sediment deposition (T-OAE; ˜182 Ma, Early Jurassic). The T-OAE coincides with a marked negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in marine carbonate, and marine and terrestrial organic carbon. This is commonly attributed to the massive release of isotopically light carbon to the atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs derived from the destabilization of methane hydrates from marine sediments and/or the emissions of thermogenic methane from the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (e.g., Hesselbo et al., 2000; Kemp et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2007; Mazzini et al., 2010). Moreover, in most documented marine sections, this episode is marked by a generalized crisis in carbonate production and marine invertebrate extinctions (e.g. Jenkyns, 1988; Röhl et al., 2005; Suan et al., 2001). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available from the Southern Hemisphere, leading to large uncertainty concerning the exact expression of this event in this part of the world. The aims of this study are to characterize the sediments deposited during the Andean equivalents of the tenuicostatum and falciferum European Zones and establish in which way the T-OAE affected this region. In the Early Jurassic, the Andean basin was in a back-arc setting with marine corridors connected to Panthalassa. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical data from the sections of El Peñon and Quebrada Asiento, located in Chile in the northeastern area of the city of Copiapó, Atacama region. The biostratigraphy of these sections has been studied by von Hillebrandt and Schidt-Effing (1981) and complemented here by a biostratigraphy based on calcareous nannofossils. The sections consist of a succession of marl, limestone and siltstone of Pliensbachian and

  16. Guided bone regeneration using resorbable membrane and different bone substitutes: Early histological and molecular events.

    PubMed

    Elgali, Ibrahim; Turri, Alberto; Xia, Wei; Norlindh, Birgitta; Johansson, Anna; Dahlin, Christer; Thomsen, Peter; Omar, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Bone insufficiency remains a major challenge for bone-anchored implants. The combination of guided bone regeneration (GBR) and bone augmentation is an established procedure to restore the bone. However, a proper understanding of the interactions between the bone substitute and GBR membrane materials and the bone-healing environment is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the early events of bone healing and the cellular activities in response to a combination of GBR membrane and different calcium phosphate (CaP) materials. Defects were created in the trabecular region of rat femurs, and filled with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped HA (SrHA) or left empty (sham). All the defects were covered with an extracellular matrix membrane. Defects were harvested after 12h, 3d and 6d for histology/histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses. Histology revealed new bone, at 6d, in all the defects. Larger amount of bone was observed in the SrHA-filled defect. This was in parallel with the reduced expression of osteoclastic genes (CR and CatK) and the osteoblast-osteoclast coupling gene (RANKL) in the SrHA defects. Immunohistochemistry indicated fewer osteoclasts in the SrHA defects. The observations of CD68 and periostin-expressing cells in the membrane per se indicated that the membrane may contribute to the healing process in the defect. It is concluded that the bone-promoting effects of Sr in vivo are mediated by a reduction in catabolic and osteoblast-osteoclast coupling processes. The combination of a bioactive membrane and CaP bone substitute material doped with Sr may produce early synergistic effects during GBR. The study provides novel molecular, cellular and structural evidence on the promotion of early bone regeneration in response to synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHA) substitute, in combination with a resorbable, guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane. The prevailing view, based

  17. Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity Characterizes the Genetic Landscape of Pheochromocytoma and Defines Early Events in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Crona, Joakim; Backman, Samuel; Maharjan, Rajani; Mayrhofer, Markus; Stålberg, Peter; Isaksson, Anders; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) patients display heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and underlying genetic cause. The degree of inter- and intratumor genetic heterogeneity has not yet been defined. In PPGLs from 94 patients, we analyzed LOH, copy-number variations, and mutation status of SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, NF1, RET, TMEM127, MAX, and HRAS using high-density SNP array and targeted deep sequencing, respectively. Genetic heterogeneity was determined through (i) bioinformatics analysis of individual samples that estimated absolute purity and ploidy from SNP array data and (ii) comparison of paired tumor samples that allowed reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Mutations were found in 61% of the tumors and correlated with specific patterns of somatic copy-number aberrations (SCNA) and degree of nontumoral cell admixture. Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was observed in 74 of 136 samples using absolute bioinformatics estimations and in 22 of 24 patients by comparison of paired samples. In addition, a low genetic concordance was observed between paired primary tumors and distant metastases. This allowed for reconstructing the life history of individual tumors, identifying somatic mutations as well as copy-number loss of 3p and 11p (VHL subgroup), 1p (Cluster 2), and 17q (NF1 subgroup) as early events in PPGL tumorigenesis. Genomic landscapes of PPGL are specific to mutation subtype and characterized by genetic heterogeneity both within and between tumor lesions of the same patient. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Early events in macrophage killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: new flow cytometric viability assay.

    PubMed

    Marr, K A; Koudadoust, M; Black, M; Balajee, S A

    2001-11-01

    Detailed investigations of macrophage phagocytosis and killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia have been limited by technical difficulties in quantifying fungal uptake and viability. In order to study early events in cell pathogen ingestion and killing, we developed a new flow cytometry assay that utilizes the fungus-specific viability dye FUN-1. Metabolically active A. fumigatus conidia accumulate orange fluorescence in vacuoles, while dormant or dead conidia stain green. After incubation within THP-1 cells, recovered conidia are costained with propidium iodide (PI) to discriminate between dormant and dead cells. Flow cytometric measurements of FUN-1 metabolism and PI uptake provide indicators of conidial viability, dormancy, and death. Conidial phagocytosis and killing are also assessed by measurement of green and orange FUN-1 fluorescence within the THP-1 cell population. Compared to previously described methods, this assay has less error introduced by membrane permeability changes and serial dilution of filamentous fungal forms. Results suggest that the THP-1 cells kill conidia rapidly (within 6 h) after exposure. Conidia that are preexposed to human serum are ingested and killed more quickly than are nonopsonized conidia.

  19. Early Events in Macrophage Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia: New Flow Cytometric Viability Assay

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Kieren A.; Koudadoust, Michael; Black, Michele; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi

    2001-01-01

    Detailed investigations of macrophage phagocytosis and killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia have been limited by technical difficulties in quantifying fungal uptake and viability. In order to study early events in cell pathogen ingestion and killing, we developed a new flow cytometry assay that utilizes the fungus-specific viability dye FUN-1. Metabolically active A. fumigatus conidia accumulate orange fluorescence in vacuoles, while dormant or dead conidia stain green. After incubation within THP-1 cells, recovered conidia are costained with propidium iodide (PI) to discriminate between dormant and dead cells. Flow cytometric measurements of FUN-1 metabolism and PI uptake provide indicators of conidial viability, dormancy, and death. Conidial phagocytosis and killing are also assessed by measurement of green and orange FUN-1 fluorescence within the THP-1 cell population. Compared to previously described methods, this assay has less error introduced by membrane permeability changes and serial dilution of filamentous fungal forms. Results suggest that the THP-1 cells kill conidia rapidly (within 6 h) after exposure. Conidia that are preexposed to human serum are ingested and killed more quickly than are nonopsonized conidia. PMID:11687470

  20. Early event-related potential effects of syllabic processing during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, Manuel; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    A number of behavioral studies have suggested that syllables might play an important role in visual word recognition in some languages. We report two event-related potential (ERP) experiments using a new paradigm showing that syllabic units modulate early ERP components. In Experiment 1, words and pseudowords were presented visually and colored so that there was a match or a mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The results showed color-syllable congruency effects in the time window of the P200. Lexicality modulated the N400 amplitude, but no effects of this variable were obtained at the P200 window. In Experiment 2, high- and low-frequency words and pseudowords were presented in the congruent and incongruent conditions. The results again showed congruency effects at the P200 for low-frequency words and pseudowords, but not for high-frequency words. Lexicality and lexical frequency effects showed up at the N400 component. The results suggest a dissociation between syllabic and lexical effects with important consequences for models of visual word recognition.

  1. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-12-17

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.

  2. A Time Scale for Major Events in Early Mars Crustal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2004-01-01

    The population of visible and buried impact basins > 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA data and the cumulative frequency curves derived for these pvide a basis for a chronology of major events in early martian history. The relative chronology can be given in terms of N(200) crater retention ages; 'absolute ages' can be assigued using the Hartmann-Neukum (H&N) model chronology. In terms of billions of H&N years, the crustal dichotomy formed by large impact basins at 4.12 +/- 0.08 BYA (N(200) = 3.0-3.2) and the global magnetic field died at about or slightly before the same time (4.15 +/- 0.08 BYA (N(200) = 3.5). In this chronology, the buried lowlands are approx. 120 my younger than the buried highlands, approx. 160 my younger than the highlands overall and approx. 340 my younger than the oldest crater retention surface we see, defined by the largest impact basins.

  3. Choline acetyltransferase expression does not identify early pathogenic events in fetal SMA spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Soler-Botija, Carolina; Cuscó, Ivón; López, Eva; Clua, Agustín; Gich, Ignasi; Baiget, Montserrat; Ferrer, Isidre; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the expression of choline acetyltransferase, a specific marker for cholinergic neurons, in control and spinal muscular atrophy fetuses and newborns. By immunoblot we observed at 12 and 15 weeks a similar pattern of choline acetyltransferase expression in spinal muscular atrophy with respect to controls, although at 22 weeks this expression was reduced, probably due to a smaller number of motor neurons in the spinal muscular atrophy spinal cord. By immunohistochemistry, the counting of positive and negative motor neurons for choline acetyltransferase immunostaining in control and spinal muscular atrophy fetuses showed a similar proportion at all stages analyzed. The choline acetyltransferase-negative motor neurons were of similar appearance in both groups. After birth, chromatolytic motor neurons were detected in spinal muscular atrophy, all of which were choline acetyltransferase-negative. Our results in spinal muscular atrophy fetuses indicate that choline acetyltransferase immunostaining does not identify early events in neuronal pathogenesis and suggest that the spinal muscular atrophy surviving motor neurons may not be dysfunctional during this period. Furthermore, spinal muscular atrophy choline acetyltransferase-negative motor neurons showed detectable pathological changes only after birth, indicating that choline acetyltransferase is a late marker for motor neuron degeneration and not a primary contributing factor in this process.

  4. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  5. Evaluating harm associated with anti-malarial drugs: a survey of methods used by clinical researchers to elicit, assess and record participant-reported adverse events and related data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participant reports of medical histories, adverse events (AE) and non-study drugs are integral to evaluating harm in clinical research. However, interpreting or synthesizing results is complicated if studies use different methods for ascertaining and assessing these data. To explore how these data are obtained in malaria drug studies, a descriptive online survey of clinical researchers was conducted during 2012 and 2013. Methods The survey was advertised through e-mails, collaborators and at conferences. Questions aimed to capture the detail, rationale and application of methods used to obtain relevant data within various study designs and populations. Closed responses were analysed using proportions, open responses through identifying repeating ideas and underlying concepts. Results Of fifty-two respondents from 25 counties, 87% worked at an investigational site and 75% reported about an interventional study. Studies employed a range of methods to elicit, assess and record participant-reported AEs and related data. Questioning about AEs in 31% of interventional studies was a combination of general (open questions about health) and structured (reference to specific health-related items), 26% used structured only and 18% general only. No observational studies used general questioning alone. A minority incorporated pictorial tools. Rationales for the questioning approach included: standardization of assessment or data capture, specificity or comprehensiveness of data sought, avoidance of suggestion, feasibility, and understanding participants’ perceptions. Most respondents considered the approach they reported was optimal, though several reconsidered this. Four AE grading, and three causality assessment approaches were reported. Combining general and structured questions about non-study drug use were considered useful for revealing and identifying specific medicines, while pictures could enhance reports, particularly in areas of low literacy. Conclusions

  6. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON THE EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS AND EARLY SIGNALING EVENTS IN PRIMARY HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Arsenicals on the Expression of Cell Cycle Proteins and Early Signaling Events in Primary Human Keratinocytes.

    Mudipalli, A, Owen R. D. and R. J. Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is a m...

  7. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Elsenburg, Leonie K; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C

    2017-04-01

    Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been investigated to date. Data are from 2188 children participating at T1 (10-12 years), T3 (14-18 years), and/or T5 (21-23 years) of the prospective Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey cohort study. Adverse events before T1 and between T1, T3, and T5 were measured with a parent interview at T1 and a semistructured interview (Event History Calendar) with the adolescent at T3 and T5. An adverse events score was calculated per wave. Body mass index z-scores were determined from objectively measured height and weight using the LMS (skewness, median, and coefficient of variation) reference curves of the International Obesity Task Force for children 18 years or younger. Data were analyzed using a modified bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model. Adverse events before T1 and between T3 and T5 were related to BMI at T5 (β = 0.06, p = .001 and β = -0.04, p = .04, respectively). Specifically, health events before T1 were associated with a higher BMI at T5, and events related to relationships and victimhood events between T3 and T5 were associated with a lower BMI at T5. Adverse relationship and victimhood events in their recent past were related to a lower BMI in young adults, whereas adverse health events during childhood were related to a higher BMI in young adults. No relationships were found between adverse life events with BMI in children and adolescents.

  8. How the timing of weather events influences early development in a large mammal.

    PubMed

    Hendrichsen, D K; Tyler, N J C

    2014-07-01

    Capturing components of the weather that drive environment-animal interactions is a perennial problem in ecology. Identifying biologically significant elements of weather conditions in sensible statistics suitable for analysis of life history variation and population dynamics is central. Meteorological variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind modulate rates of heat loss in animals, but analysis of their effects on endothermic species is complicated by the fact that their influence on energy balance is not invariably linear, even across the thermoneutral range. Rather, the thermal load imposed by a given set of weather conditions is a function of organisms' metabolic requirement, which, crucially, may vary spontaneously both seasonally and across different life phases. We propose that the endogenous component of variation in metabolic demand introduces a temporal dimension and that, as a consequence, the specific effect of meteorological variables on energy balance and attendant life history parameters is a function of the timing of weather events with respect to the organism's metabolic rhythm(s). To test this, we examined how a spontaneous increase in metabolic demand influenced the effect of weather on early development in a large mammal. Specifically, we examined interaction between the exponential rise in the energy requirements of pregnancy and depth of snow, which restricts dams' access to forage, on the body mass of reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus) at weaning. As expected, we detected a significant temporal component: the specific negative effect of snow on weaning mass was not constant, but increased across pregnancy. The life history response was therefore better predicted by interaction between the magnitude and the timing of weather events than by their magnitude alone. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the influence of an endogenous metabolic dynamic on the impact of weather on a life history trait in a free

  9. Epigenetic control of early neurodegenerative events in diabetic retinopathy by the histone deacetylase SIRT6.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Zubilete, María A; Yeste, Ada; Quintana, Francisco J; Toiber, Debra; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Silberman, Dafne M

    2018-01-01

    . Our findings suggest that epigenetically regulated neurodegenerative events may occur at an early diabetic stage prior to the characteristic proliferative and vascular changes observed at a later diabetic stage. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    PubMed

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from questionnaires, pathology reports, and patients' charts from 592 patients without preoperative treatment. Breast-feeding duration ≤12 months of the first child was associated with higher frequency of ER+/PgR+ tumors (P=0.02). Median follow-up time was 4.9 years. Higher risk for early events was observed for breast-feeding duration of first child >12 months (LogRank P=0.001), total breast-feeding duration >12 months (LogRank P=0.008), as well as 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding of the first child (LogRank P=0.001). Patients with 'almost no milk production' had no events. In a multivariable model including both 'excessive milk production' and breast-feeding duration of the first child >12 months, both were associated with a two-fold risk for early events, adjusted HRs 2.33 (95% CI: 1.25-4.36) and 2.39 (0.97-5.85), respectively, while total breast-feeding duration was not. 'Excessive milk production' was associated with a two-fold risk of early distant metastases, adjusted HR 2.59 (1.13-5.94), but not duration. In conclusion, 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding was associated with higher risk for early events independent of tumor characteristics, stressing the need to consider host factors in the evaluation of prognostic markers.

  11. Temporal Events in Skin Injury and the Early Adaptive Responses in Ultraviolet-Irradiated Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ouhtit, Allal; Muller, H. Konrad; Davis, Darren W.; Ullrich, Stephen E.; McConkey, David; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the time course for induction of sunburn (apoptotic) cells and expression of proteins known to be associated with growth arrest and apoptosis in SKH-hr1 mouse skin. Mice were irradiated with a single dose (2.5 kJ/m2) of UV from Kodacel-filtered (290–400 nm) FS40 sunlamps and the skin tissues were analyzed at various times after irradiation for the presence of apoptotic cells and expression of p53, p21Waf-1/Cip1, bcl-2, bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results indicated that p53 expression was induced early in the epidermis, reaching maximum levels 12 hours after irradiaton, and p21Waf-1/Cip1 expression in the epidermis peaked at 24 hours after irradiation. In contrast, UV radiation induced high levels of bax at 24 to 72 hours after irradiation with a concomitant decrease in bcl-2 expression. Coinciding with these changes, apoptotic cells began to appear 6 hours after irradiation and reached a maximum at 24 hours after irradiation. Interestingly, proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, which was initially confined to the basal layer, became dispersed throughout the basal and suprabasal layers of the skin at 48 hours and paralleled marked hyperplasia. These results suggest that UV irradiation of mouse skin induces apoptosis mediated by the p53/p21/bax/bcl-2 pathway and that the dead cells are replaced by hyperproliferative cells, leading to epidermal hyperplasia. This implies that UV-induced apoptosis and hyperplasia are closely linked and tightly regulated and that dysregulation of these two events may lead to skin cancer development. PMID:10623668

  12. Shorter Exposures to Harder X-Rays Trigger Early Apoptotic Events in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, JiaJia; Mury, Sean P.; Drahos, Karen E.; Moscovitch, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and utilized for therapeutic

  13. Time perception of simultaneous and sequential events in early-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de Montalembert, M; Coulon, N; Cohen, D; Bonnot, O; Tordjman, S

    2016-08-01

    Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25.3 years, SD = 4.6) in order to compare the durations of two visual events, presented either sequentially or overlapping in time, along with neuropsychological assessments of attention, working memory, and executive functions. Each participant had to judge a total of 336 stimuli. We found that temporal overlap had a greater negative effect on ability to judge the duration of a pair of stimuli in EOS patients than in healthy control participants. In addition, EOS patients showed impairments in attention and executive functions. Furthermore, in EOS patients, the scores for executive and attentional functions were significantly correlated with accuracy of temporal estimation in the overlap condition (r = 0.31, p < 0.05 and r = 0.57, p < 0.05, respectively). These preliminary results suggest that impairments in neuropsychological functions participate in the deficit in time estimation observed in patients with EOS. These conclusions highlight the importance of testing time perception in patients with EOS and could contribute to the development of cognitive remediation-based therapy for these patients.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Stability and Fate of Ferrihydrite during Aqueous Events on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehouck, E.; McLennan, S. M.; Sklute, E.; Dyar, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a nanocrystalline, hydrated iron oxide species. On Earth, it is found in many surface and near-surface environments, including cold and hot springs, fresh and acid sulfate waters, lacustrine and marine sediments, and various types of soils. On Mars, its presence is suggested by measurements from the Mössbauer instruments of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and by mass balance calculations based on results from the CheMin X-ray diffractometer aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. Gusev, Meridiani and Gale landing sites all show evidence of aqueous events, but in a wide range of conditions - e.g., acidic to circum-neutral pH, fluvio-lacustrine to playa-like to hydrothermal systems. Given the metastability of ferrihydrite, it is unclear what would have been its fate in these various geological contexts. Accordingly, we will present a series of laboratory experiments aimed at a better understanding of the stability and fate of ferrihydrite during episodes of rock/water interactions on early Mars. Ferrihydrite was altered at low (40 °C) and high (150 °C) temperature, in pure form or in mixtures with silica gel or olivine, and at several pHs. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy. Results obtained at low temperature are at odds with some earlier studies and suggest that ferrihydrite behaves quite differently in rock-dominated conditions compared to water-dominated conditions. The co-existence of amorphous silica appears to slow down the recrystallization to hematite at high temperature and to favor the conversion into jarosite over goethite under low-T, acidic conditions. We will discuss the implications of these results for the aqueous history of Mars.

  15. Molybdenum-isotope chemostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Ruhl, Micha; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Porcelli, Donald; Idiz, Erdem; Lyons, Timothy W.; van den Boorn, Sander H. J. M.

    2017-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo)-isotope chemostratigraphy of organic-rich mudrocks has been a valuable tool for testing the hypothesis that the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, Early Jurassic, 183 Ma) was characterized by the spread of marine euxinia (and organic matter burial) at a global scale. However, the interpretation of existing Mo-isotope data for the T-OAE (from Yorkshire, Cleveland Basin, U.K.) is equivocal. In this study, three new Mo-isotope profiles are presented: from Dotternhausen Quarry (South German Basin, Germany), the Rijswijk core (West Netherlands Basin, Netherlands), and the Dogna core (Belluno Basin, northern Italy). Precise biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic correlation between the three sites allows a direct comparison of the data, enabling some key conclusions to be reached: (i) The Mo-isotope composition of seawater during the peak of the T-OAE was probably close to 1.45‰, implicating a greater removal flux of sulphides from seawater, and a larger extent of global seafloor euxinia compared to the present day; (ii) Mo-isotope cycles previously identified in the Yorkshire sedimentary succession are attributed to changes in the degree of local Mo drawdown from overlying Cleveland Basin seawater; (iii) The consistency of the new multisite Mo-isotope data set indicates a secular reduction in the burial of Mo globally in the late stages of the T-OAE, implying a contraction in the extent of global marine euxinia; (iv) Subtle differences in the Mo-isotope composition of deposits formed in different euxinic subbasins of the European epicontinental shelf were probably governed by local variations in basin hydrography and rates of water renewal.

  16. Evaluation of an early warning system for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) events in Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    People in Cordillera Blanca range in Peru have a long history dealing with natural disasters associated to high mountains; particularly Glacier Lakes Outburst Flood (GLOF). Examples in the Cordillera Blanca vary from a GLOF that occurred in 1941 that killed more than 5000 people in the city of Huaraz to recent events from Lake Artison Baja in 2012 and Lake 513 on 2010, which were not devastating thanks to safety systems previously installed in those lakes. However, glaciers continue melting leaving new lakes or changing the characteristics of lakes that were previously controlled making safety systems obsolete that worked successfully in the past protecting communities downstream. Lake Palcacocha has evolved from being safe after the installation of a safety system in 1970 to an imminent source of GLOF risk due to the expansion that has occurred during the last 40 years increasing from a volume of 500,000 to 17 million m3. In response to this risk the community in Huaraz is planning an Early Warning System (EWS) that will allow the population to mobilize to a safe area in case a GLOF occurs. In this work we present an adaptation of the LifeSIM model to calculate the benefits from such an EWS using 2007 census data and a FLO-2D flood simulation model. The outputs are the number of people in Huaraz that could lose their life due to a GLOF. Our results indicate that without an EWS around 19,773 people could lose their life; whereas, if an EWS is installed the number of victims reduces to 7344. Finally, if mobilization of the affected population is improved the value reduces to 2865. The results show the importance of the EWS as well as informing and training the population to how to react if a GLOF occurs.

  17. Daily Assessment of Stressful events and Coping in early post-operative recovery after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, F; Öhlén, J; Persson, L-O; Carlsson, E

    2018-01-24

    This study describes the most stressful events and coping strategies used by patients with colorectal cancer 4-6 weeks after surgery and whether the coping strategies were considered helpful or not. For the investigation of situational coping, an exploratory design was used. One hundred and five patients from three Swedish hospitals were included to fill in the Daily Coping Assessment. Most stressful event, number and types of pre-defined coping strategies used, and if the coping strategy used was considered helpful or not, were measured for 5 days. Of 523 diary entries, 180 reported no stressful events. The most stressful event, also with worst level of control and expectation, was "Pain," followed by "Nausea/vomiting." The areas causing most stressful events were "Bowel-related" and "Surgery and treatment-related problems." Acceptance and Direct action were the most frequently used coping strategies. There was a wide range of perceived helpfulness if coping strategies were placed in relation to specific areas of events. The conclusion was that patients revealed several strategies for coping with stressful events but needed a higher level of preparedness for what might come and therefore need to be given appropriate support to cope during the early recovery phase. Such support is suggested to be person-centred and oriented towards individually adapting standardised regimens, given the variety of situations to which the stressful events reported in the study were related. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sara; Wakam, Glenn; Hubbard, Alan E.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms. Methods Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV]). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tweet utilization were compared across events. Results Over 3.8 million tweets were analyzed (SH 1.8 m, BB 1.1m, SF 430k, MV 250k, NE 205k). Peak tweets per min ranged from 209–3326. The mean followers per tweeter ranged from 3382–9992 across events. Retweets were tweeted a mean of 82–564 times per event. Tweets occurred very rapidly for all events (<2 mins) and represented 1% of the total event specific tweets in a median of 13 minutes of the first 911 calls. A 200 tweets/min threshold was reached fastest with NE (2 min), BB (7 min), and SF (18 mins). If this threshold was utilized as a signaling mechanism to place local hospitals on standby for possible large scale events, in all case studies, this signal would have preceded patient arrival. Importantly, this threshold for signaling would also have preceded traditional disaster notification mechanisms in SF, NE, and simultaneous with BB and MV. Conclusions Social media data has demonstrated that this mechanism is a powerful, predictable, and potentially important resource for optimizing disaster response. Further investigated is warranted to assess the utility of prospective signally thresholds for hospital based activation. PMID:28982201

  19. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events?

    PubMed

    Callcut, Rachael A; Moore, Sara; Wakam, Glenn; Hubbard, Alan E; Cohen, Mitchell J

    2017-01-01

    Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms. Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV]). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tweet utilization were compared across events. Over 3.8 million tweets were analyzed (SH 1.8 m, BB 1.1m, SF 430k, MV 250k, NE 205k). Peak tweets per min ranged from 209-3326. The mean followers per tweeter ranged from 3382-9992 across events. Retweets were tweeted a mean of 82-564 times per event. Tweets occurred very rapidly for all events (<2 mins) and represented 1% of the total event specific tweets in a median of 13 minutes of the first 911 calls. A 200 tweets/min threshold was reached fastest with NE (2 min), BB (7 min), and SF (18 mins). If this threshold was utilized as a signaling mechanism to place local hospitals on standby for possible large scale events, in all case studies, this signal would have preceded patient arrival. Importantly, this threshold for signaling would also have preceded traditional disaster notification mechanisms in SF, NE, and simultaneous with BB and MV. Social media data has demonstrated that this mechanism is a powerful, predictable, and potentially important resource for optimizing disaster response. Further investigated is warranted to assess the utility of prospective signally thresholds for hospital based activation.

  20. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions, however comparing events is difficult. Two studies test whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events (‘progressive alignment’) while learning new verbs, and whether this influence changes with age. In Study 1, 2 ½- and 3 ½-year-old children participated in an interactive task. Children who saw a pair of similar events and then varied events were able to extend verbs at test, differing from a control group; children who saw two pairs of varied events did not differ from the control group. In Study 2, events were presented on a monitor. Following the initial pair of events that varied by condition, a Tobii x120 eye tracker recorded 2 ½-, 3 ½- and 4 ½-year-olds’ fixations to specific elements of events (AOIs) during the second pair of events, which were the same across conditions. After seeing the pair of events that were highly similar, 2 ½-year-olds showed significantly longer fixation durations to agents and to affected objects as compared to the all varied condition. At test, 3 ½-year-olds were able to extend the verb, but only in the progressive alignment condition. These results are important because they show children’s visual attention to relevant elements in dynamic events is influenced by their prior comparison experience, and they show that young children benefit from seeing similar events as they learn to compare events to each other. PMID:27092030

  1. A comparison of early family life events amongst monozygotic twin women with lifetime anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or major depression.

    PubMed

    Wade, Tracey D; Gillespie, Nathan; Martin, Nicholas G

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the differential profile of early family life events associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and major depression (MD). Only data from the monozygotic twins (n = 622) were examined from a community sample of female twins who had participated in three waves of data collection. Eating disorder and MD diagnoses were ascertained from the Eating Disorder Examination at Wave 3 and interview at Wave 2 respectively. Early family events were ascertained from self-report measures at Waves 1 and 3. Two case control designs were used, including a comparison of women: (1) who had lifetime AN, BN, MD, and controls, and (2) twin pairs discordant for either AN, BN, or MD (where the unaffected cotwin formed the control group). Across the two types of designs, compared to controls, both AN and BN were associated with more comments from the family about weight and shape when growing up. AN was uniquely associated with higher levels of paternal protection while BN was associated with higher levels of parental expectations. While some overlap among early life events was indicated, especially related to parental conflict and criticism, there was evidence to support some degree of nonoverlap among life events associated with AN, BN, and MD. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  3. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  4. Neural plasticity in processing of sound location by the early blind: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T; Alho, K; Paavilainen, P; Summala, H; Näätänen, R

    1992-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) to a change in the locus of origin of a repetitive sound were studied in early blind human subjects. It was found that the N2b component of the ERP was posteriorly distributed on the scalp to that in the sighted control subjects. This suggests that the blind might use, to a larger extent than the sighted, parietal, or perhaps even occipital, brain areas in sound localization. The present results thus appear to demonstrate plastic changes in neural populations involved in processing of auditory space following early loss of vision.

  5. Beyond good and evil: the time-course of neural activity elicited by specific picture content.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Anna; Hajcak, Greg

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined electrocortical evidence for a negativity bias, focusing on the impact of specific picture content on a range of event-related potentials (ERPs). To this end, ERPs were recorded while 67 participants viewed a variety of pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Examination of broad categories (i.e., pleasant, neutral, unpleasant) found no evidence for a negativity bias in two early components, the N1 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), but revealed that unpleasant images did elicit a larger late positive potential (LPP) than pleasant pictures. However, images of erotica and mutilation elicited comparable LPP responses, as did affiliative and threatening images. Exciting (i.e., sports) images and disgusting images elicited smaller LPPs than other emotional images, similar to neutral images containing people-which were associated with the largest LPPs among neutral pictures. When these three anomalous categories (exciting, disgusting, and scenes with people) were excluded, unpleasant images no longer elicited a larger LPP than pleasant images. Thus, including exciting images in pleasant ERP averages disproportionately reduces the LPP. The present findings are discussed in light of the motivational significance of specific picture subtypes.

  6. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo.

    PubMed

    Dean, M Christopher

    2016-07-05

    An important question in palaeoanthropology is whether, among the australopiths and the first fossil hominins attributed to early Homo, there was a shift towards a more prolonged period of growth that can be distinguished from that of the living great apes and whether between the end of weaning and the beginning of puberty there was a slow period of growth as there is in modern humans. Evidence for the pace of growth in early fossil hominins comes from preserved tooth microstructure. A record of incremental growth in enamel and dentine persists, which allows us to reconstruct tooth growth and compare key measures of dental maturation with modern humans and living great apes. Despite their diverse diets and way of life, it is currently difficult to identify any clear differences in the timing of dental development among living great apes, australopiths and the earliest hominins attributed to the genus Homo There is, however, limited evidence that some early hominins may have attained a greater proportion of their body mass and stature relatively earlier in the growth period than is typical of modern humans today.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An important question in palaeoanthropology is whether, among the australopiths and the first fossil hominins attributed to early Homo, there was a shift towards a more prolonged period of growth that can be distinguished from that of the living great apes and whether between the end of weaning and the beginning of puberty there was a slow period of growth as there is in modern humans. Evidence for the pace of growth in early fossil hominins comes from preserved tooth microstructure. A record of incremental growth in enamel and dentine persists, which allows us to reconstruct tooth growth and compare key measures of dental maturation with modern humans and living great apes. Despite their diverse diets and way of life, it is currently difficult to identify any clear differences in the timing of dental development among living great apes, australopiths and the earliest hominins attributed to the genus Homo. There is, however, limited evidence that some early hominins may have attained a greater proportion of their body mass and stature relatively earlier in the growth period than is typical of modern humans today. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298465

  8. Early mortality in systemic vasculitis: relative contribution of adverse events and active vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark A; Nightingale, Peter; Verburgh, C A; Hauser, Thomas; De Groot, Kirsten; Savage, Caroline; Jayne, David; Harper, Lorraine

    2010-06-01

    To contrast the effect of the burden of vasculitis activity with the burden of adverse events on 1-year mortality of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study assessed the outcome and adverse events in patients prospectively recruited to four European AAV clinical trials. Data on 524 patients with newly diagnosed AAV were included. The burden of adverse events was quantified using a severity score for leucopenia, infection and other adverse events, with an additional weighting for follow-up duration. A 'combined burden of events' (CBOE) score was generated for each patient by summing the individual scores. Vasculitis severity was quantified using the Birmingham vasculitis activity score and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). 1-year mortality probability was 11.1%; 59% and 14% of deaths were caused by therapy-associated adverse events and active vasculitis, respectively. Using Cox regression analysis, infection score (p<0.001), adverse event score (p<0.001), leucopenia score (p<0.001) and GFR (p=0.002) were independently associated with mortality. The risk of 1-year mortality remained low (5%) with CBOE scores less than 7, but increased dramatically with scores above this. Hazard ratio for death with a CBOE greater than 7 was 14.4 (95% CI 8.4 to 24.8). Age and GFR were independent predictors of CBOE score. The greatest threat to patients with AAV in the first year of therapy is from adverse events rather than active vasculitis. The accumulation of adverse events, monitored using this scoring method, should prompt increased awareness that the patient is at high risk of death.

  9. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  10. Role of Cyclin E as an Early Event in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    cancer cells to combination treatment with bortezomib and a natural dietary phytochemical indole-3-carbinole (I3C). The translational relevance...BODY Specific Aim 1: To characterize the genetic events induced along with cyclin E amplification and overexpression. Task 1: DNA analysis ...copy number variation events that occur in this subset of 20 tumors. We plan to take this analysis a step further with FISH analysis of formalin

  11. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  12. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  13. Major events in the late Precambrian to early Triassic geohistory of the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, T.E.; Connally, T.C.; Van der Eem, J.G.L.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The late Precambrian to Early Triassic of the Arabian Peninsula occur in five supergroups. Their geohistory resulted from sedimentation along fluvial to midshelf facies tracts, eustatic oscillation and periodic uplift. The first supergroup, Plate Precambrian-Middle Cambrian, includes the Siq/Salib and Yatib formations. Deposited by north-eastward-flowing braided streams, they eroded and buried an Arabian shield topography. The Saq Formation lies in angular unconformity on the Siq which documents early Middle Cambrian uplift. Supergroup two, Middle Cambrian-middle Caradocian, the Burj and Saq formations, the Hanadir, Kahfah, and Ra'an members, Qasim Formation, were deposited on a stable continental margin in fluvio-deltaic to midshelf settings. Coastal onlap occurred in the Middle Cambrian, early Llanvirn, middle Llandeilo and early Caradoc. Middle Caradocian uplift deeply eroded parts of central and southern Arabia. Supergroup three of middle Caradocian-early Llandoverian are the Quwarah Member, Qasim Formation and the Zarqa/Sarah formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic shallow shelf. Late Ashgill uplift, combined with glacially induced sea level lowering, incised valleys up to 2000 ft (610 m) deep. Supergroup four, early Llandovery-Middle Carboniferous, includes the Qalibah, Tawil, Jauf, Jubah and Berwath formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic marine, river dominated system. The Quysaiba and Sharawra members, Qalibah Formation, were the offshore clays and prodelta sands, the Tawil-Jubah were the fluvial to delta front, and the Berwath the delta plain facies. Deep pre-Tawil erosion documents late Silurian-Early Devonian uplift. The fifth supergroup are the Juwayl, Unayzah, Khuff and Sudair formations. The first two units were deposited in a glacio-fluvial system which eroded and infilled a Hercynian topography. The Khuff transgression occurred during the Artinsklan-Tartarian and the Early Triassic regressive Sudair documents renewed uplift.

