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Sample records for early events elicited

  1. Early Events of the Reaction Elicited by CSF-470 Melanoma Vaccine Plus Adjuvants: An In Vitro Analysis of Immune Recruitment and Cytokine Release.

    PubMed

    Pampena, María B; Barrio, María M; Juliá, Estefanía P; Blanco, Paula A; von Euw, Erika M; Mordoh, José; Levy, Estrella Mariel

    2017-01-01

    In a previous work, we showed that CSF-470 vaccine plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as adjuvants resulted in a significant benefit in the distant metastasis-free survival when comparing vaccinated vs . IFN-α2b-treated high-risk cutaneous melanoma patients in a Phase II study. Immune monitoring demonstrated an increase in anti-tumor innate and adaptive immunities of vaccinated patients, with a striking increase in IFN-γ secreting lymphocytes specific for melanoma antigens (Ags). In an effort to dissect the first steps of the immune response elicited by CSF-470 vaccine plus adjuvants, we evaluated, in an in vitro model, leukocyte migration, cytokine production, and monocyte phagocytosis of vaccine cells. Our results demonstrate that leukocytes recruitment, mostly from the innate immune system, is an early event after CSF-470 vaccine plus BCG plus GM-CSF interaction with immune cells, possibly explained by the high expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and other chemokines by vaccine cells. Early release of TNF-α and IL-1β pro-inflammatory cytokines and efficient tumor Ags phagocytosis by monocytes take place and would probably create a favorable context for Ag processing and presentation. Although the presence of the vaccine cells hampered cytokines production stimulated by BCG in a mechanism partially mediated by TGF-β and IL-10, still significant levels of TNF-α and IL-1β could be detected. Thus, BCG was required to induce local inflammation in the presence of CSF-470 vaccine cells.

  2. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  3. Eliciting Systematic Rule Use in Covariation Judgment [the Early Years].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald

    Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…

  4. Early traumatic events in psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Comparison of Increasingly Detailed Elicitation Methods for the Assessment of Adverse Events in Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Fisher, Prudence; Levine, Jerome; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard; Chrisman, Allan K.; Chuang, Shirley; Findling, Robert L.; March, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the gathering of adverse events (AEs) in pediatric psychopharmacology by examining the value and acceptability of increasingly detailed elicitation methods. Method: Trained clinicians administered the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form (SMURF) to 59 parents and outpatients (mean age [+ or -] SD = 11.9 [+ or -] 3.2 years)…

  6. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  7. The elementary events of Ca2+ release elicited by membrane depolarization in mammalian muscle

    PubMed Central

    Csernoch, L; Zhou, J; Stern, M D; Brum, G; Ríos, E

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic [Ca2+] transients elicited by voltage clamp depolarization were examined by confocal line scanning of rat skeletal muscle fibres. Ca2+ sparks were observed in the fibres' membrane-permeabilized ends, but not in responses to voltage in the membrane-intact area. Elementary events of the depolarization-evoked response could be separated either at low voltages (near −50 mV) or at −20mV in partially inactivated cells. These were of lower amplitude, narrower and of much longer duration than sparks, similar to ‘lone embers’ observed in the permeabilized segments. Their average amplitude was 0.19 and spatial half-width 1.3 μm. Other parameters depended on voltage. At −50 mV average duration was 111 ms and latency 185 ms. At −20 mV duration was 203 ms and latency 24 ms. Ca2+ release current, calculated on an average of events, was nearly steady at 0.5–0.6 pA. Accordingly, simulations of the fluorescence event elicited by a subresolution source of 0.5 pA open for 100 ms had morphology similar to the experimental average. Because 0.5 pA is approximately the current measured for single RyR channels in physiological conditions, the elementary fluorescence events in rat muscle probably reflect opening of a single RyR channel. A reconstruction of cell-averaged release flux at −20 mV based on the observed distribution of latencies and calculated elementary release had qualitatively correct but slower kinetics than the release flux in prior whole-cell measurements. The qualitative agreement indicates that global Ca2+ release flux results from summation of these discrete events. The quantitative discrepancies suggest that the partial inactivation strategy may lead to events of greater duration than those occurring physiologically in fully polarized cells. PMID:14990680

  8. The elementary events of Ca2+ release elicited by membrane depolarization in mammalian muscle.

    PubMed

    Csernoch, L; Zhou, J; Stern, M D; Brum, G; Ríos, E

    2004-05-15

    Cytosolic [Ca(2+)] transients elicited by voltage clamp depolarization were examined by confocal line scanning of rat skeletal muscle fibres. Ca(2+) sparks were observed in the fibres' membrane-permeabilized ends, but not in responses to voltage in the membrane-intact area. Elementary events of the depolarization-evoked response could be separated either at low voltages (near -50 mV) or at -20 mV in partially inactivated cells. These were of lower amplitude, narrower and of much longer duration than sparks, similar to 'lone embers' observed in the permeabilized segments. Their average amplitude was 0.19 and spatial half-width 1.3 microm. Other parameters depended on voltage. At -50 mV average duration was 111 ms and latency 185 ms. At -20 mV duration was 203 ms and latency 24 ms. Ca(2+) release current, calculated on an average of events, was nearly steady at 0.5-0.6 pA. Accordingly, simulations of the fluorescence event elicited by a subresolution source of 0.5 pA open for 100 ms had morphology similar to the experimental average. Because 0.5 pA is approximately the current measured for single RyR channels in physiological conditions, the elementary fluorescence events in rat muscle probably reflect opening of a single RyR channel. A reconstruction of cell-averaged release flux at -20 mV based on the observed distribution of latencies and calculated elementary release had qualitatively correct but slower kinetics than the release flux in prior whole-cell measurements. The qualitative agreement indicates that global Ca(2+) release flux results from summation of these discrete events. The quantitative discrepancies suggest that the partial inactivation strategy may lead to events of greater duration than those occurring physiologically in fully polarized cells.

  9. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  10. Event-Related Potentials Elicited by Pre-Attentive Emotional Changes in Temporal Context

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100–200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200–260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context. PMID:23671693

  11. Event-related potentials elicited by pre-attentive emotional changes in temporal context.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100-200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200-260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context.

  12. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  13. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Lukowski, Angela F.; Milojevich, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research. PMID:27167994

  14. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.

  15. Event-related potentials elicited during working memory are altered in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Asta

    2013-01-01

    Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

  17. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting—in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking—when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential “child effects”, suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents’ educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting. PMID:26124539

  18. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting-in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking-when their children were very young ( M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential "child effects", suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents' educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting.

  19. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  20. The ESSENCE in child psychiatry: Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Co-existence of disorders--including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorder--and sharing of symptoms across disorders (sometimes referred to as comorbidity) is the rule rather than the exception in child psychiatry and developmental medicine. The acronym ESSENCE refers to Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations. It is a term I have coined to refer to the reality of children (and their parents) presenting in clinical settings with impairing child symptoms before age 3 (-5) years in the fields of (a) general development, (b) communication and language, (c) social inter-relatedness, (d) motor coordination, (e) attention, (f) activity, (g) behaviour, (h) mood, and/or (i) sleep. Children with major difficulties in one or more (usually several) of these fields, will be referred to and seen by health visitors, nurses, social workers, education specialists, pediatricians, GPs, speech and language therapists, child neurologists, child psychiatrists, psychologists, neurophysiologists, dentists, clinical geneticists, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, but, usually they will be seen only by one of these specialists, when they would have needed the input of two or more of the experts referred to. Major problems in at least one ESSENCE domain before age 5 years often signals major problems in the same or overlapping domains years later. There is no time to wait; something needs to be done, and that something is unlikely to be just in the area of speech and language, just in the area of autism or just in special education. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments

  2. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  3. Effects of Mild Cognitive Impairment on the Event-Related Brain Potential Components Elicited in Executive Control Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Zurrón, Montserrat; Lindín, Mónica; Cespón, Jesús; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Ramos-Goicoa, Marta; Díaz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We summarize here the findings of several studies in which we analyzed the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in healthy controls during performance of executive tasks. The objective of these studies was to investigate the neural functioning associated with executive processes in MCI. With this aim, we recorded the brain electrical activity generated in response to stimuli in three executive control tasks (Stroop, Simon, and Go/NoGo) adapted for use with the ERP technique. We found that the latencies of the ERP components associated with the evaluation and categorization of the stimuli were longer in participants with amnestic MCI than in the paired controls, particularly those with multiple-domain amnestic MCI, and that the allocation of neural resources for attending to the stimuli was weaker in participants with amnestic MCI. The MCI participants also showed deficient functioning of the response selection and preparation processes demanded by each task.

  4. Effects of Mild Cognitive Impairment on the Event-Related Brain Potential Components Elicited in Executive Control Tasks.

    PubMed

    Zurrón, Montserrat; Lindín, Mónica; Cespón, Jesús; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Ramos-Goicoa, Marta; Díaz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We summarize here the findings of several studies in which we analyzed the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in healthy controls during performance of executive tasks. The objective of these studies was to investigate the neural functioning associated with executive processes in MCI. With this aim, we recorded the brain electrical activity generated in response to stimuli in three executive control tasks (Stroop, Simon, and Go/NoGo) adapted for use with the ERP technique. We found that the latencies of the ERP components associated with the evaluation and categorization of the stimuli were longer in participants with amnestic MCI than in the paired controls, particularly those with multiple-domain amnestic MCI, and that the allocation of neural resources for attending to the stimuli was weaker in participants with amnestic MCI. The MCI participants also showed deficient functioning of the response selection and preparation processes demanded by each task.

  5. [Spatiotemporal pattern analysis of event-related potentials elicited by emotional Stroop task].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Ling; He, Hui; Zhou, Shu

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by emotional Stroop task. The ERPs of 19 channels were recorded from 13 healthy subjects while performing emotional Stroop task by pressing the buttons representing the colors in which the words denoting different emotions were displayed. A repeated-measures factorial design was adopted with three levels (word valence: positive, neutral and negative). The result of ERP analysis was presented in the form of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of F value. No significant difference was found in either reaction time or accuracy. The SPM of ERPs suggested significant emotional valence effects in the occipital region (200-220 ms), the left and central frontal regions (270-300 ms), and the bilateral temporal and parietal cortex (560-580 and 620-630 ms, respectively). Processing of task-irrelevant emotional valence information involves the dynamic operation of extensive brain regions. The ERPs are more sensitive than the behavioral indices in emotional evaluation.

  6. Deviance-elicited changes in event-related potentials are attenuated by ketamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrlichman, Richard S; Maxwell, Christina R; Majumdar, Sonalee; Siegel, Steven J

    2008-08-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit reduced ability to detect change in the auditory environment, which has been linked to abnormalities in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamate neurotransmission. This ability to detect changes in stimulus qualities can be measured with electroencephalography using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). For example, reductions in the N100 and mismatch negativity (MMN), in response to pitch deviance, have been proposed as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. This study examines a novel rodent model of impaired pitch deviance detection in mice using the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. ERPs were recorded from unanesthetized mice during a pitch deviance paradigm prior to and following ketamine administration. First, N40 amplitude was evaluated using stimuli between 4 and 10 kHz to assess the amplitude of responses across the frequency range used. The amplitude and latency of the N40 were analyzed following standard (7 kHz) and deviant (5-9 kHz) stimuli. Additionally, we examined which portions of the ERP are selectively altered by pitch deviance to define possible regions for the mouse MMN. Mice displayed increased N40 amplitude that was followed by a later negative component between 50 and 75 msec in response to deviant stimuli. Both the increased N40 and the late N40 negativity were attenuated by ketamine. Ketamine increased N40 latency for both standard and deviant stimuli alike. The mouse N40 and a subsequent temporal region have deviance response properties similar to the human N100 and, possibly, MMN. Deviance responses were abolished by ketamine, suggesting that ketamine-induced changes in mice mimic deviance detection deficits in schizophrenia.

  7. Single-trial classification of auditory event-related potentials elicited by stimuli from different spatial directions.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alvaro Fuentes; Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the single-trial classification of auditory event-related potentials elicited by sound stimuli from different spatial directions. Five naϊve subjects were asked to localize a sound stimulus reproduced over one of 8 loudspeakers placed in a circular array, equally spaced by 45°. The subject was seating in the center of the circular array. Due to the complexity of an eight classes classification, our approach consisted on feeding our classifier with two classes, or spatial directions, at the time. The seven chosen pairs were 0°, which was the loudspeaker directly in front of the subject, with all the other seven directions. The discrete wavelet transform was used to extract features in the time-frequency domain and a support vector machine performed the classification procedure. The average accuracy over all subjects and all pair of spatial directions was 76.5%, σ = 3.6. The results of this study provide evidence that the direction of a sound is encoded in single-trial auditory event-related potentials.

  8. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  9. Electroencephalographic study showing that tactile stimulation by fabrics of different qualities elicit graded event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, D; Handel, M; Müller, K-M; Hammer, T R

    2016-11-01

    Neurophysiologic data on reactions of the human brain towards tactile stimuli evoked by fabrics moved on the skin are scarce. Furthermore, evaluation of fabrics' pleasantness using questionnaires suffers subjective biases. That is why we used a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to objectively evaluate real-time brain reactions to fabric-skin interactions. Tactile stimuli were triggered by selected fabrics of different qualities, i.e. modal/polyamide single jersey, cotton double rib and a jute fabric, applied hidden to either the palm or forearm of 24 subjects via a custom-made fabric-to-skin applicator called SOFIA. One-way anova analysis was carried out to verify the EEG data. The modal/polyamide fabric applied to the forearm and palm led to slightly stronger emotional valence scores in the brain than the conventional or baseline fabric. Furthermore, the single jersey elicits significant higher event-related potential (ERP) signals in all subjects when applied to the forearm, suggesting less distraction and better cognitive resources during the fabric/skin interaction. The brain thus reacts with instantaneous ERP to tactile stimulation of fabrics and is able to discriminate different qualities via implicit preferences. The test procedure described here may be a tool to evaluate the fabric feel with the exclusion of subjective biases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Preserving the Past: An Early Interview Improves Delayed Event Memory in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Deirdre A; Lewis, Charlie N; Lamb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an early interview on children's (N = 194) later recall of an experienced event was examined in children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (CWID; 7–12 years) and typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological (7–12 years) or mental (4–9 years) age. Children previously interviewed were more informative, more accurate, and less suggestible. CWID (mild) recalled as much information as TD mental age matches, and were as accurate as TD chronological age matches. CWID (moderate) recalled less than TD mental age matches but were as accurate. Interviewers should elicit CWID's recall as early as possible and consider developmental level and severity of impairments when evaluating eyewitness testimony. PMID:25876042

  13. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  14. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  15. Lassa and Marburg viruses elicit distinct host transcriptional responses early after infection.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Yen, Judy Y; Hensley, Lisa E; Honko, Anna N; Goff, Arthur J; Connor, John H

    2014-11-06

    Lassa virus and Marburg virus are two causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever. Their diagnosis is difficult because patients infected with either pathogen present similar nonspecific symptoms early after infection. Current diagnostic tests are based on detecting viral proteins or nucleic acids in the blood, but these cannot be found during the early stages of disease, before the virus starts replicating in the blood. Using the transcriptional response of the host during infection can lead to earlier diagnoses compared to those of traditional methods. In this study, we use RNA sequencing to obtain a high-resolution view of the in vivo transcriptional dynamics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) throughout both types of infection. We report a subset of host mRNAs, including heat-shock proteins like HSPA1B, immunoglobulins like IGJ, and cell adhesion molecules like SIGLEC1, whose differences in expression are strong enough to distinguish Lassa infection from Marburg infection in non-human primates. We have validated these infection-specific expression differences by using microarrays on a larger set of samples, and by quantifying the expression of individual genes using RT-PCR. These results suggest that host transcriptional signatures are correlated with specific viral infections, and that they can be used to identify highly pathogenic viruses during the early stages of disease, before standard detection methods become effective.

  16. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  17. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  18. Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to extreme weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on extreme weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent extreme weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on extreme events.

  19. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M; Restrepo, Diego; Macklin, Wendy B

    2018-02-13

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1 -null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1 -null mice. Young adult Plp1- null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. © 2018, Gould et al.

  20. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M

    2018-01-01

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1-null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1-null mice. Young adult Plp1-null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. PMID:29436368

  1. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  2. Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Conway, Martin A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of photographs. SenseCam differs considerably from other prospective methods of generating retrieval cues because it does not disrupt the ongoing experience. This allowed us to control for potential gender differences in emotional processing and elaborative rehearsal, while manipulating how the AMs were elicited. We predicted that males would retrieve more richly experienced AMs elicited by the SenseCam images vs the verbal cues, whereas females would show equal sensitivity to both cues. The behavioural results indicated that there were no gender differences in subjective ratings of reliving, importance, vividness, emotion, and uniqueness, suggesting that gender differences in brain activity were not due to differences in these measures of phenomenological experience. Consistent with our predictions, the fMRI results revealed that males showed a greater difference in functional activity associated with the rich experience of SenseCam vs verbal cues, than did females.

  3. The cognitive nuances of surprising events: exposure to unexpected stimuli elicits firing variations in neurons of the dorsal CA1 hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Ornella; Mikus, Nace; Klausberger, Thomas

    2018-05-22

    The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment. In this study, we sought to determine dCA1 neuronal firing during the experience of novel stimuli embedded in familiar contexts. We performed population recordings while head-fixed mice navigated virtual environments. Three stimuli were employed, namely a novel pattern of visual cues, an odor, and a reward with enhanced valence. The encounter of unexpected events elicited profound variations in dCA1 that were assessed both as opposite rate directions and altered network connectivity. When experienced in sequence, novel stimuli elicited specific responses that often exhibited cross-sensitization. Short-latency, event-triggered responses were in accordance with the detection of novelty being computed within dCA1. We postulate that firing variations trigger neuronal disinhibition, and constitute a fundamental mechanism in the processing of unexpected events and in learning. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying detection and computation of novelty might help in understanding hippocampal-dependent cognitive dysfunctions associated with neuropathologies and psychiatric conditions.

  4. Early events governing memory CD8+ T-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obar, Joshua J; Lefrançois, Leo

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the regulation of the CD8(+) T-cell response and how protective memory cells are generated has been intensely studied. It is now appreciated that a naive CD8(+) T cell requires at least three signals to mount an effective immune response: (i) TCR triggering, (ii) co-stimulation and (iii) inflammatory cytokines. Only recently have we begun to understand the molecular integration of those signals and how early events regulate the fate decisions of the responding CD8(+) T cells. This review will discuss the recent findings about both the extracellular and intracellular factors that regulate the destiny of responding CD8(+) T cells.

  5. Impact Constraints on Major Events in Early Mars History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. Thus there appears to have been a northern lowland throughout nearly all of martian history, predating the last of the really large impacts (Hellas, Argyre and Isidis) and their likely very significant environmental consequences.