  14. Slow slip events in the early part of the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Nicholas K.; Malservisi, Rocco; Dixon, Timothy H.; Protti, Marino

    2017-08-01

    In February 2014 a Mw = 7.0 slow slip event (SSE) took place beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This event occurred 17 months after the 5 September 2012, Mw = 7.6, earthquake and along the same subduction zone segment, during a period when significant postseismic deformation was ongoing. A second SSE occurred in the middle of 2015, 21 months after the 2014 SSE and 38 months after the earthquake. The recurrence interval for Nicoya SSEs was unchanged by the earthquake. However, the spatial distribution of slip for the 2014 event differed significantly from previous events, having only deep ( 40 km) slip, compared to previous events, which had both deep and shallow slip. The 2015 SSE marked a return to the combination of deep plus shallow slip of preearthquake SSEs. However, slip magnitude in 2015 was nearly twice as large (Mw = 7.2) as preearthquake SSEs. We employ Coulomb Failure Stress change modeling in order to explain these changes. Stress changes associated with the earthquake and afterslip were highest near the shallow portion of the megathrust, where preearthquake SSEs had significant slip. Lower stress change occurred on the deeper parts of the plate interface, perhaps explaining why the deep ( 40 km) region for SSEs remained unchanged. The large amount of shallow slip in the 2015 SSE may reflect lack of shallow slip in the prior SSE. These observations highlight the variability of aseismic strain release rates throughout the earthquake cycle.Plain Language SummaryWe analyzed small signals in continuous GPS time series. By averaging many GPS measurements over a day, we are able to get very precise measurements of the motion of the ground. We found two <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica where the GPS changed direction and began moving toward the oceanic trench in the opposite direction of subduction plate motion. These <span class="hlt">events</span> are called slow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH41A1791W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH41A1791W"><span>Seismology-based <span class="hlt">early</span> identification of dam-formation landquake <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Y. M.; Chao, W. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥ 20 sec) waveforms for different source mechanisms. Results show that single-force (SF) mechanism better explains the observed seismograms generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span>. We then perform inversions for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten <span class="hlt">events</span>, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025735','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025735"><span>Middle Devonian to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Carboniferous <span class="hlt">event</span> stratigraphy of Devils Gate and Northern Antelope Range sections, Nevada, U.S.A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sandberg, C.A.; Morrow, J.R.; Poole, F.G.; Ziegler, W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The classic type section of the Devils Gate Limestone at Devils Gate Pass is situated on the eastern slope of a proto-Antler forebulge that resulted from convergence of the west side of the North American continent with an ocean plate. The original Late Devonian forebulge, the site of which is now located between Devils Gate Pass and the Northern Antelope Range, separated the continental-rise to deep-slope Woodruff basin on the west from the backbulge Pilot basin on the east. Two connections between these basins are recorded by deeper water siltstone beds at Devils Gate; the older one is the lower tongue of the Woodruff Formation, which forms the basal unit of the upper member of the type Devils Gate, and the upper one is the overlying, thin lower member of the Pilot Shale. The forebulge and the backbulge Pilot basin originated during the middle Frasnian (<span class="hlt">early</span> Late Devonian) <span class="hlt">Early</span> hassi Zone, shortly following the Alamo Impact within the punctata Zone in southern Nevada. Evidence of this impact is recorded by coeval and reworked shocked quartz grains in the Northern Antelope Range and possibly by a unique bypass-channel or megatsunami-uprush sandy diamictite within carbonate-platform rocks of the lower member of the type Devils Gate Limestone. Besides the Alamo Impact and three regional <span class="hlt">events</span>, two other important global <span class="hlt">events</span> are recorded in the Devils Gate section. The semichatovae eustatic rise, the maximum Late Devonian flooding <span class="hlt">event</span>, coincides with the sharp lithogenetic change at the discordant boundary above the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone. Most significantly, the Devils Gate section contains the thickest and most complete rock record in North America across the late Frasnian linguiformis Zone mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>. Excellent exposures include not only the extinction shale, but also a younger. <span class="hlt">Early</span> triangularis Zone tsunamite breccia, produced by global collapse of carbonate platforms during a shallowing <span class="hlt">event</span> that continued into the next</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225035"><span>Exposure to traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> and the behavioral health of children enrolled in an <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood system of care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snyder, Frank J; Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Crusto, Cindy A; Connell, Christian M; Griffin, Amy; Finley, Meghan K; Radway, Susan; Marshall, Tim; Kaufman, Joy S</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Children may be exposed to numerous types of traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> that can negatively affect their development. The scope to which studies have examined an array of <span class="hlt">events</span> among young children has been limited, thereby restricting our understanding of exposure and its relationship to behavioral functioning. The current cross-sectional study describes traumatic <span class="hlt">event</span> exposure in detail and its relationship to behavioral health among an at-risk sample of young children (N = 184), under 6 years of age, upon enrollment into an <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood, family-based, mental health system of care. Caregivers completed home-based semistructured interviews that covered children's exposure to 24 different types of traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> and behavioral and emotional functioning. Findings indicated that nearly 72% of young children experienced 1 or more types of traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span>. Multiple regression model results showed that exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges with children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, and caregiver's education in the model. These findings highlight the prevalence of traumatic exposures among an at-risk sample of young children in a system of care and suggest that this exposure is associated with behavioral and emotional challenges at a young age. © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28969806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28969806"><span>Root phonotropism: <span class="hlt">Early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> following sound perception in Arabidopsis roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Bazihizina, Nadia; Azzarello, Elisa; Masi, Elisa; Tran, Daniel; Bouteau, François; Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Sound is a fundamental form of energy and it has been suggested that plants can make use of acoustic cues to obtain information regarding their environments and alter and fine-tune their growth and development. Despite an increasing body of evidence indicating that it can influence plant growth and physiology, many questions concerning the effect of sound waves on plant growth and the underlying signalling mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, exposure to sound waves (200Hz) for 2 weeks induced positive phonotropism in roots, which grew towards to sound source. We found that sound waves triggered very quickly (within  minutes) an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ , possibly mediated by an influx through plasma membrane and a release from internal stock. Sound waves likewise <span class="hlt">elicited</span> rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and K + efflux. Taken together these results suggest that changes in ion fluxes (Ca 2+ and K + ) and an increase in superoxide production are involved in sound perception in plants, as previously established in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280964"><span>An <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential study of older children with an <span class="hlt">early</span> history of failure to thrive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dykman, R A; Ackerman, P T; Loizou, P C; Casey, P H</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Elementary and junior high school children (n = 13), who were diagnosed with nonorganic failure to thrive (FTT) as infants and toddlers, were compared with a normal control group (n = 14) on visual <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs) <span class="hlt">elicited</span> during a primed lexical decision task. Positive stimuli were real words that were identical to the priming stimuli; negative stimuli were nonpronounceable letter strings. Although the groups did not differ in word-list reading level, the former FTT group had slower reaction (decision) times and did not show ERP evidence of priming in the N400 epoch. Anterior sites yielded better separation of the real words and letter strings than posterior sites. A late anterior component between 500 msec to 650 msec poststimulus onset showed the largest condition effect for both groups. The control group had a larger negative going late anterior component to words than the FTT group. The combined reaction time and ERP findings point to less automatized word recognition in the FTT group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Camus&pg=6&id=EJ904340','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Camus&pg=6&id=EJ904340"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Perception of Written Syllables in French: An <span class="hlt">Event</span>-Related Potential Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doignon-Camus, Nadege; Bonnefond, Anne; Touzalin-Chretien, Pascale; Dufour, Andre</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined whether written syllable units are perceived in first steps of letter string processing. An illusory conjunction experiment was conducted while <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials were recorded. Colored pseudowords were presented such that there was a match or mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbs+AND+argument&pg=3&id=ED513847','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbs+AND+argument&pg=3&id=ED513847"><span>Integrating Sentence-Structural and <span class="hlt">Event</span> Information in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Verb Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yuan, Sylvia Hsin Wei</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Children use syntax as well as observations of <span class="hlt">events</span> to learn verb meanings. This is known as syntactic bootstrapping. This dissertation investigated the origins and mechanisms of syntactic bootstrapping. Prior evidence suggested that two-year-olds, but not younger children, could use aspects of sentence structure to assign different…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diagnosis+AND+depression&pg=4&id=EJ936794','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diagnosis+AND+depression&pg=4&id=EJ936794"><span>Traumatic and Stressful <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: Can Treatment Help Those at Highest Risk?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Harris, William W.; Van Horn, Patricia; Lieberman, Alicia F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: This study involves a reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to examine whether child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), an empirically based treatment focusing on the parent-child relationship as the vehicle for child improvement, is efficacious for children who experienced multiple traumatic and stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> (TSEs).…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619259C"><span>Seismology-based <span class="hlt">early</span> identification of dam-formation landquake <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten <span class="hlt">events</span>, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risks+AND+psychosocial+AND+young&pg=7&id=EJ949962','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risks+AND+psychosocial+AND+young&pg=7&id=EJ949962"><span>Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Stressful Life <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753931"><span>Seismology-based <span class="hlt">early</span> identification of dam-formation landquake <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua</p> <p>2016-01-12</p> <p>Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten <span class="hlt">events</span>, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709719"><span>Seismology-based <span class="hlt">early</span> identification of dam-formation landquake <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten <span class="hlt">events</span>, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1–3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents. PMID:26753931</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seismology&id=EJ957137','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seismology&id=EJ957137"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural <span class="hlt">events</span> were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Personality+AND+Individual+AND+Differences&pg=6&id=EJ1099060','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Personality+AND+Individual+AND+Differences&pg=6&id=EJ1099060"><span>Origins of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span>, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autism+AND+children+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ923277','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autism+AND+children+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ923277"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An <span class="hlt">Event</span>-Related Potential Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PTES&pg=3&id=EJ897745','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PTES&pg=3&id=EJ897745"><span>Exposure to Potentially Traumatic <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: Differential Links to Emergent Psychopathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Clark, Roseanne; Augustyn, Marilyn; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Ford, Julian D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Research NeedsObjective: To examine associations between exposure to potentially traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> (PTEs) and clinical patterns of symptoms and disorders in preschool children. Method: Two hundred and thirteen referred and non-referred children, ages 24 to 48 months (MN = 34.9, SD = 6.7 months) were studied. Lifetime exposure to PTEs (family…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28732592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28732592"><span>Correlation between <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization and major cardiac <span class="hlt">events</span> demonstrated by ischemic myocardium in Japanese patients with stable coronary artery disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoda, Shunichi; Hori, Yusuke; Hayase, Misa; Mineki, Takashi; Hatta, Takumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya; Hirayama, Atsushi</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>There is no report on correlation between <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization and the occurrence of major cardiac <span class="hlt">events</span> (MCEs) except severe heart failure in Japanese patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to determine whether <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization affected the incidence of MCEs in Japanese patients with stable CAD. We retrospectively investigated 3581 stable CAD patients who underwent rest 201Tl and stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and provided three-year-prognostic data. The endpoint was the onset of MCEs consisting of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina pectoris. On the basis of estimated propensity scores, patients who underwent revascularization within the first 60 days after the SPECT and those who did not were matched in a 1:1 ratio (n=450 per group). We compared MCE rates in relation to the amount of ischemic myocardium detected with the SPECT between the two groups. The overall incidence of MCEs was not significantly different between the <span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization and no-<span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization groups (6.7% vs. 8.7%, p=0.2598). Nevertheless, the incidence of MCEs in the patients with ≤5% ischemia was significantly higher in the <span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization group than in the no-<span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization group (5.8% vs. 0.8%, p=0.0226). In contrast, the incidence of MCEs in the patients with >10% ischemia was significantly lower in the <span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization group than in the no-<span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization group (7.0% vs. 16.8%, p=0.0036). The incidence of MCEs in the patients with 6-10% ischemia, however, was not significantly different between the <span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization and no-<span class="hlt">early</span>-revascularization groups (6.9% vs. 4.1%, p=0.3235). <span class="hlt">Early</span> revascularization possibly leads to the occurrence of MCEs related to the treatment procedure but may be a therapeutic strategy leading to improvement in prognosis in patients with moderate to severe ischemia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362053','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362053"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling <span class="hlt">Event</span> Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling <span class="hlt">event</span>, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling <span class="hlt">event</span> is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile <span class="hlt">event</span>. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..288...10T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..288...10T"><span>3D modelling of the climatic impact of outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> on <span class="hlt">early</span> Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Mars was characterized by cataclysmic groundwater-sourced surface flooding that formed large outflow channels and that may have altered the climate for extensive periods during the Hesperian era. In particular, it has been speculated that such <span class="hlt">events</span> could have induced significant rainfall and caused the formation of late-stage valley networks. We present the results of 3-D Global Climate Model simulations reproducing the short and long term climatic impact of a wide range of outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> under cold ancient Mars conditions. We find that the most intense of these <span class="hlt">events</span> (volumes of water up to 107 km3 and released at temperatures up to 320 K) cannot trigger long-term greenhouse global warming, regardless of how favorable are the external conditions (e.g. obliquity and seasons). Furthermore, the intensity of the response of the <span class="hlt">events</span> is significantly affected by the atmospheric pressure, a parameter not well constrained for the Hesperian era. Thin atmospheres (P < 80 mbar) can be heated efficiently because of their low volumetric heat capacity, triggering the formation of a convective plume that is very efficient in transporting water vapor and ice at the global scale. Thick atmospheres (P > 0.5 bar) have difficulty in producing precipitation far from the water flow area, and are more efficient in generating snowmelt. In any case, outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> at any atmospheric pressure are unable to produce rainfall or significant snowmelt at latitudes below 40°N. As an example, for an outflow channel <span class="hlt">event</span> (under a 0.2 bar atmospheric pressure and 45° obliquity) releasing 106 km3 of water heated at 300 K and at a discharge rate of 109 m3 s-1 , the flow of water reaches the lowest point of the northern lowlands (around ∼70°N, 30°W) after ∼3 days and forms a 200 m deep lake of 4.2 × 106 km2 after ∼20 days; the lake becomes entirely covered by an ice layer after ∼500 days. Over the short term, such an <span class="hlt">event</span> leaves 6.5 × 103 km3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893609"><span>IL-17A mediates inflammatory and tissue remodelling <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> human tendinopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Millar, Neal L.; Akbar, Moeed; Campbell, Abigail L.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; McLean, Michael; Frleta-Gilchrist, Marina; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Leach, William J.; Rooney, Brian P.; Crowe, Lindsay A. N.; Murrell, George A. C.; McInnes, Iain B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Increasingly, inflammatory mediators are considered crucial to the onset and perpetuation of tendinopathy. We sought evidence of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) expression in <span class="hlt">early</span> human tendinopathy and thereafter, explored mechanisms whereby IL-17A mediated inflammation and tissue remodeling in human tenocytes. Torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing ‘<span class="hlt">early</span> pathology’) along with control biopsies were collected from patients undergoing shoulder surgery. Markers of inflammation and IL-17A were quantified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Human tendon cells were derived from hamstring tendon obtained during ACL reconstruction. In vitro effects of IL-17A upon tenocytes were measured using RT-PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V FACS staining. Increased expression of IL-17A was detected in ‘<span class="hlt">early</span> tendinopathy’ compared to both matched samples and non-matched control samples (p < 0.01) by RT-PCR and immunostaining. Double immunofluoresence staining revealed IL-17A expression in leukocyte subsets including mast cells, macrophages and T cells. IL-17A treated tenocytes exhibited increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (p < 0.001), altered matrix regulation (p < 0.01) with increased Collagen type III and increased expression of several apoptosis related factors. We propose IL-17A as an inflammatory mediator within the <span class="hlt">early</span> tendinopathy processes thus providing novel therapeutic approaches in the management of tendon disorders. PMID:27263531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=top+AND+down&pg=7&id=EJ795969','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=top+AND+down&pg=7&id=EJ795969"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Top-Down Influences on Bistable Perception Revealed by <span class="hlt">Event</span>-Related Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pitts, Michael A.; Gavin, William J.; Nerger, Janice L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A longstanding debate exists in the literature concerning bottom-up vs. top-down influences on bistable perception. Recently, a technique has been developed to measure <span class="hlt">early</span> changes in brain activity (via ERPs) related to perceptual reversals (Kornmeier & Bach, 2004). An ERP component, the reversal negativity (RN) has been identified, and is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25026534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25026534"><span>Spiders do not evoke greater <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity in the <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential as snakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Hongshen; Kubo, Kenta; Kawai, Nobuyuki</p> <p>2014-09-10</p> <p>It has been long believed that both snakes and spiders are archetypal fear stimuli for humans. Furthermore, snakes have been assumed as stronger threat cues for nonhuman primates. However, it is still unclear whether spiders hold a special status in human perception. The current study explored to what extent spider pictures draw <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attention [as assessed with <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN)] when compared with insects similar to spiders. To measure the EPN, participants watched a random rapid serial presentation of pictures, which consisted of two conditions: spider condition (spider, wasp, bumblebee, beetle) and snake condition (snake, bird). EPN amplitudes revealed no significant difference between spider, wasp, bumblebee, and beetle pictures, whereas EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to bird pictures. In addition, EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to spider pictures. These results suggest that the <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attentional capture of animate objects is stronger for snakes, whereas spiders do not appear to hold special <span class="hlt">early</span> attentional value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15632009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15632009"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogel, Peter; Kell, Wayne M; Fritz, David L; Parker, Michael D; Schoepp, Randal J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>To elucidate the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus infections, we used histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization to track the spread and <span class="hlt">early</span> cellular targets of viral infection in mice. Young mice were inoculated with virulent EEE virus in their right rear footpad and were followed in a time-course study for 4 days. Virulent EEE virus produced a biphasic illness characterized by an <span class="hlt">early</span> self-limiting replication phase in peripheral tissues followed by an invariably fatal central nervous system (CNS) phase. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> extraneural phase, there was primary amplifying replication of virus within fibroblasts at the inoculation site and within osteoblasts in active growth areas of bone that resulted in a transient high-titer viremia. Pathological changes and viral infection were observed as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 12 hours post-infection (PI) in osteoblasts, skeletal muscle myocytes, and in fibroblasts along fascial sheaths. The severity and extent of infection in peripheral tissues peaked at day 1 PI. In the neural phase of infection, virus was first detected in the brain on day 1 PI, with rapid interneuronal spread of infection leading to death by day 4 PI. EEE virus appeared to be directly cytopathic for neurons. The very rapid onset and apparently random and widely dispersed infection in the CNS, with concurrent sparing of olfactory neuroepithelium, strongly suggests that invasion of the CNS by EEE occurs by a vascular route, rather than via peripheral nerves or the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our finding that metaphyseal osteoblasts are an <span class="hlt">early</span> site of amplifying viral replication may explain the higher-titer viremias and higher incidence of neuroinvasion and fulminant encephalitis seen in the young, and may also explain why mature animals become refractory to encephalitis after peripheral inoculation with EEE virus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1602312','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1602312"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Pathogenesis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vogel, Peter; Kell, Wayne M.; Fritz, David L.; Parker, Michael D.; Schoepp, Randal J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>To elucidate the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus infections, we used histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization to track the spread and <span class="hlt">early</span> cellular targets of viral infection in mice. Young mice were inoculated with virulent EEE virus in their right rear footpad and were followed in a time-course study for 4 days. Virulent EEE virus produced a biphasic illness characterized by an <span class="hlt">early</span> self-limiting replication phase in peripheral tissues followed by an invariably fatal central nervous system (CNS) phase. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> extraneural phase, there was primary amplifying replication of virus within fibroblasts at the inoculation site and within osteoblasts in active growth areas of bone that resulted in a transient high-titer viremia. Pathological changes and viral infection were observed as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 12 hours post-infection (PI) in osteoblasts, skeletal muscle myocytes, and in fibroblasts along fascial sheaths. The severity and extent of infection in peripheral tissues peaked at day 1 PI. In the neural phase of infection, virus was first detected in the brain on day 1 PI, with rapid interneuronal spread of infection leading to death by day 4 PI. EEE virus appeared to be directly cytopathic for neurons. The very rapid onset and apparently random and widely dispersed infection in the CNS, with concurrent sparing of olfactory neuroepithelium, strongly suggests that invasion of the CNS by EEE occurs by a vascular route, rather than via peripheral nerves or the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our finding that metaphyseal osteoblasts are an <span class="hlt">early</span> site of amplifying viral replication may explain the higher-titer viremias and higher incidence of neuroinvasion and fulminant encephalitis seen in the young, and may also explain why mature animals become refractory to encephalitis after peripheral inoculation with EEE virus. PMID:15632009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA533483','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA533483"><span>Role of Cyclin E as an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in Ovarian Carcinogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>demonstrate greater neoplastic activity. A natural dietary phytochemical called Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) disrupts cyclin E processing through the inhibition...amplification and overexpression. Task 1: DNA analysis for genetic <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring with cyclin E gene amplification using anatomical samples... analysis a step further with FISH analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from the 132 papillary serous ovarian cancers in the gene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060021587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060021587"><span>Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Meteorite, Dhofar 378: An <span class="hlt">Early</span> Shock <span class="hlt">Event</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Martian meteorite, Dhofar 378 (Dho378) is a basaltic shergottite from Oman, weighing 15 g, and possessing a black fusion crust. Chemical similarities between Dho378 and the Los Angeles 001 shergottite suggests that they might have derived from the same Mars locale. The plagioclase in other shergottites has been converted to maskelenite by shock, but Dho378 apparently experienced even more intense shock heating, estimated at 55-75 GPa. Dho378 feldspar (approximately 43 modal %) melted, partially flowed and vesiculated, and then partially recrystallized. Areas of feldspathic glass are appreciably enriched in K, whereas individual plagioclases show a range in the Or/An ratio of approximately 0.18-0.017. Radiometric dating of martian shergottites indicate variable formation times of 160-475 Myr, whereas cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of shergottites indicate most were ejected from Mars within the past few Myr. Most determined Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of shergottites appear older than other radiometric ages because of the presence of large amounts of martian atmosphere or interior Ar-40. Among all types of meteorites and returned lunar rocks, the impact <span class="hlt">event</span> that initiated the CRE age very rarely reset the Ar-Ar age. This is because a minimum time and temperature is required to facilitate Ar diffusion loss. It is generally assumed that the shock-texture characteristics in martian meteorites were produced by the impact <span class="hlt">events</span> that ejected the rocks from Mars, although the time of these shock <span class="hlt">events</span> (as opposed to CRE ages) are not directly dated. Here we report Ar-39-Ar-40 dating of Dho378 plagioclase. We suggest that the determined age dates the intense shock heating <span class="hlt">event</span> this meteorite experienced, but that it was not the impact that initiated the CRE age.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016997','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016997"><span>The "terminal Triassic catastrophic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>" in perspective: a review of carboniferous through <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate extinction patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Weems, R.E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A catastrophic terminal Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> among terrestrial vertebrates is not supported by available evidence. The current model for such an extinction is based on at least eight weak or untenable assumptions: (1) a terminal Triassic extinction-inducing asteroid impact occurred, (2) a terminal Triassic synchronous mass extinction of terrestrial vertebrates occurred, (3) a concurrent terminal Triassic marine extinction occurred, (4) all terrestrial vertebrate families have similar diversities and ecologies, (5) changes in familial diversity can be gauged accurately from the known fossil record, (6) extinction of families can be compared through time without normalizing for changes in familial diversity through time, (7) extinction rates can be compared without normalizing for differing lengths of geologic stages, and (8) catastrophic mass extinctions do not select for small size. These assumptions have resulted in unsupportable and (or) erroneous conclusions. Carboniferous through <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic terrestrial vertebrate families mostly have evolution and extinction patterns unlike the vertebrate evolution and extinction patterns during the terminal Cretaceous <span class="hlt">event</span>. Only the Serpukhovian (mid Carboniferous) extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> shows strong analogy to the terminal Cretaceous <span class="hlt">event</span>. Available data suggest no terminal Triassic extinction anomaly, but rather a prolonged and nearly steady decline in the global terrestrial vertebrate extinction rate throughout the Triassic and earliest Jurassic. ?? 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339368"><span>Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive <span class="hlt">Events</span> on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative <span class="hlt">events</span> and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive <span class="hlt">events</span> and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive <span class="hlt">events</span>), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive <span class="hlt">events</span> as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264330"><span><span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> of Anti-1918 Influenza Virus Immunity <span class="hlt">Early</span> in Life Prevents Morbidity and Lower Levels of Lung Infection by 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in Aged Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Giles, Brendan M.; Bissel, Stephanie J.; Craigo, Jodi K.; DeAlmeida, Dilhari R.; Wiley, Clayton A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Spanish influenza virus pandemic of 1918 was responsible for 40 million to 50 million deaths and is antigenically similar to the swine lineage 2009 pandemic influenza virus. Emergence of the 2009 pandemic from swine into humans has raised the possibility that low levels of cross-protective immunity to past shared epitopes could confer protection. In this study, influenza viruslike particles (VLPs) were engineered to express the hemagglutinin (HA) and genes from the 1918 influenza virus to evaluate the duration of cross-protection to the H1N1 pandemic strain by vaccinating young mice (8 to 12 weeks) and then allowing the animals to age to 20 months. This immunity was long lasting, with homologous receptor-blocking antibodies detected throughout the lifespan of vaccinated mice. Furthermore, the 1918 VLPs fully protected aged mice from 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus challenge 16 months after vaccination. Histopathological assessment showed that aged vaccinated mice had significant protection from alveolar infection but less protection of the bronchial tissue than adult vaccinated mice. Additionally, passive transfer of immune serum from aged vaccinated mice resulted in protection from death but not morbidity. This is the first report describing the lifelong duration of cross-reactive immune responses <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by a 1918 VLP vaccine in a murine model. Importantly, these lifelong immune responses did not result in decreased total viral replication but did prevent infection of the lower respiratory tract. These findings show that immunity acquired <span class="hlt">early</span> in life can restrict the anatomical location of influenza viral replication, rather than preventing infection, in the aged. PMID:22130546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166837"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> trimpi <span class="hlt">events</span> from lightning-induced electric fields in the ionosphere: An alternative explanation. (Reannouncement with new availability information)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burke, W.J.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>Two classes of Trimpi modulation of VLF signals in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been identified in the literature. The more common type occurs 1 s or more after causative lightning strokes, the second in less than 100 ms. The authors explore the possibility that these <span class="hlt">early</span> Trimpi <span class="hlt">events</span> result from lightning-generated, electric field impulses lowering the mirror altitudes of trapped electrons. To overcome the mirror force on energetic electrons, upward-directed electric fields with strength of a few tens of mV/m are required. This is well within the range of electric field observed on sounding rockets above thunderstorms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903250"><span>Does silent reading speed in normal adult readers depend on <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processes? evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the <span class="hlt">early</span> P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical Decision Task (LDT) and a Face Decision Task (FDT). Amplitudes of the N170 component in the LDT but, interestingly, also in the FDT correlated with behavioral tests measuring silent reading speed. We suggest that reading speed performance can be at least partially accounted for by the extraction of essential structural information from visual stimuli, consisting of a domain-general and a domain-specific expertise-based portion. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28683836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28683836"><span>The "myth" of loss of angiogenesis in systemic sclerosis: a pivotal <span class="hlt">early</span> pathogenetic process or just a late unavoidable <span class="hlt">event</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Manetti, Mirko; Bruni, Cosimo; Chora, Ines; Bellando-Randone, Silvia; Lepri, Gemma; De Paulis, Amato; Guiducci, Serena</p> <p>2017-07-06</p> <p>Systemic sclerosis is considered a disease dominated by a "loss of angiogenesis", although in its <span class="hlt">early</span> phases evidence indicates a disturbed angiogenic response only. In fact, microvascular changes are primarily due to endothelial cell injury, triggering downstream significant enlargement of the capillary in an inflammatory environment, followed by capillary rupture (microhemorrhages). Subsequent pro-angiogenic efforts lead to an aberrant angiogenesis and, eventually, to a total loss of vessel repair and regeneration (loss of angiogenesis). This clearly suggests that the pathogenetic process has a steady progression: from an <span class="hlt">early</span> excessive pro-angiogenesis, to an aberrant microvascular regeneration, then ending with a late loss of angiogenesis. Herein, we suggest the loss of angiogenesis should not be considered as an overall "myth" characterizing systemic sclerosis but as a very late <span class="hlt">event</span> of the vascular pathogenesis. Future research should be oriented essentially on the earlier phases dominated by excessive pro-angiogenesis and microvascular aberration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402544"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator for atmospheric blocking <span class="hlt">events</span> using transfer operators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tantet, Alexis Burgt, Fiona R. van der; Dijkstra, Henk A.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric flow regimes with time-scales larger than 5–10 days and indications of preferred transitions between them motivates to develop <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicators for such regime transitions. In this paper, we use a hemispheric barotropic model together with estimates of transfer operators on a reduced phase space to develop an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator of the zonal to blocked flow transition in this model. It is shown that the spectrum of the transfer operators can be used to study the slow dynamics of the flow as well as the non-Markovian character of the reduction. The slowest motions are thereby found to have time scales of three to six weeks and to be associated with meta-stable regimes (and their transitions) which can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths. Even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050198881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050198881"><span>Age Dating Merger <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bothun, G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22402544-early-warning-indicator-atmospheric-blocking-events-using-transfer-operators','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22402544-early-warning-indicator-atmospheric-blocking-events-using-transfer-operators"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator for atmospheric blocking <span class="hlt">events</span> using transfer operators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tantet, Alexis, E-mail: a.j.j.tantet@uu.nl; Burgt, Fiona R. van der; Dijkstra, Henk A.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric flow regimes with time-scales larger than 5–10 days and indications of preferred transitions between them motivates to develop <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicators for such regime transitions. In this paper, we use a hemispheric barotropic model together with estimates of transfer operators on a reduced phase space to develop an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator of the zonal to blocked flow transition in this model. It is shown that the spectrum of the transfer operators can be used to study the slow dynamics of the flow as well as the non-Markovian character of the reduction. The slowest motionsmore » are thereby found to have time scales of three to six weeks and to be associated with meta-stable regimes (and their transitions) which can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths. Even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11376191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11376191"><span>Pathophysiology underlying diminished attention to novel <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> AD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daffner, K R; Rentz, D M; Scinto, L F; Faust, R; Budson, A E; Holcomb, P J</p> <p>2001-05-22</p> <p>Patients with mild to moderate AD often are apathetic and fail to attend to novel aspects of their environment. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these changes by studying the novelty P3 response that measures shifts of attention toward novel <span class="hlt">events</span>. While <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials were recorded, mildly impaired AD patients and matched normal controls (NC) viewed line drawings that included a repetitive background stimulus, an infrequent target stimulus, and infrequent novel stimuli. Subjects controlled how long they viewed each stimulus by pressing a button. This served as a measure of their allocation of attention. They also responded to targets by depressing a foot pedal. Patients did not differ from NC in age, education, estimated IQ, or mood but were judged by informants to be more apathetic. P3 amplitude to novel stimuli was significantly smaller for AD patients than NC. However, P3 amplitude to target stimuli did not differ between groups. For NC, P3 response to novel stimuli was much larger than to background stimuli. In contrast, for patients with AD, there was no difference in P3 response to novel vs background stimuli. Although NC spent more time looking at novel than background stimuli, patients with AD distributed their viewing time evenly. Remarkably, for patients with AD, the amplitude of the novelty P3 response powerfully predicted how long they would spend looking at novel stimuli (R2 = 0.52) and inversely correlated with apathy severity. The decreased attention to novel <span class="hlt">events</span> exhibited by patients with AD cannot be explained by a nonspecific reduction in their attentional abilities. The novelty P3 response is markedly diminished in mild AD, at a time when the target P3 response is preserved. The disruption of the novelty P3 response predicts diminished attention to novel stimuli and is associated with the apathy exhibited by patients with AD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4025992','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4025992"><span>The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: A prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present research was an examination of the onset of childhood amnesia and how it relates to maternal narrative style, an important determinant of autobiographical memory development. Children and their mothers discussed unique <span class="hlt">events</span> when the children were 3 years of age. Different subgroups of children were tested for recall of the <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. At the later session, they were interviewed by an experimenter about the <span class="hlt">events</span> discussed 2 to 6 years previously with their mothers (<span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>). Children ages 5, 6, and 7 remembered 60% or more of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. In contrast, children ages 8 and 9 years remembered fewer than 40% of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Overall maternal narrative style predicted children's contributions to mother-child conversations at age 3 years; it did not have cross-lagged relations to memory for <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5 to 9 years. Maternal deflections of the conversational turn to the child predicted the amount of information children later reported about the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. The findings have implications for our understanding of the onset of childhood amnesia and the achievement of an adult-like distribution of memories in the school years. They highlight the importance of forgetting processes in explanations of the amnesia. PMID:24236647</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236647"><span>The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: a prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present research was an examination of the onset of childhood amnesia and how it relates to maternal narrative style, an important determinant of autobiographical memory development. Children and their mothers discussed unique <span class="hlt">events</span> when the children were 3 years of age. Different subgroups of children were tested for recall of the <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. At the later session they were interviewed by an experimenter about the <span class="hlt">events</span> discussed 2 to 6 years previously with their mothers (<span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>). Children aged 5, 6, and 7 remembered 60% or more of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. In contrast, children aged 8 and 9 years remembered fewer than 40% of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Overall maternal narrative style predicted children's contributions to mother-child conversations at age 3 years; it did not have cross-lagged relations to memory for <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5 to 9 years. Maternal deflections of the conversational turn to the child predicted the amount of information children later reported about the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. The findings have implications for our understanding of the onset of childhood amnesia and the achievement of an adult-like distribution of memories in the school years. They highlight the importance of forgetting processes in explanations of the amnesia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27378983"><span>Parental Substance Abuse As an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Traumatic <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs <span class="hlt">Early</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span>. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">early</span> exposure to drugs as a traumatic <span class="hlt">event</span>, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs <span class="hlt">early</span> in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs <span class="hlt">early</span>, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404733"><span>Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of <span class="hlt">early</span> polarization <span class="hlt">events</span> in germinating Arabidopsis pollen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular <span class="hlt">events</span> during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1347118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1347118"><span>Dynamic crystallography reveals <span class="hlt">early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> in ultraviolet photoreceptor UVR8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zeng, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhong; Wu, Qi; Fan, Jun; Peng, Pan -Pan; Tang, Kun; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhao, Kai -Hong; Yang, Xiaojing</p> <p>2015-01-08</p> <p><i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> UVR8 (AtUVR8) is a long-sought-after photoreceptor that undergoes dimer dissociation in response to UV-B light. Crystallographic and mutational studies have identified two crucial tryptophan residues for UV-B responses in AtUVR8. However, the mechanism of UV-B perception and structural <span class="hlt">events</span> leading up to dimer dissociation remain elusive at the molecular level. We applied dynamic crystallography to capture light-induced structural <span class="hlt">events</span> in photoactive AtUVR8 crystals. Here we report two intermediate structures at 1.67Å resolution. At the epicenter of UV-B signaling, concerted motions associated with Trp285/Trp233 lead to ejection of a water molecule, which weakens an intricate network of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the dimer interface. Partial opening of the β-propeller structure due to thermal relaxation of conformational strains originating in the epicenter further disrupts the dimer interface and leads to dimer dissociation. Ultimately, these dynamic crystallographic observations provide structural insights into the photo-perception and signaling mechanism of UVR8.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1347118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1347118"><span>Dynamic crystallography reveals <span class="hlt">early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> in ultraviolet photoreceptor UVR8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zeng, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhong; Wu, Qi</p> <p>2015-01-08</p> <p>Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 (AtUVR8) is a long-sought-after photoreceptor that undergoes dimer dissociation in response to UV-B light. Crystallographic and mutational studies have identified two crucial tryptophan residues for UV-B responses in AtUVR8. However, the mechanism of UV-B perception and structural <span class="hlt">events</span> leading up to dimer dissociation remain elusive at the molecular level. We applied dynamic crystallography to capture light-induced structural <span class="hlt">events</span> in photoactive AtUVR8 crystals. Here we report two intermediate structures at 1.67Å resolution. At the epicenter of UV-B signaling, concerted motions associated with Trp285/Trp233 lead to ejection of a water molecule, which weakens an intricate network of hydrogen bondsmore » and salt bridges at the dimer interface. Partial opening of the β-propeller structure due to thermal relaxation of conformational strains originating in the epicenter further disrupts the dimer interface and leads to dimer dissociation. Ultimately, these dynamic crystallographic observations provide structural insights into the photo-perception and signaling mechanism of UVR8.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Geomo.134..378H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Geomo.134..378H"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene catastrophic mass-wasting <span class="hlt">event</span> and fan-delta development on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Meng-Long; Liew, Ping-Mei; Chen, Hua-Wen</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Landslides and debris flows rarely occurred during historical times in the tectonically active Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan. This topographic stability, however, contrasts greatly with the widespread existence of terraced alluvial fans and fan-deltas on the Hua-tung coast which fringes the range. This study focuses on the two largest fan-terrace systems on the Hua-tung coast, both of which consist of alluvial fans (plane-view areas up to 8 km 2) larger than their contributing catchments. Stratigraphic data show that both systems were in sandy, wave-dominated settings during de-glacial times. The systems were then disturbed by a catastrophic landslide/debris-flow <span class="hlt">event</span> (or <span class="hlt">events</span>), which brought enormous amounts of gravel (Facies Gm) into the systems, deforming previously-deposited marine sands (Facies Sm) and shallowing the seafloor. The combined Gm/Sm complex yields multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 11.3 to 8.3 ka cal BP, with a cluster around 8.6 ka cal BP. This mass-wasting <span class="hlt">event</span> has been unique since the emergence of its contributing catchment 0.2-0.3 Ma ago. The low frequency of such an <span class="hlt">event</span> could reflect the great resistance of rock mass in the source areas to weathering and erosion. The common blockage of valley floors by giant-boulder piles, which limits channel incision and sediment transport, could also increase the apparent stability of the mountain. The trigger of landslides in the Coastal Range has been linked to large earthquakes. Additionally, we propose that the great magnitude and duration of the observed <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene <span class="hlt">event</span> were caused by the contemporaneous prolonged rainfall (and/or high frequency of typhoons) associated with the East Asian summer monsoon maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28186340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28186340"><span>Altered lysosome distribution is an <span class="hlt">early</span> neuropathological <span class="hlt">event</span> in neurological forms of Gaucher disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zigdon, Hila; Meshcheriakova, Anna; Farfel-Becker, Tamar; Volpert, Giora; Sabanay, Helena; Futerman, Anthony H</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease (GD), glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulates due to the defective activity of glucocerebrosidase. A subset of GD patients develops neuropathology. We now show mislocalization of Limp2-positive puncta and a large reduction in the number of Lamp1-positive puncta, which are associated with impaired tubulin. These changes occur at an <span class="hlt">early</span> stage in animal models of GD, prior to development of overt symptoms and considerably earlier than neuronal loss. Altered lysosomal localization and cytoskeleton disruption precede the neuroinflammatory pathways, axonal dystrophy and neuronal loss previously characterized in neuronal forms of GD. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21219143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21219143"><span>Toward a molecular theory of <span class="hlt">early</span> and late <span class="hlt">events</span> in monomer to amyloid fibril formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Straub, John E; Thirumalai, D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative understanding of the kinetics of fibril formation and the molecular mechanism of transition from monomers to fibrils is needed to obtain insights into the growth of amyloid fibrils and more generally self-assembly multisubunit protein complexes. Significant advances using computations of protein aggregation in a number of systems have established generic and sequence-specific aspects of the <span class="hlt">early</span> steps in oligomer formation. Theoretical considerations, which view oligomer and fibril growth as diffusion in a complex energy landscape, and computational studies, involving minimal lattice and coarse-grained models, have revealed general principles governing the transition from monomeric protein to ordered fibrillar aggregates. Detailed atomistic calculations have explored the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of the protein aggregation pathway for a number of amyloidogenic proteins, most notably amyloid β- (Aβ-) protein and fragments from proteins linked to various diseases. These computational studies have provided insights into the role of sequence, role of water, and specific interatomic interactions underlying the thermodynamics and dynamics of elementary kinetic steps in the aggregation pathway. Novel methods are beginning to illustrate the structural basis for the production of Aβ-peptides through interactions with secretases in the presence of membranes. We show that a variety of theoretical approaches, ranging from scaling arguments to minimal models to atomistic simulations, are needed as a complement to experimental studies probing the principles governing protein aggregation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081330"><span>Phosphoproteomic Analyses Reveal <span class="hlt">Early</span> Signaling <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Osmotic Stress Response1[W][OPEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>E. Stecker, Kelly; Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Sussman, Michael R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Elucidating how plants sense and respond to water loss is important for identifying genetic and chemical interventions that may help sustain crop yields in water-limiting environments. Currently, the molecular mechanisms involved in the initial perception and response to dehydration are not well understood. Modern mass spectrometric methods for quantifying changes in the phosphoproteome provide an opportunity to identify key phosphorylation <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in this process. Here, we have used both untargeted and targeted isotope-assisted mass spectrometric methods of phosphopeptide quantitation to characterize proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) whose degree of phosphorylation is rapidly altered by hyperosmotic treatment. Thus, protein phosphorylation <span class="hlt">events</span> responsive to 5 min of 0.3 m mannitol treatment were first identified using 15N metabolic labeling and untargeted mass spectrometry with a high-resolution ion-trap instrument. The results from these discovery experiments were then validated using targeted Selected Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole. Targeted Selected Reaction Monitoring experiments were conducted with plants treated under nine different environmental perturbations to determine whether the phosphorylation changes were specific for osmosignaling or involved cross talk with other signaling pathways. The results indicate that regulatory proteins such as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family are specifically phosphorylated in response to osmotic stress. Proteins involved in 5′ messenger RNA decapping and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate synthesis were also identified as targets of dehydration-induced phosphoregulation. The results of these experiments demonstrate the utility of targeted phosphoproteomic analysis in understanding protein regulation networks and provide new insight into cellular processes involved in the osmotic stress response. PMID:24808101</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8773152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8773152"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in rabies virus infection of the central nervous system in skunks (Mephitis mephitis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Wandeler, A I; Nadin-Davis, S</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-four striped skunks were inoculated intramuscularly (long digital extensor muscle of right pelvic limb) with street rabies virus. Groups of two clinically normal skunks were killed at various times after inoculation; skunks that developed rabies were killed in <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of the clinical signs. Four clinically normal skunks (numbered 1-4) had slight infection in lumbar spinal ganglia, spinal cord and brain. These four skunks were used for detailed immunohistochemical (rabies antigen) studies that included examination of sections from every segment of the spinal cord, most of the spinal ganglia from the 2nd cervical to the 2nd coccygeal (sections at 25-microns intervals of lumbar, sacral and coccygeal ganglia) and brain (sections at 50-micron intervals). In skunks 1-4, there was increasing distribution of antigen-containing neurons that was not correlated with the time elapsed since inoculation. In three skunks (nos. 1, 2 and 3), antigen-containing neurons were predominantly in caudal regions of the spinal cord, caudal right lumbar and sacral spinal ganglia and certain nuclei/regions of the brain (medial reticular formation, right interpositus and lateral vestibular nuclei, left red nucleus, left motor cortex, and left reticular nucleus of the thalamus). Skunk 4 had more extensive infection than skunks 1-3, but the previous pattern was still evident. The results are consistent with viral entrance into the lumbar spinal cord, initial replication mainly at the L2 and L3 levels, local spread in the cord by propriospinal neurons and <span class="hlt">early</span> transit to the brain via long ascending and descending fiber tracts (bypassing the grey matter of the rostral spinal cord). These mechanisms could provide for <span class="hlt">early</span> and rapid dissemination in the brain before a significant immune response develops and could induce behavioral changes before the animal is incapacitated by extensive spinal cord infection. Based on the distribution of antigen-containing neurons, the tracts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373850"><span>Safety evaluation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate through analysis of adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> reported during <span class="hlt">early</span> post-marketing phase vigilance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakano, Takashi; Okumura, Akihisa; Tanabe, Takuya; Niwa, Shimpei; Fukushima, Masato; Yonemochi, Rie; Eda, Hisano; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Abnormal behavior and delirium are common in children with influenza. While abnormal behavior and delirium are considered to be associated with influenza encephalopathy, an increased risk of such neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients receiving neuraminidase inhibitor treatment is suspected. Laninamivir octanoate hydrate, recently approved in Japan, is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor. It is important to establish a safety profile for laninamivir <span class="hlt">early</span>, based on post-marketing experiences. Spontaneous safety reports collected in the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-marketing phase vigilance were analyzed. Adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> of interest such as abnormal behavior/delirium, dizziness/vertigo, respiratory disorders, shock/syncope, and any other serious <span class="hlt">events</span> were intensively reviewed by the Safety Evaluation Committee. Abnormal behavior/delirium was a frequently reported <span class="hlt">event</span>. Almost all the reported cases were considered to be due to influenza and not laninamivir. There were 32 cases of abnormal behavior/delirium that could lead to dangerous accidents, and these were observed more frequently in males and teenagers. Syncope probably related to the act of inhalation per se of laninamivir was reported during this survey. This safety review revealed that the safety profile of laninamivir for abnormal behavior/delirium and syncope was similar to that of other neuraminidase inhibitors. As stated in the labeling, teenage patients inhaling laninamivir should remain under constant parental supervision for at least 2 days and should be closely monitored for behavioral changes to prevent serious accidents associated with abnormal behavior/delirium. Furthermore, to avoid syncope because of inhalation, patients should be instructed to inhale in a relaxed sitting position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..401W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..401W"><span>Climate forcing due to the 8200 cal yr BP <span class="hlt">event</span> observed at <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic sites in the eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weninger, Bernhard; Alram-Stern, Eva; Bauer, Eva; Clare, Lee; Danzeglocke, Uwe; Jöris, Olaf; Kubatzki, Claudia; Rollefson, Gary; Todorova, Henrieta; van Andel, Tjeerd</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>We explore the hypothesis that the abrupt drainage of Laurentide lakes and associated rapid switch of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation 8200 yr ago had a catastrophic influence on Neolithic civilisation in large parts of southeastern Europe, Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Near East. The <span class="hlt">event</span> at 8200 cal yr BP is observed in a large number of high-resolution climate proxies in the Northern Hemisphere, and in many cases corresponds to markedly cold and arid conditions. We identify the relevant archaeological levels of major Neolithic settlements in Central Anatolia, Cyprus, Greece and Bulgaria, and examine published stratigraphic, architectural, cultural and geoarchaeological studies for these sites. The specific archaeological <span class="hlt">events</span> and processes we observe at a number of these sites during the study interval 8400-8000 cal yr BP lead us to refine some previously established Neolithisation models. The introduction of farming to South-East Europe occurs in all study regions (Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Bulgaria) near 8200 cal yr BP. We observe major disruptions of Neolithic cultures in the Levant, North Syria, South-East Anatolia, Central Anatolia and Cyprus, at the same time. We conclude that the 8200 cal yr BP aridity <span class="hlt">event</span> triggered the spread of <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers, by different routes, out of West Asia and the Near East into Greece and Bulgaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7761K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7761K"><span>Modeling long recovery <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some <span class="hlt">early</span> VLF <span class="hlt">events</span>. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering <span class="hlt">events</span> can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization <span class="hlt">events</span> (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437056"><span>Altered promoter nucleosome positioning is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in gene silencing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hesson, Luke B; Sloane, Mathew A; Wong, Jason Wh; Nunez, Andrea C; Srivastava, Sameer; Ng, Benedict; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Bourke, Michael J; Ward, Robyn L</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Gene silencing in cancer frequently involves hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy across promoter regions. How a promoter transitions to this silent state is unclear. Using colorectal adenomas, we investigated nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, and gene expression in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of gene silencing. Genome-wide gene expression correlated with highly positioned nucleosomes upstream and downstream of a nucleosome-depleted transcription start site (TSS). Hypermethylated promoters displayed increased nucleosome occupancy, specifically at the TSS. We investigated 2 genes, CDH1 and CDKN2B, which were silenced in adenomas but lacked promoter hypermethylation. Instead, silencing correlated with loss of nucleosomes from the -2 position upstream of the TSS relative to normal mucosa. In contrast, permanent CDH1 silencing in carcinoma cells was characterized by promoter hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy. Our findings suggest that silenced genes transition through an intermediary stage involving altered promoter nucleosome positioning, before permanent silencing by hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23675494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23675494"><span>Senescent fibroblasts enhance <span class="hlt">early</span> skin carcinogenic <span class="hlt">events</span> via a paracrine MMP-PAR-1 axis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malaquin, Nicolas; Vercamer, Chantal; Bouali, Fatima; Martien, Sébastien; Deruy, Emeric; Wernert, Nicolas; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Pinet, Florence; Abbadie, Corinne; Pourtier, Albin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The incidence of carcinoma increases greatly with aging, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are only partly known. It is established that senescent fibroblasts promote the malignant progression of already-transformed cells through secretion of inflammatory mediators. We investigated here whether the senescent fibroblast secretome might have an impact on the very first stages of carcinogenesis. We chose the cultured normal primary human epidermal keratinocyte model, because after these cells reach the senescence plateau, cells with transformed and tumorigenic properties systematically and spontaneously emerge from the plateau. In the presence of medium conditioned by autologous senescent dermal fibroblasts, a higher frequency of post-senescence emergence was observed and the post-senescence emergent cells showed enhanced migratory properties and a more marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs, and blocking antibodies, we demonstrated that the MMP-1 and MMP-2 matrix metalloproteinases, known to participate in late stages of cancer invasion and metastasis, are responsible for this enhancement of <span class="hlt">early</span> migratory capacity. We present evidence that MMPs act by activating the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), whose expression is specifically increased in post-senescence emergent keratinocytes. The physiopathological relevance of these results was tested by analyzing MMP activity and PAR-1 expression in skin sections. Both were higher in skin sections from aged subjects than in ones from young subjects. Altogether, our results suggest that during aging, the dermal and epidermal skin compartments might be activated coordinately for initiation of skin carcinoma, via a paracrine axis in which MMPs secreted by senescent fibroblasts promote very <span class="hlt">early</span> epithelial-mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes undergoing transformation and oversynthesizing the MMP-activatable receptor PAR-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3361481','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3361481"><span>BMP2 and mechanical loading cooperatively regulate immediate <span class="hlt">early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> in the BMP pathway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. Crosstalk at multiple levels allows for promotion or attenuation of signalling intensity and specificity. Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear. Results Here, we use a three-dimensional bioreactor system to describe how mechanical forces are integrated into the BMP pathway. Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. The phosphorylation of R-Smads is increased both in intensity and duration under BMP2 stimulation with concurrent mechanical loading. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of both stimuli on immediate <span class="hlt">early</span> Smad phosphorylation is reflected in the transcription of only a subset of BMP target genes, while others are differently affected. Together this results in a cooperative regulation of osteogenesis that is guided by both signalling pathways. Conclusions Mechanical signals are integrated into the BMP signalling pathway by enhancing immediate <span class="hlt">early</span> steps within the Smad pathway, independent of autocrine ligand secretion. This suggests a direct crosstalk of both mechanotransduction and BMP signalling, most likely at the level of the cell surface receptors. Furthermore, the crosstalk of both pathways over longer time periods might occur on several signalling levels. PMID:22540193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425714','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425714"><span>Lung Transplant Acceptance is Facilitated by <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Graft and is Associated with Lymphoid Neogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Wenjun; Bribriesco, Alejandro C.; Nava, Ruben G.; Brescia, Alexander A.; Ibricevic, Aida; Spahn, Jessica H.; Brody, Steven L.; Ritter, Jon H.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Miller, Mark J.; Kreisel, Daniel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> immune responses are important in shaping long-term outcomes of human lung transplants. To examine the role of <span class="hlt">early</span> immune responses in lung rejection and acceptance we developed a method to retransplant mouse lungs. Retransplantation into T cell-deficient hosts showed that for lungs and hearts alloimmune responses occurring within 72 hours of transplantation are reversible. In contrast to hearts, a 72-hour period of immunosuppression with costimulation blockade in primary allogeneic recipients suffices to prevent rejection of lungs upon retransplantation into untreated allogeneic hosts. Long-term lung acceptance is associated with induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, where Foxp3+ cells accumulate and recipient T cells interact with CD11c+ dendritic cells. Acceptance of retransplanted lung allografts is abrogated by treatment of immunosuppressed primary recipients with anti-CD25 antibodies. Thus, <span class="hlt">events</span> contributing to lung transplant acceptance are established <span class="hlt">early</span> in the graft and induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue can be associated with an immune quiescent state. PMID:22549742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549742"><span>Lung transplant acceptance is facilitated by <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the graft and is associated with lymphoid neogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, W; Bribriesco, A C; Nava, R G; Brescia, A A; Ibricevic, A; Spahn, J H; Brody, S L; Ritter, J H; Gelman, A E; Krupnick, A S; Miller, M J; Kreisel, D</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> immune responses are important in shaping long-term outcomes of human lung transplants. To examine the role of <span class="hlt">early</span> immune responses in lung rejection and acceptance, we developed a method to retransplant mouse lungs. Retransplantation into T-cell-deficient hosts showed that for lungs and hearts alloimmune responses occurring within 72 h of transplantation are reversible. In contrast to hearts, a 72-h period of immunosuppression with costimulation blockade in primary allogeneic recipients suffices to prevent rejection of lungs upon retransplantation into untreated allogeneic hosts. Long-term lung acceptance is associated with induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, where Foxp3(+) cells accumulate and recipient T cells interact with CD11c(+) dendritic cells. Acceptance of retransplanted lung allografts is abrogated by treatment of immunosuppressed primary recipients with anti-CD25 antibodies. Thus, <span class="hlt">events</span> contributing to lung transplant acceptance are established <span class="hlt">early</span> in the graft and induction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue can be associated with an immune quiescent state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730599"><span>Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances <span class="hlt">Early</span> HIV Transmission <span class="hlt">Events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission <span class="hlt">events</span>. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2015R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2015R"><span>Droughts and Excessive Moisture <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Southern Siberia in the Late XXth - <span class="hlt">Early</span> XXIst Centuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryazanova, A. A.; Voropay, N. N.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In recent years much research has been devoted to global and regional climate changes. Special attention was paid to climate extremes, such as droughts and excessive moisture <span class="hlt">events</span>. In this study the moisture and aridity of Southern Siberia are estimated using web-GIS called “CLIMATE”. The system “CLIMATE” is part of a hardware and software cloud storage complex for data analysis of various climatic data sets, with algorithms for searching, extracting, processing, and visualizing the data. The ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data for Southern Siberia (50-65°N, 60-120°E) from 1979 to 2010 with a grid cell of 0.75×0.75° is used. Some hydrothermal conditions are estimated using the so-called Ped index (Si), which is a normalized indicator of the ratio of air temperature to precipitation. The mountain regions of Eastern Siberia are becoming more and more arid each month during the last 30 years. In Western Siberia, aridity increases in May and decreases in June, in the other months positive and negative trends are found. The greatest differences between the trends of the aridity index (Si), air temperature, and precipitation are observed in July.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706063"><span>Salt stress sensing and <span class="hlt">early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> in plant roots: Current knowledge and hypothesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shabala, Sergey; Wu, Honghong; Bose, Jayakumar</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to crop production. While the molecular identity and functional expression of Na(+) transport systems mediating Na(+) exclusion from the cytosol has been studied in detail, far less is known about the mechanisms by which plants sense high Na(+) levels in the soil and the rapid signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> that optimise plant performance under saline conditions. This review aims to fill this gap. We first discuss the nature of putative salt stress sensors, candidates which include Na(+) transport systems, mechanosensory proteins, proteins with regulatory Na(+) binding sites, sensing mediated by cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, purine receptors, annexin and voltage gating. We suggest that several transport proteins may be clustered together to form a microdomain in a lipid raft, allowing rapid changes in the activity of an individual protein to be translated into stress-induced Ca(2+) and H2O2 signatures. The pathways of stress signalling to downstream targets are discussed, and the kinetics and specificity of salt stress signalling between glycophytes and halophytes is compared. We argue that these sensing mechanisms operate in parallel, providing plants with a robust system for decoding information about the specific nature and severity of the imposed salt stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.2467P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.2467P"><span>A Threshold-Based Earthquake <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Warning System for Offshore <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Southern Iberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Picozzi, M.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Carranza, M.; Buforn, E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The south of the Iberian Peninsula is situated at the convergence of the Eurasian and African plates. This region experiences large earthquakes with long separation in time, the best known of which was the great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, which occurred SW of San Vicente Cape (SW Iberian Peninsula). The high risk of damaging earthquakes has recently led Carranza et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 2013) to investigate the feasibility of an EEWS in this region. Analysis of the geometry for the Iberian seismic networks and the San Vicente Cape area led the authors to conclude that a threshold-based approach, which would not require real-time location of the earthquake, might be the best option for an EEWS in SW Iberia. In this work we investigate this hypothesis and propose a new EEW approach that extends standard P-wave threshold-based single-station analysis to the whole network. The proposed method enables real-time estimation of the potential damage at stations that are triggered by P-waves and those which are not triggered, with the advantage of greater lead-times for release of alerts. Results of tests made with synthetic data mimicking the scenario of the great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and those conducted by applying the new approach to available recordings, indicate that an EEW estimation of the potential damage associated with an <span class="hlt">event</span> in the San Vicente Cape area can be obtained for a very large part of the Iberian Peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural <span class="hlt">events</span> were communicated in two different newspapers—the capital newspaper Diário de Notícias ( Daily News) and the Diário dos Açores ( Azores Daily). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout Europe, was reported by the capital newspaper, and how news on seismology were conveyed in the period 1907-1910 in the newspaper published in Azores, an archipelago with a significant seismic and volcanic activity. We argue that the importance conceded to these scientific news was related to their overwhelming features, that their dissimilar presentation stemmed from their local relevance allied to their different nature, predictable in the case of eclipses, and unpredictable in the case of earthquakes, and that behind these two instances of science journalism laid an attempt by the scientific and political communities to gain the support of the general public to such an extent that these two specific instances of science journalism transcended their usual features to become successful forms of expository science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472989"><span>Circulating mutational portrait of cancer: manifestation of aggressive clonal <span class="hlt">events</span> in both <span class="hlt">early</span> and late stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Meng; Topaloglu, Umit; Petty, W Jeffrey; Pagni, Matthew; Foley, Kristie L; Grant, Stefan C; Robinson, Mac; Bitting, Rhonda L; Thomas, Alexandra; Alistar, Angela T; Desnoyers, Rodwige J; Goodman, Michael; Albright, Carol; Porosnicu, Mercedes; Vatca, Mihaela; Qasem, Shadi A; DeYoung, Barry; Kytola, Ville; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Levine, Edward A; Staren, Edgar D; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Petro, Robin M; Blackstock, William; Powell, Bayard L; Abraham, Edward; Pasche, Boris; Zhang, Wei</p> <p>2017-05-04</p> <p>Solid tumors residing in tissues and organs leave footprints in circulation through circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNAs (ctDNA). Characterization of the ctDNA portraits and comparison with tumor DNA mutational portraits may reveal clinically actionable information on solid tumors that is traditionally achieved through more invasive approaches. We isolated ctDNAs from plasma of patients of 103 lung cancer and 74 other solid tumors of different tissue origins. Deep sequencing using the Guardant360 test was performed to identify mutations in 73 clinically actionable genes, and the results were associated with clinical characteristics of the patient. The mutation profiles of 37 lung cancer cases with paired ctDNA and tumor genomic DNA sequencing were used to evaluate clonal representation of tumor in circulation. Five lung cancer cases with longitudinal ctDNA sampling were monitored for cancer progression or response to treatments. Mutations in TP53, EGFR, and KRAS genes are most prevalent in our cohort. Mutation rates of ctDNA are similar in <span class="hlt">early</span> (I and II) and late stage (III and IV) cancers. Mutation in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM are found in 18.1% (32/177) of cases. Patients with higher mutation rates had significantly higher mortality rates. Lung cancer of never smokers exhibited significantly higher ctDNA mutation rates as well as higher EGFR and ERBB2 mutations than ever smokers. Comparative analysis of ctDNA and tumor DNA mutation data from the same patients showed that key driver mutations could be detected in plasma even when they were present at a minor clonal population in the tumor. Mutations of key genes found in the tumor tissue could remain in circulation even after frontline radiotherapy and chemotherapy suggesting these mutations represented resistance mechanisms. Longitudinal sampling of five lung cancer cases showed distinct changes in ctDNA mutation portraits that are consistent with cancer progression or response</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219334"><span>Alpha phase, temporal attention, and the generation of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> related potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gruber, Walter R; Zauner, Andrea; Lechinger, Julia; Schabus, Manuel; Kutil, Rade; Klimesch, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the present study, we have investigated the influence of ongoing alpha phase on the generation of the P1 component of the visual ERP, recorded in a target detection task. Our hypothesis is that in trials where pre- or peristimulus alpha phase is already aligned in a way that voltage positive alpha peaks develop seamlessly into the P1, detection performance will be enhanced as compared to trials where alpha is not aligned. The findings supported our hypothesis and showed that target detection times for the subset of seamless alpha trials was significantly shorter than for trials that are not seamless. Our findings contradict the evoked model for the generation of <span class="hlt">early</span> ERP components, which rests on the assumption of fixed latency, fixed polarity components. We found that in the non-seamless trials the 'candidate' component of the single trial P1 was at the opposite polarity. Despite this fact, alpha phase locking was at the same high level as was observed for the seamless trials. Finally, we found that prestimulus alpha phase was aligned already in a time window preceding the P1 by 400ms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARA49005T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARA49005T"><span>Real-time visualization of <span class="hlt">early</span> metastasis <span class="hlt">events</span> in Danio rerio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, Kandice</p> <p></p> <p>Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells travel from a primary tumor to establish lesions in distant organs, is the cause of most cancer-related deaths. One critical process during metastasis is the transit of cells from a primary tumor and through the vasculature or lymphatic systems to a distant site prior to metastatic colonization. However, visualization of cellular behavior in the vasculature is difficult in most model systems, where final cell destination is not known beforehand. Here, we used bone- and brain-tropic subclones of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells (231BO and 231BR, respectively) injected into the circulation of embryonic zebrafish as a model xenograft system of metastasis. The zebrafish vasculature contains vessels on the scale of human capillaries. Real-time intravital imaging revealed metastatic spread to be an inefficient process, with less than 20% of cells passing through a given organ remaining there following 14 h of imaging. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the organ-specific residence time or migration speed of single 231BO and 231BR cells in the organ vasculature. Instead, cell capture was dependent on vessel topography and the function of integrin β1. Interestingly, a fraction of cells extravasated from the vasculature and survived in a perivascular position in the head and caudal venous plexus for up to two weeks. In conclusion, use of the zebrafish vasculature as a model capillary bed has revealed critical steps in <span class="hlt">early</span> metastasis that are difficult to capture in other systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120343&hterms=phyla&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphyla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120343&hterms=phyla&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphyla"><span>A comparative study of diversification <span class="hlt">events</span>: the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic versus the Mesozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erwin, D. H.; Valentine, J. W.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>We compare two major long-term diversifications of marine animal families that began during periods of low diversity but produced strikingly different numbers of phyla, classes, and orders. The first is the <span class="hlt">early</span>-Paleozoic diversification (late Vendian-Ordovician; 182 MY duration) and the other the Mesozoic phase of the post-Paleozoic diversification (183 MY duration). The earlier diversification was associated with a great burst of morphological invention producing many phyla, classes, and orders and displaying high per taxon rates of family origination. The later diversification lacked novel morphologies recognized as phyla and classes, produced fewer orders, and displayed lower per taxon rates of family appearances. The chief difference between the diversifications appears to be that the earlier one proceeded from relatively narrow portions of adaptive space, whereas the latter proceeded from species widely scattered among adaptive zones and representing a variety of body plans. This difference is believed to explain the major differences in the products of these great radiations. Our data support those models that hold that evolutionary opportunity is a major factor in the outcome of evolutionary processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446379"><span>Prior chronic clopidogrel therapy is associated with increased adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> and <span class="hlt">early</span> stent thrombosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asher, Elad; Fefer, Paul; Sabbag, Avi; Herscovici, Romana; Regev, Ehud; Mazin, Israel; Shlomo, Nir; Zahger, Doron; Atar, Shaul; Hammerman, Haim; Polak, Arthur; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite the growing use of clopidogrel, limited data exist regarding the prognostic significance of chronic clopidogrel therapy in patients sustaining acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our aim was to determine whether patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel therapy have a worse prognosis than clopidogrel-naïve patients. A total of 5,386 consecutive ACS patients were prospectively characterised and followed-up for 30 days. Of them, 680 (13%) were treated with clopidogrel prior to the index ACS. Major adverse cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (MACE) were defined as death, recurrent ACS, stroke and/or stent thrombosis. Compared with clopidogrel-naïve, chronic clopidogrel-treated patients were older (66 ± 12 vs 63 ± 13, respectively; p<0.01), suffered more from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, prior cardiovascular history, including prior myocardial infarction, revascularisation, coronary artery bypass graft and stroke (p<0.01 for all), and were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (21% vs 45%; respectively; p < 0.001). Prior clopidogrel therapy was associated with a two-fold increase in in-hospital (1.6% vs 0.6%, respectively; p =0.006) as well as 30-day stent thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.0%, respectively; p=0.007). MACE at 30 days was also higher among chronic clopidogrel-treated compared with clopidogrel-naïve patients [12.3% vs 9.4%, respectively; p<0.01]. In multivariate log regression analysis chronic clopidogrel treatment was an independent predictor of stent thrombosis [OR=2.6 (95%CI 1.2-5.6), p=0.001]. Patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel treatment are at higher risk for in-hospital and 30-day adverse outcomes, including stent thrombosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397682"><span>Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion <span class="hlt">event</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> fetal development of the human penile urethra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence</p> <p></p> <p>We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion <span class="hlt">events</span>, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162...53F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162...53F"><span>The <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span>: Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change across the Alpine Tethys (Switzerland)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change associated with the Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span> (T-OAE) was evaluated in five successions located in Switzerland. They represent different paleogeographic settings across the Alpine Tethys: the northern shelf (Gipf, Riniken and Rietheim), the Sub-Briançonnais basin (Creux de l'Ours), and the Lombardian basin (Breggia). The multi-proxy approach chosen (whole-rock and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, major and trace elements) shows that local environmental conditions modulated the response to the T-OAE across the Alpine Tethys. On the northern shelf and in the Sub-Briançonnais basin, high kaolinite contents and detrital proxies (detrital index, Ti, Zr, Si) in the T-OAE interval suggest a change towards a warmer and more humid climate coupled with an increase in the chemical weathering rates. In contrast, low kaolinite content in the Lombardian basin is likely related to a more arid climate along the southern Tethys margin and/or to a deeper and more distal setting. Redox-sensitive trace-element (V, Mo, Cu, Ni) enrichments in the T-OAE intervals reveal that dysoxic to anoxic conditions developed on the northern shelf, whereas reducing conditions were less severe in the Sub-Briançonnais basin. In the Lombardian basin well-oxygenated bottom water conditions prevailed. Phosphorus (P) speciation analysis was performed at Riniken and Creux de l'Ours. This is the first report of P speciation data for T-OAE sections, clearly suggesting that high P contents during this time interval are mainly linked to the presence of an authigenic phases and fish remains. The development of oxygen-depleted conditions during the T-OAE seems to have promoted the release of the organic-bound P back into the water column, thereby further sustaining primary productivity in a positive feedback loop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2951598','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2951598"><span>Zinc accumulation after target loss: an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in retrograde degeneration of thalamic neurons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Land, Peter W.; Aizenman, Elias</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Accumulation of cytoplasmic zinc is linked with a cascade of <span class="hlt">events</span> leading to neuronal death. In many in vivo models of zinc-induced cell death, toxic concentrations of synaptically released zinc enter vulnerable neurons via neurotransmitter- or voltage-gated ion channels. In vitro studies demonstrate, in addition, that zinc can be liberated from intracellular stores following oxidative stress and contribute to cell death processes, including apoptosis. Here we describe accumulation of intracellular zinc in an in vivo model of cell death in the absence of presynaptic zinc release. We focused on the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) because LGN neurons undergo apoptosis when separated from their target, the primary visual cortex (V1), and the LGN is mostly devoid of zinc-containing presynaptic terminals. Infant and adult rats and adult mice received unilateral ablation of V1, either by aspiration or kainate injection. One to 14 days later, brain sections were stained with selenium autometallography or fluorescently labeled to localize zinc, or stained immunochemically for activated caspase-3. V1 lesions led to zinc accumulation in LGN neurons in infant and adult subjects. Zinc-containing neurons were evident 1–3 days after aspiration lesions, depending on age, but not until 14 days after kainate injection. Zinc accumulation was followed rapidly by immunostaining for activated caspase-3. Our data indicate that like neurotrauma and excitotoxicity, target deprivation leads to accumulation of zinc in apoptotic neurons. Moreover, zinc accumulation in vivo can occur in the absence of presynaptic zinc release. Together these findings suggest that accumulation of intracellular zinc is a ubiquitous component of the cell death cascade in neurons. PMID:15733083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265743"><span>hESC derived neuro-epithelial rosettes recapitulate <span class="hlt">early</span> mammalian neurulation <span class="hlt">events</span>; an in vitro model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curchoe, Carol Lynn; Russo, Joseph; Terskikh, Alexey V</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The in vitro neuralization of hESCs has been widely used to generate central and peripheral nervous system components from neural precursors (Bajpai et al., 2009; Curchoe et al., 2010), most often through an intermediate "rosette" stage. Here we confirm that hESC derived neuro-epithelial rosettes express many characteristics of the developing embryonic neural plate (Aaku-Saraste et al., 1996), characterized by expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and N-Cadherin. Moreover, neuro-epithelial rosettes display a characteristic acetylated alpha tubulin cytoskeletal arrangement (similar to that observed in the developing embryonic neural plate) (Bhattacharyya et al., 1994). Demonstrated here for the first time MKLP was observed in a hESC model system. We found MKLP expression in small particles in between mitotic spindles, large particles aggregating in the lumen of neuroepithelial rosettes, and we did not observe MKLP in the nucleus of hESC derived neural precursors as previously described in the HeLa cell line. We observed MKLP+ particles in aggregations in the lumen of "<span class="hlt">early</span>" rosette structures. Furthermore, we observed that MKLP+ particle aggregations can also be lost from the lumens of hESC derived neuro-epithelial rosettes, similar to a phenomenon observed in the developing neural tube in vivo (Marzesco et al., 2005). We determined that this loss of MKLP+ particles occurs from "late" as opposed to "<span class="hlt">early</span>" stage neuro-epithelial rosettes (characterized by junction type). Disrupting the apical-basal polarization of "<span class="hlt">early</span>" stage rosettes with a 1% Matrigel overlay (Krtolica et al., 2007) nearly ablates MKLP particle aggregation in the lumen of rosettes, demonstrating that the apical-basal polarity of <span class="hlt">early</span> NE cells is necessary for lumenal MKLP particle aggregation. We conclude that <span class="hlt">early</span> hESC derived neuro-epithelial rosettes can model <span class="hlt">early</span> neurulation <span class="hlt">events</span>, such as the transition from neural plate like cells to neural tube like cells (i.e., symmetric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058698"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> disrupted neurovascular coupling and changed <span class="hlt">event</span> level hemodynamic response function in type 2 diabetes: an fMRI study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duarte, João V; Pereira, João M S; Quendera, Bruno; Raimundo, Miguel; Moreno, Carolina; Gomes, Leonor; Carrilho, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients develop vascular complications and have increased risk for neurophysiological impairment. Vascular pathophysiology may alter the blood flow regulation in cerebral microvasculature, affecting neurovascular coupling. Reduced fMRI signal can result from decreased neuronal activation or disrupted neurovascular coupling. The uncertainty about pathophysiological mechanisms (neurodegenerative, vascular, or both) underlying brain function impairments remains. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated if the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in lesion-free brains of patients is altered by measuring BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent) response to visual motion stimuli. We used a standard block design to examine the BOLD response and an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related deconvolution approach. Importantly, the latter allowed for the first time to directly extract the true shape of HRF without any assumption and probe neurovascular coupling, using performance-matched stimuli. We discovered a change in HRF in <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of diabetes. T2DM patients show significantly different fMRI response profiles. Our visual paradigm therefore demonstrated impaired neurovascular coupling in intact brain tissue. This implies that functional studies in T2DM require the definition of HRF, only achievable with deconvolution in <span class="hlt">event</span>-related experiments. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying impaired neurovascular coupling is needed to understand and potentially prevent the progression of brain function decrements in diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC41B0762M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC41B0762M"><span>Learning from Expert <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> in Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, M. G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the <span class="hlt">early</span> 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert <span class="hlt">elicitations</span> that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "<span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "<span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968690"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehrspaun, Claudia C; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Sailer, Uta</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the <span class="hlt">early</span> C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67 ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during <span class="hlt">early</span> visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a target's relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology"><span>Differential Network Analyses of Alzheimer’s Disease Identify <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Xia, Jing; Rocke, David M.; Perry, George; ...</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and <span class="hlt">early</span> characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with lowmore » topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in AD pathology. Cellular defense mechanisms try to intervene but fail, finally resulting in AD pathology as the disease progresses. Furthermore, disease annotation of the low TO genes in two independent protein interaction networks has resulted in association between cancer, diabetes, renal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867962"><span>Implicit processing of heroin and emotional cues in abstinent heroin users: <span class="hlt">early</span> and late <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Ling; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhao, Xin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues is a core characteristic of drug dependence. Previous research has suggested that the late positive potential (LPP) of heroin users is increased by heroin-related stimuli because of the attention-grabbing nature of such stimuli. The present research used a modified emotional Stroop (eStroop) task to examine whether there was an <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN) modulation to heroin cues compared with emotional or neutral stimuli in heroin dependent subjects. Fifteen former heroin users and 15 matched controls performed the eStroop task, which was composed of positive, negative, heroin-related, and neutral pictures with superimposed color squares. Participants responded to the color of the square and not to the picture while behavioral data and <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials were recorded. There were no significant differences of EPN amplitudes to emotional and neutral stimuli between heroin users and controls. However, heroin users displayed increased EPN modulation for heroin cues, whereas this modulation was absent in controls. Drug-related cues acquire motivational salience and automatically capture the attention of heroin users at <span class="hlt">early</span> processing stages, even when engaged in a non-drug-related task. The EPN to heroin cues could represent a novel electrophysiological index with clinical implications for selecting abstinent drug users who are at increased risk of relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5500404','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5500404"><span>Epigenetic Silencing of MORT Is an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in Cancer and Is Associated with Luminal, Receptor Positive Breast Tumor Subtypes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Futscher, Bernard Walter</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Immortality is an essential characteristic of cancer cells; a recent transcriptomic study of epithelial cell immortalization has linked epigenetic silencing of the long noncoding RNA Mortal Obligate RNA Transcript (MORT; alias ZNF667-AS1) to this process. This study evaluated the epigenetic and transcriptional state of MORT in two premalignant conditions—ductal carcinomas in situ and colon adenomas. Results show that MORT silencing is an <span class="hlt">early</span> epigenetic <span class="hlt">event</span> in human carcinogenesis, likely occurring near the point where premalignant cells gain immortality; this epigenetic silencing is maintained throughout malignant transformation and metastatic growth. Additional associations between MORT loss and clinical and molecular features of breast tumors showed that silencing of MORT occurs predominantly in luminal, receptor-positive breast cancer; is associated with overexpression of CCND1 and mutations of GATA3; and is negatively correlated with TP53 mutations. Taken in toto, MORT silencing occurs <span class="hlt">early</span> in breast carcinogenesis, probably during cellular immortalization, and precedes the development of invasive luminal breast cancer. PMID:28690657</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28690657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28690657"><span>Epigenetic Silencing of MORT Is an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in Cancer and Is Associated with Luminal, Receptor Positive Breast Tumor Subtypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vrba, Lukas; Futscher, Bernard Walter</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Immortality is an essential characteristic of cancer cells; a recent transcriptomic study of epithelial cell immortalization has linked epigenetic silencing of the long noncoding RNA Mortal Obligate RNA Transcript (MORT; alias ZNF667-AS1) to this process. This study evaluated the epigenetic and transcriptional state of MORT in two premalignant conditions-ductal carcinomas in situ and colon adenomas. Results show that MORT silencing is an <span class="hlt">early</span> epigenetic <span class="hlt">event</span> in human carcinogenesis, likely occurring near the point where premalignant cells gain immortality; this epigenetic silencing is maintained throughout malignant transformation and metastatic growth. Additional associations between MORT loss and clinical and molecular features of breast tumors showed that silencing of MORT occurs predominantly in luminal, receptor-positive breast cancer; is associated with overexpression of CCND1 and mutations of GATA3; and is negatively correlated with TP53 mutations. Taken in toto, MORT silencing occurs <span class="hlt">early</span> in breast carcinogenesis, probably during cellular immortalization, and precedes the development of invasive luminal breast cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28959008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28959008"><span>High-throughput RNA structure probing reveals critical folding <span class="hlt">events</span> during <span class="hlt">early</span> 60S ribosome assembly in yeast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burlacu, Elena; Lackmann, Fredrik; Aguilar, Lisbeth-Carolina; Belikov, Sergey; Nues, Rob van; Trahan, Christian; Hector, Ralph D; Dominelli-Whiteley, Nicholas; Cockroft, Scott L; Wieslander, Lars; Oeffinger, Marlene; Granneman, Sander</p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>While the protein composition of various yeast 60S ribosomal subunit assembly intermediates has been studied in detail, little is known about ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structural rearrangements that take place during <span class="hlt">early</span> 60S assembly steps. Using a high-throughput RNA structure probing method, we provide nucleotide resolution insights into rRNA structural rearrangements during nucleolar 60S assembly. Our results suggest that many rRNA-folding steps, such as folding of 5.8S rRNA, occur at a very specific stage of assembly, and propose that downstream nuclear assembly <span class="hlt">events</span> can only continue once 5.8S folding has been completed. Our maps of nucleotide flexibility enable making predictions about the establishment of protein-rRNA interactions, providing intriguing insights into the temporal order of protein-rRNA as well as long-range inter-domain rRNA interactions. These data argue that many distant domains in the rRNA can assemble simultaneously during <span class="hlt">early</span> 60S assembly and underscore the enormous complexity of 60S synthesis.Ribosome biogenesis is a dynamic process that involves the ordered assembly of ribosomal proteins and numerous RNA structural rearrangements. Here the authors apply ChemModSeq, a high-throughput RNA structure probing method, to quantitatively measure changes in RNA flexibility during the nucleolar stages of 60S assembly in yeast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27412540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27412540"><span>[Correlation between <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential and behavioral problems in <span class="hlt">early</span> school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pu, Xu-Jiao; Dong, Xuan; Shen, Hui-Juan; Jiang, Kai-Hua; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Fang-Qiao; Qian, Jin-Qiang</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>To investigate the cognitive characteristics in <span class="hlt">early</span> school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential (ERP) and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), as well as the correlation between ERP and behavioral problems. A total of 22 children aged 6-7 years with ADHD and 19 healthy children matched by age were enrolled. Continue Performance Test-AX (CPT-AX) was performed for ERP test. The amplitude and latency of N2 and P3 of Go and Nogo were compared. The CBCL was completed by the parents, and the correlation between behavioral factors and ERP was analyzed. The ADHD group had a significantly higher number of ERP omissions than the normal control group (10±8 vs 5±4; P<0.05), while the reaction time and number of commission errors showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). The ADHD group showed a significantly lower Go-N2 amplitude than the normal control group (-8±5 μV vs -10±4 μV; P<0.05). In the ADHD group, the detection rates of hyperactivity, attack, and discipline violation were 27%, 27% and 9% respectively. The scores on attack and discipline violation subscales were negatively correlated with the Go-N2 amplitude of ERP (r=-0.43 and -0.48 respectively; P<0.05), while the score on hyperactivity subscale was positively correlated with the latency of Go-P3 (r=0.50, P<0.05). The <span class="hlt">early</span> school-age children with ADHD show the tendency to the impairment of attention/executive function, but the inhibition function defect has not been noted. In <span class="hlt">early</span> school-age children with ADHD, the behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, attack, and discipline violation are associated with ERP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285261"><span>Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> pathogenesis <span class="hlt">event</span> of drug induced liver injury in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Alexander, Danny C.; Lawton, Kay A.; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Guo, Lining</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolites profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the <span class="hlt">early</span> time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and <span class="hlt">early</span> DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins decreased the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22267883-risk-cerebrovascular-events-elderly-patients-after-radiation-therapy-versus-surgery-early-stage-glottic-cancer','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22267883-risk-cerebrovascular-events-elderly-patients-after-radiation-therapy-versus-surgery-early-stage-glottic-cancer"><span>Risk of Cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Stage Glottic Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>, and SEER data for stroke as the causemore » of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7492K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7492K"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> impact <span class="hlt">event</span> and fluid activity on H chondrite parent body registered in the Pułtusk meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krzesinska, Agata</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Impact is one of the most important processes affecting asteroids, but it is neglected as a source for heat of these bodies. Recent modeling work show, however, that impact into warm planetesimals is able to cause global-scale temperature increase to the point of melting of silicates [1]. An obvious consequence of this fact is that the impact activity in <span class="hlt">early</span> evolution of asteroids may promote formation of melt and its differentiation. H chondrites provide some lines of evidence for an <span class="hlt">early</span>, 4.4 Ga impact <span class="hlt">event</span> on their parent body. The <span class="hlt">event</span> resulted in formation of heavily shocked and melted H chondrites with old gas retention ages [2, 3], including Portales Valley, an unique metal-rich breccia [e.g. 4]. The impact led also, very likely, to unmixing of silicate and metal-sulfide melts and to formation of silicate-iron non-magmatic IIE meteorites [5]. Additional evidence for this <span class="hlt">event</span>, and for melting it caused, may come from highly equilibrated and recrystallized fragments of the Pułtusk meteorite containing vein-like metal accumulations [6]. In the Pułtusk, vein-like metal accumulations are kamacite-rich, and basically depleted in sulfides. They form many tendrils into the equilibrated, well recrystallized chondritic rock. Marked feature of the chondritic rock at the contact with accumulations is presence of unusually large phosphate and feldspar grains. The minerals bear record of crystallization from melt. Both vein-like metal accumulations and chondritic rock record, however, slow cooling rate. Phopshates are in the meteorite represented by merrillite and apatite, predominantly intergrown with each other. Merrillite poikilitically encloses silicate grains. It is probably of magmatic origin, since it contains detectable amount of potassium and high content of sodium. Apatite contains varying concentrations of chlorine, fluorine and missing structural component. Content of Cl and F are negatively correlated and both elements are heterogeneously distributed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2124805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2124805"><span>Receptor-linked <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W; Ozeki, T; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y</p> <p>1990-11-15</p> <p>Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical <span class="hlt">events</span>, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or EGTA (1 mM), the peak [Ca2+]i declined more rapidly to the resting level in VIC-stimulated NG108-15 cells, indicating that the receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is followed by Ca2+ influx through the nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin only partially decreased Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation as well as the [Ca2+]i transient induced by VIC, whereas these <span class="hlt">events</span> induced by endothelin-1 were not affected by the toxin, suggesting involvement of distinct GTP-binding proteins. The VIC-induced transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation coincident with the first <span class="hlt">early</span> peak of DAG formation suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is a principal source of the first DAG increase. Labelling studies with [3H]myristate, [14C]palmitate and [3H]choline indicated that in neuroblastoma cells phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was hydrolysed by a phospholipase C to cause the second sustained DAG increase. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol ester markedly prevented the VIC-induced delayed DAG accumulation. Furthermore, chelation of intracellular CA2+ completely abolished the second sustained phase of DAG production. These findings suggest that PtdCho hydrolysis is responsible for the sustained production of DAG and is dependent on both Ca2+ and PKC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016711','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016711"><span>Effects of Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate on <span class="hlt">Early</span> Molecular <span class="hlt">Events</span> in N-Nitrosomethylbenzylamine–Induced Cytotoxicity in Rat Esophagus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reen, Rashmeet K.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Kresty, Laura A.; Cukovic, Daniela; Mele, Jennifer M.; Salagrama, Sridevi; Nines, Ronald; Stoner, Gary D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is little information on <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)–induced rat esophageal tumorigenesis and of the effects of chemopreventive agents on these <span class="hlt">events</span>. In this study, we identified genes in rat esophagus that were differentially expressed in response to short-term NMBA treatment and modulated by cotreatment with phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). Rats were fed AIN-76A diet or AIN-76A diet containing PEITC for 3 weeks. During the 3rd week of dietary treatment, they were administered three s.c. doses of NMBA (0.5 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last treatment; esophagi were excised and processed for histologic grading, microarray and real-time PCR analysis. Histopathologic analysis showed that treatment of rats with PEITC had a protective effect on NMBA-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus. We identified 2,261 genes that were differentially expressed in the NMBA-treated versus control esophagi and 1,936 genes in the PEITC + NMBA versus NMBA-treated esophagi. The intersection of these two sets resulted in the identification of 1,323 genes in NMBA-treated esophagus, the vast majority of which were modulated by PEITC to near-normal levels of expression. Measured changes in the expression levels of eight selected genes were validated using real-time PCR. Results from 12 microarrays indicated that PEITC treatment had a genome-wide modulating effect on NMBA-induced gene expression. Samples obtained from animals treated with PEITC alone or cotreated with PEITC + NMBA were more similar to controls than to samples treated with NMBA alone. PMID:17616710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.411..164B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.411..164B"><span>Calcium isotope evidence for dramatic increase of continental weathering during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span> (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brazier, Jean-Michel; Suan, Guillaume; Tacail, Théo; Simon, Laurent; Martin, Jeremy E.; Mattioli, Emanuela; Balter, Vincent</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian was punctuated by pulses of massive carbon injection that are thought to have triggered, through increased greenhouse conditions, elevated continental discharge and nutrient input, marine anoxia, seawater acidification and species extinctions. Nevertheless, the mode and tempo of changes in continental weathering across this interval remains highly debated, leading to considerable uncertainty about the main causes of these perturbations. In this study we present calcium isotope measurements (δ44/40Ca) of well-preserved brachiopods and bulk rock samples from the hemipelagic strata of Pliensbachian-Toarcian age of Peniche in Portugal in order to constrain changes in the calcium cycle and hence changes in continental weathering during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian. The data reveal a similar trend as carbon isotope data from the same section and show negative excursions of about 0.5‰ at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition (Pl-To) and at the base of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (T-OAE) interval. The comparison of δ44/40Ca ratios recorded in brachiopods and bulk rock corrected for variable dolomite contribution indicates that these excursions reflect changes in the global isotopic composition of seawater rather than changes in the dominant mineralogy of calcifying organisms or in hydrological budget of the considered basin. Box modeling results suggest that the Pl-To and T-OAE δ44/40Ca excursions can be explained by a transient 90% decrease of carbonate accumulation due to seawater acidification followed by a 500% increase in continental weathering rates. The sharp increases in continental weathering inferred from the δ44/40Ca ratios seem overall consistent with lower Toarcian sedimentological and biotic records that document rapid crises in carbonate production followed by episodes of increased calcium carbonate burial. Nevertheless, the maximum of carbonate burial recorded by most NW European basinal successions occurs several hundreds of kyrs after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495521"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. <span class="hlt">Early</span> results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. <span class="hlt">Early</span> results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..63..293P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..63..293P"><span>A late eocene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene transgressive <span class="hlt">event</span> in the Golfo San Jorge basin: Palynological results and stratigraphic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paredes, José M.; Foix, Nicolás; Guerstein, G. Raquel; Guler, María V.; Irigoyen, Martín; Moscoso, Pablo; Giordano, Sergio</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A new Cenozoic dataset in the subsurface of the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Santa Cruz province) allowed to identify a non-previously recognized transgressive <span class="hlt">event</span> of late Eocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene age. Below of a marine succession containing a dinoflagellate cyst assemblage that characterizes the C/G palynological zone of the Chenque Formation (<span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene), a 80-110 m thick marine succession contains a palynological assemblage integrated by Gelatia inflata, Diphyes colligerum and Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata supporting the occurrence of a marine incursion in the basin during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). The new lithostratigraphic unit - here defined as El Huemul Formation - covers in sharp contact to the Sarmiento Formation, and become thinner from East to West; the unit has been identified in about 1800 well logs covering up to 3500 km2, and its subsurface distribution exceed the boundaries of the study area. The El Huemul Formation consists of a thin lag of glauconitic sandstones with fining-upward log motif, followed by a mudstone-dominated succession that coarsening-upward to sandstones, evidencing a full T-R cycle. Preservation of the El Huemul Formation in the subsurface of the South Flank has been favored by the reactivation of WNW-ESE late Cretaceous normal faults, and by the generation of N-S striking normal faults of Paleocene-Eocene age. Flexural loading associated to igneous intrusions of Paleocene?- middle Eocene age also promoted the increase of subsidence in the South Flank of the basin prior to the transgression.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27710777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27710777"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> ultrastructural <span class="hlt">events</span> of skeletal muscle damage following cardiotoxin-induced injury and glycerol-induced injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated the <span class="hlt">early</span> changes of skeletal muscle damage in response to injuries induced by cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol by using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Normal, non-dystrophic, adult male mice were used in this study. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Samples were collected at intervals starting from 1h up to 4days after injury. Injured muscles were subjected to both histological and ultrastructural analyses. CTX-induced injury caused mitochondrial accumulation and swelling followed by lysis, while glycerol-induced injury caused accumulation of vesicles with focal disruption of the basal lamina, indicating that the injuries have different mechanisms of damage to myofibers. Moreover, inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, were recruited earlier and in larger numbers after CTX-induced injury than after glycerol-induced injury. On the other hand, satellite cells (SCs) activation started at 6h after both injuries, as indicated by an increase in both the length and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio. However, there were significantly longer SCs with a higher cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio in the CTX-injured muscles than in the glycerol-injured muscles at day 4. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a difference between CTX and glycerol in their damage to myofibers; CTX damages myofiber mitochondria, while glycerol damages the myofiber cell membrane and alters osmosis. In addition, CTX-induced injury caused earlier and more extensive inflammatory infiltration than did glycerol-induced injury. This study is the first study to shed light on the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> following skeletal muscle injury induced by CTX and glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972621"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential changes during working memory activation predict rapid decline in mild cognitive impairment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Missonnier, Pascal; Gold, Gabriel; Fazio-Costa, Lara; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Mulligan, Reinhild; Michon, Agnès; Ibáñez, Vicente; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease is associated with substantial compromise of neocortical circuits subserving rapid cognitive functions such as working memory. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related potential (ERP) analysis is a powerful tool to identify <span class="hlt">early</span> impairment of these circuits, yet research for an electrophysiological marker of cognitive deterioration in MCI is scarce. Using a "2-back" activation paradigm, we recently described an electrophysiological correlate of working memory activation (positive-negative working memory [PN(wm)] component) over parietal electrodes. Ours was a longitudinal study of 24 MCI patients with ERP analysis at inclusion and neuropsychological follow-up after 1 year. We used ERP waveform subtraction analysis between the n-back and control tasks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare electroencephalograph latencies between progressive MCI (PMCI) and stable MCI (SMCI), and univariate regression was used to assess the relationship between neuropsychological measures at baseline and clinical outcome. Thirteen (54%) MCI patients showed PMCI, and 11 (46%) remained stable (SMCI). In SMCI, a PN(wm) component with significantly larger density compared to baseline was identified when subtracting the detection task for both the 1- and 2-back tasks. In contrast, in PMCI, the PN(wm) component was absent in both 1-back and 2-back conditions. Neuropsychological variables and n-back test performance at inclusion did not predict cognitive deterioration 1 year later. In conjunction with recent functional imaging data, the present results support the notion of an <span class="hlt">early</span> dysfunction of neural generators within the parietal cortex in MCI. They also reveal that the absence of the PN(wm) component may provide an easily applicable qualitative predictive marker of rapid cognitive deterioration in MCI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3273680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3273680"><span>Chemokine-driven lymphocyte infiltration: an <span class="hlt">early</span> intratumoural <span class="hlt">event</span> determining long-term survival in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chew, Valerie; Chen, Jinmiao; Lee, Deming; Loh, Evelyn; Lee, Joyce; Lim, Kiat Hon; Weber, Achim; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Poon, Ronnie T P; Yang, Henry; Ooi, London Lucien P J; Toh, Han Chong; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Ng, Irene O L; Nardin, Alessandra</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and limited methods for predicting patient survival. The nature of the immune cells that infiltrate tumours is known to impact clinical outcome. However, the molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> that regulate this infiltration require further understanding. Here the ability of immune genes expressed in the tumour microenvironment to predict disease progression was investigated. Methods Using quantitative PCR, the expression of 14 immune genes in resected tumour tissues from 57 Singaporean patients was analysed. The nearest-template prediction method was used to derive and test a prognostic signature from this training cohort. The signature was then validated in an independent cohort of 98 patients from Hong Kong and Zurich. Intratumoural components expressing these critical immune genes were identified by in situ labelling. Regulation of these genes was analysed in vitro using the HCC cell line SNU-182. Results The identified 14 immune-gene signature predicts patient survival in both the training cohort (p=0.0004 and HR=5.2) and the validation cohort (p=0.0051 and HR=2.5) irrespective of patient ethnicity and disease aetiology. Importantly, it predicts the survival of patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> disease (stages I and II), for whom classical clinical parameters provide limited information. The lack of predictive power in late disease stages III and IV emphasises that a protective immune microenvironment has to be established <span class="hlt">early</span> in order to impact disease progression significantly. This signature includes the chemokine genes CXCL10, CCL5 and CCL2, whose expression correlates with markers of T helper 1 (Th1), CD8+ T and natural killer (NK) cells. Inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α, interferon γ) and Toll-like receptor 3 ligands stimulate intratumoural production of these chemokines which drive tumour infiltration by T and NK cells, leading to enhanced cancer cell death. Conclusion A 14</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22285261-perturbation-bile-acid-homeostasis-early-pathogenesis-event-drug-induced-liver-injury-rats','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22285261-perturbation-bile-acid-homeostasis-early-pathogenesis-event-drug-induced-liver-injury-rats"><span>Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> pathogenesis <span class="hlt">event</span> of drug induced liver injury in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolitesmore » profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the <span class="hlt">early</span> time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and <span class="hlt">early</span> DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27122035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27122035"><span>Stimulus-<span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim</p> <p>2016-04-27</p> <p>-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state network development is influenced by recurring stimulus-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> connectivity through prospective examination of the developing human amygdala-cortical functional connections. Our results provide critical insight into how <span class="hlt">early</span> environmental <span class="hlt">events</span> sculpt functional network architecture across development and highlight childhood as a potential developmental period of heightened malleability for the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings have implications for how both positive and adverse experiences influence the developing brain and motivate future investigations of whether this molding mechanism reflects a general phenomenon of brain development. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364772-14$15.00/0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4150772','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4150772"><span>Improved artificial origins for phage Φ29 terminal protein-primed replication. Insights into <span class="hlt">early</span> replication <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gella, Pablo; Salas, Margarita; Mencía, Mario</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The replication machinery of bacteriophage Φ29 is a paradigm for protein-primed replication and it holds great potential for applied purposes. To better understand the <span class="hlt">early</span> replication <span class="hlt">events</span> and to find improved origins for DNA amplification based on the Φ29 system, we have studied the end-structure of a double-stranded DNA replication origin. We have observed that the strength of the origin is determined by a combination of factors. The strongest origin (30-fold respect to wt) has the sequence CCC at the 3′ end of the template strand, AAA at the 5′ end of the non-template strand and 6 nucleotides as optimal unpairing at the end of the origin. We also show that the presence of a correctly positioned displaced strand is important because origins with 5′ or 3′ ssDNA regions have very low activity. Most of the effect of the improved origins takes place at the passage between the terminal protein-primed and the DNA-primed modes of replication by the DNA polymerase suggesting the existence of a thermodynamic barrier at that point. We suggest that the template and non-template strands of the origin and the TP/DNA polymerase complex form series of interactions that control the critical start of terminal protein-primed replication. PMID:25081208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515584"><span>Altered expression of CKs 14/20 is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in a rat model of multistep bladder carcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gil da Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Paula A; Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, Carmen; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; Pinto-Leite, Rosário; Colaço, Aura A; de la Cruz, Luis F; Lopes, Carlos</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Cytokeratins (CKs) 14 and 20 are promising markers for diagnosing urothelial lesions and for studying their prognosis and histogenesis. This work aimed to study the immunohistochemical staining patterns of CK14/20 during multistep carcinogenesis leading to papillary bladder cancer in a rat model. Thirty female Fischer 344 rats were divided into three groups: group 1 (control); group 2, which received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 20 weeks plus 1 week without treatment; and group 3, which received BBN for 20 weeks plus 8 weeks without treatment. Bladder lesions were classified histologically. CK14 and CK20 immunostaining was assessed according to its distribution and intensity. In control animals, 0-25% of basal cells and umbrella cells stained positive for CK14 and CK20 respectively. On groups 2 and 3, nodular hyperplastic lesions showed normal CK20 and moderately increased CK14 staining (26-50% of cells). Dysplasia, squamous metaplasia, papilloma, papillary tumours of low malignant potential and low- and high-grade papillary carcinomas showed increased CK14 and CK20 immunostaining in all epithelial layers. Altered CK14 and CK20 expression is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in urothelial carcinogenesis and is present in a wide spectrum of urothelial superficial neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414406"><span>Microhemorrhage is an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in the Pulmonary Fibrotic Disease of PECAM-1 Deficient FVB/n Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Lena C.; Woods, Steven J.; Groshong, Steven D.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Gilchrist, John M.; Higgins, David M.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Bass, Todd A.; Muller, William A.; Schenkel, Alan R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (PECAM-1) deficient mice in the FVB/n strain exhibit fatal chronic pulmonary fibrotic disease. The illness occurs in the absence of a detectable pro-inflammatory <span class="hlt">event</span>. PECAM-1 is vital to the stability of vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation, clotting of platelets, and clearance of apoptotic cells. We show here that the spontaneous development of fibrotic disease in PECAM-1 deficient FVB/n mice is characterized by <span class="hlt">early</span> loss of vascular integrity in pulmonary capillaries, resulting in spontaneous microbleeds. Hemosiderin-positive macrophages were found in interstitial spaces and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in relatively healthy animals. We also observed a gradually increasing presence of hemosiderin-positive macrophages and fibrin deposition in the advanced stages of disease, corresponding to the accumulation of collagen, IL-10 expression, and myofibroblasts expressing alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). Together with the growing evidence that pulmonary microbleeds and coagulation play an active part in human pulmonary fibrosis, this data further supports our hypothesis that PECAM-1 expression is necessary for vascular barrier function control and regulation of homeostasis specifically, in the pulmonary environment. PMID:24972347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12611476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12611476"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of experimental exposure to amorphous and crystalline silica in the rat: time course of surfactant protein D.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbaro, M; Cutroneo, G; Costa, C; Sciorio, S; Trimarchi, F; Favaloro, A; Fenga, C; Barbaro Martino, L; Spatari, G; Abbate, C; Bramanti, P</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Pneumoconioses determined by chronic inhalation of different kinds of silica present with peculiar clinical and histopathological features. Silicosis, caused by crystalline silica, is characterized by typical fibrous parenchymal nodules. Less defined are pneumoconioses due to amorphous silica. Aim of current experimental research on silicosis is to investigate the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> that lead to nodular fibrosis of the lung. A secretory component of the pulmonary environment, surfactant, seems to be involved in silica toxicity; surfactant protein D is a protein constituent, apparently involved in the homeostasis of the phospholipid component. We studied the behaviour of SP-D 2, 12 and 24 hours after treatment with 200 mg/kg crystalline silica or pumice powder suspended in 400 microl/kg saline solution and instiled intratracheally to rats. Both immunohistochemical localization and immunoblotting quantification demonstrated a sensible increase in intracellular SP-D, localized in alveolar type II cells and some bronchiolar epithelial cells, 2 hours after treatment. Increment appears less marked 12 hours after administration, reaching again levels comparable to control at 24 hours. The behaviour of SP-D after pumice instilation is similar, but with a significantly minor increment at 2 hours. These results indicate crystalline silica as responsible for a stronger acute injury of pulmonary tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037588"><span>Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration as <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in Alzheimer's disease: implications to mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapeutics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reddy, P Hemachandra; Tripathi, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Tirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P; Calkins, Marcus J; Reddy, Arubala P; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlates of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid beta (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3135613','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3135613"><span>Time-Resolved Human Kinome RNAi Screen Identifies a Network Regulating Mitotic-<span class="hlt">Events</span> as <span class="hlt">Early</span> Regulators of Cell Proliferation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bechtel, Stephanie; Bender, Christian; Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Schmidt, Christian; Irsigler, Anja; Ernst, Ute; Sahin, Özgür; Wiemann, Stefan; Tschulena, Ulrich</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of biological processes is frequently performed with the help of phenotypic assays where data is mostly acquired in single end-point analysis. Alternative phenotypic profiling techniques are desired where time-series information is essential to the biological question, for instance to differentiate <span class="hlt">early</span> and late regulators of cell proliferation in loss-of-function studies. So far there is no study addressing this question despite of high unmet interests, mostly due to the limitation of conventional end-point assaying technologies. We present the first human kinome screen with a real-time cell analysis system (RTCA) to capture dynamic RNAi phenotypes, employing time-resolved monitoring of cell proliferation via electrical impedance. RTCA allowed us to investigate the dynamics of phenotypes of cell proliferation instead of using conventional end-point analysis. By introducing data transformation with first-order derivative, i.e. the cell-index growth rate, we demonstrate this system suitable for high-throughput screenings (HTS). The screen validated previously identified inhibitor genes and, additionally, identified activators of cell proliferation. With the information of time kinetics available, we could establish a network of mitotic-<span class="hlt">event</span> related genes to be among the first displaying inhibiting effects after RNAi knockdown. The time-resolved screen captured kinetics of cell proliferation caused by RNAi targeting human kinome, serving as a resource for researchers. Our work establishes RTCA technology as a novel robust tool with biological and pharmacological relevance amenable for high-throughput screening. PMID:21765947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12620861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12620861"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Fusarium verticillioides-maize interaction characterized by using a green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic isolate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oren, Liat; Ezrati, Smadar; Cohen, David; Sharon, Amir</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The infection of maize by Fusarium verticillioides can result in highly variable disease symptoms ranging from asymptomatic plants to severe rotting and wilting. We produced F. verticillioides green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic isolates and used them to characterize <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the F. verticillioides-maize interaction that may affect later symptom appearance. Plants grown in F. verticillioides-infested soil were smaller and chlorotic. The fungus colonized all of the underground parts of a plant but was found primarily in lateral roots and mesocotyl tissue. In some mesocotyl cells, conidia were produced within 14 to 21 days after infection. Intercellular mycelium was detected, but additional cells were not infected until 21 days after planting. At 25 to 30 days after planting, the mesocotyl and main roots were heavily infected, and rotting developed in these tissues. Other tissues, including the adventitious roots and the stem, appeared to be healthy and contained only a small number of hyphae. These results imply that asymptomatic systemic infection is characterized by a mode of fungal development that includes infection of certain tissues, intercellular growth of a limited number of fungal hyphae, and reproduction of the fungus in a few cells without invasion of other cells. Development of visibly rotted tissue is associated with massive production of fungal mycelium and much less organized growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=150081','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=150081"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Fusarium verticillioides-Maize Interaction Characterized by Using a Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Transgenic Isolate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oren, Liat; Ezrati, Smadar; Cohen, David; Sharon, Amir</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The infection of maize by Fusarium verticillioides can result in highly variable disease symptoms ranging from asymptomatic plants to severe rotting and wilting. We produced F. verticillioides green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic isolates and used them to characterize <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the F. verticillioides-maize interaction that may affect later symptom appearance. Plants grown in F. verticillioides-infested soil were smaller and chlorotic. The fungus colonized all of the underground parts of a plant but was found primarily in lateral roots and mesocotyl tissue. In some mesocotyl cells, conidia were produced within 14 to 21 days after infection. Intercellular mycelium was detected, but additional cells were not infected until 21 days after planting. At 25 to 30 days after planting, the mesocotyl and main roots were heavily infected, and rotting developed in these tissues. Other tissues, including the adventitious roots and the stem, appeared to be healthy and contained only a small number of hyphae. These results imply that asymptomatic systemic infection is characterized by a mode of fungal development that includes infection of certain tissues, intercellular growth of a limited number of fungal hyphae, and reproduction of the fungus in a few cells without invasion of other cells. Development of visibly rotted tissue is associated with massive production of fungal mycelium and much less organized growth. PMID:12620861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194925"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> carry over to influence pre-migratory condition in a free-living songbird.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Greg W; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Norris, D Ryan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1(st) year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept-Oct) and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3241683','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3241683"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> Carry Over to Influence Pre-Migratory Condition in a Free-Living Songbird</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Greg W.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Norris, D. Ryan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1st year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept–Oct) and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. PMID:22194925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5503503-elicitation-natural-language-representations-uncertainty-using-computer-technology','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5503503-elicitation-natural-language-representations-uncertainty-using-computer-technology"><span><span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> of natural language representations of uncertainty using computer technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Travis, C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is an important aspect of risk analysis. Knowledge about risks must be accurately <span class="hlt">elicited</span> from experts for use in risk assessments. Knowledge and perceptions of risks must also be accurately <span class="hlt">elicited</span> from the public in order to intelligently perform policy analysis and develop and implement programs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing computer technology to effectively and efficiently <span class="hlt">elicit</span> knowledge from experts and the public. This paper discusses software developed to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> natural language representations of uncertainty. The software is written in Common Lisp and resides on VAX Computers System and Symbolics Lisp machines. The software has threemore » goals, to determine preferences for using natural language terms for representing uncertainty; likelihood rankings of the terms; and how likelihood estimates are combined to form new terms. The first two goals relate to providing useful results for those interested in risk communication. The third relates to providing cognitive data to further our understanding of people's decision making under uncertainty. The software is used to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> natural language terms used to express the likelihood of various agents causing cancer in humans and cancer resulting in various maladies, and the likelihood of everyday <span class="hlt">events</span>. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3602124','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3602124"><span>Subchondral pre-solidified chitosan/blood implants <span class="hlt">elicit</span> reproducible <span class="hlt">early</span> osteochondral wound-repair responses including neutrophil and stromal cell chemotaxis, bone resorption and repair, enhanced repair tissue integration and delayed matrix deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In this study we evaluated a novel approach to guide the bone marrow-driven articular cartilage repair response in skeletally aged rabbits. We hypothesized that dispersed chitosan particles implanted close to the bone marrow degrade in situ in a molecular mass-dependent manner, and attract more stromal cells to the site in aged rabbits compared to the blood clot in untreated controls. Methods Three microdrill hole defects, 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm deep, were created in both knee trochlea of 30 month-old New Zealand White rabbits. Each of 3 isotonic chitosan solutions (150, 40, 10 kDa, 80% degree of deaceylation, with fluorescent chitosan tracer) was mixed with autologous rabbit whole blood, clotted with Tissue Factor to form cylindrical implants, and press-fit in drill holes in the left knee while contralateral holes received Tissue Factor or no treatment. At day 1 or day 21 post-operative, defects were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and stereology for bone and soft tissue repair. Results All 3 implants filled the top of defects at day 1 and were partly degraded in situ at 21 days post-operative. All implants attracted neutrophils, osteoclasts and abundant bone marrow-derived stromal cells, stimulated bone resorption followed by new woven bone repair (bone remodeling) and promoted repair tissue-bone integration. 150 kDa chitosan implant was less degraded, and <span class="hlt">elicited</span> more apoptotic neutrophils and bone resorption than 10 kDa chitosan implant. Drilled controls <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a poorly integrated fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue. Conclusions Pre-solidified implants <span class="hlt">elicit</span> stromal cells and vigorous bone plate remodeling through a phase involving neutrophil chemotaxis. Pre-solidified chitosan implants are tunable by molecular mass, and could be beneficial for augmented marrow stimulation therapy if the recruited stromal cells can progress to bone and cartilage repair. PMID:23324433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP23B1739H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP23B1739H"><span>Cumulative inputs of carbon into the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian ocean-atmosphere system: from volcanism to an Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E.; Bjerrum, C.; Baudin, F.; Minoletti, F.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Jenkyns, H. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The ~ -7‰ negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) and the Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (OAE) that occurred during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian may have been linked, both having effects on the global carbon cycle [1]. The negative CIE represented times of emission of carbon through release of methane from gas hydrates [2] or from Gondwanan organic-rich deposits [3], whereas black shale deposition acted as a carbon sink and hence, as a feedback mechanism for decreasing CO2 levels together with substantial acceleration of continental weathering [4]. However, the precise causal relationship between these two <span class="hlt">events</span> is still poorly constrained. A high-resolution study in the Paris Basin reveals a phase lag between these two paleoclimatic perturbations [5]. The first step (of the four that compose the descending limb of the CIE) is recorded ~ 5kyr before the onset of anoxia in this basin. In this study, we compared the coupling in the carbon-isotopes between organic (immature phytoplanktonic organic matter) and inorganic (calcareous nannofossil-bearing sediment with an exceptional good preservational state) substrates expressed by ΔB and ɛp, and the preservation of pelagic calcareous grains in the sediment to assess the evolution of pCO2. In situ record of the organic and inorganic carbon flux to seafloor reveals how these climatic perturbations have driven the local environment. Investigating the competition between emission and sinking of carbon at both long- and short terms allows insights into the dynamics of the global carbon cycle during super-greenhouse periods, and the role of the “biological pump” in a context of very high productivity. During the OAE, both assumed increase in temperature and reduction in surface water salinity are expressed by a ~ -1.5‰ shift in the oxygen-isotopes values in the Paris Basin that persisted after the recovery of the CIE. Additionally, we investigated at very high-resolution the 50-cm-thick interval corresponding to the onset of the CIE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307784&keyword=Tumors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307784&keyword=Tumors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Transcriptomic dose-and-time-course indicators of <span class="hlt">early</span> key <span class="hlt">events</span> in a cytotoxicity-mediated mode of action for rodent urinary bladder tumorigenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>TRANSCRIPTOMIC DOSE- AND TIME-COURSE INDICATORS OF <span class="hlt">EARLY</span> KEY <span class="hlt">EVENTS</span> IN A CYTOTOXICITY-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION FOR RODENT URINARY BLADDER TUMORIGENESISDiuron is a substituted urea compound used globally as an herbicide. Urinary bladder tumors were induced in rats after chronic die...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290827','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290827"><span>Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-<span class="hlt">early</span> conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer <span class="hlt">events</span>. PMID:22403557</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1149658','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1149658"><span>Receptor-linked <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W; Ozeki, T; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical <span class="hlt">events</span>, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or EGTA (1 mM), the peak [Ca2+]i declined more rapidly to the resting level in VIC-stimulated NG108-15 cells, indicating that the receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is followed by Ca2+ influx through the nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin only partially decreased Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation as well as the [Ca2+]i transient induced by VIC, whereas these <span class="hlt">events</span> induced by endothelin-1 were not affected by the toxin, suggesting involvement of distinct GTP-binding proteins. The VIC-induced transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation coincident with the first <span class="hlt">early</span> peak of DAG formation suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is a principal source of the first DAG increase. Labelling studies with [3H]myristate, [14C]palmitate and [3H]choline indicated that in neuroblastoma cells phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was hydrolysed by a phospholipase C to cause the second sustained DAG increase. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol ester markedly prevented the VIC-induced delayed DAG accumulation. Furthermore, chelation of intracellular CA2+ completely abolished the second sustained phase of DAG production. These findings suggest that PtdCho hydrolysis is responsible for the sustained production of DAG and is dependent on both Ca2+ and PKC. PMID:2124805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120326"><span>Managing the surge in demand for blood following mass casualty <span class="hlt">events</span>: <span class="hlt">Early</span> automatic restocking may preserve red cell supply.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glasgow, Simon; Vasilakis, Christos; Perkins, Zane; Brundage, Susan; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Traumatic hemorrhage is a leading preventable cause of mortality following mass casualty <span class="hlt">events</span> (MCEs). Improving outcomes requires adequate in-hospital provision of high-volume red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. This study investigated strategies for optimizing RBC provision to casualties in MCEs using simulation modeling. A computerized simulation model of a UK major trauma center (TC) transfusion system was developed. The model used input data from past MCEs and civilian and military trauma registries. We simulated the effect of varying on-shelf RBC stock hold and the timing of externally restocking RBC supplies on TC treatment capacity across increasing loads of priority one (P1) and two (P2) casualties from an <span class="hlt">event</span>. Thirty-five thousand simulations were performed. A casualty load of 20 P1s and P2s under standard TC RBC stock conditions left 35% (95% confidence interval, 32-38%) of P1s and 7% (4-10%) of P2s inadequately treated for hemorrhage. Additionally, exhaustion of type O emergency RBC stocks (a surrogate for reaching surge capacity) occurred in a median of 10 hours (IQR, 5 to >12 hours). Doubling casualty load increased this to 60% (57-63%) and 30% (26-34%), respectively, with capacity reached in 2 hours (1-3 hours). The model identified a minimum requirement of 12 U of on-shelf RBCs per P1/P2 casualty received to prevent surge capacity being reached. Restocking supplies in an MCE versus greater permanent on-shelf RBC stock holds was considered at increasing hourly intervals. T-test analysis showed no difference between stock hold versus supply restocking with regard to overall outcomes for MCEs up to 80 P1s and P2s in size (p < 0.05), provided the restock occurred within 6 hours. Even limited-sized MCEs threaten to overwhelm TC transfusion systems. An <span class="hlt">early</span>-automated push approach to restocking RBCs initiated by central suppliers can produce equivocal outcomes compared with holding excess stock permanently at TCs. Therapeutic/care management study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080521"><span>Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark <span class="hlt">Early</span> Preparatory <span class="hlt">Events</span> Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shah, Jubin N.; Kirioukhova, Olga; Pawar, Pallavi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Mateo, Juan L.; Johnston, Amal J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Molecular dissection of apomixis – an asexual reproductive mode – is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis) and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these <span class="hlt">events</span>, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might serve as (epi)genetic regulators of <span class="hlt">early</span> development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologs of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1) and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1) that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologs of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologs were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by global DNA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086079"><span>Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment and the risk of incident cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desai, Rishi J; Rao, Jaya K; Hansen, Richard A; Fang, Gang; Maciejewski, Matthew; Farley, Joel</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>To compare the risk of cardiovascular (CV) <span class="hlt">events</span> between use of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) and nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A nested case-control study was conducted using data from Truven's MarketScan commercial and Medicare claims database for patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA who started treatment with either a TNFi or a nonbiologic DMARD between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. Date of CV <span class="hlt">event</span> diagnosis for cases was defined as the <span class="hlt">event</span> date, and 12 age-matched and sex-matched controls were sampled using incidence density sampling. Drug exposure was defined into the following mutually exclusive categories hierarchically: (1) current use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (2) past use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (3) current use of nonbiologics only, and (4) past use of nonbiologics only. Current use was defined as any use in the period 90 days prior to the <span class="hlt">event</span> date. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRR). From the cohort of patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA, 279 cases of incident CV <span class="hlt">events</span> and 3348 matched controls were identified. The adjusted risk of CV <span class="hlt">events</span> was not significantly different between current TNFi users and current nonbiologic users (IRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.59-1.44). However, past users of nonbiologics showed significantly higher risk compared to current nonbiologic users (IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04-2.08). No differences in the CV risk were found between current TNFi and current nonbiologic DMARD treatment in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042885"><span>Pilot sample of very <span class="hlt">early</span> onset bipolar disorder in a military population moderates the association of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and non-fatal suicide attempt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pettit, Jeremy W; Paukert, Amber L; Joiner, Thomas E; Rudd, M David</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>To examine the moderating effects of very <span class="hlt">early</span> onset diagnostic status (<or= 13 years) upon the association between life <span class="hlt">events</span> and non-fatal suicide attempt. Measures of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span>, suicidal ideation and current suicide attempt were administered to 298 military-based young adults at entry to treatment for suicidality. Current and lifetime diagnoses were assigned using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The predictive ability of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> for non-fatal suicide attempt was examined separately for the total sample and for those with retrospectively determined histories of very <span class="hlt">early</span> onset bipolar disorder (VEOBPD; n = 16), very <span class="hlt">early</span> onset major depressive disorder (VEOMDD; n = 21) and very <span class="hlt">early</span> onset anxiety disorder (VEOANX; n = 53). Negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and suicide attempt were significantly and positively associated among those with no history of VEOBPD (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.65, p < 0.05), including those with VEOMDD and VEOANX. Consistent with expectation, VEOBPD moderated the association between negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and suicide attempt (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78-0.99, p < 0.05), such that negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> were non-significantly and negatively associated with the presence of a suicide attempt (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.04-1.02, p = 0.09) among patients with a history of VEOBPD. Despite similar rates of suicide attempt among all diagnostic groups, life stress did not contribute to attempt among those with VEOBPD. These findings are consistent with the severity and chronicity of VEOBPD. Potential explanations of these findings include a scarring effect on coping skills and increased sensitization to life stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449422"><span>Dose-response modeling of <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular and cellular key <span class="hlt">events</span> in the CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geter, David R; Bhat, Virunya S; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Sura, Radhakrishna; Hester, Susan D</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Low-dose extrapolation and dose-related transitions are paramount in the ongoing debate regarding the quantification of cancer risks for nongenotoxic carcinogens. Phenobarbital (PB) is a prototypical nongenotoxic carcinogen that activates the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) resulting in rodent liver tumors. In this study, male and female CD-1 mice administered dietary PB at 0, 0.15, 1.5, 15, 75, or 150 mg/kg-day for 2 or 7 days to characterize multiple apical and molecular endpoints below, at (∼75 mg/kg-day), and above the carcinogenic dose level of PB and examine these responses using benchmark dose modeling. Linear toxicokinetics were observed for all doses. Increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and mitotic figures were seen at 75 and 150 mg/kg-day. CAR activation, based on Cyp2b qPCR and pentoxyresorufin dealkylase activity, occurred at doses ≥ 1.5 mg/kg-day. The no-observable transcriptional effect level for global gene expression was 15 mg/kg-day. At 2 days, several xenobiotic metabolism and cell protective pathways were activated at lower doses and to a greater degree in females. However, hepatocellular proliferation, quantified by bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry, was the most sensitive indicator of PB exposure with female mice more sensitive than males, contrary to sex-specific differences in sensitivity to hepatocarcinogenesis. Taken together, the identification of low-dose cellular and molecular transitions in the subtumorigenic dose range aids the understanding of <span class="hlt">early</span> key <span class="hlt">events</span> in CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701166"><span>Which <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> or current environmental and lifestyle factors influence lung function in adolescents? - results from the GINIplus & LISAplus studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luzak, Agnes; Fuertes, Elaine; Flexeder, Claudia; Standl, Marie; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Schulz, Holger</p> <p>2017-07-12</p> <p>Various factors may affect lung function at different stages in life. Since investigations that simultaneously consider several factors are rare, we examined the relative importance of <span class="hlt">early</span> life, current environmental/lifestyle factors and allergic diseases on lung function in 15-year-olds. Best subset selection was performed for linear regression models to investigate associations between 21 diverse <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> and current factors with spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF 25-75 )) in 1326 participants of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. To reduce model complexity, one model for each spirometric parameter was replicated 1000 times in random subpopulations (N = 884). Only those factors that were included in >70% of the replication models were retained in the final analysis. A higher peak weight velocity and <span class="hlt">early</span> lung infections were the <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> prevalently associated with airflow limitation and FEF 25-75 . Current environmental/lifestyle factors at age 15 years and allergic diseases that were associated with lung function were: indoor second-hand smoke exposure, vitamin D concentration, body mass index (BMI) and asthma status. Sex and height captured the majority of the explained variance (>75%), followed by BMI (≤23.7%). The variance explained by <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> was comparatively low (median: 4.8%; range: 0.2-22.4%), but these <span class="hlt">events</span> were consistently negatively associated with airway function. Although the explained variance was mainly captured by well-known factors included in lung function prediction equations, our findings indicate <span class="hlt">early</span> life and current factors that should be considered in studies on lung health among adolescents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789358"><span>Changes to open field surfaces typically used to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> hippocampal remapping <span class="hlt">elicit</span> graded exploratory responses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wells, Christine E; Krikke, Bernadet; Saunders, John; Whittington, Alex; Lever, Colin</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p>Studies show that changes in environmental context alter the spatial firing patterns ('remapping') and increase immediate <span class="hlt">early</span> gene activation in hippocampal but not subicular neurons. However, such studies rarely report co-occurring behavioural responses. We examined the behavioural effects of habituating rats to a walled open field, and then of changing the environmental context by altering wall patterns and floor colour. These kinds of cue change are known to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> spatial remapping in hippocampal regions, but not the subiculum. Relative to controls (no cue alterations), alteration of wall patterns <span class="hlt">elicited</span> significant increases in exploratory locomotion through the open field, while combined alterations of floor colour and wall patterns <span class="hlt">elicited</span> an even higher increase in exploratory locomotion. In addition, combined alterations (floor colour and wall patterns) significantly increased rearing frequency, and significantly decreased the time the rats spent immobile. These findings are relevant to how changes in environmental context affect neuronal responses in the hippocampal formation, and may aid in the development of novelty-response tasks where novelty resides in open field surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4765O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4765O"><span>Plate tectonics hiati as the cause of global glaciations: 1. <span class="hlt">Early</span> Proterozoic <span class="hlt">events</span> and the rise of oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osmaston, M. F.