  6. Understanding patients and spouses experiences of patient education following a cardiac event and eliciting attitudes and preferences towards incorporating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Susie; Feldman, Susan; Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Finn, Judith

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a comprehensive perspective about the experience of patient and spousal education following an acute cardiac event. The second objective was to elicit an understanding of patient and spousal attitudes, preferences and intentions towards future cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Patients with cardiovascular disease require comprehensive patient and family education to ensure adequate long-term disease management. As cardiac patients are at risk of future cardiac events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation training to patients and family members has long been advocated. We conducted a qualitative study underpinned by phenomenology and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with cardiac patients and their spouses (N = 12 patient-spouse pairs) between March 2015-April 2016 purposively sampled from a cardiology ward. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Nine male and three female patients and their spouses were recruited. Ages ranged from 47-75 years. Four strongly interrelated themes emerged: the emotional response to the event, information, control and responsibility. There was evidence of positive attitudes and intentions from the TPB towards undertaking cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the future. Only the eldest patient spouse pair were not interested in undertaking training. Findings suggest cardiac patients and spouses have unmet education needs following an acute cardiac event. Information increased control and decreased negative emotions associated with diagnosis. Participants' preferences were for inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in cardiac rehabilitation programs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Plow, Ela B; Floden, Darlene P; Machado, Andre G

    2016-03-01

    Pain experience is not only a function of somatosensory inputs. Rather, it is strongly influenced by cognitive and affective pathways. Pain anticipatory phenomena, an important limitation to rehabilitative efforts in the chronic state, are processed by associative and limbic networks, along with primary sensory cortices. Characterization of neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation, particularly during very early stages of neural processing is critical for development of therapeutic interventions. Here, we utilized magnetoencephalography to study early event-related fields (ERFs) in healthy subjects exposed to a 3 s visual countdown task that preceded a painful stimulus, a non-painful stimulus or no stimulus. We found that the first countdown cue, but not the last cue, evoked critical ERFs signaling anticipation, attention and alertness to the noxious stimuli. Further, we found that P2 and N2 components were significantly different in response to first-cues that signaled incoming painful stimuli when compared to non-painful or no stimuli. The findings indicate that early ERFs are relevant neural substrates of pain anticipatory phenomena and could be potentially serve as biomarkers. These measures could assist in the development of neurostimulation approaches aimed at curbing the negative effects of pain anticipation during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SuperSAGE analysis of the Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome after fatty acid-amino acid elicitation (FAC): identification of early mediators of insect responses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants trigger and tailor defense responses after perception of the oral secretions (OS) of attacking specialist lepidopteran larvae. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the OS of the Manduca sexta larvae are necessary and sufficient to elicit the herbivory-specific responses in Nicotiana attenuata, an annual wild tobacco species. How FACs are perceived and activate signal transduction mechanisms is unknown. Results We used SuperSAGE combined with 454 sequencing to quantify the early transcriptional changes elicited by the FAC N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu) and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to examine the function of candidate genes in the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis targeted mRNAs encoding regulatory components: rare transcripts with very rapid FAC-elicited kinetics (increases within 60 and declines within 120 min). From 12,744 unique Tag sequences identified (UniTags), 430 and 117 were significantly up- and down-regulated ≥ 2.5-fold, respectively, after 18:3-Glu elicitation compared to wounding. Based on gene ontology classification, more than 25% of the annotated UniTags corresponded to putative regulatory components, including 30 transcriptional regulators and 22 protein kinases. Quantitative PCR analysis was used to analyze the FAC-dependent regulation of a subset of 27 of these UniTags and for most of them a rapid and transient induction was confirmed. Six FAC-regulated genes were functionally characterized by VIGS and two, a putative lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) and a protein of unknown function, were identified as important mediators of the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. Conclusions The analysis of the early changes in the transcriptome of N. attenuata after FAC elicitation using SuperSAGE/454 has identified regulatory genes involved in insect-specific mediated responses in plants. Moreover, it has provided a foundation for the identification of additional novel regulators associated with this

  9. SuperSAGE analysis of the Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome after fatty acid-amino acid elicitation (FAC): identification of early mediators of insect responses.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, Paola A; Schuck, Stefan; Jüngling, Ruth; Rotter, Björn; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2010-04-14

    Plants trigger and tailor defense responses after perception of the oral secretions (OS) of attacking specialist lepidopteran larvae. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the OS of the Manduca sexta larvae are necessary and sufficient to elicit the herbivory-specific responses in Nicotiana attenuata, an annual wild tobacco species. How FACs are perceived and activate signal transduction mechanisms is unknown. We used SuperSAGE combined with 454 sequencing to quantify the early transcriptional changes elicited by the FAC N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu) and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to examine the function of candidate genes in the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis targeted mRNAs encoding regulatory components: rare transcripts with very rapid FAC-elicited kinetics (increases within 60 and declines within 120 min). From 12,744 unique Tag sequences identified (UniTags), 430 and 117 were significantly up- and down-regulated >or= 2.5-fold, respectively, after 18:3-Glu elicitation compared to wounding. Based on gene ontology classification, more than 25% of the annotated UniTags corresponded to putative regulatory components, including 30 transcriptional regulators and 22 protein kinases. Quantitative PCR analysis was used to analyze the FAC-dependent regulation of a subset of 27 of these UniTags and for most of them a rapid and transient induction was confirmed. Six FAC-regulated genes were functionally characterized by VIGS and two, a putative lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) and a protein of unknown function, were identified as important mediators of the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis of the early changes in the transcriptome of N. attenuata after FAC elicitation using SuperSAGE/454 has identified regulatory genes involved in insect-specific mediated responses in plants. Moreover, it has provided a foundation for the identification of additional novel regulators associated with this process.

  10. Early event-related brain potentials that reflect interest for content information in the media.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shinobu; Morikawa, Koji; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2012-03-28

    This study investigated the relationship between event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to abridged content information in the media and the subsequent decisions to view the full content. Student volunteers participated in a task that simulated information selection on the basis of the content information. Screenshots of television clips and headlines of news articles on the Web were used as content information for the image condition and the headline condition, respectively. Following presentation of a stimulus containing content information, participants decided whether or not they would view the full content by pressing a select or a reject button. When the select button was pressed, participants were presented with a television clip or a news article. When the reject button was pressed, participants continued on to the next trial, without viewing further. In comparison with rejected stimuli, selected stimuli elicited a larger negative component, with a peak latency of ∼250 ms. The increase in the negative component was independent of the type of visual stimulus. These results suggest that interest toward content information is reflected in early-stage event-related brain potential responses.

  11. Early Intravascular Events are Associated with Development of ARDS.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Gunderson, Tina; Barkas, Ioanna; Timmons, Jack Y; Barnig, Cindy; Gong, Michelle; Kor, Daryl J; Gajic, Ognjen; Talmor, Daniel; Carter, Rickey E; Levy, Bruce D

    2018-05-21

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating illness with limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of early biochemical and immunological events in ARDS could inform the development of new preventive and treatment strategies. To determine select peripheral blood lipid mediator and leukocyte responses in patients at-risk for ARDS. Patients at risk for ARDS were randomized as part of a multicenter, double-blind clinical trial of aspirin versus placebo (LIPS-A; NCT01504867). Plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2), 15-epi-LXA4 (aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4, ATL), and peripheral blood leukocyte number and activation were determined upon enrollment and after treatment with either aspirin or placebo. Thirty-three of 367 subjects (9.0%) developed ARDS after randomization. Baseline ATL levels, total monocyte counts, intermediate monocyte (IntMo) counts, and Mo-PA were associated with the development of ARDS. Peripheral blood neutrophil count and monocyte-platelet aggregates significantly decreased over time. Of note, 9 subjects developed ARDS after randomization yet prior to study drug initiation, including 7 subjects assigned to aspirin treatment. Subjects without ARDS at the time of first dose demonstrated a lower incidence of ARDS with aspirin treatment. Compared with placebo, aspirin significantly decreased TxB2 and increased the ATL/TxB2 ratio. Biomarkers of intravascular monocyte activation in at-risk patients were associated with development of ARDS. The potential clinical benefit of early aspirin for prevention of ARDS remains uncertain. Together, results of the biochemical and immunological analyses provide a window into the early pathogenesis of human ARDS, and represent potential vascular biomarkers of ARDS risk.

  12. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  13. Early Warning and Early Action during the 2015-16 El Nino Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Goddard, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Strong El Niño events have a marked impact on regional climate worldwide through their influence on large-scale atmospheric circulation. As a result, seasonal climate forecasts show greater skill during El Niño events, which provide communities, governments and humanitarian agencies greater ability to plan and prepare. The scientific community has advanced considerably in the quality and content of information provided about El Niño and its impacts. As a result, society has become better aware of and engaged with this information. This talk will present some details on how we navigate the fine line between expectations and probabilistic forecasts, and how this information was used during the 2015-16 El Niño event. Examples are drawn from the health sector and food security community. Specific attention will be given to the importance of problem-focus and data availability in the appropriate tailoring of climate information for Early Warning/Early Action.

  14. An expert elicitation process to project the frequency and magnitude of Florida manatee mortality events caused by red tide (Karenia brevis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Runge, Michael C.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Landsberg, Jan H.