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Plate tectonics is the main way in which the Earth's internal heat is brought to the surface and lost, so it seems that global tectonics should not stop and start. Consequently the long-standing fact that, globally, no orogenic granitoid or greenstone U-Pb ages have been found in the 2.45--2.22 Ga interval has been attributed to defective sampling. Here I argue that this interval was indeed a prolonged hiatus in plate tectonics, being the first of two. The other, but differently caused, was in the late Proterozoic and is the topic of Part 2. The feature common to both hiati, and relevant to global glaciation, is that mid-ocean ridges (MORs) die and subside, potentially lowering sea-level by several kilometres, causing loss of atmospheric CO2 by weathering and an increase in planetary albedo. For the origin of the first hiatus we must first go back to formation of the core. The current iron-percolation model is invalidated by the fact that its corollary, the arrival of a water and siderophile-rich "late veneer" at the end of percolation, would be required to arrive some 60 Ma after the Moon, which never had a late veneer, was already in Earth orbit. The available alternative [1] would have given the <span class="hlt">early</span> Earth a wet and low-viscosity convecting mantle able to dispose of the <span class="hlt">early</span> heat with high efficiency; so that by 2.8 Ga MORs began to deepen, exposing cratons to massive weathering which lowered atmospheric CO2. The well-documented late Archaean acceleration of crustal addition to cratons, or, more precisely, of TTG-granitoid intrusion of greenstone belts, is also, paradoxically, evidence of waning mantle heat. Such wide-belt intrusion, grouped into quasi-coeval '<span class="hlt">events</span>', are examples of post-subduction magmatism (PSM), marking interruption of flat-slab subduction under a greenstone belt when a microcraton arrived [2]. On each occasion the TTG, derived from the subducted and reheated oceanic crust, advected subducting-plate heat to the surface that would</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228435"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> blood pressure lowering treatment in acute stroke. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jusufovic, Mirza; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Bath, Philip M; Berge, Eivind</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> blood pressure-lowering treatment appears to be beneficial in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage and potentially in ischaemic stroke. We used a new method for analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial to see if the effect was dependent on the timing of treatment. Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial was a randomized controlled and placebo-controlled trial of candesartan within 30 h of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Of 2029 patients, 231 (11.4%) had a vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> (vascular death, nonfatal stroke or nonfatal myocardial infarction) during the first 6 months. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score following a vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> was used to categorize vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in order of severity: no <span class="hlt">event</span> (n = 1798), minor (mRS 0-2, n = 59), moderately severe (mRS 3-4, n = 57) and major <span class="hlt">event</span> (mRS 5-6, n = 115). We used ordinal logistic regression for analysis and adjusted for predefined prognostic variables. Candesartan had no overall effect on vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (adjusted common odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.47, P = 0.48), and the effects were the same in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Among the patients treated within 6 h, the adjusted common odds ratio for vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> was 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.84, P = 0.02, and there was no heterogeneity of effect between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> showed no overall effect of candesartan in the subacute phase of stroke. The effect of treatment given within 6 h of stroke onset appears promising, and will be addressed in ongoing trials. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> is feasible and can be used in future trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599585"><span>Impact of COX2 genotype, ER status and body constitution on risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in different treatment groups of breast cancer patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rosendahl, Ann H; Gaber, Alexander; Ingvar, Christian; Rose, Carsten; Jernström, Helena</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>The COX2 rs5277 (306G>C) polymorphism has been associated with inflammation-associated cancers. In breast cancer, tumor COX-2 expression has been associated with increased estrogen levels in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and activated Akt-pathway in ER-negative tumors. Our study investigated the impact of COX2 genotypes on <span class="hlt">early</span> breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> and treatment response in relation to tumor ER status and body constitution. In Sweden, between 2002 and 2008, 634 primary breast cancer patients, aged 25-99 years, were included. Disease-free survival was assessed for 570 rs5277-genotyped patients. Body measurements and questionnaires were obtained preoperatively. Clinical data, patient- and tumor-characteristics were obtained from questionnaires, patients' charts, population registries and pathology reports. Minor allele(C) frequency was 16.1%. Genotype was not linked to COX-2 tumor expression. Median follow-up was 5.1 years. G/G genotype was not associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with ER-positive tumors, adjusted HR 0.77 (0.46-1.29), but conferred an over 4-fold increased risk in patients with ER-negative tumors, adjusted HR 4.41 (1.21-16.02)(p(interaction) = 0.015). Chemotherapy-treated G/G-carriers with a breast volume ≥ 850 ml had an increased risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> irrespective of ER status, adjusted HR 8.99 (1.14-70.89). Endocrine-treated C-allele carriers with ER-positive tumors and a breast volume ≥ 850 ml had increased risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span>, adjusted HR 2.30 (1.12-4.75). COX2 genotype, body constitution and ER status had a combined effect on the risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> and treatment response. The high risk for <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in certain subgroups of patients suggests that COX2 genotype in combination with body measurements may identify patients in need of more personalized treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4836282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4836282"><span>Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> prior to or <span class="hlt">early</span> after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics cohort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Anderson, N M; Su, J; Romero-Diaz, J; Bae, S C; Fortin, P R; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A; Bernatsky, S; Gordon, C; Hanly, J G; Wallace, D J; Isenberg, D; Rahman, A; Merrill, J; Ginzler, E; Alarcón, G S; Fessler, B F; Petri, M; Bruce, I N; Khamashta, M; Aranow, C; Dooley, M; Manzi, S; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Steinsson, K; Zoma, A; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Lim, S; Kalunian, K C; Ỉnanç, M; van Vollenhoven, R; Ramos-Casals, M; Kamen, D L; Jacobsen, S; Peschken, C; Askanase, A; Stoll, T</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To describe the frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and within the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods The systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) atherosclerosis inception cohort enters patients within 15 months of SLE diagnosis. MIs were reported and attributed on a specialised vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> form. MIs were confirmed by one or more of the following: abnormal ECG, typical or atypical symptoms with ECG abnormalities and elevated enzymes (≥2 times upper limit of normal), or abnormal stress test, echocardiogram, nuclear scan or angiogram. Descriptive statistics were used. Results 31 of 1848 patients who entered the cohort had an MI. Of those, 23 patients had an MI prior to SLE diagnosis or within the first 2 years of disease. Of the 23 patients studied, 60.9% were female, 78.3% were Caucasian, 8.7% black, 8.7% Hispanic and 4.3% other. The mean age at SLE diagnosis was 52.5±15.0 years. Of the 23 MIs that occurred, 16 MIs occurred at a mean of 6.1±7.0 years prior to diagnosis and 7 occurred within the first 2 years of follow-up. Risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> MI in univariate analysis are male sex, Caucasian, older age at diagnosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, family history of MI and smoking. In multivariate analysis only age (OR=1.06 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09), hypertension (OR=5.01, 95% CI 1.38 to 18.23), hypercholesterolaemia (OR=4.43, 95% CI 1.51 to 12.99) and smoking (OR=7.50, 95% CI 2.38 to 23.57) remained significant risk factors. Conclusions In some patients with lupus, MI may develop even before the diagnosis of SLE or shortly thereafter, suggesting that there may be a link between autoimmune inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:27099765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099765"><span>Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> prior to or <span class="hlt">early</span> after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Anderson, N M; Su, J; Romero-Diaz, J; Bae, S C; Fortin, P R; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Clarke, A; Bernatsky, S; Gordon, C; Hanly, J G; Wallace, D J; Isenberg, D; Rahman, A; Merrill, J; Ginzler, E; Alarcón, G S; Fessler, B F; Petri, M; Bruce, I N; Khamashta, M; Aranow, C; Dooley, M; Manzi, S; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Steinsson, K; Zoma, A; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Lim, S; Kalunian, K C; Ỉnanç, M; van Vollenhoven, R; Ramos-Casals, M; Kamen, D L; Jacobsen, S; Peschken, C; Askanase, A; Stoll, T</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To describe the frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and within the first 2 years of follow-up. The systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) atherosclerosis inception cohort enters patients within 15 months of SLE diagnosis. MIs were reported and attributed on a specialised vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> form. MIs were confirmed by one or more of the following: abnormal ECG, typical or atypical symptoms with ECG abnormalities and elevated enzymes (≥2 times upper limit of normal), or abnormal stress test, echocardiogram, nuclear scan or angiogram. Descriptive statistics were used. 31 of 1848 patients who entered the cohort had an MI. Of those, 23 patients had an MI prior to SLE diagnosis or within the first 2 years of disease. Of the 23 patients studied, 60.9% were female, 78.3% were Caucasian, 8.7% black, 8.7% Hispanic and 4.3% other. The mean age at SLE diagnosis was 52.5±15.0 years. Of the 23 MIs that occurred, 16 MIs occurred at a mean of 6.1±7.0 years prior to diagnosis and 7 occurred within the first 2 years of follow-up. Risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> MI in univariate analysis are male sex, Caucasian, older age at diagnosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, family history of MI and smoking. In multivariate analysis only age (OR=1.06 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09), hypertension (OR=5.01, 95% CI 1.38 to 18.23), hypercholesterolaemia (OR=4.43, 95% CI 1.51 to 12.99) and smoking (OR=7.50, 95% CI 2.38 to 23.57) remained significant risk factors. In some patients with lupus, MI may develop even before the diagnosis of SLE or shortly thereafter, suggesting that there may be a link between autoimmune inflammation and atherosclerosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+team&pg=7&id=EJ1157100','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+team&pg=7&id=EJ1157100"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Preservice Teachers' Experiences of the Environment: A Case Study of Participation in a Community Outdoor <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van Rooy, Wilhelmina</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Clean Up Australia Day is the country's largest community-based environmental annual <span class="hlt">event</span> when participants work in teams to remove rubbish from their local environment. This article describes an interpretive study in which a sample of preservice primary teachers' (n = 30) responses to questions about their involvement in the <span class="hlt">event</span> were evaluated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5646184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5646184"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum, from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian (Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian (Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325703"><span>The relation of <span class="hlt">early</span> experienced negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life <span class="hlt">event</span> among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31.1225D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31.1225D"><span>Environmental perturbations at the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene ETM2, H2, and I1 <span class="hlt">events</span> as inferred by Tethyan calcareous plankton (Terche section, northeastern Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Onofrio, Roberta; Luciani, Valeria; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Boscolo Galazzo, Flavia; Dallanave, Edoardo; Westerhold, Thomas; Sprovieri, Mario; Telch, Sonia</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene hyperthermals have been recently investigated and characterized in terms of temperature anomalies and oceanographic changes. The effects of these climatic perturbations on biotic communities are much less constrained. Here we present new records from the Terche section (northeastern Italy) that, for the first time, integrates data on planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils across three post-Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). The biomagnetostratigraphic framework generated at Terche allows us to confidently relate such CIEs to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), H2, and I1 <span class="hlt">events</span>. Each of these <span class="hlt">events</span> coincides with lithological anomalies characterized by significantly lower calcium carbonate content (marly units, MUs). We interpret these MUs as mainly linked to an effect of increased terrigenous dilution, as dissolution proxies do not display significant variations. Calcareous plankton assemblages change significantly across these <span class="hlt">events</span> and radiolarians increase. Observed changes suggest that transient warming and environmental perturbations, though more intense during ETM2, occurred during each of the three investigated perturbations. Variations among calcareous plankton suggest increase in surface-water eutrophication with respect to the pre-<span class="hlt">event</span> conditions, coupled with a weakening of the upper water-column thermal stratification. Higher nutrient discharge was related to intensification of the hydrological cycle as a consequence of the warmer climate. These conditions persisted during the <span class="hlt">early</span> CIE recovery, implying slower recovery rates for the environment and biota than for the carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028976','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028976"><span>Ostracods and facies of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Middle Frasnian at Devils Gate in Nevada: Relationship to the Alamo <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Casier, J.-G.; Berra, I.; Olempska, Ewa; Sandberg, C.; Preat, A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In order to document the Alamo <span class="hlt">Event</span> and to investigate its influence on shallow-marine environments, we undertook a study of ostracods, conodonts, and analysis of the sedimentology of the lower member of the type Devils Gate Limestone, Six major carbonate microfacies (MF1-MF6) ranging from open-marine environments below storm wave base to pre-evaporitic supratidal lagoons were recognized. The sedimentological study detected no important sedimentological changes during the Alamo <span class="hlt">Event</span>; only an influx of detrital material and lithoclasts indicate that an unusual <span class="hlt">event</span> had occurred. Ostracods are generally rare or absent in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone, and only 2,000 carapaces, valves and fragments were extracted; from these some 26 taxa were identified. Two new species, Voronina? eureka and Serenida dorsoplicata are proposed. The ostracods belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage and their distribution was influenced by strong salinity variations. Because of the rarity and low diversity of ostracods and conodonts in samples collected from the lower part of the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone it is not adequate to demonstrate conclusively an extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> close to the Alamo <span class="hlt">Event</span> Bed. Nevertheless the greater abundance and diversity of ostracods above this bed seems to indicate that the Alamo <span class="hlt">Event</span> did not result in significant extinction of ostracod taxa in this shallow water setting. The ostracod fauna present in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone suggests faunal exchanges between Nevada and the Russian Platform via the Western Canadian platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3128489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3128489"><span>The spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm as a real-time <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution <span class="hlt">events</span> at alpine karst water resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stadler, H.; Klock, E.; Skritek, P.; Mach, R.L.; Zerobin, W.; Farnleitner, A.H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during <span class="hlt">event</span> situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer <span class="hlt">events</span> (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) as a real-time <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for <span class="hlt">event</span> triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper (Stadler et al., Wat. Sci. Technol. 58(4): 899-909, 2008). Data analysis including on-line <span class="hlt">event</span> characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n > 800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied <span class="hlt">event</span> situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and <span class="hlt">event</span>-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diagnostic+AND+marker&pg=7&id=EJ956878','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=diagnostic+AND+marker&pg=7&id=EJ956878"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Left-Anterior Negativity (ELAN) in Syntax Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steinhauer, Karsten; Drury, John E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Within the framework of Friederici's (2002) neurocognitive model of sentence processing, the <span class="hlt">early</span> left anterior negativity (ELAN) in <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs) has been claimed to be a brain marker of syntactic first-pass parsing. As ELAN components seem to be exclusively <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by word category violations (phrase structure violations),…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..118T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..118T"><span>High-resolution carbon isotope records of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic) from North America and implications for the global drivers of the Toarcian carbon cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Them, T. R.; Gill, B. C.; Caruthers, A. H.; Gröcke, D. R.; Tulsky, E. T.; Martindale, R. C.; Poulton, T. P.; Smith, P. L.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The Mesozoic Era experienced several instances of abrupt environmental change that are associated with instabilities in the climate, reorganizations of the global carbon cycle, and elevated extinction rates. Often during these perturbations, oxygen-deficient conditions developed in the oceans resulting in the widespread deposition of organic-rich sediments - these <span class="hlt">events</span> are referred to as Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Events</span> or OAEs. Such <span class="hlt">events</span> have been linked to massive injections of greenhouse gases into the ocean-atmosphere system by transient episodes of voluminous volcanism and the destabilization of methane clathrates within marine environments. Nevertheless, uncertainty surrounds the specific environmental drivers and feedbacks that occurred during the OAEs that caused perturbations in the carbon cycle; this is particularly true of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic Toarcian OAE (∼183.1 Ma). Here, we present biostratigraphically constrained carbon isotope data from western North America (Alberta and British Columbia, Canada) to better assess the global extent of the carbon cycle perturbations. We identify the large negative carbon isotope excursion associated with the OAE along with high-frequency oscillations and steps within the onset of this excursion. We propose that these high-frequency carbon isotope excursions reflect changes to the global carbon cycle and also that they are related to the production and release of greenhouse gases from terrestrial environments on astronomical timescales. Furthermore, increased terrestrial methanogenesis should be considered an important climatic feedback during Ocean Anoxic <span class="hlt">Events</span> and other similar <span class="hlt">events</span> in Earth history after the proliferation of land plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286486','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286486"><span>Global Coronary Flow Reserve Associates with Adverse Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span> Independently of Luminal Angiographic Severity, and Modifies the Effect of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Revascularization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taqueti, Viviany R.; Hachamovitch, Rory; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Naya, Masanao; Foster, Courtney R.; Hainer, Jon; Dorbala, Sharmila; Blankstein, Ron; Di Carli, Marcelo F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Coronary flow reserve (CFR, an integrated measure of focal, diffuse and small vessel coronary artery disease, CAD), identifies patients at risk for cardiac death. We sought to determine the association between CFR, angiographic CAD, and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods and Results Consecutive patients (n=329) referred for invasive coronary angiography after stress testing with myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET), were followed (median 3.1 years) for cardiovascular death and heart failure admission. The extent and severity of angiographic disease was estimated using the CAD prognostic index (CADPI), and CFR measured noninvasively by PET. A modest inverse correlation was seen between CFR and CADPI (r=−0.26, p<0.0001). After adjusting for clinical risk score, ejection fraction, global ischemia, and <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization, CFR and CADPI independently associated with <span class="hlt">events</span> (hazard ratio for unit decrease in CFR, 2.02; 95%CI 1.20-3.40, p=0.008, and for 10-unit increase in CADPI, 1.17; 95%CI 1.01-1.34, p=0.032). Subjects with low CFR experienced rates of <span class="hlt">events</span> similar to that of subjects with high angiographic scores, and those with low CFR and/or high CADPI showed highest risk of <span class="hlt">events</span> (p=0.001). There was a significant interaction (p=0.039) between CFR and <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization by CABG, such that patients with low CFR who underwent CABG, but not PCI, experienced <span class="hlt">event</span> rates comparable to those with preserved CFR, independently of revascularization. Conclusions CFR associated with outcomes independently of angiographic CAD, and modified the effect of <span class="hlt">early</span> revascularization. Diffuse atherosclerosis and associated microvascular dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular death and heart failure, and impact upon the outcomes of revascularization. PMID:25400060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSAES..82..329M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSAES..82..329M"><span>High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian <span class="hlt">Event</span>. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian Paquier <span class="hlt">event</span>. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt <span class="hlt">Event</span>. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt <span class="hlt">Events</span> (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...850L..12T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...850L..12T"><span>Enrichment in r-process Elements from Multiple Distinct <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsujimoto, Takuji; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Aoki, Wako; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Shigeyama, Toshikazu</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The stellar record of elemental abundances in satellite galaxies is important to identify the origin of r-process because such a small stellar system could have hosted a single r-process <span class="hlt">event</span>, which would distinguish member stars that are formed before and after the <span class="hlt">event</span> through the evidence of a considerable difference in the abundances of r-process elements, as found in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II (Ret II). However, the limited mass of these systems prevents us from collecting information from a sufficient number of stars in individual satellites. Hence, it remains unclear whether the discovery of a remarkable r-process enrichment <span class="hlt">event</span> in Ret II explains the nature of r-process abundances or is an exception. We perform high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of r-process abundances for 12 metal-poor stars in the Draco dwarf galaxy in the metallicity range of -2.5< [{Fe}/{{H}}]< -2. We found that these stars are separated into two groups with r-process abundances differing by one order of magnitude. A group of stars with high abundances of r-process elements was formed by a single r-process <span class="hlt">event</span> that corresponds to the <span class="hlt">event</span> evidenced in Ret II. On the other hand, the low r-process abundance group was formed by another sporadic enrichment channel producing far fewer r-process elements, which is clearly identified for the first time. Accordingly, we identified two populations of stars with different r-process abundances, which are built by two r-process <span class="hlt">events</span> that enriched gases at levels that differ by more than one order of magnitude. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183856"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Recurrent Thromboembolic <span class="hlt">Event</span> and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Procopio, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict <span class="hlt">early</span> ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P =0.03) and ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P =0.0001) for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P =0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P =0.009) for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P =0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span>. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> but not of major bleedings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61009','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=61009"><span>Oligoguluronates <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> an Oxidative Burst in the Brown Algal Kelp Laminaria digitata1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Küpper, Frithjof Christian; Kloareg, Bernard; Guern, Jean; Potin, Philippe</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Oligomeric degradation products of alginate <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a respiratory and oxidative burst in the sporophytes of the kelp Laminaria digitata. The generation of activated oxygen species (AOS), O2−, and H2O2 was detected at the single cell level, using nitroblue tetrazolium precipitation and a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe, respectively. The oxidative burst involved diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive AOS-generating machinery and its amplitude depended on the type of tissue. After a first <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> plants were desensitized for about 3 h. The activity of alginate oligosaccharides was dose dependent, saturating around 40 μm. It was also structure-dependent, with homopolymeric blocks of α-1,4-l-guluronic acid, i.e. the functional analogs of oligogalacturonic blocks in pectins, being the most active signals. The perception of oligoguluronate signals resulted in a strong efflux of potassium. Pharmacological dissection of the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> preceding the emission of AOS indicated that the transduction chain of oligoguluronate signals in L. digitata is likely to feature protein kinases, phospholipase A2, as well as K+, Ca2+, and anion channels. PMID:11154336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29100795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29100795"><span>Highly relevant stimuli may passively <span class="hlt">elicit</span> processes associated with consciousness during the sleep onset period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tavakoli, Paniz; Varma, Sonia; Campbell, Kenneth</p> <p>2017-10-31</p> <p>Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34958','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34958"><span>Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization-abandonment <span class="hlt">events</span> by male Kirtland's Warblers in an <span class="hlt">early</span> succession habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Habitat colonization and abandonment affects the distribution of a species in space and time, ultimately influencing the duration of time habitat is used and the total area of habitat occupied in any given year. Both aspects have important implications to long-term conservation planning. The importance of patch isolation and area to colonization-extinction <span class="hlt">events</span> is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004QuRes..61..181M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004QuRes..61..181M"><span>Hydrological changes in the European midlatitudes associated with freshwater outbursts from Lake Agassiz during the Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">event</span> and the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magny, Michel; Bégeot, Carole</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Recent studies of lake-level fluctuations during the last deglaciation in eastern France (Jura Mountains and Pre-Alps) and on the Swiss Plateau show distinct phases of higher water level developing at the beginning and during the latter part of Greenland Stade 1 (i.e., Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">event</span>) and punctuating the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene period at 11,250-11,050, 10,300-10,000, 9550-9150, 8300-8050, and 7550-7250 cal yr B.P. The phases at 11,250-11,050 and 8300-8050 cal yr B.P. appear to be related to the cool Preboreal Oscillation and the 8200 yr <span class="hlt">event</span> assumed to be associated with deglaciation <span class="hlt">events</span>. A comparison of this mid-European lake-level record with the outbursts from proglacial Lake Agassiz in North America suggests that, between 13,000 and 8000 cal yr B.P., phases of positive water balance were the response in west-central Europe to climate cooling episodes, which were induced by perturbation of the thermohaline circulation due to sudden freshwater releases to oceans. This probably was in response to a southward migration of the Atlantic Westerly Jet and its associated cyclonic track. Moreover, it is hypothesized that, during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene, varying solar activity could have been a crucial factor by amplifying or reducing the possible effects of Lake Agassiz outbursts on the climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=concept+AND+buildings&pg=3&id=EJ1025752','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=concept+AND+buildings&pg=3&id=EJ1025752"><span>Associations of Mother-Child Reminiscing about Negative Past <span class="hlt">Events</span>, Coping, and Self-Concept in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodvin, Rebecca; Romdall, Lisa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Parent-child reminiscing conversations in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood have received theoretical attention as a forum for children's self-concept development, but this has been little addressed in empirical work. This study examines associations between emotion reminiscing and children's self-concepts and, building from the reminiscing and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25059307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25059307"><span>Effects of adverse <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span> on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We review the impact of <span class="hlt">early</span> adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse <span class="hlt">early</span>-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of <span class="hlt">early</span> adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between <span class="hlt">early</span> adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3266990','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3266990"><span>Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppresses Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Function Independent of CB1 and CB2, Disrupting <span class="hlt">Early</span> Activation <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karmaus, Peer W. F.; Chen, Weimin; Kaplan, Barbara L. F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previously, CD8+ T cells were found to be a sensitive target for suppression by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in a murine model of influenza infection. To study the effect of Δ9-THC on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), an allogeneic model of MHC I mismatch was used to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> CTL. In addition, to determine the requirement for the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) in Δ9-THC-mediated CTL response modulation, mice null for both receptors were used (CB1 −/−CB2 −/−). Δ9-THC suppressed CTL function independent of CB1 and CB2 as evidenced by reduction of 51Cr release by CTL generated from CB1 −/−CB2 −/− mice. Furthermore, viability in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner with Δ9-THC, independent of CB1 and CB2, but no effect of Δ9-THC on proliferation was observed, suggesting that Δ9-THC decreases the number of T cells initially activated. Δ9-THC increased expression of the activation markers, CD69 in CD8+ cells and CD25 in CD4+ cells in a concentration-dependent manner in cells derived from WT and CB1 −/−CB2 −/− mice. Furthermore, Δ9-THC synergized with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, to increase CD69 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In addition, without stimulation, Δ9-THC increased CD69 expression in CD8+ cells from CB1 −/−CB2 −/− and WT mice. Overall, these results suggest that CB1 and CB2 are dispensable for Δ9-THC-mediated suppression and that perturbation of Ca2+ signals during Tcell activation plays an important role in the mechanism by which Δ9-THC suppresses CTL function. PMID:21789506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30..332A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30..332A"><span>Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> (Mi-<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Finally, the Mi-<span class="hlt">events</span> can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974900','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974900"><span>Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> (Mi‐<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM‐<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high‐resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long‐term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Finally, the Mi‐<span class="hlt">events</span> can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton‐rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section. PMID:27546980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116082','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116082"><span>Rumination as a Mechanism Linking Stressful Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> to Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Longitudinal Evidence in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescents and Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Michl, Louisa C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span>, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life <span class="hlt">events</span> and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. PMID:23713497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3637897','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3637897"><span>Endotoxin <span class="hlt">elicits</span> ambivalent social behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yee, Jason R.; Prendergast, Brian J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary The acute phase response to infection is reliably accompanied by decreases in social investigation; however, social behavior is commonly assayed in inescapable environments using unfamiliar social stimuli. In this experiment, male Wistar rats were raised from weaning with 2 familiar, same-sex conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices that permitted localization in space, and were challenged with LPS treatments (150 mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel, semi-natural arena which afforded the treated (Focal) animal exclusive control of social exposure, and the ability to avoid social interactions. LPS reliably <span class="hlt">elicited</span> thermoregulatory responses (transient hypothermia and fever) during the scotophase following injection, but did not yield changes in the proportion of time spent engaged in social interactions: both LPS- and saline-treated rats spent approximately 10% of the night with their familiar cagemates. Injection treatments markedly altered the spatial distribution of activity: LPS-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the amount of time spent as far as possible from their cagemates. The data suggest that sickness responses to LPS may give rise to a transient state of social ambivalence—characterized by a persistent motivation to engage in social contact, but also by increased avoidance of social environments. Selective maintenance of social motivation illustrates plasticity in the expression of sickness behaviors and may be adaptive in social species. PMID:22172640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.658...74M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.658...74M"><span>Liquefaction features at an archaeological site: Investigations of past earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span> at the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Christian Basilica, Ancient Lechaion Harbour, Corinth, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minos-Minopoulos, Despina; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Apostolopoulos, George; Lekkas, Efthymis; Dominey-Howes, Dale</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A synthesis of investigations carried out at the archaeological site of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Christian Basilica, located in the ancient harbour of Lechaion, Corinth, Greece in order to study the origin and triggering mechanism of deformation structures observed on the temple floor, is presented. These surface structures are indicative of earthquake induced ground liquefaction and their relationship with the subsurface soil stratigraphy and structure is examined. Investigations of stratigraphic data from archaeological excavations conducted from 1956 to 1965 provide indications of artificial fill deposits overlying a sandy-gravelly substratum. Geophysical survey of EM, GPR and ERT provided further information regarding the substratum properties/stratigraphy of the site indicating subsurface fissures and lateral spreading trends that are in agreement with the surface deformation structures. Lithostratigraphic data obtained from four vibracores drilled in the southern aisle of the temple, suggest estuarine deposits of coarse sand to fine gravel with grain size properties indicative of layers with high liquefaction potential. The results of the study, suggest at least three seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> that induced ground liquefaction at the site. The first <span class="hlt">event</span> pre-dates the construction of the Basilica, when Lechaion harbour was in operation. The second <span class="hlt">event</span> post-dates the construction of the Basilica potentially corresponding to the regionally damaging A.D. 524 earthquake, followed by the third <span class="hlt">event</span>, that commensurate with the A.D. 551 earthquake and the destruction of the temple.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726811"><span>Adjuvanted influenza-H1N1 vaccination reveals lymphoid signatures of age-dependent <span class="hlt">early</span> responses and of clinical adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobolev, Olga; Binda, Elisa; O'Farrell, Sean; Lorenc, Anna; Pradines, Joel; Huang, Yongqing; Duffner, Jay; Schulz, Reiner; Cason, John; Zambon, Maria; Malim, Michael H; Peakman, Mark; Cope, Andrew; Capila, Ishan; Kaundinya, Ganesh V; Hayday, Adrian C</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Adjuvanted vaccines afford invaluable protection against disease, and the molecular and cellular changes they induce offer direct insight into human immunobiology. Here we show that within 24 h of receiving adjuvanted swine flu vaccine, healthy individuals made expansive, complex molecular and cellular responses that included overt lymphoid as well as myeloid contributions. Unexpectedly, this <span class="hlt">early</span> response was subtly but significantly different in people older than ∼35 years. Wide-ranging adverse clinical <span class="hlt">events</span> can seriously confound vaccine adoption, but whether there are immunological correlates of these is unknown. Here we identify a molecular signature of adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> that was commonly associated with an existing B cell phenotype. Thus immunophenotypic variation among healthy humans may be manifest in complex pathophysiological responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011957','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011957"><span>High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary <span class="hlt">events</span> determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure <span class="hlt">events</span> across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T <span class="hlt">event</span>, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=48668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=48668"><span>Accumulation of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNA is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in maize embryo cell differentiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Avila, L; Burgess, S R; Stiefel, V; Ludevid, M D; Puigdomènech, P</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The accumulation of the mRNA coding for a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP), an abundant component of the wall from the cells of vegetative tissues, has been observed in maize embryo by in situ hybridization. The HRGP mRNA accumulates in the embryo axis and not in the scutellum and preferentially in dividing and provascular cells. The histone H4 mRNA is distributed in similar tissues but is restricted to defined groups of cells, indicating that these two gene products have a different steady-state level of accumulation during the cell cycle. The HRGP mRNA appears to be a useful marker for <span class="hlt">early</span> formation of the vascular systems. The mRNA accumulation correlates in space and time with cells having a low content of cellulose in their walls, suggesting that the mRNA is produced in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of cell wall formation before complete deposition of cellulose. Images PMID:1549604</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001940','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001940"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Solar System Alkali Fractionation <span class="hlt">Events</span> Recorded by K-Ca Isotopes in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tatsunori, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiogenic ingrowth of Ca-40 due to decay of K-40 occurred <span class="hlt">early</span> in the solar system history causing the Ca-40 abundance to vary within different <span class="hlt">early</span>-former reservoirs. Marshall and DePaolo ] demonstrated that the K-40/Ca-40 decay system could be a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [3,4] determined 40K/40Ca ages of lunar granitic rock fragments and discussed the chemical characteristics of their source materials. Recently, Yokoyama et al. [5] showed the application of the K-40/Ca-40 chronometer for high K/Ca materials in ordinary chondrites (OCs). High-precision calcium isotopic data are needed to constrain mixing processes among <span class="hlt">early</span> solar system materials and the time of planetesimal formation. To better constrain the solar system calcium isotopic compositions among astromaterials, we have determined the calcium isotopic compositions of OCs and an angrite. We further estimated a source K/Ca ratio for alkali-rich fragments in a chondritic breccia using the estimated solar system initial Ca-40/Ca-44.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140465"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on <span class="hlt">early</span> to late <span class="hlt">events</span> in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The <span class="hlt">early</span> neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most <span class="hlt">early</span> transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073956"><span>The effect of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies on the incidence of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in a large inception cohort of <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory arthritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barra, Lillian J; Pope, Janet E; Hitchon, Carol; Boire, Gilles; Schieir, Orit; Lin, Daming; Thorne, Carter J; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Haraoui, Boulos; Jamal, Shahin; Bykerk, Vivian P</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>. RA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (CVEs). The objective was to estimate independent effects of RA autoantibodies on the incident CVEs in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA. Patients were enrolled in the Canadian <span class="hlt">Early</span> Inflammatory Arthritis Cohort, a prospective multicentre inception cohort. Incident CVEs, including acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>, were self-reported by the patient and partially validated by medical chart review. Seropositive status was defined as either RF or ACPA positive. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of seropositive status on incident CVEs, controlling for RA clinical variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. . A total of 2626 patients were included: the mean symptom duration at diagnosis was 6.3 months ( s . d . 4.6), the mean age was 53 years ( s . d . 15), 72% were female and 86% met classification criteria for RA. Forty-six incident CVEs occurred over 6483 person-years [incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.3, 9.4)]. The CVE rate did not differ in seropositive vs seronegative subjects and seropositivity was not associated with incident CVEs in multivariable Cox regression models. Baseline covariates independently associated with incident CVEs were older age, a history of hypertension and a longer duration of RA symptoms prior to diagnosis. The rate of CVEs <span class="hlt">early</span> in the course of inflammatory arthritis was low; however, delays in the diagnosis of arthritis increased the rate of CVEs. Hypertension was the strongest independent risk factor for CVEs. Results support <span class="hlt">early</span> aggressive management of RA disease activity and co-morbidities to prevent severe complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3227586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3227586"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Xenograft Development from the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line HS181 - Resemblance with an Initial Multiple Epiblast Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P.; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ährlund-Richter, Lars</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on <span class="hlt">early</span> to late <span class="hlt">events</span> in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The <span class="hlt">early</span> neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most <span class="hlt">early</span> transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart. PMID:22140465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2832704','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2832704"><span>Microarrays Reveal <span class="hlt">Early</span> Transcriptional <span class="hlt">Events</span> during the Termination of Larval Diapause in Natural Populations of the Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Emerson, Kevin J.; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The mosquito Wyeomyia smithii overwinters in a larval diapause that is initiated, maintained and terminated by day length (photoperiod). We use a forward genetic approach to investigate transcriptional <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in the termination of diapause following exposure to long-days. Methods/Principal Findings We incorporate a novel approach that compares two populations that differentially respond to a single day length. We identify 30 transcripts associated with differential response to day length. Most genes with a previously annotated function are consistent with their playing a role in the termination of diapause, in downstream developmental <span class="hlt">events</span>, or in the transition from potentially oxygen-poor to oxygen-rich environments. One gene emerges from three separate forward genetic screens as a leading candidate for a gene contributing to the photoperiodic timing mechanism itself (photoperiodic switch). We name this gene photoperiodic response gene 1 (ppdrg1). WsPpdrg1 is up-regulated under long-day response conditions, is located under a QTL for critical photoperiod and is associated with critical photoperiod after 25 generations of recombination from a cross between extreme phenotypes. Conclusions Three independent forward genetic approaches identify WsPpdrg1 as a gene either involved in the photoperiodic switch mechanism or very tightly linked to a gene that is. We conclude that continued forward genetic approaches will be central to understanding not only the molecular basis of photoperiodism and diapause, but also the evolutionary potential of temperate and polar animal populations when confronted with rapid climate change. PMID:20221437</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380093"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> probabilistic expectations: Collaborations between psychologists and economists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruine de Bruin, Wändi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We describe two collaborations in which psychologists and economists provided essential support on foundational projects in major research programs. One project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> adolescents’ expectations regarding significant future life <span class="hlt">events</span> affecting their psychological and economic development. The second project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> consumers’ expectations regarding inflation, a potentially vital input to their investment, saving, and purchasing decisions. In each project, we sought questions with the precision needed for economic modeling and the simplicity needed for lay respondents. We identify four conditions that, we believe, promoted our ability to sustain these transdisciplinary collaborations and coproduce the research: (i) having a shared research goal, which neither discipline could achieve on its own; (ii) finding common ground in shared methodology, which met each discipline’s essential evidentiary conditions, but without insisting on its culturally acquired tastes; (iii) sharing the effort throughout, with common language and sense of ownership; and (iv) gaining mutual benefit from both the research process and its products. PMID:28270610</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460020"><span>Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different <span class="hlt">Events</span> during <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G.; de-la-Rua, Concepcion</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. PMID:26053041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2671352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2671352"><span>Alterations in Fatty Acid Utilization and an Impaired Antioxidant Defense Mechanism Are <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Podocyte Injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mayrhofer, Corina; Krieger, Sigurd; Huttary, Nicole; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Grillari, Johannes; Allmaier, Günter; Kerjaschki, Dontscho</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Ultrastructural alterations of podocytes are closely associated with loss of glomerular filtration function. In the present study, we explored changes at the proteome level that paralleled the disturbances of podocyte architecture in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of puromycin aminonucleoside (PA) nephrosis in vivo. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry combined with postsource decay fragment ion analysis and high- energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, 23 differentially expressed protein spots, corresponding to 16 glomerular proteins that are involved in various cellular functions, were unambiguously identified, and a subset was corroborated by Western blot analysis. The majority of these proteins were primarily related to fatty acid metabolism and redox regulation. Key enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway and antioxidant enzymes were consistently down-regulated in PA nephrosis. These changes were paralleled by increased expression levels of CD36. PA treatment of murine podocytes in culture resembled these specific protein changes in vitro. In this cell system, the modulatory effects of albumin-bound fatty acids on the expression levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase in response to PA were demonstrated as well. Taken together, these results indicate that a disrupted fatty acid metabolism in concert with an impaired antioxidant defense mechanism in podocytes may play a role in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of PA-induced lesions in podocytes. PMID:19264907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECUF1007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECUF1007L"><span>The influence of the air plasma jet on <span class="hlt">early</span> adherent <span class="hlt">events</span> of L929 fibroblasts on cell culture polystyrene plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Recently, atmospheric pressure plasma was applied to biological field. The aim of this study was to identify whether the air plasma jet increases fibroblast <span class="hlt">early</span> attachment under moving motion on the cell culture polystyrene plate. Polystyrene plate was treated with plasma jet using compressed air. After 2 minutes of treatment, L929 was seeded on polystyrene plate as well as on untreated plate. Cells were allowed to attach for 4 hours under 70 RPM. FE-SEM, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR were used to evaluate characters of cells. The results suggested that plasma treatment on the polystyrene plate altered surface energy without change of roughness. In occasion of treatment plate, attached L292 were significantly found but not found on untreated surface. Also, despite the small area of treated center by the flame of the plasma jet, cells were also attached on round surface of the area covered by the flame, which suggests that the effect was not only due to the jet flame but perhaps due to the jet interacting with surrounding atmosphere. In the light of this study, the air plasma jet could be useful for <span class="hlt">early</span> attachment of L292 on the polystyrene plate under moving motion and can be applied to biomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124123"><span>Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> after acute coronary syndromes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chow, Clara K; Jolly, Sanjit; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Fox, Keith A A; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim</p> <p>2010-02-16</p> <p>Although preventive drug therapy is a priority after acute coronary syndrome, less is known about adherence to behavioral recommendations. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adherence to behavioral recommendations in the short term on risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. The study population included 18 809 patients from 41 countries enrolled in the Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) 5 randomized clinical trial. At the 30-day follow-up, patients reported adherence to diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality were documented to 6 months. About one third of smokers persisted in smoking. Adherence to neither diet nor exercise recommendations was reported by 28.5%, adherence to either diet or exercise by 41.6%, and adherence to both by 29.9%. In contrast, 96.1% of subjects reported antiplatelet use, 78.9% reported statin use, and 72.4% reported angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use. Quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with persistent smoking (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.89). Diet and exercise adherence was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonadherence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.69). Patients who reported persistent smoking and nonadherence to diet and exercise had a 3.8-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 5.9) increased risk of myocardial infarction/stroke/death compared with never smokers who modified diet and exercise. Adherence to behavioral advice (diet, exercise, and smoking cessation) after acute coronary syndrome was associated with a substantially lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. These findings suggest that behavioral modification should be given priority similar to other preventive medications immediately after acute coronary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164422"><span>Wedelolactone mitigates UVB induced oxidative stress, inflammation and <span class="hlt">early</span> tumor promotion <span class="hlt">events</span> in murine skin: plausible role of NFkB pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Farrah; Khan, Bilal Azhar; Sultana, Sarwat</p> <p>2016-09-05</p> <p>UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting <span class="hlt">events</span>. We have designed this study to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promotion effect of Wedelolactone (WDL) a specific IKK inhibitor. Results indicate significant restoration of anti-oxidative enzymes due to WDL treatments. We also found that WDL was effective in mitigating inflammatory markers consisting of MPO (myeloperoxidase), Mast cells trafficking, Langerhans cells suppression and COX 2 expression up regulation due to UVB exposure. We also deduce that WDL presented a promising intervention in attenuating <span class="hlt">early</span> tumor promotion <span class="hlt">events</span> caused by UVB exposure as indicated by the results of ODC (Ornithine Decarboxylase), Thymidine assay, Vimentin and VEGF (Vascular-endothelial growth factor) expression. This study was able to provide substantial cues for the therapeutic ability of Wedelolactone against inflammatory and tumor promoting <span class="hlt">events</span> in murine skin depicting plausible role of NFkB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134829"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Healing <span class="hlt">Events</span> after Periodontal Surgery: Observations on Soft Tissue Healing, Microcirculation, and Wound Fluid Cytokine Levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton</p> <p>2017-01-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343819','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343819"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Healing <span class="hlt">Events</span> after Periodontal Surgery: Observations on Soft Tissue Healing, Microcirculation, and Wound Fluid Cytokine Levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap. PMID:28134829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619637W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619637W"><span>Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded <span class="hlt">Early</span> Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic <span class="hlt">Events</span> under Chilling Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic <span class="hlt">events</span> of direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice in double rice cropping system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22435086-mutations-altering-gammaretrovirus-endoproteolytic-motif-affect-glycosylation-envelope-glycoprotein-early-events-virus-life-cycle','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22435086-mutations-altering-gammaretrovirus-endoproteolytic-motif-affect-glycosylation-envelope-glycoprotein-early-events-virus-life-cycle"><span>Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of the virus life cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectorsmore » with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding <span class="hlt">events</span> of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23818314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23818314"><span>The changing dielectric properties of CHO cells can be used to determine <span class="hlt">early</span> apoptotic <span class="hlt">events</span> in a bioprocess.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braasch, Katrin; Nikolic-Jaric, Marija; Cabel, Tim; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Greg E; Thomson, Doug J; Butler, Michael</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>To ensure maximum productivity of recombinant proteins it is desirable to prolong cell viability during a mammalian cell bioprocess, and therefore important to carefully monitor cell density and viability. In this study, five different and independent methods of monitoring were applied to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown in a batch culture in a controlled bioreactor to determine cell density and/or cell viability. They included: a particle counter, trypan blue exclusion (Cedex), an in situ bulk capacitance probe, an off-line fluorescent flow cytometer, and a prototype dielectrophoretic (DEP) cytometer. These various techniques gave similar values during the exponential growth phase. However, beyond the exponential growth phase the viability measurements diverged. Fluorescent flow cytometry with a range of fluorescent markers was used to investigate this divergence and to establish the progress of cell apoptosis: the cell density estimates by the intermediate stage apoptosis assay agreed with those obtained by the bulk capacitance probe and the <span class="hlt">early</span> stage apoptosis assay viability measurements correlated well with the DEP cytometer. The trypan blue assay showed higher estimates of viable cell density and viability compared to the capacitance probe or the DEP cytometer. The DEP cytometer measures the dielectric properties of individual cells and identified at least two populations of cells, each with a distinct polarizability. As verified by comparison with the Nexin assay, one population was associated with viable (non-apoptotic) cells and the other with apoptotic cells. From the end of the exponential through the stationary and decline stages there was a gradual shift of cell count from the viable into the apoptotic population. However, the two populations maintained their individual dielectric properties throughout this shift. This leads to the conclusion that changes in bulk dielectric properties of cultures might be better modeled as shifts in cells</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23404084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23404084"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of overused supraspinatus tendons involve matrix metalloproteinases and EMMPRIN/CD147 in the absence of inflammation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attia, Mohamed; Huet, Eric; Gossard, Camille; Menashi, Suzanne; Tassoni, Marie-Claude; Martelly, Isabelle</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The principal feature of tendon degeneration is structural change of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagens. In painful tendons, alterations of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been described; however, the initial molecular mechanism at the origin of these alterations is still poorly understood. A rat model of supraspinatus tendon overuse has been developed, which may be predictive of pathological tendon alterations. To determine which MMPs are involved in <span class="hlt">early</span> ECM remodeling during overuse and their relationship with the inflammatory context. Controlled laboratory study. Analyses were performed on rat supraspinatus tendons at 2 and 4 weeks of overuse on a downhill treadmill. Transcript levels of MMPs and TIMPs were assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting and/or immunolabeling were used for MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-13, and extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN, also called cluster of differentiation [CD] 147) detection. In situ and/or sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gelatin zymography was performed for MMP-2 and MMP-9. TIMP activity was revealed by reverse zymography. Inflammation was assessed by cytokine antibody array and/or immunolabeling. Compared with a control, overused supraspinatus tendons showed a significantly higher gelatinolytic activity at 2 weeks, which slightly decreased at 4 weeks. MMP-9 and MMP-13 were undetectable; MMP-3 was downregulated in overused tendons. Only MMP-2, particularly its active form, and the MMP-2 activator MMP-14 were upregulated at 2 weeks of overuse when an increase in TIMP-2 transcripts was observed. MMP-2 upregulation occurred in the absence of inflammation but was associated with an increase of EMMPRIN/CD147. EMMPRIN/CD147-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-14, associated with low MMP-3, appear as the main characteristics of ECM remodeling in <span class="hlt">early</span> overused tendons. Whether alterations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...131..158M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...131..158M"><span>Astrochronology of the Valanginian-Hauterivian stages (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous): Chronological relationships between the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province and the Weissert and the Faraoni <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Riquier, Laurent; Company, Miguel; Reboulet, Stéphane; Moiroud, Mathieu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Geological Time Scale shows large uncertainties on durations and ages of Berriasian to Albian stages (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous), which impact climate and paleoceanographic reconstructions. Here, we provide a new astrochronology of the Hauterivian Stage anchored on (1) recent biostratigraphically well-constrained published radio-isotopic dates, and (2) a previously published astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage. A new duration of the Hauterivian Stage is assessed here at 5.93 ± 0.41 myr. The retained age model, anchored on a latest CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb age from a tuff level in the Hauterivian of the Neuquén Basin (Argentina), dates the base of the Valanginian Stage at - 137.05 ± 1.0 Ma, the base of the Hauterivian Stage at - 131.96 ± 1.0 Ma, and the top of the Hauterivian Stage at - 126.02 ± 1.0 Ma. In addition, the onset of the mid-Valanginian Weissert <span class="hlt">Event</span> is dated at - 135.22 ± 1.0 Ma and the onset of the Faraoni <span class="hlt">Event</span> at - 126.73 ± 1.0 Ma. The duration of the mid-Valanginian carbon-isotope excursion, associated to the Weissert <span class="hlt">Event</span>, is assessed at 5.85 myr, with a rapid phase of increasing δ13C values (0.60 myr), a phase of stable δ13C values (1.48 myr), and smooth decrease in δ13C values (3.77 myr). The calibration provided here highlights that the onset of the activity of the Paraná-Etendeka province and the start of the Weissert <span class="hlt">Event</span> coincided, suggesting that the Paraná-Etendeka province may have played a major role on the climatic and oceanographic changes during the mid-Valanginian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26377828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26377828"><span>High-Throughput Tag-Sequencing Analysis of <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> Induced by Ochratoxin A in HepG-2 Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Qi, Xiaozhe; Zheng, Juanjuan; Luo, YunBo; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by fungi of the species Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA has displayed hepatotoxicity in mammals. Although recent studies have indicated that OTA influences liver function, little is known regarding its impact on differential <span class="hlt">early</span> liver toxicity. In this study, we report high-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis of the transcriptome using Solexa Analyzer platform after 4 h of OTA treatment on HepG-2 cells. The analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed the substantial changes. A total of 21,449 genes were identified and quantified, with 2726 displaying significantly altered expression levels. Expression level data were then integrated with a network of gene-gene interactions, and biological pathways to obtain a systems-level view of changes in the transcriptome that occur with OTA resistance. Our data suggest that OTA exposure leads to an imbalance in zinc finger expression and shed light on splicing factor and mitochondrial-based mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697380"><span>Putative alternative polyadenylation (APA) <span class="hlt">events</span> in the <span class="hlt">early</span> interaction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afonso-Grunz, Fabian</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The immune response of epithelial cells upon infection is mediated by changing activity levels of a variety of proteins along with changes in mRNA, and also ncRNA abundance. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) represents a mechanism that diversifies gene expression similar to alternative splicing. T-cell activation, neuronal activity, development and several human diseases including viral infections involve APA, but at present it remains unclear if this mechanism is also implicated in the response to bacterial infections. Our recently published study of interacting Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and human host cells includes genome-wide expression profiles of human epithelial cells prior and subsequent to infection with the invasive pathogen. The generated dataset (GEO accession number: GSE61730) covers several points of time post infection, and one of these interaction stages was additionally profiled with MACE-based dual 3'Seq, which allows for identification of polyadenylation (PA) sites. The present study features the polyadenylation landscape in <span class="hlt">early</span> interacting cells based on this data, and provides a comparison of the identified PA sites with those of a corresponding 3P-Seq dataset of non-interacting cells. Differential PA site usage of FTL, PRDX1 and VAPA results in transcription of mRNA isoforms with distinct sets of miRNA and protein binding sites that influence processing, localization, stability, and translation of the respective mRNA. APA of these candidate genes consequently harbors the potential to modulate the host cell response to bacterial infection.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26979456"><span>Biomarkers Provide Clues to <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Pathogenesis of Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kadin, Marshall E; Deva, Anand; Xu, Haiying; Morgan, John; Khare, Pranay; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Van Natta, Bruce W; Adams, William P; Brody, Garry S; Epstein, Alan L</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Almost 200 women worldwide have been diagnosed with breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The unique location and specific lymphoma type strongly suggest an etio-pathologic link between breast implants and BIA-ALCL. It is postulated that chronic inflammation via bacterial infection may be an etiological factor. BIA-ALCL resembles primary cutaneous ALCL (pcALCL) in morphology, activated T-cell phenotype, and indolent clinical course. Gene expression array analysis, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to study pcALCL and BIA-ALCL cell lines. Clinical samples were also studied to characterize transcription factor and cytokine profiles of tumor cells and surrounding lymphocytes. BIA-ALCL and pcALCL were found to have common expression of transcription factors SOCS3, JunB, SATB1, and a cytokine profile suggestive of a Th1 phenotype. Similar patterns were observed in a CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patterns of cytokine and transcription factor expression suggest that BIA-ALCL is likely to arise from chronic bacterial antigen stimulation of T-cells. Further analysis of cytokine and transcription factor profiles may allow <span class="hlt">early</span> detection and treatment of BIA-ALCL leading to better prognosis and survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999740"><span>Language facilitates <span class="hlt">event</span> memory in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.481..162I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.481..162I"><span>Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2416449','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2416449"><span>18-month occurrence of severe <span class="hlt">events</span> among <span class="hlt">early</span> diagnosed HIV-infected children before antiretroviral therapy in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: A cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harambat, Jérôme; Fassinou, Patricia; Becquet, Renaud; Touré, Pety; Rouet, François; Dabis, François; Msellati, Philippe; Blanche, Stéphane; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Salamon, Roger; Leroy, Valériane</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objective To assess the 18-month field effectiveness on severe <span class="hlt">events</span> of a pediatric package combining <span class="hlt">early</span> HIV-diagnosis and targeted cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children from age six-week before the antiretroviral era, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Data from two consecutive prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission programs were compared: the ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame-Plus cohort (2001–2005) and the pooled data of the ANRS 049a Ditrame randomized trial and its following open-labeled cohort (1995–2000), used as a reference group. HIV-infected pregnant women ≥ 32–36 weeks of gestation were offered a short-course peri-partum antiretroviral prophylaxis (ZDV in Ditrame, and ZDV ± 3TC+single-dose (sd) NVP in Ditrame-Plus). Neonatal prophylaxis was provided in Ditrame-Plus only: 7-day ZDV and sdNVP 48–72 h after birth. A 6-week pediatric HIV-RNA diagnosis was provided on-line in the Ditrame-Plus while it was only oriented on clinical symptoms in Ditrame. Six-week HIV-infected children received a daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ditrame-Plus while no prophylaxis was provided in Ditrame. The determinants of severe <span class="hlt">events</span> (death or hospitalization > 1 day) were assessed in a Cox regression model. Results Between 1995 and 2003, 98 out of the 1121 live-births were diagnosed as HIV-infected in peri-partum: 45 from Ditrame-Plus and 53 from Ditrame. The 18-month Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability of presenting a severe <span class="hlt">event</span> was 66% in Ditrame-Plus (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 50%–81%) and 77% in Ditrame (95%CI: 65%–89%), Log Rank test: p = 0.47. After adjustment on maternal WHO clinical stage, maternal death, 6-week pediatric viral load, birth-weight, and breastfeeding exposure, the 18-month risk of severe <span class="hlt">event</span> was lower in Ditrame-Plus than in Ditrame (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 0.55, 95%CI: 0.3–1.1), although the difference was not statistically significant; p = 0.07). Maternal death was the only variable determinant of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8738C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8738C"><span>How did the planktonic foraminifera respond to the extreme environmental stress induced by the Selli (OAE1a, late <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian) and Bonarelli (OAE2, latest Cenomanian) <span class="hlt">events</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coccioni, C.; Luciani, L.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Planktonic foraminifera, which are greatly sensitive to chemical-physical parameters and readily preserved, can record evidence of environmental stresses through time. The investigation of the two major episodes of Corg-rich black shales of the Cretaceous Period, namely the Selli (late <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian) and Bonarelli (latest Cenomanian) Levels and their equivalents corresponding to the global Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Events</span> OAE1a and OAE2, gives the opportunity to clarify how the planktonic foraminifera responded to the development of extremely stressful environmental conditions. The record of planktonic foraminiferal distribution and assemblage composition across the Selli and Bonarelli Levels and their equivalents was provided by several sections surveyed in detail in Italy (Umbria-Marche Appenines as type-area, Southern Alps, Gargano Promontory, Sicily), SE Spain, SE France, SE England, Tunisia, and Morocco. When progressive, rapid deterioration of the environmental conditions developed, reaching the climax in coincidence of the Selli and Bonarelli <span class="hlt">Events</span>, some species and genera responded by showing a preference for the new conditions, others by showing varying levels of tolerance or intolerance. These kinds of behaviour are reflected in the shifting patterns of species diversity, dominance, abundance, and size that extend well outside the established limits of variability. Some discrete acmes and crises have been identified. New species and genera appeared and previous existing species and genera underwent serious loss and even extinction. In addition, morphological and coiling ratio changes occurred together with the increase in abundance of specimens bearing test abnormalities. The first taxa to disappear were the more specialized ones, and the survivors were the generalists with greater tolerance to environmental stress. Similarly, the forms proliferating across the critical intervals and the first colonizers were opportunists, typically very small in size. Based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tecto..36..615L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tecto..36..615L"><span>Tectonic significance and geodynamic processes of large-scale <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous granitoid magmatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in the southern Great Xing'an Range, North China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wang, Tao; Wilde, Simon A.; Chu, Mei-Fei; Guo, Qian-Qian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The origin and geodynamic evolution of peak <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous magmatism in the southern Great Xing'an Range, North China, have long been controversial. Here we report new U-Pb zircon ages (141-129 Ma) of a suite of dioritic-granitic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, far from the sutures or plate boundaries of the Paleo-Pacific and Mongol-Okhotsk oceans, thus delineating an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous intracontinental magmatic province, which had a peak activity at 130-120 Ma. Dioritic suite including diorite, tonalite, and granodiorite shows variable zircon ɛHf(t) of +1.4 to + 11.8 and δ18O values of +5.7 to +6.9‰, while granitic suite consisting of monzogranite, syenogranite, and granite porphyry also records variable zircon ɛHf(t) of -0.9 to +15.0 and δ18O values of +6.3 to +8.1‰, suggesting crustal melting by preexisting crustal source with important recycled supracrustal components including fluids. Furthermore, these rocks show variable whole-rock δ7Li values (-0.6 to +12.1‰), indicating fluids played an important role in magma source. We propose a deep-sourced water-fluxed melting scenario by ancient hydrous slabs inherited from the Paleo-Asian Ocean that were trapped in the deep interior, thus releasing aqueous fluids to melt the lithospheric mantle and produce water-rich mafic magmas. These mafic magmas were underplated into crust where they promoted water-fluxed partial melting to generate the large-scale <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous magmatism in the southern Great Xing'an Range. Such melting due to fluxing of aqueous fluids was probably operating as a widespread process responsible for the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous dramatically tectonomagmatic <span class="hlt">events</span> and evolution of continental crust in NE Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21140919','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21140919"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. <span class="hlt">Early</span> intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF{alpha}) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face{sup TM} and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO{sub 4}, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916788','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916788"><span>Exogenous γ-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Application Improved <span class="hlt">Early</span> Growth, Net Photosynthesis, and Associated Physio-Biochemical <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Maize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Wu; Liu, Jianhua; Ashraf, Umair; Li, Gaoke; Li, Yuliang; Lu, Wenjia; Gao, Lei; Han, Fuguang; Hu, Jianguang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous signaling molecule and involved in growth regulations and plant development, however, a little information is available on the consequences of exogenous GABA application on growth, development, and associated physio-biochemical processes in maize. The present study examined the GABA-induced regulations in <span class="hlt">early</span> growth, net photosynthetic rate, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and enzymatic activities in three maize cultivars, i.e., Yuecainuo 6, Zhengtian 68, and Yuecainuo 2. Two levels of GABA, i.e., 0 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1, in solution form, with total application volume of 100 ml per pot containing 15 maize seedlings were exogenously applied. Results revealed that exogenous GABA application improved seedling growth in terms of seedling length and biomass accumulation in all maize cultivars at both 3 and 7 days after treatment (DAT). It also promoted net photosynthesis and variably affected gas exchange attributes, i.e., stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr), as well as leaves SPAD value. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation [in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA)] under GABA treated maize seedlings were also remained variable; however, osmolyte accumulation (protein and proline) and activities of anti-oxidants enzymes, i.e., super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase were also affected differently at both 3 and 7 DAT in all maize cultivars. Furthermore, enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, e.g., nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase were improved. These results suggest the involvement of GABA in various physio-metablical mechanisms which might lead to improvement in morphological growth of maize. In future, research is still needed at molecular and genetic levels to unravel the involvement of GABA-mediated regulations in growth and its associated physio-biochemical mechanisms. PMID:27446149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525728"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking-induced reprogramming of airway epithelial basal progenitor cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaykhiev, Renat; Crystal, Ronald G</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The airway epithelium is the primary site of the earliest pathologic changes induced by smoking, contributing to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The normal human airway epithelium is composed of several major cell types, including differentiated ciliated and secretory cells, intermediate undifferentiated cells, and basal cells (BC). BC contain the stem/progenitor cell population responsible for maintenance of the normally differentiated airway epithelium. Although inflammatory and immune processes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of COPD, the earliest lesions include hyperplasia of the BC population, suggesting that the disease may start with this cell type. Apart from BC hyperplasia, smoking induces a number of COPD-relevant airway epithelial remodeling phenotypes that are likely initiated in the BC population, including mucous cell hyperplasia, squamous cell metaplasia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, altered ciliated and nonmucous secretory cell differentiation, and suppression of junctional barrier integrity. Significant progress has been recently made in understanding the biology of human airway BC, including gene expression features, stem/progenitor, and other functions, including interaction with other airway cell types. Accumulating evidence suggests that human airway BC function as both sensors and cellular sources of various cytokines and growth factors relevant to smoking-associated airway injury, as well as the origin of various molecular and histological phenotypes relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD. In the context of these considerations, we suggest that <span class="hlt">early</span> BC-specific smoking-induced molecular changes are critical to the pathogenesis of COPD, and these represent a candidate target for novel therapeutic approaches to prevent COPD progression in susceptible individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21140919-characterization-early-events-involved-human-dendritic-cell-maturation-induced-sensitizers-cross-talk-between-mapk-signalling-pathways','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21140919-characterization-early-events-involved-human-dendritic-cell-maturation-induced-sensitizers-cross-talk-between-mapk-signalling-pathways"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. <span class="hlt">Early</span> intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF{alpha}) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals.more » Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face{sup TM} and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO{sub 4}, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20205671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20205671"><span>High PIB retention in Alzheimer's disease is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> with complex relationship with CSF biomarkers and functional parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forsberg, A; Almkvist, O; Engler, H; Wall, A; Långström, B; Nordberg, A</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>New in vivo amyloid PET imaging tracers, such as (11)C-PIB, provide possibilities to deeper understand the underlying pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated how (11)C-PIB retention is related to cerebral glucose metabolism, episodic memory and CSF biomarkers. Thirty-seven patients with mild AD and 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) underwent PET examinations with the amyloid tracer (11)C-PIB, (18)F-FDG for measurement of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc), assessment of episodic memory and assay of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-beta (Abeta(1-42)), total tau and phosphorylated tau respectively. Analyses were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and regions of interest (ROIs). Pooled data from AD and MCI patients showed strong correlations between (11)C-PIB retention, levels of CSF biomarkers (especially Abeta(1-42)), rCMRglc and episodic memory. Analysis of the MCI group alone revealed significant correlations between (11)C-PIB retention and CSF biomarkers and between CSF biomarkers and episodic memory respectively. A strong correlation was observed in the AD group between rCMRglc and episodic memory as well as a significant correlation between (11)C-PIB retention and rCMRglc in some cortical regions. Regional differences were observed as sign for changes in temporal patterns across brain regions. A complex pattern was observed between pathological and functional markers with respect to disease stage (MCI versus AD) and brain regions. Regional differences over time were evident during disease progression. (11)C-PIB PET and CSF Abeta(42) allowed detection of prodromal stages of AD. Amyloid imaging is useful for <span class="hlt">early</span> diagnosis and evaluation of new therapeutic interventions in AD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26510686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26510686"><span>Exploring DNA methylation changes in promoter, intragenic, and intergenic regions as <span class="hlt">early</span> and late <span class="hlt">events</span> in breast cancer formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauscher, Garth H; Kresovich, Jacob K; Poulin, Matthew; Yan, Liying; Macias, Virgilia; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Al-Alem, Umaima; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Wiley, Elizabeth L; Tonetti, Debra; Ehrlich, Melanie</p> <p>2015-10-29</p> <p>Breast cancer formation is associated with frequent changes in DNA methylation but the extent of very <span class="hlt">early</span> alterations in DNA methylation and the biological significance of cancer-associated epigenetic changes need further elucidation. Pyrosequencing was done on bisulfite-treated DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections containing invasive tumor and paired samples of histologically normal tissue adjacent to the cancers as well as control reduction mammoplasty samples from unaffected women. The DNA regions studied were promoters (BRCA1, CD44, ESR1, GSTM2, GSTP1, MAGEA1, MSI1, NFE2L3, RASSF1A, RUNX3, SIX3 and TFF1), far-upstream regions (EN1, PAX3, PITX2, and SGK1), introns (APC, EGFR, LHX2, RFX1 and SOX9) and the LINE-1 and satellite 2 DNA repeats. These choices were based upon previous literature or publicly available DNA methylome profiles. The percent methylation was averaged across neighboring CpG sites. Most of the assayed gene regions displayed hypermethylation in cancer vs. adjacent tissue but the TFF1 and MAGEA1 regions were significantly hypomethylated (p ≤0.001). Importantly, six of the 16 regions examined in a large collection of patients (105 - 129) and in 15-18 reduction mammoplasty samples were already aberrantly methylated in adjacent, histologically normal tissue vs. non-cancerous mammoplasty samples (p ≤0.01). In addition, examination of transcriptome and DNA methylation databases indicated that methylation at three non-promoter regions (far-upstream EN1 and PITX2 and intronic LHX2) was associated with higher gene expression, unlike the inverse associations between cancer DNA hypermethylation and cancer-altered gene expression usually reported. These three non-promoter regions also exhibited normal tissue-specific hypermethylation positively associated with differentiation-related gene expression (in muscle progenitor cells vs. many other types of normal cells). The importance of considering the exact DNA region analyzed and the gene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176174"><span>Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> among <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage breast cancer survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  <80 years, without pre-existing CVD, diagnosed from 1997 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente. Women reported weight at diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  <10-lbs or ±≥10-lbs). Mean (SD) age was 57 (11) years, and BMI was 28 (6) kg-m2. Post diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m2 (vs. BMI < 25-kg/m2) was not associated with CVD, while BMI ≥ 35-kg/m2 increased risk by 33% (HR: 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.65), independent of lifestyle and tumor/treatment factors. The increased risk at BMI ≥ 35-kg/m2 attenuated with adjustment for pre-existing CVD risk factors to HR: 1.20; 95%CI 0.97-1.50. By contrast, even moderate elevations in WC increased risk of CVD, independent of pre-existing risk factors (HR: 1.93; 95%CI 1.31-2.84 comparing ≥100-cm vs. ≤80-cm). Post-diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917101B"><span>Good practices for the operational safety management in the <span class="hlt">early</span> recovery phase of a seismic <span class="hlt">event</span> using GPR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021398','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021398"><span>Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary ore-forming <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27696918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27696918"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent <span class="hlt">Event</span> and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an <span class="hlt">early</span> psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the <span class="hlt">event</span>, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29288910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29288910"><span>3q26/EVI1 rearrangement in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms: An <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> associated with a poor prognosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Zhihong; Hu, Shimin; Ji, Changsheng; Tang, Zhenya; Thakral, Beenu; Loghavi, Sanam; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Wang, Wei</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p> a relatively short follow-up of 2.4 months and showed disease progression at the last visit. In conclusion, 3q26.2/EVI1 rearrangements are a rare <span class="hlt">event</span> and usually present at time of initial diagnosis in MDS/MPN. The presence of 3q26.2/EVI1 rearrangements in MDS/MPN is associated with rapid disease progression, poor response to treatment, and a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26288287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26288287"><span>[The results of single-<span class="hlt">event</span> multilevel orthopedic surgeries and the <span class="hlt">early</span> rehabilitation used in complex with botulinum toxin treatment in patients with spastic forms of cerebral palsy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Popkov, D A; Zmanovskaya, V A; Gubina, E B; Leonchuk, S S; Butorina, M N; Pavlova, O L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate motor possibilities of patients with children spastic palsy (CSP) one year after single-<span class="hlt">event</span> multilevel orthopedic low extremity surgeries in combination with <span class="hlt">early</span> rehabilitation treatment including botulinum toxin treatment. Authors studied the results of operative orthopedic treatment in 55 patients with CSP, aged from 5 to 17 years (mean 11.9 ± 2.5 years), who underwent multilevel surgeries with <span class="hlt">early</span> functional rehabilitation using 1.5 treatment courses with 6-8 week treatment-free periods during 9-12 months in combination with a single injection of disport in the post-operative period. We performed 74 surgeries 140 episodes of botulinum toxin treatment using average doses of Botulinum toxin 10 U per kg of body mass injected into low extremity muscles. In the post-operative period, authors recorded a significant reduction in pain syndrome, assessed with a pain intensity scale, from 8.6 ± 1.2 to 4.3 ± 1.1 scores (p < 0.001). An analysis of gait demonstrated an improvement of gait patterns in all patients able to move independently. An increase in motor abilities, measured with the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, by 1 level was identified in 28 (50.9%) patients, by 2 levels in 2 (3.6%) patients, no changes were observed in 25 (45.5%) patients. Single-<span class="hlt">event</span> multilevel orthopedic surgeries in children with CSP reduce a number of repeated surgeries. The effective control over pain syndrome in patients with CSP using multilevel botulinum toxin treatment in the post-operative period promotes the functional rehabilitation, increases rates of loading during training sessions and the motivation of CSP patients to restore the lost activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21B1318I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21B1318I"><span>Remote Correlation of Paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Northern Parts of Bering and Barents Seas during the Termination I and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, E. V.; Ovsepyan, E.; Murdmaa, I.; de Vernal, A.; Risebrobakken, B.; Seitkalieva, E.; Radionova, E.; Alekhina, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Barents and Bering seas are closely linked to the High Arctic and to the THC by marine gateways as well as by land-sea and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Our multi-proxy time series demonstrate that these remote seas exhibited dramatic changes during the deglaciation through a succession of global and regional paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">events</span> including the beginning of Termination I (BT1), Heinrich-1 or Oldest Dryas (OD), Bølling-Allerød (B/A), Younger Dryas (YD) and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene (EH). In the NW Barents Sea, the increased subsurface-to-bottom Atlantic water inflow via the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen trough (cores S 2519 and S 2528) is inferred at the late OD, late B/A and late YD/EH transition. These <span class="hlt">events</span> are generally coupled with the strengthened AMOC. A remarkable sea surface warming and sea ice retreat are documented at ~ 13 ka BP. Surface warming and strong Atlantic water inflow were followed by intense iceberg calving in the Erik Eriksen Trough as indicated by the high IRD content of Core S-2519. The rock fragments are unsorted and mainly angular suggesting their ice-rafted (likely iceberg-rafted) origin. Svalbard glaciers apparently derived the material dominated by black schistous mudstones, hard limestones with coral remains, fine-grained sandstones from nearby islands, and icebergs spread it in the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen Trough during the <span class="hlt">early</span> deglaciation. The ice rafted coarse terrigenous material supply during the BT1 is also suggested for the NW Bering Sea. In the NW Pacific, NW Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, surface bioproductivity peaked at B/A and EH mainly due to the global warming, enhanced nutrient supply by surface currents from the flooded northeastern shelf, intensified vertical mixing and water exchange through the opened straits. Oxygen-depleted bottom water at intermediate depths characterized several locations including the NW Bering Sea (Core SO201-2-85KL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844517"><span>Interviewing strategically to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> admissions from guilty suspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. <span class="hlt">Early</span> and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1158901','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1158901"><span>Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line <span class="hlt">Event</span> Replay and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning of Grid Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosso, A.</p> <p>2012-12-31</p> <p>Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of <span class="hlt">events</span> during a large system disturbance for the post-<span class="hlt">event</span> analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major <span class="hlt">event</span> (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time <span class="hlt">event</span> replay (in seconds) after a major <span class="hlt">event</span> occurs. • <span class="hlt">Early</span> warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1158901','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1158901"><span>Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line <span class="hlt">Event</span> Replay and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning of Grid Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosso, A.</p> <p>2012-12-31</p> <p>Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awarenessmore » of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of <span class="hlt">events</span> during a large system disturbance for the post-<span class="hlt">event</span> analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major <span class="hlt">event</span> (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time <span class="hlt">event</span> replay (in seconds) after a major <span class="hlt">event</span> occurs. • <span class="hlt">Early</span> warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAESc.146..296A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAESc.146..296A"><span>Lignite deposits of the Kutch Basin, western India: Carbon isotopic and palynological signatures of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span> ETM2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agrawal, Shailesh; Verma, Poonam; Rao, M. R.; Garg, Rahul; Kapur, Vivesh V.; Bajpai, Sunil</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This study presents new results of combined palynological and stable carbon isotope (δ13C) investigations carried out in the well known lignite sequence at Panandhro, District Kutch, in the Gujarat state of western India. Dinoflagellate cysts and associated spore-pollen assemblage assign an <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene (Ypresian) age to the lignitic succession at Panandhro. Furthermore, a pronounced negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) of about 2.7‰, correlated to the Second Eocene Thermal Maximum (53.7 Ma), a globally recognized hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span>, was discovered in the middle part of the succession, consistent with the palynological constraints. This is the first record of an Eocene hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span> (ETM2) from the Kutch Basin. Our data has regional implications for the age of the lignitic sequences across western India as it demonstrates that there is no significant age difference between the lignite deposits of the Kutch and Cambay basins. Our results also support a Lutetian age for the previously described vertebrate fossils, including whales, from the Panandhro mine section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGC....24..637L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGC....24..637L"><span>Short-term natural <span class="hlt">events</span> at the thermal humid maximum in the tenth to twelfth centuries in the environs of <span class="hlt">early</span> Yaroslavl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavrushin, Yu. A.; Spiridonova, E. A.; Engovatova, A. V.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The succession of short-term natural <span class="hlt">events</span> at the thermal humid maximum in the Middle Ages (10th-12th centuries) within the forest zones of European Russia was established. The archaeological excavation in the most ancient part of the town of Yaroslavl opened a thick cultural horizon, where fragments of lacustrine deposits dating back to the 11th-12th centuries were preserved. The most ancient fragments of the construction, found in lacustrine deposits, date back to the first third of the 13th century. An analysis of the structural and textural peculiarities of these deposits made it possible to reconstruct types of hydrogeological regime in the Timerevo paleolake and a paleostrait between this paleolake and Lake Nero. Thus, the waterway between the central part of the Principality of Rostov and <span class="hlt">early</span> Yaroslavl (the first Russian settlement at the Great Volga Waterway) was revealed. The probable reasons for a rapid warming <span class="hlt">event</span> followed by a cooling one in the Middle Ages are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12100375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12100375"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> healing <span class="hlt">events</span> in a porcine model of contaminated wounds: effects of nanocrystalline silver on matrix metalloproteinases, cell apoptosis, and healing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, J Barry; Lam, Kan; Buret, Andre G; Olson, Merle E; Burrell, Robert E</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A porcine model of wound healing was employed to examine the impact of nanocrystalline silver-coated dressings on specific wound healing <span class="hlt">events</span>. Full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of pigs, contaminated with an experimental inoculum containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fusobacterium sp., and coagulase-negative staphylococci, and covered with dressing products either containing silver or not. Nanocrystalline silver-coated dressings promoted rapid wound healing, particularly during the first several days post-injury. Healing was characterized by rapid development of well vascularized granulation tissue that supported tissue grafting 4 days post-injury, unlike control dressed wounds. The proteolytic environment of wounds treated with nanocrystalline silver was characterized by reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinases. Matrix metalloproteinases have been shown to be present in chronic ulcers at abnormally high levels, as compared with acute wounds, and may contribute to the nonhealing nature of these wounds. Cellular apoptosis occurred at a higher frequency in the nanocrystalline silver-treated wounds than in wounds dressed with other products. The results suggest that nanocrystalline silver may play a role in altering or compressing the inflammatory <span class="hlt">events</span> in wounds and facilitating the <span class="hlt">early</span> phases of wound healing. These benefits are associated with reduced local matrix metalloproteinase levels and enhanced cellular apoptosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315127"><span>Video <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We describe the concept and method of video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific <span class="hlt">events</span> or moments during interactions. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412003"><span>Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We describe the concept and method of video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific <span class="hlt">events</span> or moments during interactions. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.1104Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.1104Y"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian paleoenvironmental evolution of the Bab Basin at the southern Neo-Tethys margin: Response to global carbon-cycle perturbations across Ocean Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Takayanagi, Hideko; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Sato, Tokiyuki; Nishi, Hiroshi; Iryu, Yasufumi</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Aptian carbonates in the Bab Basin at the southern Neo-Tethys margin record significant environmental changes across Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a (OAE1a). A long-lasting negative shift of carbon-isotope ratios (δ13C) associated with a distinct decrease in oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) in orbitolinid-rich carbonates characterizes the onset of OAE1a (Livello Selli), supporting a hypothesis that a long-lasting volcanic CO2 emission is the main cause of OAE1a, inducing global warming. A bloom of microencrusters (Lithocodium and Bacinella) across the proto-Bab Basin occurred synchronously at the beginning of the subsequent positive δ13C excursion, responding to the global carbon-cycle perturbations. The carbonates, formed during the OAE1a, show higher strontium-isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) compared with those of global seawater; this was likely caused by a local influx of isotopically heavier strontium, along with nutrients, into the proto-Bab Basin. These biotic proliferations were triggered by an increased nutrient supply induced by intensified continental weathering due to the global warming suggested by the increase in δ18O values. Spatial variations in the δ13C values among sites in the Bab Basin and its surrounding platform are related to local environmental factors, such as the degree of mixing of basin water with ocean water and local removal of 12C by metabolic activity at the platform-top. The δ13C profile of the studied core indicates global removal of organic carbon of OAE1a began during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stage of the second-order transgression and lasted until the <span class="hlt">early</span> stage of the highstand after the OAE1a. The Livello Selli corresponds to the <span class="hlt">early</span> stage of this transgression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818840"><span>HCN4 ion channel function is required for <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael</p> <p>2017-10-15</p> <p>Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where <span class="hlt">early</span> embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal <span class="hlt">events</span> are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very <span class="hlt">early</span> in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked <span class="hlt">early</span> (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917853','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917853"><span>The Neurogenic Effects of Exogenous Neuropeptide Y: <span class="hlt">Early</span> Molecular <span class="hlt">Events</span> and Long-Lasting Effects in the Hippocampus of Trimethyltin-Treated Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Podda, Maria Vittoria; Lattanzi, Wanda; Giannetti, Stefano; Di Maria, Valentina; Cocco, Sara; Grassi, Claudio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Modulation of endogenous neurogenesis is regarded as a promising challenge in neuroprotection. In the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration obtained by Trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterised by selective pyramidal cell loss, enhanced neurogenesis, seizures and cognitive impairment, we previously demonstrated a proliferative role of exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY), on dentate progenitors in the <span class="hlt">early</span> phases of neurodegeneration. To investigate the functional integration of newly-born neurons, here we studied in adult rats the long-term effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NPY (2 µg/2 µl, 4 days after TMT-treatment), which plays an adjuvant role in neurodegeneration and epilepsy. Our results indicate that 30 days after NPY administration the number of new neurons was still higher in TMT+NPY-treated rats than in control+saline group. As a functional correlate of the integration of new neurons into the hippocampal network, long-term potentiation recorded in Dentate Gyrus (DG) in the absence of GABAA receptor blockade was higher in the TMT+NPY-treated group than in all other groups. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of Kruppel-like factor 9, a transcription factor essential for late-phase maturation of neurons in the DG, and of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5, critically involved in the maturation and dendrite extension of newly-born neurons, revealed a significant up-regulation of both genes in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups. To explore the <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> activated by NPY administration, the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway, which participates in the maintenance of the neurogenic hippocampal niche, was evaluated by qPCR 1, 3 and 5 days after NPY-treatment. An <span class="hlt">early</span> significant up-regulation of Shh expression was detected in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups, associated with a modulation of downstream genes. Our data indicate that the neurogenic effect of NPY administration during TMT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516629"><span>The neurogenic effects of exogenous neuropeptide Y: <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> and long-lasting effects in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corvino, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Lattanzi, Wanda; Giannetti, Stefano; Di Maria, Valentina; Cocco, Sara; Grassi, Claudio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Modulation of endogenous neurogenesis is regarded as a promising challenge in neuroprotection. In the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration obtained by Trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterised by selective pyramidal cell loss, enhanced neurogenesis, seizures and cognitive impairment, we previously demonstrated a proliferative role of exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY), on dentate progenitors in the <span class="hlt">early</span> phases of neurodegeneration. To investigate the functional integration of newly-born neurons, here we studied in adult rats the long-term effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NPY (2 µg/2 µl, 4 days after TMT-treatment), which plays an adjuvant role in neurodegeneration and epilepsy. Our results indicate that 30 days after NPY administration the number of new neurons was still higher in TMT+NPY-treated rats than in control+saline group. As a functional correlate of the integration of new neurons into the hippocampal network, long-term potentiation recorded in Dentate Gyrus (DG) in the absence of GABAA receptor blockade was higher in the TMT+NPY-treated group than in all other groups. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of Kruppel-like factor 9, a transcription factor essential for late-phase maturation of neurons in the DG, and of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5, critically involved in the maturation and dendrite extension of newly-born neurons, revealed a significant up-regulation of both genes in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups. To explore the <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> activated by NPY administration, the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway, which participates in the maintenance of the neurogenic hippocampal niche, was evaluated by qPCR 1, 3 and 5 days after NPY-treatment. An <span class="hlt">early</span> significant up-regulation of Shh expression was detected in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups, associated with a modulation of downstream genes. Our data indicate that the neurogenic effect of NPY administration during TMT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958174"><span>Films for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> emotional states in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>von Leupoldt, Andreas; Rohde, Jenny; Beregova, Anna; Thordsen-Sörensen, Imke; zur Nieden, Janine; Dahme, Bernhard</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Standardized sets of films have been shown to be effective for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> emotional states in adults, but no comparable validated stimuli are available for children. We therefore examined the effects of three pre-selected film clips each of 3-min duration in <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> a pleasant, neutral and unpleasant emotional state in 297 children aged between 6 and 12 years. After the films were presented on a video projector, affective ratings were obtained with the Self-Assessment-Manikin on the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. Increasing pleasure ratings were observed from the unpleasant to the neutral to the pleasant film. Associated arousal ratings were stronger for the unpleasant and pleasant films compared to the neutral film. Overall, results showed successful <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of targeted emotional states only marginally influenced by age, gender or prior experience with the films. The use of these films is therefore suggested for future studies on emotions in children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888929"><span>The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after <span class="hlt">early</span> left hemispheric brain lesions: An <span class="hlt">event</span>-related fMRI study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fair, Damien A.; Choi, Alexander H.; Dosenbach, Yannic B.L.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we use an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single-subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with <span class="hlt">event</span>-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood brain injuries. PMID:19819000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4153717','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4153717"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs; Identification of Oropharyngeal Tonsils as Sites of Primary and Sustained Viral Replication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A time-course study was performed to elucidate the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable <span class="hlt">event</span> was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18–24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs. PMID:25184288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024307','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024307"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene change in atmospheric circulation in the Northern great plains: An upstream view of the 8.2 ka cold <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Elk Lake, in northwestern Minnesota, contains numerous proxy records of climatic and environmental change contained in varved sediments with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. These proxies show that about 8200 calendar years ago (8.2 cal. ka; 7300 radiocarbon years) Elk Lake went from a well-stratified lake that was wind-protected in a boreal forest to a well-mixed lake in open prairie savanna receiving northwesterly wind-blown dust, probably from the dry floor of Lake Agassiz. This change in climate marks the initiation of the widely recognized mid-Holocene "altithermal" in central North America. The coincidence of this change with the so-called 8.2 cal. ka cold <span class="hlt">event</span>, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic discharge of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, suggests that the two "<span class="hlt">events</span>" might be related. Our interpretation of the Elk Lake proxy records, and of other records from less accurately dated sites, suggests that change in climate over North America was the result of a fundamental change in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene. This change in circulation probably post-dates the final drainage of proglacial lakes along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, and may have produced a minor perturbation in climate over Greenland that resulted in a brief cold pulse detected in ice cores. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472077"><span>Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the <span class="hlt">early</span> alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P; Hartley, David M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Linge, Jens P; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7-13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18573241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18573241"><span>Fast (100-175 ms) components <span class="hlt">elicited</span> bilaterally by language production as measured by three-wavelength optical imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kubota, Mikio; Inouchi, Mayako; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Scovel, Thomas</p> <p>2008-08-21</p> <p>Optical imaging has been gradually utilized to investigate language functions in the brain. The majority of hemodynamic response (slow signal) measurements have been applied to receptive and productive language processing, while several <span class="hlt">event</span>-related optical signal (EROS) measurements on neuronal response (fast signal) have focused on receptive language processing. Therefore, an investigation of language production based on fast signal measurement is yet to be realized. Using a continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopic (CW-NIRS) method with three long wavelengths in close ranges (780, 805, and 830 nm), which are suitable for the detection of fast optical signals, the current work investigated whether absorbance-based EROS components during overt language production might be <span class="hlt">elicited</span> bilaterally in each wavelength with a 25 ms sampling time. Healthy adult subjects read aloud Japanese noun phrases (NP) presented on a computer screen. Two conditions (short/long-vowel duration) included either initial [s]- or [k]-phoneme types in the first words of the NP. The cognitive subtraction method achieved by deducting short-duration from long-duration conditions showed that in both phoneme types, reliable fast optical components with a peak latency of about 100-175 ms post initial-consonant onset were bilaterally <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by long vowels. This result suggests that the present CW-NIRS methodology can clearly detect such <span class="hlt">early</span> optical signals with good temporal resolution and with a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained from a small number of stimuli. The fact that optical absorbance values at all three wavelengths had the same positive deflections during the initial-syllable production demonstrates that the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of fast optical components may directly represent neuronal activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918911W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918911W"><span>Monitoring and forecasting local landslide hazard in the area of Longyearbyen, Svalbard - <span class="hlt">early</span> progress and experiences from the Autumn 2016 <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Thea; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Boje, Søren; Colleuille, Hervé</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since 2013 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has operated a landslide <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system (LEWS) for mainland Norway. The Svalbard islands, situated 800 km north of the Norwegian mainland, and 1200 km from the North Pole, are not part of the conventional <span class="hlt">early</span> warning service. However, following the fatal snow avalanche <span class="hlt">event</span> 19 Dec. 2015 in the settlement of Longyearbyen (78° north latitude), local authorities and the NVE have initiated monitoring of the hydro-meteorological conditions for the area of Longyearbyen, as an extraordinary precaution. Two operational forecasting teams from the NVE; the snow avalanche and the landslide hazard forecasters, perform hazard assessment related to snow avalanches, slush flows, debris flows, shallow slides and local flooding. This abstract will focus on recent experiences made by the landslide hazard team during the autumn 2016 landslide <span class="hlt">events</span>, caused by a record setting wet and warm summer and autumn of 2016. The general concept of the Norwegian LEWS is based on frequency intervals of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions. This general concept has been transposed to the Longyearbyen area. Although the climate is considerably colder and drier than mainland Norway, experiences so far are positive and seem useful to the local authorities. Initially, the landslide hazard evaluation was intended to consider only slush flow hazard during the snow covered season. However, due to the extraordinary warm and wet summer and autumn 2016, the landslide hazard forecasters unexpectedly had to issue warnings for the local authorities due to increased risk of shallow landslides and debris flows. This was done in close cooperation with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, who provided weather forecasts from the recently developed weather prediction model, AROME-Arctic. Two examples, from 14-15 Oct and 8-9 Nov 2016, will be given to demonstrate how the landslide hazard assessment for the Longyearbyen area is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017903"><span>Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing <span class="hlt">early</span> responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span>, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMPP41C..02L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMPP41C..02L"><span>Stratigraphic/sedimentological analysis of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate succession in the Actopan Platform, Hidalgo State, Mexico: documentation on an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Albian deepening <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>León-Francisco, J. M.; Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Franco-Navarrete, S. P.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The Actopan Platform, exposed near the town of Actopan, in the State of Hidalgo, is part of the system of carbonate platforms developed extensively in Mexico during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous. However, despite the excellent outcrops and easy access this platform is still poorly studied. A sedimentologic and biostratigraphic analyisis of a 345 m-thick stratigraphic section located in the southwestern region of this platform was conducted. The collected information allowed, for the first time, to document the presence of deep-water calcareous facies of Lower Albian age. The results of the analysis of depositional textures, sedimentary structures, fossil content, and diagenetic attributes were used to identify facies and their depositional environments, and to define facies associations. The lower part of the section consists of the following facies: skeletal-peloidal mudstone/wackestone, peloidal-skeletal packstone/grainstone, oncoid packstone, boundstone of Chondrodonta sp. and requinids, and cryptalgal laminites. The depositional environments of the facies vary from shallow subtidal (lagoonal) to supratidal. These facies stack forming subtidal and peritidal cycles. The Choffatella decipiens benthic foraminifer is common in this facies and indicates an Aptian age. This shallow-water sedimentary package is normally overlain by a succession of pelagic facies with intercalations of gravity-induced, coarse-grained carbonate deposits including turbidites and debris flows. Colomiella recta, Favusella sp. and Microcalamoides diversus are typical planktic microfossils in this calcareous unit indicating a Lower Albian age. The large-scale trend of this Lower Cretaceous facies succession allowed documenting a deepening <span class="hlt">event</span> that took place in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Albian and that had not been previously reported in this platform.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29372930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29372930"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen</p> <p>2018-01-16</p> <p>Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be <span class="hlt">elicited</span>, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> AND measurement; (B): Participants AND <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807482"><span>Lipopolysaccharides <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an oxidative burst as a component of the innate immune system in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loucks, Kyle; Waddell, David; Ross, Cliff</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study represents the first report characterizing the biological effects of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune modulator on a marine vascular plant. LPS was shown to serve as a strong elicitor of the <span class="hlt">early</span> defense response in the subtropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and was capable of inducing an oxidative burst identified at the single cell level. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), detected by a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe and luminol-based chemiluminescence, included a diphenyleneiodonium sensitive response, suggesting the involvement of an NADPH oxidase. A 900 bp cDNA fragment coding for this enzyme was sequenced and found to encode a NAD binding pocket domain with extensive homology to the Arabidopsis thaliana rbohF (respiratory burst oxidase homolog) gene. The triggered release of ROS occurred at 20 min post-<span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and was dose-dependent, requiring a minimal threshold of 50 μg/mL LPS. Pharmacological dissection of the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> preceding ROS emission indicated that the signal transduction chain of <span class="hlt">events</span> involved extracellular alkalinization, G-proteins, phospholipase A2, as well as K(+), Ca(2+), and anion channels. Despite exclusively thriving in a marine environment, seagrasses contain ROS-generating machinery and signal transduction components that appear to be evolutionarily conserved with the well-characterized defense response systems found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+science+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ1166987','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+science+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ1166987"><span>Self-Explaining Effect in General Chemistry Instruction: <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Overt Categorical Behaviours by Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Villalta-Cerdas, Adrian; Sandi-Urena, Santiago</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Self-explaining refers to the generation of inferences about causal connections between objects and <span class="hlt">events</span>. In science, this may be summarised as making sense of how and why actual or hypothetical phenomena take place. Research findings in educational psychology show that implementing activities that <span class="hlt">elicit</span> self-explaining improves learning in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ934246','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ934246"><span>Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> by Musical Cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the <span class="hlt">event</span>, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally <span class="hlt">elicit</span> memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intelligence+AND+cycle&pg=3&id=ED519050','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intelligence+AND+cycle&pg=3&id=ED519050"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=equations&pg=4&id=EJ1156980','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=equations&pg=4&id=EJ1156980"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Algebraic Reasoning with Hanging Mobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Otten, Mara; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Veldhuis, Michiel; Heinze, Aiso; Goldenberg, Paul</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The importance of laying a foundation for algebraic reasoning at a young age is increasingly being emphasized. In this article, the authors report on an activity that <span class="hlt">elicits</span> in a natural way algebraic strategies that in a later stage of learning algebra are crucial for solving equations. The activity brings about the students' spontaneous use of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672512"><span>Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth and association with <span class="hlt">early</span> life course <span class="hlt">events</span>: a study of 6-36 month old children in Manyara, Tanzania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masumo, Ray; Bårdsen, Asgeir; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug</p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>Children with low birth weight show an increased prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in the primary dentition that subsequently may predispose to <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood caries (ECC).Focusing 6-36 months old, the purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of enamel defects in the primary dentition and identify influences of <span class="hlt">early</span> life course factors; socio-demographics, birth weight, child's <span class="hlt">early</span> illness episodes and mothers' perceived size of the child at birth, whilst controlling for more recent life course <span class="hlt">events</span> in terms of current breastfeeding and oral hygiene. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the high fluoride area of Manyara, northern Tanzania including 1221 child-mother pairs who attended Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics for immunization and/or growth monitoring. After the primary caregivers had completed face to face interviews at the health care facility, children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and developmental defects of enamel were recorded using field criteria. All erupted teeth were examined and the enamel defects were assessed on buccal surfaces according to the modified DDE Index. The prevalence of enamel defects was 33.3%. Diffuse opacities were the most common defects identified (23.1%), followed by hypoplasia (7.6%) and demarcated opacities (5.0%). The most frequently affected teeth were the upper central incisors (29.0% - 30.5%), whereas lower central incisors (4.3% to 4.5%) were least frequently affected. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for confounding the factors revealed that having normal birth weight (equal or more than 2500 g) associated with lower odds of having enamel hypoplasia [OR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.7)]. No statistically significant association occurred between birth weight and diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities or combined DDE. Children with the history of low birth weight were more likely than their normal birth weight counterparts to present with enamel hypoplasia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671208','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671208"><span>Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth and association with <span class="hlt">early</span> life course <span class="hlt">events</span>: a study of 6–36 month old children in Manyara, Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Children with low birth weight show an increased prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in the primary dentition that subsequently may predispose to <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood caries (ECC). Focusing 6–36 months old, the purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of enamel defects in the primary dentition and identify influences of <span class="hlt">early</span> life course factors; socio-demographics, birth weight, child’s <span class="hlt">early</span> illness episodes and mothers’ perceived size of the child at birth, whilst controlling for more recent life course <span class="hlt">events</span> in terms of current breastfeeding and oral hygiene. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the high fluoride area of Manyara, northern Tanzania including 1221 child-mother pairs who attended Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics for immunization and/or growth monitoring. After the primary caregivers had completed face to face interviews at the health care facility, children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and developmental defects of enamel were recorded using field criteria. All erupted teeth were examined and the enamel defects were assessed on buccal surfaces according to the modified DDE Index. Results The prevalence of enamel defects was 33.3%. Diffuse opacities were the most common defects identified (23.1%), followed by hypoplasia (7.6%) and demarcated opacities (5.0%). The most frequently affected teeth were the upper central incisors (29.0% - 30.5%), whereas lower central incisors (4.3% to 4.5%) were least frequently affected. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for confounding the factors revealed that having normal birth weight (equal or more than 2500 g) associated with lower odds of having enamel hypoplasia [OR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.7)]. No statistically significant association occurred between birth weight and diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities or combined DDE. Conclusion Children with the history of low birth weight were more likely than their normal birth weight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078149"><span>LinkIT: a ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> game for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> risk perceptions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Yan; McGill, William L</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The mental models approach, a leading strategy to develop risk communications, involves a time- and labor-intensive interview process and a lengthy questionnaire to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> group-level risk perceptions. We propose that a similarity ratings approach for structural knowledge <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> can be adopted to assist the risk mental models approach. The LinkIT game, inspired by games with a purpose (GWAP) technology, is a ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool designed to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> group understanding of the relations between risk factors in a more enjoyable and productive manner when compared to traditional approaches. That is, consistent with the idea of ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>, LinkIT was designed to make the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process fun and enjoyable in the hopes of increasing participation and data quality in risk studies. Like the mental models approach, the group mental model obtained via the LinkIT game can hence be generated and represented in a form of influence diagrams. In order to examine the external validity of LinkIT, we conducted a study to compare its performance with respect to a more conventional questionnaire-driven approach. Data analysis results conclude that the two group mental models <span class="hlt">elicited</span> from the two approaches are similar to an extent. Yet, LinkIT was more productive and enjoyable than the questionnaire. However, participants commented that the current game has some usability concerns. This presentation summarizes the design and evaluation of the LinkIT game and suggests areas for future work. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039222','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039222"><span>Capturing the biological impact of CDKN2A and MC1R genes as an <span class="hlt">early</span> predisposing <span class="hlt">event</span> in melanoma and non melanoma skin cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Escámez, María José; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Fabra, Àngels; Martínez-Santamaría, Lucía; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Pevida, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín; del Río, Marcela; Puig, Susana</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Germline mutations in CDKN2A and/or red hair color variants in MC1R genes are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop cutaneous melanoma or non melanoma skin cancer. We studied the impact of the CDKN2A germinal mutation p.G101W and MC1R variants on gene expression and transcription profiles associated with skin cancer. To this end we set-up primary skin cell co-cultures from siblings of melanoma prone-families that were later analyzed using the expression array approach. As a result, we found that 1535 transcripts were deregulated in CDKN2A mutated cells, with over-expression of immunity-related genes (HLA-DPB1, CLEC2B, IFI44, IFI44L, IFI27, IFIT1, IFIT2, SP110 and IFNK) and down-regulation of genes playing a role in the Notch signaling pathway. 3570 transcripts were deregulated in MC1R variant carriers. In particular, genes related to oxidative stress and DNA damage pathways were up-regulated as well as genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer and Huntington. Finally, we observed that the expression signatures indentified in phenotypically normal cells carrying CDKN2A mutations or MC1R variants are maintained in skin cancer tumors (melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma). These results indicate that transcriptome deregulation represents an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> critical for skin cancer development. PMID:24742402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10753958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10753958"><span>Stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is an <span class="hlt">early</span> regulatory <span class="hlt">event</span> for the cadmium-induced apoptosis in human promonocytic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galán, A; García-Bermejo, M L; Troyano, A; Vilaboa, N E; de Blas, E; Kazanietz, M G; Aller, P</p> <p>2000-04-14</p> <p>Pulse treatment of U-937 promonocytic cells with cadmium chloride (2 h at 200 microM) provoked apoptosis and induced a rapid phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK)) as well as a late phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). However, although the p38(MAPK)-specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated apoptosis, the process was not affected by the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059. The attenuation of the cadmium-provoked apoptosis by SB203580 was a highly specific effect. In fact, the kinase inhibitor did not prevent the generation of apoptosis by heat shock and camptothecin, nor the generation of necrosis by cadmium treatment of glutathione-depleted cells, nor the cadmium-provoked activation of the stress response. The generation of apoptosis was preceded by intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation and was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, both of which were inhibited by SB203580. On the other hand, the antioxidant agent butylated hydroxyanisole-inhibited apoptosis but did not prevent p38(MAPK) phosphorylation. In a similar manner, p38(MAPK) phosphorylation was not affected by the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD and DEVD-CHO, which nevertheless prevented apoptosis. These results indicate that p38(MAPK) activation is an <span class="hlt">early</span> and specific regulatory <span class="hlt">event</span> for the cadmium-provoked apoptosis in promonocytic cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244594"><span>Unravelling <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Taphrina deformans-Prunus persica interaction: an insight into the differential responses in resistant and susceptible genotypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Svetaz, Laura A; Bustamante, Claudia A; Goldy, Camila; Rivero, Nery; Müller, Gabriela L; Valentini, Gabriel H; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Leaf peach curl is a devastating disease affecting leaves, flowers and fruits, caused by the dimorphic fungus Taphrina deformans. To gain insight into the mechanisms of fungus pathogenesis and plant responses, leaves of a resistant and two susceptible Prunus persica genotypes were inoculated with blastospores (yeast), and the infection was monitored during 120 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fungal dimorphism to the filamentous form and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose synthesis, cell death and defence compound production were observed independently of the genotype. Fungal load significantly decreased after 120 h.p.i. in the resistant genotype, while the pathogen tended to grow in the susceptible genotypes. Metabolic profiling revealed a biphasic re-programming of plant tissue in susceptible genotypes, with an initial stage co-incident with the yeast form of the fungus and a second when the hypha is developed. Transcriptional analysis of PRs and plant hormone-related genes indicated that pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in P. persica defence responses against T. deformans and that salicylic acid is induced in the resistant genotype. Conducted experiments allowed the elucidation of common and differential responses in susceptible versus resistant genotypes and thus allow us to construct a picture of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> during T. deformans infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306527"><span>Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on <span class="hlt">early</span> membrane <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these <span class="hlt">early</span> membrane <span class="hlt">events</span>. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272314','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272314"><span>Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Synaptic Degeneration as <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications to Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Tripathy, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Thirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P.; Calkins, Marcus J.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlate of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid bet (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed that reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. PMID:22037588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364064"><span>Relationship between C-reactive protein and <span class="hlt">early</span> activation of leukocytes indicated by leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) in patients with acute cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molnar, Tihamer; Papp, Viktoria; Banati, Miklos; Szereday, Laszlo; Pusch, Gabriella; Szapary, Laszlo; Bogar, Lajos; Illes, Zsolt</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) as a specific test to detect <span class="hlt">early</span> activation of leukocytes providing the first line of defence against infections in ischemic stroke. In 49 patients with acute ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> and 61 healthy subjects (HS), we examined LAR, astroglia specific S100B indicating the extent of brain tissue damage and hsCRP within 6 hours, as well as 24 and 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Serum levels of hsCRP on admission was significantly higher in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared to HS and were higher in patients with recurrent to first ever ischemic stroke. Increased basal levels of hsCRP also correlated with severity of stroke and extent of infarct reflected by S100B levels in sera, but did not correlate with post-stroke infections. However, a higher rate of infection was observed among patients, in whom hsCRP was elevated at 72 hours but LAR did not increase. Therefore, such late elevation of hsCRP may indicate pre-clinical infections due to deficient leukocyte activation. Simple tests like LAR and hsCRP may help in predicting outcome and high risk of infectious complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V54A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V54A..06B"><span>The Role Of Oceanic Plateau Volcanism On Climate Change: Warming And Cooling Episodes Across <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bottini, C.; Erba, E.; Mutterlose, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span> Aptian is marked by a global phenomenon of organic matter burial in oxygen-depleted oceans known as Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a (OAE 1a: ~120 Ma). Volcanism associated with the emplacement of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is thought to be the main triggering mechanism for global anoxia, ocean acidification and greenhouse conditions. However, climate instability during OAE 1a is indicated by independent studies on TEX86, sporomorphs and oxygen-stable isotope but a direct connection between OJP volcanic phases and temperature variations has not been ascertained. A high-resolution integrated nannofossil-geochemical investigation of distant sections from the Tethys, the Pacific Ocean and the Boreal Realm has revealed systematic and synchronous changes. Specifically, the nannofossil Temperature Index and Os-isotope records allowed the reconstruction of a complex series of global warming and cooling <span class="hlt">events</span> across OAE 1a and their relationships with OJP volcanism as well as weathering patterns. Two prominent volcanic phases are documented in the Os-isotope records: the first preceding OAE 1a and the second one, of major intensity, starting in the core of the negative C-isotopic anomaly. Both phases are paralleled by increased temperature, suggestive of a (super)greenhouse climate triggered by excess volcanogenic CO2. Indeed, our data indicate that the beginning of the prolonged volcanic phase during OAE 1a coincides with warmest temperatures. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> part of OAE 1a, between the two major volcanic phases, there is a ~100 kyrs-long interval characterized by a radiogenic Os-isotope peak, suggestive of accelerated continental weathering rates, with or without volcanism cessation, following an interval of abrupt warming and preceding a cooling interlude. Arguably, warming at OAE 1a onset promoted methane hydrate dissociation (also suggested by C-isotope and biomarkers analyses), which was perhaps instrumental in triggering continental weathering. Subsequent CO2 draw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442140.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442140.pdf"><span>Fostering and <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Emergent Literacy Skills in Potentially English Proficient Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beers, Elizabeth A.</p> <p></p> <p>This report describes an <span class="hlt">early</span> intervention program to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> emergent literacy skills in Potentially English Proficient kindergarten students. The school is located in a suburb of a large city near a naval base. The problem, lack of literacy readiness skills, was documented with a battery of tests given prior to entrance in kindergarten and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381926"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> interval beliefs: An experimental study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peeters, Ronald; Wolk, Leonard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the interval scoring rule as a mechanism to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> subjective beliefs under varying degrees of uncertainty. In our experiment, subjects forecast the termination time of a time series to be generated from a given but unknown stochastic process. Subjects gradually learn more about the underlying process over time and hence the true distribution over termination times. We conduct two treatments, one with a high and one with a low volatility process. We find that <span class="hlt">elicited</span> intervals are better when subjects are facing a low volatility process. In this treatment, participants learn to position their intervals almost optimally over the course of the experiment. This is in contrast with the high volatility treatment, where subjects, over the course of the experiment, learn to optimize the location of their intervals but fail to provide the optimal length. PMID:28380020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943882"><span>A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning for contamination <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination <span class="hlt">events</span>. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2663401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2663401"><span>A Solution NMR Investigation into the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H–15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H–15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12–I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141–T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (τc) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to ~10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly. PMID:19086270</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.212..324X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.212..324X"><span>Assessing the short-term clock drift of <span class="hlt">early</span> broadband stations with burst <span class="hlt">events</span> of the 26 s persistent and localized microseism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Jun; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Xia, Yingjie</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Accurate seismometer clock plays an important role in seismological studies including earthquake location and tomography. However, some seismic stations may have clock drift larger than 1 s (e.g. GSC in 1992), especially in <span class="hlt">early</span> days of global seismic networks. The 26 s Persistent Localized (PL) microseism <span class="hlt">event</span> in the Gulf of Guinea sometime excites strong and coherent signals, and can be used as repeating source for assessing stability of seismometer clocks. Taking station GSC, PAS and PFO in the TERRAscope network as an example, the 26 s PL signal can be easily observed in the ambient noise cross-correlation function between these stations and a remote station OBN with interstation distance about 9700 km. The travel-time variation of this 26 s signal in the ambient noise cross-correlation function is used to infer clock error. A drastic clock error is detected during June 1992 for station GSC, but not found for station PAS and PFO. This short-term clock error is confirmed by both teleseismic and local earthquake records with a magnitude of 25 s. Averaged over the three stations, the accuracy of the ambient noise cross-correlation function method with the 26 s source is about 0.3-0.5 s. Using this PL source, the clock can be validated for historical records of sparsely distributed stations, where the usual ambient noise cross-correlation function of short-period (<20 s) ambient noise might be less effective due to its attenuation over long interstation distances. However, this method suffers from cycling problem, and should be verified by teleseismic/local P waves. Further studies are also needed to investigate whether the 26 s source moves spatially and its effects on clock drift detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28302867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28302867"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> life hypoxia <span class="hlt">event</span> has a long-term impact on protein digestion and growth in juvenile European sea bass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zambonino-Infante, José L; Mazurais, David; Dubuc, Alexia; Quéau, Pierre; Vanderplancke, Gwenaëlle; Servili, Arianna; Cahu, Chantal; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Huelvan, Christine; Claireaux, Guy</p> <p>2017-05-15</p> <p>Ocean warming, eutrophication and the consequent decrease in oxygen lead to smaller average fish size. Although such responses are well known in an evolutionary context, involving multiple generations, this appears to be incompatible with current rapid environmental change. Instead, phenotypic plasticity could provide a means for marine fish to cope with rapid environmental changes. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying plastic responses to environmental conditions that favour small phenotypes. Our aim was to investigate how and why European sea bass that had experienced a short episode of moderate hypoxia during their larval stage subsequently exhibited a growth depression at the juvenile stage compared with the control group. We examined whether energy was used to cover higher costs for maintenance, digestion or activity metabolisms, as a result of differing metabolic rate. The lower growth was not a consequence of lower food intake. We measured several respirometry parameters and we only found a higher specific dynamic action (SDA) duration and lower SDA amplitude in a fish phenotype with lower growth; this phenotype was also associated with a lower protein digestive capacity in the intestine. Our results contribute to the understanding of the observed decrease in growth in response to climate change. They demonstrate that the reduced growth of juvenile fishes as a consequence of an <span class="hlt">early</span> life hypoxia <span class="hlt">event</span> was not due to a change of fish aerobic scope but to a specific change in the efficiency of protein digestive functions. The question remains of whether this effect is epigenetic and could be reversible in the offspring. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=3&id=EJ1000138','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=3&id=EJ1000138"><span>Onset and Offset of Aversive <span class="hlt">Events</span> Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Two things are worth remembering about an aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>, it becomes a signal for threat and will later <span class="hlt">elicit</span> behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>, it <span class="hlt">elicits</span> behavior indicating…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory&pg=6&id=EJ1055907','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory&pg=6&id=EJ1055907"><span>Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report on the 1st experimental <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of nonbelieved memories for childhood <span class="hlt">events</span> in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these <span class="hlt">events</span> during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189502"><span>The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry®.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J; Kennedy, Kevin F; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on <span class="hlt">early</span> outcomes is not well studied. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim <5 and ≥5 mm. Primary outcomes were technical failure and major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">event</span> in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">event</span> (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified. Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784b0023A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784b0023A"><span>9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in <span class="hlt">elicited</span> hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were <span class="hlt">elicited</span> at <span class="hlt">early</span> exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173396"><span>Using process <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was <span class="hlt">elicited</span> through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the <span class="hlt">elicited</span> details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process <span class="hlt">events</span> (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5720771','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5720771"><span>Loss of epithelial markers is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in oral dysplasia and is observed within the safety margin of dysplastic and T1 OSCC biopsies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdalla, Zahra; Walsh, Tanya; Thakker, Nalin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly aggressive cancer that is associated with poor 5-year patient survival. Disease treatment is further compounded by the difficulty in predicting pre-cancerous tissues that will progress to OSCC and the high recurrence rates following surgical resection. Here we have assessed expression of the oral epithelial markers E-cadherin, EMP1 and 5T4 and the pro-invasive N-cadherin proteins using fully characterised antibodies and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy in normal tissue (NT), fibroepithelial polyp (FEP), low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), T1 OSCC and T4 OSCC biopsies. Decreased E-cadherin expression was associated with FEP, LGD and HGD biopsies, demonstrating that loss of E-cadherin is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> within abnormal epithelium and occurs in the absence of an E- to N-cadherin switch, the latter of which was only observed in T4 OSCC. Furthermore, loss of E-cadherin and EMP1 is an indicator of LGD (p = 0.0006) and loss of E-cadherin, EMP1 and 5T4 an indicator of HGD (p = 0.0006). Expression patterns of E-cadherin, EMP1 and N-cadherin could predict abnormal epithelium in LGD, HGD, T1 and T4 OSCC biopsies (z-value = 0 for all disease grades) and allowed classification of LGD (z = 1.47), HGD (z = 2.138), T1 (z = 1.05) and T4 OSCC (z = 1.49) biopsies. Therefore, these markers provide a useful means to predict abnormal epithelium in patient biopsies. Linear regression and coefficient of determination analysis revealed positive correlation with a NT>LGD>HGD disease transition but low correlation with a putative HGD>T1 OSCC>T4 OSCC disease transition. Furthermore, expression of E-cadherin, EMP1, 5T4 and N-cadherin in pathologically normal surgical safety margins of LGD, HGD and T1 OSCC patient biopsies revealed significant differences to NT and the use of safety margins or FEP as ‘normal tissue’ controls introduced Type II errors in all patient cohorts. This work forms the basis for further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I"><span>Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itaki, Takuya</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-sea drilling cores have provided important information about environmental changes in the Japan Sea that are related to the global climate and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major changes in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan Sea via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan Sea via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling <span class="hlt">event</span> at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan Sea Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in sea level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP23B2304H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP23B2304H"><span>Palynological indications for elevated microbial primary productivity during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span>: Implications for organic-carbon accumulation and the interpretation of δ13C-trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houben, A. J. P.; Goldberg, T.; Janssen, N. M. M.; Nelskamp, S.; Verreussel, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (T-OAE, ~182 Ma ago) represents an episode of organic-rich deposition that was accompanied by a substantial (up to 7‰) negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE), suggesting a perturbation in the carbon cycle likely driven by the addition of "light" carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system. Paired δ13Corg-ratios and hydrogen-indices provide evidence for major changes in organic-matter sourcing which quantitatively affect CIE-magnitude. Underpinning the relationship between this carbon-cycle perturbation, ocean anoxia and primary productivity feedbacks thus remains a major challenge. We here present palynological- and organic-matter analysis data from outcrop sections in Yorkshire (UK) and three drill-cores from the Netherlands. In addition, elemental ratios and iron speciation data aid to constrain bottom-water oxygenation and euxinia. Stratigraphic calibrations were achieved with high-resolution δ13Corg-data. The iron-speciation and trace-element data indicate that persistent euxinic bottom-water conditions incept at the base of- and remarkably persist after the T-OAE. By employing extremely careful palynological preparation and UV-fluorescence microscopy, we assessed changes in phytoplankton communities and organic-matter types. At the base of the T-OAE a major increase in abundance of prasinophycean vegetative cysts indicates chemocline shoaling into the photic zone. During the T-OAE, all localities are characterized by organic-matter associations dominated by dense Structureless Organic Matter (SOM) that contain abundant characteristic sphaerical palynomorphs.These results confirm changes in organic-carbon sourcing, which exaggerate the magnitude of the CIE. The palynological and organic-matter data indicate that primary productivity did not collapse and that TOC-accumulations were not merely an effect of inhibited remineralization duirng anoxia. In contrast, we present a scenario in which cyanobacterial anoxygenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016176','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016176"><span>Effect of Microgravity on <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437..101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437..101B"><span>Oxygen isotope perspective on crustal evolution on <span class="hlt">early</span> Earth: A record of Precambrian shales with emphasis on Paleoproterozoic glaciations and Great Oxygenation <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present stable isotope and chemical data for 206 Precambrian bulk shale and tillite samples that were collected mostly from drillholes on all continents and span the age range from 0.5 to 3.5 Ga with a dense coverage for 2.5-2.2 Ga time interval when Earth experienced four Snowball Earth glaciations and the irreversible rise in atmospheric O2. We observe significant, downward shift of several ‰ and a smaller range of δ18 O values (7 to 9‰) in shales that are associated with the Paleoproterozoic and, potentially, Neoproterozoic glaciations. The Paleoproterozoic samples consist of more than 50% mica minerals and have equal or higher chemical index of alteration than overlying and underlying formations and thus underwent equal or greater degrees of chemical weathering. Their pervasively low δ18 O and δD (down to - 85 ‰) values provide strong evidence of alteration and diagenesis in contact with ultra-low δ18 O glacial meltwaters in lacustrine, deltaic or periglacial lake (sikussak-type) environments associated with the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. The δDsilicate values for the rest of Precambrian shales range from -75 to - 50 ‰ and are comparable to those for Phanerozoic and Archean shales. Likewise, these samples have similar ranges in δ13Corg values (-23 to - 33 ‰ PDB) and Corg content (0.0 to 10 wt%) to Phanerozoic shales. Precambrian shales have a large range of δ18 O values comparable to that of the Phanerozoic shales in each age group and formation, suggesting similar variability in the provenance and intensity of chemical weathering, except for the earliest 3.3-3.5 Ga Archean shales, which have consistently lower δ18 O values. Moreover, Paleoproterozoic shales that bracket in age the Great Oxidation <span class="hlt">Event</span> (GOE) overlap in δ18 O values. Absence of a step-wise increase in δ18 O and δD values suggests that despite the first-order change in the composition of the atmosphere, weathering cycle was not dramatically affected by the GOE at ∼2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20065887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20065887"><span>Audiovisual interaction enhances auditory detection in late stage: an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qi; Wu, Jinglong; Touge, Tetsuo</p> <p>2010-02-17</p> <p>Although many behavioral studies have investigated auditory detection enhancement by crossmodal audiovisual interaction, the results are controversial. In addition, no neuroimaging studies that identify this phenomenon have been conducted. Therefore, we used <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate this phenomenon by comparing the ERPs <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by the audiovisual stimuli to the sum of the ERPs <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by the visual and auditory stimuli, and identified two brain regions that showed significantly different responses: the centro-medial area at 280-300 ms after the presentation of the stimulus and the right fronto-temporal area at 300-320 ms after the presentation of the stimulus. The ERP results suggested that the behavioral enhancement of auditory detection results from late-stage cognitive processes rather than <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage sensory processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1216551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1216551"><span>High gain signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour monitoring in patients <span class="hlt">early</span> after myocardial infarction for bedside prediction of arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cripps, T; Bennett, E D; Camm, A J; Ward, D E</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The value of the high gain, signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the prediction of arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span> was assessed in 159 patients in the first week after myocardial infarction. Eleven patients (7%) suffered arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span> during a mean (SD) of 12 (6) months of follow up (range 2-22, median 13 months). The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring was more accurate than either technique alone or than clinical information collected during admission in predicting these <span class="hlt">events</span>. The combination identified a high risk group of 13 (8%) patients, with an arrhythmic <span class="hlt">event</span> rate of 62% and a low risk group with an <span class="hlt">event</span> rate of 2%. The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the first week after myocardial infarction provides a rapid, cheap, and non-invasive bedside method for the prediction of arrhythmias. PMID:3179133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12635122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12635122"><span>Neuromuscular dysfunction <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by cyclic lumbar flexion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Claude, Lakiesha N; Solomonow, Moshe; Zhou, Bing-He; Baratta, Richard V; Zhu, Meng Ping</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>An attempt was made to develop an in vivo model that could explain the neurophysiological and biomechanical processes active in the development of the idiopathic low back disorder common in workers who perform repetitive lifting tasks in industry. Passive cyclic flexion of the feline lumbar spine at 0.1 HZ for 20 min resulted in creep of the supraspinous ligament and other lumbar viscoelastic tissues as well as spasms superimposed on a decreasing electromyogram (EMG) <span class="hlt">elicited</span> reflexly from the multifidus muscles. Rest for 7 h did not allow full recovery of the viscoelastic creep; the multifidus EMG gradually increased with initial and delayed hyperexcitability. Increasing the peak load of the cyclic flexion resulted in larger creep in the passive tissues and required a longer time for recovery of reflex EMG activity and longer delayed hyperexcitability, but development of spasms and hyperexcitability was unaffected. It is conceivable that damage to the viscoelastic tissues <span class="hlt">elicits</span> an inflammatory process that in turn triggers a transient neuromuscular disorder. The present findings provide a biomechanical and neurophysiological explanation for a common idiopathic low back disorder as well as for the development of a cumulative trauma disorder often seen in workers engaged in repetitive lumbar flexion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1621022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1621022"><span>Isolated sleep paralysis <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by sleep interruption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>We <span class="hlt">elicited</span> isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6635845','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6635845"><span>Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgment <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C.; Youngs, R.R. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the results of the Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgement Excitation Project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate methods for the excitation of expert judgement, and (2) to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for use in the EPRI-HLW performance assessment. Specifically, the technical issue considered is the probability of differential fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For this study, a strategy for quantifying uncertainties was developed that relies on the judgements of multiple experts. A panel of seven geologists and seismologists was assembled to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for the performance assessment model. A series of technical workshops focusing on these issues were conducted. Finally, each expert was individually interviewed in order to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. This report summarizes the methodologies used to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> the judgements of the earthquakes and tectonics experts (termed specialists''), and summarizes the technical assessments made by the expert panel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7559156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7559156"><span>Development of male urogenital epithelia <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by soluble mesenchymal factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shima, H; Tsuji, M; Elfman, F; Cunha, G R</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Androgen-dependent development of male secondary sexual glands is mediated by paracrine mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that regulate a complex array of biological <span class="hlt">events</span> such as epithelial morphogenesis, growth, and cytodifferentiation. It is not known whether the action of mesenchyme on epithelial development in the male genital tract requires cell-cell contact or whether soluble, diffusible mediators are involved. To examine paracrine effects of urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) on epithelial development, conditioned media (CM) from embryonic mouse UGM of normal (wild-type) and androgen-insensitive Tfm (testicular feminization) mice were tested for growth and morphogenetic effects on heterotypic tissue recombinants composed of rat or mouse bladder mesenchyme plus neonatal mouse seminal vesicle epithelium (BLM+SVE) or rat or mouse bladder mesenchyme plus neonatal mouse bulbourethral gland epithelium (BLM+BUG-E). Addition of a concentrate of CM from wild-type UGM grown in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced epithelial growth and complex epithelial morphogenesis in BLM+SVE recombinants, whereas CM from DHT-treated Tfm UGM or a saline control were without effect. CM from wild-type UGM <span class="hlt">elicited</span> similar trophic effects in BLM+BUG-E recombinants, but in addition induced precocious mucous epithelial differentiation in BLM+BUG-E recombinants. These results suggest that the normally androgen-dependent epithelial growth and branching morphogenesis in developing male urogenital organs is <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by soluble mesenchymal factors. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins synthesized and secreted by wild-type UGM revealed several androgen-dependent proteins with molecular weights of approximately 30 kDa that are absent in CM of Tfm UGM either in the presence or absence of DHT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23571026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23571026"><span>Noncanonical roles of the immune system in <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> oncogene addiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casey, Stephanie C; Bellovin, David I; Felsher, Dean W</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression, illustrating that cancers can be 'oncogene addicted' [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases must be excessively activated to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic <span class="hlt">events</span> and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is the description of the dramatic and sustained regression of some cancers upon the specific inactivation of a single oncogene [1-13,14(••),15,16(••)], that can occur through tumor intrinsic [1,2,4,12], but also host immune mechanisms [17-23]. Notably, oncogene inactivation <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16(••)]. Hence, immune effectors are not only critically involved in tumor prevention, initiation [17-19], and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21,22(••),23(••)]. Understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both robust tumor intrinsic and immunological responses, effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683588"><span>Noncanonical Roles of the Immune System in <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Oncogene Addiction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Casey, Stephanie C.; Bellovin, David I.; Felsher, Dean W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression illustrating that cancers can be “oncogene addicted” [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases necessarily their surfeit of activation is paramaount to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic <span class="hlt">events</span> and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is mediated both through both tumor intrinsic cell-autonomous mechanisms including proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular senescence [1,2,4,12] but also host-dependent mechanisms that interact with these tumor intrinsic programs [14,15]. Notably, oncogene inactivation <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16]. Hence, immune effectors are critically involved in tumor initiation and prevention [17-19] and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21-23]. The understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both a robust tumor intrinsic as well as immunological effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. PMID:23571026</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753097"><span><span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>: An alternative imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for use in multi-criteria decision analysis for healthcare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective In this paper, the readers are introduced to <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>, an imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. Methods The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers’ (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. Results The criteria were ranked from 1–5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. Conclusions <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs’ preferences are available to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> decision criteria weights. PMID:26361235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696293"><span>Bayesian markets to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> private information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baillon, Aurélien</p> <p>2017-07-25</p> <p>Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., "Are you satisfied with your life?") or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their "type") as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others' types are correlated with one's own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of metabeliefs regarding others' signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5544302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5544302"><span>Bayesian markets to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> private information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., “Are you satisfied with your life?”) or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their “type”) as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others’ types are correlated with one’s own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of metabeliefs regarding others’ signals. PMID:28696293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955211"><span>Cigarette smoke <span class="hlt">elicits</span> relaxation of renal arteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halmai, Richárd; Szijártó, István András; Fehér, Eszter; Fésüs, Gábor; Molnár, Gergo A; Brasnyó, Pál; Fülöp, Ferenc; Gollasch, Maik; Koller, Akos; Wittmann, István</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies suggest that cigarette smoking - probably by <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> hyperperfusion - increases glomerular filtration rate; thus, we hypothesized that cigarette smoke affects the vasomotor tone of renal arteries. Acute changes in the resistance index of a segmental renal artery were measured in healthy individuals during smoking. In addition, the effects of water-soluble components of cigarette smoke on the isometric tension of isolated rat renal arteries were investigated in various conditions. In humans, cigarette smoking transiently reduced the resistance index of the renal artery segments (83·25 ± 5·67% of the baseline, P < 0·05). In the experimental model, water-soluble components of cigarette smoke (wCS) - either nicotinic or nicotine-free - <span class="hlt">elicited</span> dose-dependent relaxations of rat isolated renal arteries (1% solution of nicotinic wCS: 41·18 ± 14·86% relaxation, 5% nicotinic wCS: 79·28 ± 8·91% relaxation, 10% nicotinic wCS 90·3 ± 6·1% relaxation, P < 0·05), which were not affected by removal of the endothelium, or by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor oxadiazolo-quinoxalin-1, or the non specific potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, or the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide. However, relaxations were reduced by catalase (1000 U mL⁻¹ catalase + 5% nicotinic wCS: 49·71 ± 18·4%, P < 0·05) and enhanced by superoxide dismutase (200 U mL⁻¹ SOD + 5% nicotinic wCS: 95·7 ± 2·3%, P < 0·05). On the basis of these findings, we propose that cigarette smoking could contribute to the increased glomerular filtration rate observed in healthy smokers. In addition, cigarette smoke via hydrogen peroxide mediation reduces vasomotor tone of renal arteries, which could lead to hyperperfusion of kidneys. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15214937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15214937"><span>Mifepristone (Ru486) antagonizes monocyte chemotactic protein-3 down-regulation at <span class="hlt">early</span> mouse pregnancy revealing immunomodulatory <span class="hlt">events</span> in Ru486 induced abortion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nautiyal, Jaya; Kumar, Pradeep G; Laloraya, Malini</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The survival of an embryo bearing the paternal antigens within the immunocompetent environment of the maternal uterus renders 'pregnancy' to be a state of immunological paradox. The ratio of Th1/Th2 responses is crucial for pregnancy maintenance. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 (MCP3) is a pro-inflammatory, CC chemokine and a Th1 effector which is capable of <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> significant anti-tumoral immune responses. MCP3 expression was investigated in the murine uterine tissue at different days of initial pregnancy and the effect of RU 486 in immature and delayed implantation model studied using Western blotting and Immunocytochemical techniques. Our results show very high uterine MCP3 expression during pre-implantation followed by a significant MCP3 down-regulation at peri-implantation and low levels of MCP3 during post-implantation period. At the peri-implantation stage, embryos exhibited lowered MCP3 expression when compared with the pre-implantation stage. Ru486, a progesterone antagonist when given in a competitive mode with progesterone resulted in a massive surge in MCP3 expression in both immature mice and delayed implantation models. We hypothesize that it is imperative for MCP3 expression to be down-regulated for the success of pregnancy. The cross-talk between Ru486 and amplified MCP3 expression may be one of the mechanisms by way of which RU486 performs its abortificient and anti tumor role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972727','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972727"><span>Nipping Cue Reactivity in the Bud: Baclofen Prevents Limbic Activation <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> by Subliminal Drug Cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Teresa R.; Roberts, David C.S.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J.; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M.; O'Brien, Charles P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these <span class="hlt">early</span> cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen—a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals—could inhibit mesolimbic activation <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing—that which occurs outside of awareness—before it evolves into a less manageable state. PMID:24695721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101422"><span>Lack of <span class="hlt">early</span> inbreeding depression and distribution of selfing rates in the neotropical emergent tree Ceiba pentandra: Assessment from several reproductive <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lobo, Jorge A; Jiménez, Dennis; Solís-Hernández, Wendy; Fuchs, Eric J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Selfing and mixed mating systems are prevalent in many flowering plants. Purging of genetic load can occur in these species, reducing negative effects of selfing. Long-term studies of the temporal and spatial variation of selfing rates and inbreeding depression at the individual level are necessary to understand the forces that maintain selfing as a mating strategy in these species. We used microsatellites to estimate selfing rates in seeds and seedlings over 6 years in a population of Ceiba pentandra in southwestern Costa Rica. We studied the correlation of selfing with <span class="hlt">early</span> seedling vigor variables to test for inbreeding depression. Selfing rates varied widely among maternal trees. However, we found high consistency of selfing rates for individuals among years. Selfing rate did not influence <span class="hlt">early</span> fitness traits, suggesting a lack of inbreeding depression at this stage. Maternal effects were a predominant source of variation for <span class="hlt">early</span> vigor variables. Variability in selfing rates among trees may be partly explained by genetic variation in a late-acting self-incompatibility system or low, <span class="hlt">early</span>-acting genetic load in some individuals. This population did not show evidence of <span class="hlt">early</span> inbreeding depression in traits related to seed vigor probably from complete or partial purging as a result of repeated selfing of a fraction of the population or from strong maternal effects. Expression of genetic load at later developmental stages or in more stressful natural conditions may explain differences in inbreeding levels between seeds and adults. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374241"><span>Snake pictures draw more <span class="hlt">early</span> attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of <span class="hlt">early</span> and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the <span class="hlt">early</span> capture of visual attention and that <span class="hlt">early</span> attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27219743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27219743"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family <span class="hlt">Events</span>, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. We aimed to study the relation of <span class="hlt">early</span> TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, "stressful" family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and sex as possible effect modifiers. We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child's first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and sex was investigated. An interquartile range (26 μg/m 3 ) increase in NO x levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful <span class="hlt">events</span>, or in girls (all interaction p -values < 0.2). This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of <span class="hlt">early</span> TRAP exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Iceland&pg=5&id=EJ1133041','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Iceland&pg=5&id=EJ1133041"><span>The Influence of Negative Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> and Problem Behavior on Grades in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence: Pathways to Academic Risk in the Middle Grades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Smith, Megan L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Younger adolescents demonstrate a greater vulnerability to negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> than do older adolescents and adults. The authors examined whether this heightened vulnerability includes a greater likelihood for participating in problem behaviors associated with poor academic outcomes and receiving lower grades. The study was conducted using data…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29165742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29165742"><span>Calculation of HAS-BLED Score Is Useful for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Identification of Venous Thromboembolism Patients at High Risk for Major Bleeding <span class="hlt">Events</span>: A Prospective Outpatients Cohort Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rief, Peter; Raggam, Reinhard Bernd; Hafner, Franz; Avian, Alexander; Hackl, Gerald; Cvirn, Gerhard; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas</p> <p>2017-11-17</p> <p>The aim of this study was prospective evaluation of the performance of the HAS-BLED score in predicting major bleeding complications in a real-world outpatient cohort, during long-term anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE), treated with a broad spectrum of anticoagulants. We analyzed 111 outpatients objectively diagnosed with VTE and treated long-term with various anticoagulants. Patients were grouped in three cohorts based on the anticoagulant regimen. Calculation of the HAS-BLED score and documentation of bleeding <span class="hlt">events</span> were performed every 6 months for 1 year. Patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 had an increased risk for major bleeding <span class="hlt">events</span> (odds ratio [OR]: 13.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-692.58, p  = 0.028) and a trend to higher risk for minor bleeding <span class="hlt">events</span> as well (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 0.87-5.85, p  = 0.091) when compared with patients with a HAS-BLED score < 3.This indicates that a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 allows for identification of patients with VTE on long-term anticoagulation at an increased risk for major bleeding <span class="hlt">events</span>, irrespective of the anticoagulant agent used. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252248&keyword=Tumors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252248&keyword=Tumors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Development of a Systems Computational Model to Investigate <span class="hlt">Early</span> Biological <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Hepatic Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by Phenobarbital</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Activation of the nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active/androstane receptor) is implicated in the control several key biological <span class="hlt">events</span> such as metabolic pathways. Here, we combined data from literature with information obtained from in vitro assays in the US EPA ToxCast dat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126144"><span>Breaking Narrative Ground: Innovative Methods for Rigorously <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> and Assessing Patient Narratives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Parker, Andrew M; Shaller, Dale; Barre, Lacey Rose; Martino, Steven C; Finucane, Melissa L; Rybowski, Lise; Cerully, Jennifer L</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>To design a methodology for rigorously <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> narratives about patients' experiences with clinical care that is potentially useful for public reporting and quality improvement. Two rounds of experimental data (N = 48 each) collected in 2013-2014, using a nationally representative Internet panel. Our study (1) articulates and operationalizes criteria for assessing narrative <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> protocols; (2) establishes a "gold standard" for assessment of such protocols; and (3) creates and tests a protocol for narratives about outpatient treatment experiences. We randomized participants between telephone and web-based modalities and between protocols placed before and after a closed-ended survey. <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> narratives can be assessed relative to a gold standard using four criteria: (1) meaningfulness, (2) completeness, (3) whether the narrative accurately reflects the balance of positive and negative <span class="hlt">events</span>, and (4) representativeness, which reflects the protocol's performance across respondent subgroups. We demonstrate that a five-question protocol that has been tested and refined yields three- to sixfold increases in completeness and four- to tenfold increases in meaningfulness, compared to a single open-ended question. It performs equally well for healthy and sick patients. Narrative <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> protocols suitable for inclusion in extant patient experience surveys can be designed and tested against objective performance criteria, thus advancing the science of public reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160312','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160312"><span>Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of population-level effects of disturbance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....51..390T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....51..390T"><span>Web-based tool for expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of the variogram</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of the marginal probability distribution and <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently <span class="hlt">elicit</span> the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610972"><span>Expert <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=3&id=EJ1059035','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=3&id=EJ1059035"><span>Parents' Strategies to <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> child's participation and recall during past <span class="hlt">event</span> conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=336539','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=336539"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> protection <span class="hlt">events</span> in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at <span class="hlt">early</span> times post-vaccina...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446967"><span>Social conflicts <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an N400-like component.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>When people have different opinions, they often adjust their own attitude to match that of others, known as social conformity. How social conflicts trigger subsequent conformity remains unclear. One possibility is that a conflict with the group opinion is perceived as a violation of social information, analogous to using wrong grammar, and activates conflict monitoring and adjustment mechanisms. Using <span class="hlt">event</span> related potential (ERP) recording combined with a face attractiveness judgment task, we investigated the neural encoding of social conflicts. We found that social conflicts <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an N400-like negative deflection, being more negative for conflict with group opinions than no-conflict condition. The social conflict related signals also have a bi-directional profile similar to reward prediction error signals: it was more negative for under-estimation (i.e. one׳s own ratings were smaller than group ratings) than over-estimation, and the larger the differences between ratings, the larger the N400 amplitude. The N400 effects were significantly diminished in the non-social condition. We conclude that social conflicts are encoded in a bidirectional fashion in the N400-like component, similar to the pattern of reward-based prediction error signals. Our findings also suggest that the N400, a well-established ERP component encoding semantic violation, might be involved in social conflict processing and social learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456973"><span>Music can <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a visual motion aftereffect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T"><span>Acting green <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a literal warm glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) <span class="hlt">elicits</span> psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292438"><span>Incidence, predictors, origin and prevention of <span class="hlt">early</span> and late neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): a comprehensive review of current data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kahlert, Philipp; Al-Rashid, Fadi; Plicht, Björn; Hildebrandt, Heike; Patsalis, Polykarpos; Chilali, Karim El; Wendt, Daniel; Thielmann, Matthias; Bergmann, Lars; Kottenberg, Eva; Schlamann, Marc; Eggebrecht, Holger; Jakob, Heinz; Heusch, Gerd; Konorza, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel treatment option for patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve stenosis considered inoperable or at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. Despite rapid adoption of this technology into clinical application, however, recent randomized controlled clinical trials have raised safety concerns regarding an increased risk of neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> with TAVI compared to both medical treatment and conventional, surgical aortic valve replacement. Moreover, neuro-imaging studies have revealed an even higher incidence of new, albeit clinically silent cerebral lesions as a surrogate for procedural embolization. In this article, we review currently available data on the incidence, timing, predictors, prognostic implications and potential mechanisms of neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> after TAVI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859854"><span>The role of temporal abundance structure and habitat preferences in the survival of conodonts during the mid-<span class="hlt">early</span> Silurian Ireviken mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spiridonov, Andrej; Brazauskas, Antanas; Radzevičius, Sigitas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span> was one of the most intense extinction episodes that occurred during the mid-Paleozoic era. It had a strong global effect on a range of clades, with conodonts, graptolites and chitinozoans affected most. Using geophysical proxies and conodont species parameters of their temporal abundance structure we investigate how they affected the selectivity of conodont species survival during this calamity. After performing bivariate logistic analyses on 34 species of conodonts, we find three variables that were statistically significantly associated with their odds of survival. These namely include spectral exponents that describe degrees of autocorrelation in a time series, the skewness of species abundance distribution, and average environmental preferences, which are mostly determined by ancient water depths at sampling sites. Model selection of multivariate logistic models found the best model includes species local abundance skewness and substrate preference. A similar pattern is revealed through the regression tree analysis. The apparent extinction selectivity points to a possible causes of environmental deterioration during the Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span>. The significant positive relationship between extinction risk and preferential existence in deeper environments suggests the open ocean causal mechanisms of biotic stress that occurred during the Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span>. Marine regressions, which were previously suggested as a causal factor in this extinction episode, on theoretical grounds should have had higher impact on species living in near-shore environments, through the processes of habitat loss which are associated with decreases of shelfal areas. In addition, the significant positive correlations found between skewness of abundance distributions and spectral exponent values and the probability of species survival suggest that community and ecosystem processes (which controlled species abundance fluctuation patterns) were significantly related to selectivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393138','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393138"><span>The Role of Temporal Abundance Structure and Habitat Preferences in the Survival of Conodonts during the Mid-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Silurian Ireviken Mass Extinction <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spiridonov, Andrej; Brazauskas, Antanas; Radzevičius, Sigitas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span> was one of the most intense extinction episodes that occurred during the mid-Paleozoic era. It had a strong global effect on a range of clades, with conodonts, graptolites and chitinozoans affected most. Using geophysical proxies and conodont species parameters of their temporal abundance structure we investigate how they affected the selectivity of conodont species survival during this calamity. After performing bivariate logistic analyses on 34 species of conodonts, we find three variables that were statistically significantly associated with their odds of survival. These namely include spectral exponents that describe degrees of autocorrelation in a time series, the skewness of species abundance distribution, and average environmental preferences, which are mostly determined by ancient water depths at sampling sites. Model selection of multivariate logistic models found the best model includes species local abundance skewness and substrate preference. A similar pattern is revealed through the regression tree analysis. The apparent extinction selectivity points to a possible causes of environmental deterioration during the Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span>. The significant positive relationship between extinction risk and preferential existence in deeper environments suggests the open ocean causal mechanisms of biotic stress that occurred during the Ireviken <span class="hlt">event</span>. Marine regressions, which were previously suggested as a causal factor in this extinction episode, on theoretical grounds should have had higher impact on species living in near-shore environments, through the processes of habitat loss which are associated with decreases of shelfal areas. In addition, the significant positive correlations found between skewness of abundance distributions and spectral exponent values and the probability of species survival suggest that community and ecosystem processes (which controlled species abundance fluctuation patterns) were significantly related to selectivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878230"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> aquatic physical therapy improves function and does not increase risk of wound-related adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> for adults after orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villalta, Elizabeth M; Peiris, Casey L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To investigate whether <span class="hlt">early</span> postoperative aquatic physical therapy is a low-risk and effective form of physical therapy to improve functional outcomes after orthopedic surgery. Databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, and PEDro were searched from the earliest date available until October 2011. Additional trials were identified by searching reference lists and citation tracking. Controlled trials evaluating the effects of aquatic physical therapy on adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> for adults <3 months after orthopedic surgery. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and any disagreements were discussed until consensus could be reached. Searching identified 5069 potentially relevant articles, of which 8 controlled trials with 287 participants met inclusion criteria. A predefined data extraction form was completed in detail for each included study by 1 reviewer and checked for accuracy by another. Methodologic quality of included trials was assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the PEDro scale. Pooled analyses were performed using random effects model with inverse variance methods to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (continuous outcomes) and risk difference and 95% CIs (dichotomous outcomes). When compared with land-based physical therapy, <span class="hlt">early</span> aquatic physical therapy does not increase the risk of wound-related adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (risk difference=.01, 95% CI -.05 to .07) and results in improved performance of activities of daily living (SMD=.33, 95% CI=.07-.58, I(2)=0%). There were no significant differences in edema (SMD=-.27, 95% CI=-.81 to .27, I(2)=58%) or pain (SMD=-.06, 95% CI=-.50 to .38, I(2)=32%). After orthopedic surgery aquatic physical therapy improves function and does not increase the risk of wound-related adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> and is as effective as land-based therapy in terms of pain, edema, strength, and range of motion in the <span class="hlt">early</span> postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4391229','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4391229"><span>Updating in working memory predicts greater emotion reactivity to and facilitated recovery from negative emotion-<span class="hlt">eliciting</span> stimuli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pe, Madeline L.; Koval, Peter; Houben, Marlies; Erbas, Yasemin; Champagne, Dominique; Kuppens, Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>That emotions change in response to emotion-<span class="hlt">eliciting</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> is a natural part of human life. However, it is equally important for emotions to return to baseline once the emotion-<span class="hlt">eliciting</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> have passed. This suggests that the ability to emotionally react to and recover from emotion-<span class="hlt">eliciting</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> is critical for healthy psychological functioning. But why do individuals differ in their emotion reactivity and recovery? The present work postulates that the ability to update emotional information in working memory (WM) may explain individual differences in emotion reactivity and recovery. Two studies are presented, which examined whether updating ability was related to emotion reactivity and recovery. In Study 1, we assessed participants' self-reported affect as they viewed negative and positive films. Our results revealed that better updating ability was related to greater emotion reactivity and facilitated (i.e., quicker) recovery from watching negative films. In Study 2, participants recalled a recent angering <span class="hlt">event</span>, and were then instructed to either ruminate about or reappraise the <span class="hlt">event</span>. Results revealed that updating ability was again related to greater emotion reactivity and facilitated (i.e., successful) emotion recovery in response to the angering <span class="hlt">event</span>, and that this was unrelated to the emotion regulation strategy used. These findings identify the ability to update emotional information in WM as a possible mechanism in emotion responding. PMID:25914655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14565826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14565826"><span>Bcl2-independent chromatin cleavage is a very <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> during induction of apoptosis in mouse thymocytes after treatment with either dexamethasone or ionizing radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hahn, Peter J; Lai, Zhi-Wei; Nevaldine, Barbara; Schiff, Ninel; Fiore, Nancy C; Silverstone, Allen E</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>We have quantified the emergence of <span class="hlt">early</span> chromatin breaks during the signal transduction phase of apoptosis in mouse thymocytes after treatment with either ionizing radiation or dexamethasone. Dexamethasone at 1 microM can induce significant levels of DNA breaks (equivalent to the amount induced directly by 7.5 Gy ionizing radiation) within 0.5 h of treatment. The execution phase of apoptosis was not observed until 4-6 h after the same treatment. The presence of the Bcl2 transgene under the control of the p56lck promoter almost completely inhibited apoptosis up to 24 h after treatment, but it had virtually no effect on the <span class="hlt">early</span> chromatin cleavage occurring in the first 6 h. Ionizing radiation induced chromatin cleavage both directly by damaging DNA and indirectly with kinetics similar to the induction of chromatin cleavage by dexamethasone. The presence of the Bcl2 transgene had no effect on the direct or indirect radiation-induced cleavage in the first 6 h, but after the first 6 h, the Bcl2 gene inhibited further radiation-induced chromatin cleavage. These results suggest that endonucleases are activated within minutes of treatment with either dexamethasone or ionizing radiation as part of the very <span class="hlt">early</span> signal transduction phase of apoptosis, and prior to the irreversible commitment to cell death.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiders&pg=5&id=EJ799960','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiders&pg=5&id=EJ799960"><span>Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> Selective Responding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words <span class="hlt">elicit</span> slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+altruism&pg=5&id=EJ355345','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+altruism&pg=5&id=EJ355345"><span>Some Interpersonal Effects of Imposing Guilt Versus <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Altruism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubin, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Warren F.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Participants observed a videotaped interpersonal conflict involving two friends with the videotaped protagonist making a request by imposing guilt or <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> altruism. When altruism was <span class="hlt">elicited</span> instead of guilt imposed, participants found the protagonist more likable and respected and indicated they would be more likely to comply and less…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+cognitive+AND+development&pg=6&id=EJ893955','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+cognitive+AND+development&pg=6&id=EJ893955"><span><span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the effects of <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were <span class="hlt">elicited</span> through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117900"><span>Molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> surrounding collagen fibril assembly in the <span class="hlt">early</span> healing rabbit medial collateral ligament--failure to recapitulate normal ligament development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Achari, Yamini; Chin, Jessica W S; Heard, Bryan J; Rattner, Jerome B; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>??Although injuries to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) can heal functionally without surgical intervention, the collagen fibers in the healing tissue remain compromised. The molecular basis for this poor healing potential was investigated by examining extracellular matrix-modifying molecules such as bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1), procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE), lysyl oxidase (LOX), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) involved in collagen fibrillogenesis during normal <span class="hlt">early</span> postnatal ligament maturation and at comparable intervals after MCL injury. Samples of midsections of rabbit MCLs were collected from 3-, 6-, 14-, and 52-week-old normal animals and at 3, 6, and 14 weeks postinjury. Harvested midsubstance tissues were analyzed for collagen fibril diameter by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed different patterns of expression between normal MCL maturation and during scar maturation. BMP-1 and PCOLCE mRNA levels were upregulated in the 3?14-week period during maturation of normal ligaments but decreased at skeletal maturity. The scar tissue exhibited a 3.5-fold increase in PCOLCE mRNA levels during the <span class="hlt">early</span> healing phase, but these decreased with time. After injury, BMP-1 mRNA levels in scars were low and did not change during healing. Both LOX and TGF-β1 mRNA levels were low during normal MCL development compared with levels at maturity and exhibited elevated mRNA levels during <span class="hlt">early</span> healing that decreased with time postinjury. These results suggest that gene expression in scars during MCL healing does not recapitulate expression in normal ligament fibroblasts during maturation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137744"><span>Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by Musical Cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the <span class="hlt">event</span>, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally <span class="hlt">elicit</span> memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general <span class="hlt">event</span>, and <span class="hlt">event</span>-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memories associated with musical cues. These musical cues led to the retrieval of highly emotional memories that had low levels of prior retrieval. Retrieval of all autobiographical memory levels was associated with activity in regions in the autobiographical memory network, specifically the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and right medial temporal lobe. Owing to the use of music, memories from varying levels of specificity were retrieved, allowing for comparison of <span class="hlt">event</span> memory and abstract personal knowledge, as well as comparison of specific and general <span class="hlt">event</span> memory. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal regions were engaged during <span class="hlt">event</span> retrieval relative to personal knowledge retrieval, and retrieval of specific <span class="hlt">event</span> memories was associated with increased activity in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to retrieval of general <span class="hlt">event</span> memories. These results suggest that the initial search processes for memories of different specificity levels preferentially engage different components of the autobiographical memory network. The potential underlying causes of these neural differences are discussed. PMID:21600227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600227"><span>Differential neural activity during search of specific and general autobiographical memories <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by musical cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the <span class="hlt">event</span>, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally <span class="hlt">elicit</span> memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general <span class="hlt">event</span>, and <span class="hlt">event</span>-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memories associated with musical cues. These musical cues led to the retrieval of highly emotional memories that had low levels of prior retrieval. Retrieval of all autobiographical memory levels was associated with activity in regions in the autobiographical memory network, specifically the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and right medial temporal lobe. Owing to the use of music, memories from varying levels of specificity were retrieved, allowing for comparison of <span class="hlt">event</span> memory and abstract personal knowledge, as well as comparison of specific and general <span class="hlt">event</span> memory. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal regions were engaged during <span class="hlt">event</span> retrieval relative to personal knowledge retrieval, and retrieval of specific <span class="hlt">event</span> memories was associated with increased activity in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to retrieval of general <span class="hlt">event</span> memories. These results suggest that the initial search processes for memories of different specificity levels preferentially engage different components of the autobiographical memory network. The potential underlying causes of these neural differences are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SedG..253...47H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SedG..253...47H"><span>Middle Cambrian siliceous sponge-calcimicrobe buildups (Daegi Formation, Korea): Metazoan buildup constituents in the aftermath of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian extinction <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Jongsun; Cho, Seong-Hyeon; Choh, Suk-Joo; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Numerous decimetre- to metre-scale carbonate buildups dominated by siliceous sponges and the calcimicrobe Epiphyton are reported from the Middle Cambrian (Series 3) Daegi Formation of Korea. These siliceous sponge-Epiphyton buildups consist predominantly of grey micritic boundstones with dark clots and/or white clumps. The boundstones contain sponge spicule networks interpreted as the calcified remains of siliceous sponges. The white clumps and dark clots in the boundstones represent variously preserved Epiphyton. Siliceous sponges form constructional pore space and are commonly encrusted by Epiphyton. The sponges were probably the primary frame-builders, providing substrates for the attachment and subsequent growth of Epiphyton. Epiphyton is considered to be a binder when covering the surface of siliceous sponges, and a subordinate frame-builder when filling depositional voids created by siliceous sponges or growing on top of other Epiphyton growth bundles. The siliceous sponge-Epiphyton buildups of the Daegi Formation show similarities to previously described Late Cambrian (Furongian) anthaspidellid-calcimicrobe buildups from Iran and the USA. Together with recently reported examples from the Zhangxia Formation of eastern China, the sponge-Epiphyton buildups from Korea represent some of the oldest metazoan-calcimicrobe buildups, after the extinction of most archaeocyaths at the end of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cambrian (Series 2). This implies that the incorporation of metazoans in Middle Cambrian (Series 3) carbonate buildups occurred much earlier than previously known. The buildup-forming siliceous sponges described in this study demonstrate that their role in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Phanerozoic carbonate buildups has been grossly underestimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654098','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654098"><span>FOXM1 Upregulation Is an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and it Is Enhanced by Nicotine during Malignant Transformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Bose, Amrita; Riaz, Adeel M.; Chaplin, Tracy; Young, Bryan D.; Ali, Muhammad; Sugden, David; Thurlow, Johanna K.; Cheong, Sok-Ching; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Wan, Hong; Waseem, Ahmad; Parkinson, Eric K.; Fortune, Farida; Teh, Muy-Teck</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective <span class="hlt">early</span> biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients) consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR), expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to ‘trace’ the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23), were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression. Conclusions/Significance This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21613503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21613503"><span>Similar odorants <span class="hlt">elicit</span> different behavioral and physiological responses, some supersustained.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montague, Shelby A; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R</p> <p>2011-05-25</p> <p>An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant-receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they <span class="hlt">elicit</span> from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which <span class="hlt">elicit</span> strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, <span class="hlt">elicit</span> dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations <span class="hlt">elicit</span> remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term "supersustained" responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that <span class="hlt">elicit</span> such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3116233','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3116233"><span>Similar Odorants <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> Different Behavioral and Physiological Responses, Some Supersustained</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Montague, Shelby A.; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant–receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they <span class="hlt">elicit</span> from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which <span class="hlt">elicit</span> strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, <span class="hlt">elicit</span> dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations <span class="hlt">elicit</span> remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term “supersustained” responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that <span class="hlt">elicit</span> such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates. PMID:21613503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339393"><span>Dietary change and reduced breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> among women without hot flashes after treatment of <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage breast cancer: subgroup analysis of the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pierce, John P; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J; Flatt, Shirley W; Kealey, Sheila; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Newman, Vicky A; Rock, Cheryl L; Pu, Minya; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Parker, Barbara</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>A diet high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat decreased additional risk of secondary breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> in women without hot flashes (HF-) compared with that in women with hot flashes (HF+), possibly through lowered concentrations of circulating estrogens. The objective was to investigate the intervention effect by baseline quartiles of dietary pattern among breast cancer survivors in the HF- subgroup of the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. A randomized controlled trial compared a putative cancer prevention diet with a diet of 5 servings of vegetables and fruit daily in <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage breast cancer survivors. Participants did not experience hot flashes at baseline (n = 896). We confirmed cancer status for 96% of participants approximately 7.3 y after enrollment. The study intervention achieved a large between-group difference in dietary pattern that, at 4 y, was not significantly different across baseline quartiles of dietary pattern. The intervention group experienced fewer breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> than did the comparison group for all of the baseline quartiles. This difference was significant only in upper baseline quartiles of intake of vegetables, fruit, and fiber and in the lowest quartile of fat. A significant trend for fewer breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> was observed across quartiles of vegetable-fruit and fiber consumption. The secondary analysis showing the decreased risk in the HF- subgroup was not explained by amount of change in dietary pattern achieved. The difference was strongest in the quartile with the most putatively cancer-preventive dietary pattern at baseline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20376690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20376690"><span>Monitoring of all-cause mortality in Belgium (Be-MOMO): a new and automated system for the <span class="hlt">early</span> detection and quantification of the mortality impact of public health <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, Bianca; Wuillaume, Françoise; Van Oyen, Herman; Maes, Sophie</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Be-MOMO is the monitoring of all-cause death registry data in Belgium. The new methods are described and the detection and quantification of outbreaks is presented for the period April 2006-March 2007. Sensitivity, specificity and timeliness are illustrated by means of a temporal comparison with known health <span class="hlt">events</span>. Relevant <span class="hlt">events</span> are identified from important mortality risks: climate, air pollution and influenza. Baselines and thresholds for deaths by gender, age group, day and week are estimated by the method of Farrington et al. (J R Stat Soc Ser A, 159:547-563, 1996). By adding seasonal terms to the basic model, a complete 5-year reference period can be used, while a reduction of noise allows the application to daily counts. Ignoring two false positives, all flags could be classified into five distinct outbreaks, coinciding with four heat periods and an influenza epidemic. Negative deviations from expected mortality in autumn and winter might reflect a displacement of mortality by the heat waves. Still, significant positive excess was found during five influenza weeks. Correcting for the delay in registration of deaths, outbreaks could be detected as soon as 1-2 weeks after the <span class="hlt">event</span>. The sensitivity of Be-MOMO to different health threats suggests its potential usefulness in <span class="hlt">early</span> warning: mortality thresholds and baselines might serve as rapid tools for detecting and quantifying outbreaks, crucial for public health decision-making and evaluation of measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28483572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28483572"><span><span