    2017-11-20

    Red tides (blooms of the harmful alga Karenia brevis) are one of the major sources of mortality for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), especially in southwest Florida. It has been hypothesized that the frequency and severity of red tides may increase in the future because of global climate change and other factors. To improve our ecological forecast for the effects of red tides on manatee population dynamics and long-term persistence, we conducted a formal expert judgment process to estimate probability distributions for the frequency and relative magnitude of red-tide-related manatee mortality (RTMM) events over a 100-year time horizon in three of the four regions recognized as manatee management units in Florida. This information was used to update a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee (the Core Biological Model). We convened a panel of 12 experts in manatee biology or red-tide ecology; the panel met to frame, conduct, and discuss the elicitation. Each expert provided a best estimate and plausible low and high values (bounding a confidence level of 80 percent) for each parameter in each of three regions (Northwest, Southwest, and Atlantic) of the subspecies’ range (excluding the Upper St. Johns River region) for two time periods (0−40 and 41−100 years from present). We fitted probability distributions for each parameter, time period, and expert by using these three elicited values. We aggregated the parameter estimates elicited from individual experts and fitted a parametric distribution to the aggregated results.Across regions, the experts expected the future frequency of RTMM events to be higher than historical levels, which is consistent with the hypothesis that global climate change (among other factors) may increase the frequency of red-tide blooms. The experts articulated considerable uncertainty, however, about the future frequency of RTMM events. The historical frequency of moderate and intense RTMM (combined) in

  15. Early Virological and Immunological Events in Asymptomatic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in African Children

    PubMed Central

    Jayasooriya, Shamanthi; de Silva, Thushan I.; Njie-jobe, Jainaba; Sanyang, Chilel; Leese, Alison M.; Bell, Andrew I.; McAulay, Karen A.; Yanchun, Peng; Long, Heather M.; Dong, Tao; Whittle, Hilton C.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Hislop, Andrew D.; Flanagan, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection often occurs in early childhood and is asymptomatic. However, if delayed until adolescence, primary infection may manifest as acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), a febrile illness characterised by global CD8+ T-cell lymphocytosis, much of it reflecting a huge expansion of activated EBV-specific CD8+ T-cells. While the events of AIM have been intensely studied, little is known about how these relate to asymptomatic primary infection. Here Gambian children (14–18 months old, an age at which many acquire the virus) were followed for the ensuing six months, monitoring circulating EBV loads, antibody status against virus capsid antigen (VCA) and both total and virus-specific CD8+ T-cell numbers. Many children were IgG anti-VCA-positive and, though no longer IgM-positive, still retained high virus loads comparable to AIM patients and had detectable EBV-specific T-cells, some still expressing activation markers. Virus loads and the frequency/activation status of specific T-cells decreased over time, consistent with resolution of a relatively recent primary infection. Six children with similarly high EBV loads were IgM anti-VCA-positive, indicating very recent infection. In three of these donors with HLA types allowing MHC-tetramer analysis, highly activated EBV-specific T-cells were detectable in the blood with one individual epitope response reaching 15% of all CD8+ T-cells. That response was culled and the cells lost activation markers over time, just as seen in AIM. However, unlike AIM, these events occurred without marked expansion of total CD8+ numbers. Thus asymptomatic EBV infection in children elicits a virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response that can control the infection without over-expansion; conversely, in AIM it appears the CD8 over-expansion, rather than virus load per se, is the cause of disease symptoms. PMID:25816224

  16. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a Mode of PPARa-Mediated Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. T...

  17. The Relationship Between Early Life Events, Parental Attachment, and Psychopathic Tendencies in Adolescent Detainees.

    PubMed

    Christian, Erica J; Meltzer, Christine L; Thede, Linda L; Kosson, David S

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in understanding psychopathic traits in youth, the role of early environmental factors in the development of psychopathic traits is not well understood. No prior studies have directly examined the relationship between early life events and psychopathic traits. We examined links between life events in the first 4 years of life and indices of the core affective and interpersonal components of psychopathy. Additionally, we examined relationships between early life events, psychopathic traits, and attachment to parents among 206 adjudicated adolescents. Results indicated that the total number of early life events was positively correlated with indices of the affective component of psychopathy. Moreover, psychopathic traits moderated the relationship between the number of early life events and later reports of attachment to parents. Findings suggest that early environmental factors could have important implications for the development of psychopathic traits and may impact attachment to parents for youth with psychopathic traits.

  18. An Alternative Explanation for "Step-Like" Early VLF Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    A newly-deployed array of VLF receivers along the East Coast of the United States is ideally suited for detecting VLF scattering from lightning-induced disturbances to the lower ionosphere. The array was deployed in May 2016, and one VLF receiver was deployed only 20 km from the NAA transmitter (24.0 kHz) in Cutler, Maine. The phase of the NAA signal at this closest site varies significantly with time, due simply to the impedance match of the transmitter varying with time. Additionally, both the amplitude and phase exhibit periods of rapid shifts that could possibly explain at least some "step-like" VLF scattering events. Here, we distinguish between "step-like" VLF scattering events and other events in that "step-like" events are typically not closely associated with a detected causative lightning flash and also tend to exhibit little or no recovery to ambient conditions after the event onset. We present an analysis of VLF observations from the East Coast array that demonstrates interesting examples of step-like VLF events far from the transmitter that are associated with step-like events very close to the transmitter. We conclude that step-like VLF events should be treated with caution, unless definitively associated with a causative lightning flash and/or detected using observations of multiple transmitter signals.

  19. An EAS event observed in the early stage of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, S. L. C.; Beggio, P. C.; de Carvalho, A. O.; Chinellato, J. A.; Mariano, A.; de Oliveira, R.; Shibuya, E. H.; Brazil-Japan Collaboration of Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiment

    2008-01-01

    Since 1969 the experiments of Brazil-Japan Collaboration showed the occurrence of a series of events, showing a region with a high concentration of electromagnetic particles, surrounded by isolated and/or groups of showers. These events were named "halo events" or "super-families". Currently, we have more than a dozen of such events. The first of them, due to its aspect, was named "Andromeda". We present here the main characteristics of a similar halo event, named C21S087I075. It has a halo region with many high energy showers in its border. Other small energy showers spread over the central and surrounding blocks (S088, S100, S101, I074). These isolated showers, classified as of hadronic or electromagnetic origin, present a fractional energy distribution compatible with that of a Centauro candidate event (C16S087I037), reported at this symposium [S.L.C. Barroso, P.C. Beggio, J.A. Chinellato, A.O. Carvalho, A. Mariano, R. Oliveira, E.H. Shibuya, in this issue of XIV ISVHECRI]. Moreover, the lateral distribution in the halo region is similar to that observed in other 3 halo events.

  20. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats.

    PubMed

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B D; Bastlund, Jesper F

    2017-04-01

    Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  1. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B. D.; Bastlund, Jesper F.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  2. Iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis: an early pathogenic event.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M; Bilgen, Mehmet; Lynch, Sharon G

    2013-03-01

    Iron has been shown to accumulate in deep gray matter structures in many forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), but detecting its presence early in the disease course (e.g., clinically isolated syndrome [CIS]) has been less clear. Here, we review a recent study where MRI scanning at 7 T together with susceptibility mapping was performed to assess iron deposition in CIS and control subjects. Susceptibility indicative of iron deposition was found to be increased in the globus pallidus, caudate, putamen and pulvinar of CIS patients compared with controls. The findings suggest that iron deposition is a pathological change that occurs early in the development of MS. Identifying the mechanisms of iron accumulation and determining whether iron promotes pathogenesis in MS are important areas of future research.

  3. Event-by-Event Simulations of Early Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Matthew; Rose, Steven; Fries, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Collisions of heavy ions are carried out at ultra relativistic speeds at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to create Quark Gluon Plasma. The earliest stages of such collisions are dominated by the dynamics of classical gluon fields. The McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model of color glass condensate provides a model for this process. Previous research has provided an analytic solution for event averaged observables in the MV model. Using the High Performance Research Computing Center (HPRC) at Texas A&M, we have developed a C++ code to explicitly calculate the initial gluon fields and energy momentum tensor event by event using the analytic recursive solution. The code has been tested against previously known analytic results up to fourth order. We have also have been able to test the convergence of the recursive solution at high orders in time and studied the time evolution of color glass condensate.

  4. Translational errors as an early event in prion conversion.

    PubMed

    Hatin, I; Bidou, L; Cullin, C; Rousset, J P

    2001-01-01

    A prion is an infectious, altered form of a cellular protein which can self-propagate and affect normal phenotype. Prion conversion has been observed for mammalian and yeast proteins but molecular mechanisms that trigger this process remain unclear. Up to now, only post-translational models have been explored. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that co-translational events may be implicated in the conformation changes of the Ure2p protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protein can adopt a prion conformation leading to an [URE3] phenotype which can be easily assessed and quantified. We analyzed the effect of two antibiotics, known to affect translation, on [URE3] conversion frequency. For cells treated with G418 we observed a parallel increase of translational errors rate and frequency of [URE3] conversion. By contrast, cycloheximide which was not found to affect translational fidelity, has no influence on the induction of [URE3] phenotype. These results raise the possibility that the mechanism of prion conversion might not only involve alternative structures of strictly identical molecules but also aberrant proteins resulting from translational errors.

  5. Early molecular correlates of adverse events following yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Candice Y.Y.; Chan, Kuan Rong; Chua, Camillus J.H.; nur Hazirah, Sharifah; Ghosh, Sujoy; Ooi, Eng Eong; Low, Jenny G.

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response shapes the development of adaptive immunity following infections and vaccination. However, it can also induce symptoms such as fever and myalgia, leading to the possibility that the molecular basis of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of vaccination are inseparably linked. To test this possibility, we used the yellow fever live-attenuated vaccine (YFLAV) as a model to study the molecular correlates of reactogenicity or adverse events (AEs). We analyzed the outcome of 68 adults who completed a YFLAV clinical trial, of which 43 (63.2%) reported systemic AEs. Through whole-genome profiling of blood collected before and after YFLAV dosing, we observed that activation of innate immune genes at day 1, but not day 3 after vaccination, was directly correlated with AEs. These findings contrast with the gene expression profile at day 3 that we and others have previously shown to be correlated with immunogenicity. We conclude that although the innate immune response is a double-edged sword, its expression that induces AEs is temporally distinct from that which engenders robust immunity. The use of genomic profiling thus provides molecular insights into the biology of AEs that potentially forms a basis for the development of safer vaccines. PMID:28978802

  6. A New Observation Technique Applied to Early/Fast VLF Scattering Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Early/fast very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) events are understood to result from ionospheric conductivity changes associated with lightning. Early/fast amplitude and phase perturbations have been observed coincidentally with various optical observations of transient luminous events (TLEs), including elves, sprites, and sprite halos, each of which can have temporal characteristics consistent with those of early/fast VLF events. It is yet unresolved, however, whether a specific type of TLE is directly related to the ionospheric conductivity changes responsible for the typical early/fast event. In this paper, we present spread spectrum VLF scattering observations of early/fast events. The spread spectrum analysis technique determines the amplitude and phase of a subionospherically propagating VLF signal as a function of time during the early/fast event and as a function of frequency across the 200 Hz bandwidth of the VLF transmission. VLF scattering observations, each identified with causative lightning logged by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), are compared with the predictions of the Long-Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code, a three-dimensional earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation and scattering model. Theoretical predictions for VLF scattering from ionization changes associated with elves are compared with those associated with sprite halos, and each are compared with experimental observations. Results indicate that the observed frequency dependence of VLF scattering during early/fast events results from the combination of scattering source properties and Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation effects. Observations are more consistent with the modeled amplitude perturbations associated with sprite halos than those with elves.

  7. The Importance of First Impressions: Early Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Influence Outcome.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Anthony M; Flynn, JoAnne L; Fortune, Sarah M

    2016-04-05

    Tuberculosis remains a major health threat in much of the world. New vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for preventing infection, disease, and transmission. However, the host immune responses that need to be induced by an effective vaccine remain unclear. Increasingly, it has become clear that early events in infection are of major importance in the eventual outcome of the infection. Studying such events in humans is challenging, as they occur within the lung and thoracic lymph nodes, and any clinical signs of early infection are relatively nonspecific. Nonetheless, clinical studies and animal models of tuberculosis have provided new insights into the local events that occur in the first few weeks of tuberculosis. Development of an effective vaccine requires a clear understanding of the successful (and detrimental) early host responses against M. tuberculosis, with the goal to improve upon natural immune responses and prevent infection or disease. Copyright © 2016 Cadena et al.

  8. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    PubMed

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly more deaths, infectious complications, pleural drainage, acute renal failures, and pancreatitis in OM and more pseudocysts in SAE. Six prognostic factors were statistically significant for one or more adverse events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury.

  9. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  10. Stressful Life Events, ADHD Symptoms, and Brain Structure in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Watts, Emily L; Dennis, Emily L; King, Lucy S; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-05-21

    Despite a growing understanding that early adversity in childhood broadly affects risk for psychopathology, the contribution of stressful life events to the development of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clear. In the present study, we examined the association between number of stressful life events experienced and ADHD symptoms, assessed using the Attention Problems subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist, in a sample of 214 children (43% male) ages 9.11-13.98 years (M = 11.38, SD = 1.05). In addition, we examined whether the timing of the events (i.e., onset through age 5 years or after age 6 years) was associated with ADHD symptoms. Finally, we examined variation in brain structure to determine whether stressful life events were associated with volume in brain regions that were found to vary as a function of symptoms of ADHD. We found a small to moderate association between number of stressful life events and ADHD symptoms. Although the strength of the associations between number of events and ADHD symptoms did not differ as a function of the age of occurrence of stressful experiences, different brain regions were implicated in the association between stressors and ADHD symptoms in the two age periods during which stressful life events occurred. These findings support the hypothesis that early adversity is associated with ADHD symptoms, and provide insight into possible brain-based mediators of this association.

  11. Early/fast VLF events produced by the quiescent heating of the lower ionosphere by thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabirzadeh, R.; Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U. S.

    2017-06-01

    Large and easily distinguishable perturbations of the VLF transmitter signals due to interactions with thundercloud-driven ionospheric modifications have been observed and studied for about three decades. These events are called "early/fast VLF" or "early VLF" events due to their immediate detection (˜20 ms) after the causative lightning flash on the ground and the fast rise time of the perturbed signal. Despite many years of study, the physical mechanisms responsible for these perturbations are still under investigation. Modifications of the sustained heating level of the ionosphere due to a lightning flash has been previously proposed as the causative mechanism of early/fast VLF events. The perturbations predicted by this mechanism, however, have been much smaller than experimental observations of 0.2-1 dB or higher. In this study, by using an improved 3-D thundercloud electrostatic upward coupling model which uses a realistic geomagnetic field, we find that the sustained heating model can predict perturbations that are consistent with reported experimental observations. Modifications in the quiescent heating of the lower ionosphere by thundercloud fields by individual lightning flashes may thus account for some observations of early/fast VLF events.

  12. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  13. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  14. Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

    2013-11-13

    Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (<200 ms). Disgust was the first emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition.

  15. The role of parent, teacher, and peer events in maintaining depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger

    2015-02-01

    Negative interpersonal events have been consistently identified as both antecedents and sequalae of adolescent depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the relative contributions of specific domains of interpersonal events (parents, peers or teachers) to the maintenance of depressive symptoms during early adolescence or whether a lack of positive interpersonal interactions plays a direct role in maintaining depressive symptoms. Further, few studies have examined whether positive interpersonal events moderate associations between negative events and adolescents' depressive symptoms. This study combined stress generation and exposure models to evaluate the contribution of daily events to the maintenance of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 adolescents (53 % female) followed from ages 13 to 15. Daily phone diaries collected at age 14 assessed adolescents' negative and positive interactions with parents, teachers, and peers in a sample of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families. Negative peer events uniquely accounted for the maintenance of depressive symptoms over the 2 years period. Results did not differ by gender; however, positive parent events buffered the effects of negative parent events for females but not for males. Findings highlight the significance of peer relationships during a period of vulnerability for depressive symptoms.

  16. Detection of rain events in radiological early warning networks with spectro-dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Dombrowski, H.; Kessler, P.; Röttger, A.; Neumaier, S.

    2017-10-01

    Short-term pronounced increases of the ambient dose equivalent rate, due to rainfall are a well-known phenomenon. Increases in the same order of magnitude or even below may also be caused by a nuclear or radiological event, i.e. by artificial radiation. Hence, it is important to be able to identify natural rain events in dosimetric early warning networks and to distinguish them from radiological events. Novel spectrometric systems based on scintillators may be used to differentiate between the two scenarios, because the measured gamma spectra provide significant nuclide-specific information. This paper describes three simple, automatic methods to check whether an dot H*(10) increase is caused by a rain event or by artificial radiation. These methods were applied to measurements of three spectrometric systems based on CeBr3, LaBr3 and SrI2 scintillation crystals, investigated and tested for their practicability at a free-field reference site of PTB.

  17. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. METHODS Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. RESULTS The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly more deaths, infectious complications, pleural drainage, acute renal failures, and pancreatitis in OM and more pseudocysts in SAE. Six prognostic factors were statistically significant for one or more adverse events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. CONCLUSION Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury. PMID:26081719

  18. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae–Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. PMID:27604225

  19. Persistence of carbon release events through the peak of early Eocene global warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Charles, Christopher D.; Norris, Richard D.

    2014-10-01

    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (53-50 million years ago) was preceded by approximately six million years of progressive global warming. This warming was punctuated by a series of rapid hyperthermal warming events triggered by the release of greenhouse gases. Over these six million years, the carbon isotope record suggests that the events became more frequent but smaller in magnitude. This pattern has been suggested to reflect a thermodynamic threshold for carbon release that was more easily crossed as global temperature rose, combined with a decrease in the size of carbon reservoirs during extremely warm conditions. Here we present a continuous, 4.25-million-year-long record of the stable isotope composition of carbonate sediments from the equatorial Atlantic, spanning the peak of early Eocene global warmth. A composite of this and pre-existing records shows that the carbon isotope excursions that identify the hyperthermals exhibit continuity in magnitude and frequency throughout the approximately 10-million-year period covering the onset, peak and termination of the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. We suggest that the carbon cycle processes behind these events, excluding the largest event, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (about 56 million years ago), were not exceptional. Instead, we argue that the hyperthermals may reflect orbital forcing of the carbon cycle analogous to the mechanisms proposed to operate in the cooler Oligocene and Miocene.

  20. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  1. A Further Extension of the Tahiti-Darwin SOI, Early ENSO Events and Darwin Pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Robert J.; Nicholls, Neville; Jones, Phil D.; Butterworth, Ian J.

    1991-07-01

    An extension of the Tahiti minus Darwin Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from 1882 back to 1876 is reported following the recovery of early Darwin mean sea-level pressure data spanning the period 1865-81. As a result, we are able to compare, for the first time, the major 1877-78 and 1982-83 ENSO events on the basis of this commonly used index. Early Darwin and Jakarta data are also examined in terms of a measure of the Australian response to documented El Niño and/or ENSO events in 1866, 1868, 1871, 1873, 1874 and 1875.The SOI during the 1877-78 ENSO event has a similar temporal response to that in 1982-83, but the index is slightly weaker than in the recent event. Examination of documentary evidence confirms the severity of the drought conditions that affected the Australian continent during the 1877-78 ENSO, and shows that this response is in line with the wider Indo-Pacific impacts reported in the literature. Earlier El Niño phases in 1868 and 1873 are not resolved distinctly in either the Darwin or Jakarta pressure data. This appears to illustrate that El Niño event histories do not always indicate wider ENSO influences in the Indo-Pacific basin, particularly during weak to moderate phases.

  2. Early and Late Inhibitions Elicited by a Peripheral Visual Cue on Manual Response to a Visual Target: Are They Based on Cartesian Coordinates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawryszewski, Luiz G.; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R.; Magalhaes, Fabio V.

    2005-01-01

    A non-informative cue (C) elicits an inhibition of manual reaction time (MRT) to a visual target (T). We report an experiment to examine if the spatial distribution of this inhibitory effect follows Polar or Cartesian coordinate systems. C appeared at one out of 8 isoeccentric (7[degrees]) positions, the C-T angular distances (in polar…

  3. [Influence of early childhood stress exposure and traumatic life events on pain perception].

    PubMed

    Tesarz, J; Gerhardt, A; Eich, W

    2018-06-05

    Adult pain perception is influenced substantially by interactions between mind, body, and social environment during early life. Early stress exposure and traumatic life events induce powerful psychophysical stress reactions that exert multiple neurofunctional processes. This has significant implications for pain perception and pain processing. As part of this review, the complex relationships between traumatic stress experiences and associated psychobiological mechanisms of chronic pain will be discussed. Based on selected studies, psychophysiological findings are presented and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications for treatment.

  4. Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Constrains on early events in Martian history are derived using the planet's cratering record. Variations in the shapes of the crater size-frequency distribution curves are interpreted as indicative of the size-frequency distribution of the production populations, thus providing information about the age of the unit relative to the end of the heavy bombardment period. Results from the analysis of craters superposed on heavily cratered units across the Martian surface provide constraints on the hemispheric dichotomy and the early erosional conditions on Mars.

  5. Early Events Leading to the Host Protective Th2 Immune Response to an Intestinal Nematode Parasite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expansion, eosinophilia , and IL-4 production (51;52). Similar down regulations of Th2 associated cytokines were observed using monoclonal antibodies...1. Kightlinger,L.K., Seed,J.R., and Kightlinger,M.B., The epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm in children in...Copyright Statement The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: “Early Events

  6. Occurrence of early adverse events after vaccination against influenza at a Brazilian reference center.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Mascheretti, Melissa; Franco, Marilia Miranda; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia

    2008-02-01

    Since 1999, the Ministry of Health in Brazil has conducted campaigns of vaccination against influenza targeted towards the elderly, chronically-diseased people and health care workers. The vaccine against influenza is associated with adverse events of minor importance. To investigate the early adverse events related to the vaccine against influenza. CASUISTICS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety seven elderly individuals and health care workers vaccinated against influenza were included. An inquiry regarding adverse events related to the vaccine was applied seven days after the vaccination. Local adverse events were reported by 32.5% and systemic effects by 26.4% of the vaccinated subjects. Pain in the region of the injection, headache, myalgia, malaise, and coryza were more frequent in the workers than in the elderly (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of fever. The belief of part of the population that credits frequent and uncomfortable adverse events to the vaccine was not confirmed. The subjective adverse events were more frequent in the health care workers, which can influence, in a negative way, the disclosure of the benefits of this vaccine due to their role as opinion makers.

  7. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  8. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Can older adults resist the positivity effect in neural responding? The impact of verbal framing on event-related brain potentials elicited by emotional images.

    PubMed

    Rehmert, Andrea E; Kisley, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information, presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive ("more or less positive") or negative ("more or less negative"). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition, thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults, but for positively valenced images, such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared with the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated, even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition.

  10. Can Older Adults Resist the Positivity Effect in Neural Responding: The Impact of Verbal Framing on Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited by Emotional Images

    PubMed Central

    Rehmert, Andrea E.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice, or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision-making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late-positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive (“more or less positive”) or negative (“more or less negative”). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults but for positively valenced images such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared to the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition. PMID:23731435

  11. Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lawrence H; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Butler, Andrew C; Parrish, Brendt P; Wenze, Susan J; Beck, Judith S

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to compute each patient's within-day relationship between daily stressors and daily NA (within-day reactivity), as well as the relationship between daily stressors and next-day NA (next-day reactivity; affective spillover). In growth model analyses, the authors evaluated the predictive role of patients' NA reactivity in their early (Sessions 1-4) and late (Sessions 5-12) response to CT. Within-day NA reactivity did not predict early or late response to CT. However, next-day reactivity predicted early response to CT, such that patients who had greater NA spillover in response to negative events had a slower rate of symptom change during the first 4 sessions. Affective spillover did not influence later response to CT. The findings suggest that depressed patients who have difficulty bouncing back the next day from their NA reactions to a relative increase in daily negative events will respond less quickly to the early sessions of CT.

  12. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  13. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  14. Multi-model data fusion to improve an early warning system for hypo-/hyperglycemic events.

    PubMed

    Botwey, Ransford Henry; Daskalaki, Elena; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G

    2014-01-01

    Correct predictions of future blood glucose levels in individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) can be used to provide early warning of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events and thus to improve the patient's safety. To increase prediction accuracy and efficiency, various approaches have been proposed which combine multiple predictors to produce superior results compared to single predictors. Three methods for model fusion are presented and comparatively assessed. Data from 23 T1D subjects under sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy were used in two adaptive data-driven models (an autoregressive model with output correction - cARX, and a recurrent neural network - RNN). Data fusion techniques based on i) Dempster-Shafer Evidential Theory (DST), ii) Genetic Algorithms (GA), and iii) Genetic Programming (GP) were used to merge the complimentary performances of the prediction models. The fused output is used in a warning algorithm to issue alarms of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events. The fusion schemes showed improved performance with lower root mean square errors, lower time lags, and higher correlation. In the warning algorithm, median daily false alarms (DFA) of 0.25%, and 100% correct alarms (CA) were obtained for both event types. The detection times (DT) before occurrence of events were 13.0 and 12.1 min respectively for hypo-/hyperglycemic events. Compared to the cARX and RNN models, and a linear fusion of the two, the proposed fusion schemes represents a significant improvement.

  15. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  16. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  17. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a Mode of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ABSTRACT Strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. The goal of this study was to evaluate short-term key event indicators using qualitative and quantitative methods in an established pathway of mouse liver tumorigenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed for 7 days to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), which vary in PPARα activity and liver tumorigenicity. Each phthalate increased expression of select PPARα target genes at 7 days, while only DEHP significantly increased liver cell proliferation labeling index (LI). Transcriptional benchmark dose (BMDT) estimates for dose-related genomic markers stratified phthalates according to hypothetical tumorigenic potencies, unlike BMDs for non-genomic endpoints (liver weights or proliferation). The 7-day BMDT values for Acot1 as a surrogate measure for PPARα activation were 29, 370, and 676 mg/kg-d for DEHP, DNOP, and BBP, respectively, distinguishing DEHP (liver tumor BMD of 35 mg/kg-d) from non-tumorigenic DNOP and BBP. Effect thresholds were generated using linear regression of DEHP effects at 7 days and 2-year tumor incidence values to anchor early response molec

  18. Elicitation of Unstated Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    what you can about requirements for a next generation laptop for the Home User that • attracts new customers • leverages existing customer loyalty ...Training © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Traditional Requirements Elicitation Approaches Interviews of customers /users to elicit problems and usage...needs Inventory of problem reporting systems harboring customer complaints Solicitation of specification from customers /users to build a system

  19. Coping with a life event in bipolar disorder: ambulatory measurement, signalling and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Stefan E; Riemersma-van der Lek, Rixt F; Haarman, Bartholomeus C M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2016-10-13

    Disruption of the biological rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder is a known risk factor for a switch in mood. This case study describes how modern techniques using ambulatory assessment of sleep parameters can help in signalling a mood switch and start early treatment. We studied a 40-year-old woman with bipolar disorder experiencing a life event while wearing an actigraph to measure sleep-wake parameters. The night after the life event the woman had sleep later and shorter sleep duration. Adequate response of both the woman and the treating psychiatrist resulted in two normal nights with the use of 1 mg lorazepam, possibly preventing further mood disturbances. Ambulatory assessment of the biological rhythm can function as an add-on to regular signalling plans for prevention of episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. More research should be conducted to validate clinical applicability, proper protocols and to understand underlying mechanisms. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Modeling Tool for Decision Support during Early Days of an Anthrax Event.

    PubMed

    Rainisch, Gabriel; Meltzer, Martin I; Shadomy, Sean; Bower, William A; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Health officials lack field-implementable tools for forecasting the effects that a large-scale release of Bacillus anthracis spores would have on public health and hospitals. We created a modeling tool (combining inhalational anthrax caseload projections based on initial case reports, effects of variable postexposure prophylaxis campaigns, and healthcare facility surge capacity requirements) to project hospitalizations and casualties from a newly detected inhalation anthrax event, and we examined the consequences of intervention choices. With only 3 days of case counts, the model can predict final attack sizes for simulated Sverdlovsk-like events (1979 USSR) with sufficient accuracy for decision making and confirms the value of early postexposure prophylaxis initiation. According to a baseline scenario, hospital treatment volume peaks 15 days after exposure, deaths peak earlier (day 5), and recovery peaks later (day 23). This tool gives public health, hospital, and emergency planners scenario-specific information for developing quantitative response plans for this threat.

  1. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  2. Not Just the 8.2 event: Dynamic Early Holocene Climate in Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Y.; Briner, J. P.; Miller, G. H.; Francis, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Temperature reconstructions from a lake in the eastern Canadian Arctic indicate that peak warmth in the early Holocene was interrupted by two abrupt, short-lived temperature reversals at ~9.l and ~8.5 ka. Summer temperatures at Lake CF8, Baffin Island (~500 km west of Greenland) are inferred from subfossil midge (Chironomidae) assemblages. Our results indicate that the site, like others on Baffin Island, experienced exceptionally warm summers (almost 5°C warmer than present) through much of the early Holocene, presumably in response to enhanced summer insolation. After 1000 years of very warm, stable climate, warmth was interrupted by two discrete cold reversals at ~9.1 and ~8.5 ka, during which multiple cold-stenothermous midge taxa appeared in the lake and summer temperatures dropped more than 3°C. These two clearly-defined reversals, well beyond the range of background variability, were of similar amplitude and duration, and were separated by several centuries of near-peak warmth. The only Holocene events of comparable amplitude at this site are the rapid onset of Holocene warmth, and the more gradual Neoglacial cooling after 8 ka. Abrupt cooling events over the Baffin region are consistent with model simulations of the impacts of freshwater outbursts into the Labrador Sea, such as the Lake Agassiz outburst flood that occurred ~8.4 ka. That there are two discrete events recorded at this site indicates that the "8.2 event" was not uniquely significant in this region; rather, the period between approximately ~9.2 and 8 ka was characterized by repeated climate fluctuations forced by multiple outburst floods or other mechanisms. Thus global correlations among paleoclimate records need not assume that climate perturbations during this time period necessarily correlate with the draining of Lake Agassiz or the 8.2 ka cooling in central Greenland.

  3. Approximate entropy analysis of event-related potentials in patients with early vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated differences in event-related potential (ERP) parameters among early vascular dementia (VD) patients, healthy elder controls (ECs), and young controls (YCs). A visual "oddball" color identification task was performed while individuals' electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a nonlinear measure, along with P300 latencies and amplitudes were used to analyze ERP data and compare these three groups. The patients with VD showed more complex ERP waveforms and higher ApEn values than did ECs while performing the visual task. It was further found that patients with VD showed reduced P300 amplitudes and increased latencies. The results indicate that patients with VD have fewer attention resources to devote to processing stimuli, lower speed of stimulus classification, and lower synchrony in their cortical activity during the response period. We suggest that ApEn, as a measure of ERP complexity, is a promising marker for early diagnosis of VD.

  4. Early maritime economy and El Nino events at Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.; DeFrance, Susan D.; Moseley, M.E.; Richardson, J. B.; Satterlee, D.R.; Day-Lewis, A.

    1998-01-01

    The archaeological site of Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru, dates to 12,700 to 12,500 calibrated years before the present (10,770 to 10,530 carbon-14 years before the present). It contains some of the oldest evidence of maritime- based economic activity in the New World. Recovered materials include a hearth, lithic cutting tools and flakes, and abundant processed marine fauna, primarily seabirds and fish. Sediments below and above the occupation layer were probably generated by El Nino events, indicating that El Nino was active during the Pleistocene as well as during the early and middle Holocene.

  5. Divergent response of the neritic carbonate factory to environmental changes during the Early Bajocian Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Hönig, Martin; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Danisch, Jan; Kabiri, Lahcen

    2017-04-01

    The Early Bajocian witnessed a global environmental perturbation, characterized by faunal and floral turnovers and a positive carbon isotope excursion. In Italy, this environmental perturbation coincided with an eutrophication event and a carbonate crisis, but this has so far not been adequately reported from other settings, leaving doubt about the extent and nature of these phenomena. Here, we are reporting on an extensive neritic carbonate factory demise that occurs in the upper Lower Bajocian of the Central High Atlas of Morocco, more precisely in the upper Propinquans - lower Humphriesianum Zones. This demise coincided with the acme of the global carbon isotope perturbation, recorded by a 3‰ positive carbon isotope excursion in the bulk organic matter of Morocco. Recovery of the neritic carbonate system occurs during the Early to Late Bajocian transition. The duration of the neritic carbonate factory demise was therefore in the order of 1 Myr. Furthermore, we observe that the Lower Bajocian of Morocco is relatively enriched in arenitic siliciclastic deposits, suggesting increased weathering and nutrient levels along the northwestern margin of Africa during the Early Bajocian. However, comparison with neighboring European basins highlights the non-uniqueness and different timing of the response of shallow-water carbonates to the Early Bajocian environmental perturbations, as some regions present no sign of carbonate factory crisis. Hence, we postulate that local factors were important in mediating the response of neritic carbonate factories to this global environmental perturbation. We notably highlight the role of large Early Bajocian sea-level fluctuation as a trigger for carbonate factory change and demise in Morocco. Indeed, in the Central High Atlas Basin, transgressive intervals are seeing the development of a mud-dominated carbonate factory whereas regressive intervals are associated with grain-dominated carbonate factory. We speculate that the

  6. A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Som D; Coombes, Megan E; Levine, Mitch; Cosby, Jarold; Kowaleski, Brenda; Arnold, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical reasoning, tools used and challenges faced by the researchers who assign causality to SAE's. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists and trial coordinators at six Canadian academic cancer centres. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Individual interview content analysis was followed by thematic analysis across the interview set. Our study found that causality assessment tends to be a rather complex process, often without complete clinical and investigational data at hand. Researchers described using a common processing strategy whereby they gather pertinent information, eliminate alternative explanations, and consider whether or not the study drug resulted in the SAE. Many of the interviewed participants voiced concern that causality assessments are often conducted quickly and tend to be highly subjective. Many participants were unable to identify any useful tools to help in assigning causality and welcomed more objectivity in the overall process. Attributing causality to SAE's is a complex process. Clinical trial researchers apply a logical system of reasoning, but feel that the current method of assigning causality could be improved. Based on these findings, future research involving the development of a new causality assessment tool specifically for use in early phase oncology clinical trials may be useful.

  7. The early Toarcian anoxic event: what the beginning and the end of the story are?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Emanuela; Plancq, Julien; Raucsik, Béla

    2010-05-01

    The early Toarcian anoxic event: what the beginning and the end of the story are? E. Mattioli (1), J. Plancq (1), and B. Rauksik (2) (1) UMR 5125 PEPS, CNRS, France; Université Lyon 1, Campus de la DOUA, Bâtiment Géode, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France (emanuela.mattioli@univ-lyon1.fr) (2) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary The early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE) and the associated biotic crisis have received much attention in the last decade. However, the events forewarning the crisis as well as its aftermath are still poorly known. The T-OAE coincides with a prominent carbon isotope negative excursion (T-CIE) that is preceded by an excursion of similar intensity at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary (Hesselbo et al., 2007). The onset of T-CIE occurred some 700 kyr later than the end of the Boundary-CIE (Suan et al., 2008a). This succession of events demonstrates that the T-OAE was a complex suite of environmental perturbations. In this work, we focused on calcareous nannofossil assemblages occurring in the Peniche section (Portugal) during the Boundary-CIE with the aim to understand if calcifying plankton reacted in a similar/different way to the two CIEs. Also, two sections and one borehole located along a W-E transect, along the NW-Tethyan shelf (in the Yorkshire coast, in the E Paris Basin, and in Mecsek Basin, respectively), were investigated to assess which way calcareous nannoplankton recovered after the crisis, and if the recovery was a synchronous event. The production by nannoplankton collapsed during the T-CIE, as demonstrated by the lowest absolute abundance of nannofossils measured in Peniche and other studied sites (Mattioli et al., 2008). Besides this nannofossil abundance decrease, also the size of the incertae sedis Schizosphaerella test was drastically reduced (Suan et al., 2008b). If a similar size decrease is also recorded during the Boundary-CIE, calcareous nannofossil abundances are

  8. The role of impact events play in redistributing and sequestering water on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G.; Tornabene, L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Impact cratering is one of the most fundamental geological process in the Solar System. Several workers have considered the effect that impact events may have had on the climate of Early Mars. The proposed effects range from impact-induced precipitation to the production of runaway stable climates to the impact delivery of climatically active gases. The role of impact events in forming hydrated minerals has been touched upon but remains debated. In this contribution, we focus on the role that impact events may have played in redistributing and sequestering water on Early Mars; a record that may still be preserved in the Noachian crust. It has been previously proposed that the sequestration of significant quantities of water may have occurred within various hydrated minerals, in particular clays, in the martian crust. There is undoubtedly no single origin for clay-bearing rocks on Mars and the purpose of this contribution is not to review all the possible formation mechanisms. What we do propose, however, is that it is theoretically possible for impact events to create all known occurrences of clays on Mars. We show that clays can form within and around impact craters in two main ways: through the solid-state devitrification of hydrous impact melts and/or impact-generated hydrothermal alteration. Neither of these mechanisms requires a warmer or wetter climate scenario on Early Mars. Notwithstanding the original origin of clays, any clays may be widely redistributed over the Martian surface in the ejecta deposits of large impact craters. However, ejecta deposits are much more complex than commonly thought, with evidence in many instances for two different types of ejecta deposits around martian craters. The first is a ballistic ejecta layer that is low-shock, melt-poor and low-temperature; it will likely not induce the formation of new clays through the mechanisms described above, but could redistribute pre-impact clays over 100's and 1000's of km over the martian

  9. Eliciting the child's voice in adverse event reporting in oncology trials: Cognitive interview findings from the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events initiative.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Bryce B; McFatrich, Molly; Pinheiro, Laura C; Weaver, Meaghann S; Sung, Lillian; Withycombe, Janice S; Baker, Justin N; Mack, Jennifer W; Waldron, Mia K; Gibson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Deborah; Freyer, David R; Mowbray, Catriona; Jacobs, Shana; Palma, Diana; Martens, Christa E; Gold, Stuart H; Jackson, Kathryn D; Hinds, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology trials is required, but current practice does not directly integrate the child's voice. The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) is being developed to assess symptomatic AEs via child/adolescent self-report or proxy-report. This qualitative study evaluates the child's/adolescent's understanding and ability to provide valid responses to the PRO-CTCAE to inform questionnaire refinements and confirm content validity. From seven pediatric research hospitals, children/adolescents ages 7-15 years who were diagnosed with cancer and receiving treatment were eligible, along with their parent-proxies. The Pediatric PRO-CTCAE includes 130 questions that assess 62 symptomatic AEs capturing symptom frequency, severity, interference, or presence. Cognitive interviews with retrospective probing were completed with children in the age groups of 7-8, 9-12, and 13-15 years. The children/adolescents and proxies were interviewed independently. Two rounds of interviews involved 81 children and adolescents and 74 parent-proxies. Fifteen of the 62 AE terms were revised after Round 1, including refinements to the questions assessing symptom severity. Most participants rated the PRO-CTCAE AE items as "very easy" or "somewhat easy" and were able to read, understand, and provide valid responses to questions. A few AE items assessing rare events were challenging to understand. The Pediatric and Proxy PRO-CTCAE performed well among children and adolescents and their proxies, supporting its content validity. Data from PRO-CTCAE may improve symptomatic AE reporting in clinical trials and enhance the quality of care that children receive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Characteristics of long recovery early VLF events observed by the North African AWESOME Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitamor, S.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Ghalila, H.; Alabdoadaim, M. A.; Graf, K.

    2013-08-01

    Lightning strokes are capable of initiating disturbances in the lower ionosphere, whose recoveries persist for many minutes. These events are remotely sensed via monitoring subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) transmitter signals, which are perturbed as they pass through the region above the lightning stroke. In this paper we describe the properties and characteristics of the early VLF signal perturbations, which exhibit long recovery times using subionospheric VLF transmitter data from three identical receivers located at Algiers (Algeria), Tunis (Tunisia), and Sebha (Libya). The results indicate that the observation of long recovery events depends strongly on the modal structure of the signal electromagnetic field and the distance from the disturbed region and the receiver or transmitter locations. Comparison of simultaneously collected data at the three sites indicates that the role of the causative lightning stroke properties (e.g., peak current and polarity), or that of transient luminous events may be much less important. The dominant parameter which determines the duration of the recovery time and amplitude appears to be the modal structure of the subionospheric VLF probe signal at the ionospheric disturbance, where scattering occurs, and the subsequent modal structure that propagates to the receiver location.

  11. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Irregularities in Early Seismic Rupture Propagation for Large Events in a Crustal Earthquake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapusta, N.; Rice, J. R.; Rice, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    We study early seismic propagation of model earthquakes in a 2-D model of a vertical strike-slip fault with depth-variable rate and state friction properties. Our model earthquakes are obtained in fully dynamic simulations of sequences of instabilities on a fault subjected to realistically slow tectonic loading (Lapusta et al., JGR, 2000). This work is motivated by results of Ellsworth and Beroza (Science, 1995), who observe that for many earthquakes, far-field velocity seismograms during initial stages of dynamic rupture propagation have irregular fluctuations which constitute a "seismic nucleation phase". In our simulations, we find that such irregularities in velocity seismograms can be caused by two factors: (1) rupture propagation over regions of stress concentrations and (2) partial arrest of rupture in neighboring creeping regions. As rupture approaches a region of stress concentration, it sees increasing background stress and its moment acceleration (to which velocity seismographs in the far field are proportional) increases. After the peak in stress concentration, the rupture sees decreasing background stress and moment acceleration decreases. Hence a fluctuation in moment acceleration is created. If rupture starts sufficiently far from a creeping region, then partial arrest of rupture in the creeping region causes a decrease in moment acceleration. As the other parts of rupture continue to develop, moment acceleration then starts to grow again, and a fluctuation again results. Other factors may cause the irregularities in moment acceleration, e.g., phenomena such as branching and/or intermittent rupture propagation (Poliakov et al., submitted to JGR, 2001) which we have not studied here. Regions of stress concentration are created in our model by arrest of previous smaller events as well as by interactions with creeping regions. One such region is deep in the fault zone, and is caused by the temperature-induced transition from seismogenic to creeping

  13. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  14. Potential of Breastmilk Analysis to Inform Early Events in Breast Carcinogenesis: Rationale and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jeanne; Sherman, Mark E.; Browne, Eva P.; Caballero, Ana I.; Punska, Elizabeth C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Yang, Hannah P.; Lee, Maxwell; Yang, Howard; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Arcaro, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes methods related to the study of human breastmilk in etiologic and biomarkers research. Despite the importance of reproductive factors in breast carcinogenesis, factors that act early in life are difficult to study because young women rarely require breast imaging or biopsy, and analysis of critical circulating factors (e.g. hormones) is often complicated by the requirement to accurately account for menstrual cycle date. Accordingly, novel approaches are needed to understand how events such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, weaning, and post-weaning breast remodeling influence breast cancer risk. Analysis of breastmilk offers opportunities to understand mechanisms related to carcinogenesis in the breast, and to identify risk markers that may inform efforts to identify high-risk women early in the carcinogenic process. In addition, analysis of breastmilk could have value in early detection or diagnosis of breast cancer. In this article we describe the potential for using breastmilk to characterize the microenvironment of the lactating breast with the goal of advancing research on risk assessment, prevention, and detection of breast cancer. PMID:27107568

  15. Collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event in Caenorhabditis elegans aging.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Anat; Miller, Elizabeth A; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in different tissues of C. elegans. We observed the age-dependent misfolding and loss of function of diverse proteins harboring temperature-sensitive missense mutations in all somatic tissues at the permissive condition. This widespread failure in proteostasis occurs rapidly at an early stage of adulthood, and coincides with a severely reduced activation of the cytoprotective heat shock response and the unfolded protein response. Enhancing stress responsive factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 suppresses misfolding of these metastable folding sensors and restores the ability of the cell to maintain a functional proteome. This suggests that a compromise in the regulation of proteostatic stress responses occurs early in adulthood and tips the balance between the load of damaged proteins and the proteostasis machinery. We propose that the collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event of aging that amplifies protein damage in age-associated diseases of protein conformation.

  16. A novel immune function biomarker identifies patients at risk of clinical events early following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Siddharth; Haifer, Craig; Yu, Lijia; Pavlovic, Julie; Churilov, Leonid; Gow, Paul J; Jones, Robert M; Angus, Peter W; Visvanathan, Kumar; Testro, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    Balancing immunosuppression after liver transplant is difficult, with clinical events common. We investigate whether a novel immune biomarker based on a laboratory platform with widespread availability that measures interferon γ (IFNγ) after stimulation with a lyophilized ball containing an adaptive and innate immune stimulant can predict events following transplantation. A total of 75 adult transplant recipients were prospectively monitored in a blinded, observational study; 55/75 (73.3%) patients experienced a total of 89 clinical events. Most events occurred within the first month. Low week 1 results were significantly associated with risk of early infection (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.74; P = 0.008). IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL (likelihood ratio positive, 1.93; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 63.0%) was associated with the highest risk for infection with minimal rejection risk. Nearly half the cohort (27/60, 45.0%) expressed IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL. Moreover, an elevated week 1 result was significantly associated with the risk of rejection within the first month after transplant (AUROC, 0.77; P = 0.002), but no episodes of infection. On multivariate logistic regression, IFNγ ≥ 4.49 IU/mL (odds ratio, 4.75) may be an independent predictor of rejection (P = 0.05). In conclusion, low IFNγ suggesting oversuppression is associated with infections, whereas high IFNγ indicating undersuppression is associated with rejection. This assay offers the potential to allow individualization and optimization of immunosuppression that could fundamentally alter the way patients are managed following transplantation. Liver Transplantation 23 487-497 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review.

    PubMed

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B; Horcajadas, J A; Farquharson, R G; Exalto, N

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to evaluate the impact of early pregnancy events and complications as predictors of adverse obstetric outcome. METHODS We conducted a literature review on the impact of first trimester complications in previous and index pregnancies using Medline and Cochrane databases covering the period 1980-2008. RESULTS Clinically relevant associations of adverse outcome in the subsequent pregnancy with an odds ratio (OR) > 2.0 after complications in a previous pregnancy are the risk of perinatal death after a single previous miscarriage, the risk of very preterm delivery (VPTD) after two or more miscarriages, the risk of placenta praevia, premature preterm rupture of membranes, VPTD and low birthweight (LBW) after recurrent miscarriage and the risk of VPTD after two or more termination of pregnancy. Clinically relevant associations of adverse obstetric outcome in the ongoing pregnancy with an OR > 2.0 after complications in the index pregnancy are the risk of LBW and very low birthweight (VLBW) after a threatened miscarriage, the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age and low 5-min Apgar score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe hyperemesis gravidarum. CONCLUSIONS Data from our literature review indicate, by finding significant associations, that specific early pregnancy events and complications are predictors for subsequent adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. Though, some of these associations are based on limited or small uncontrolled studies. Larger population-based controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, identification of these risks will improve obstetric care.

  18. Viral FGARAT ORF75A promotes early events in lytic infection and gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Chad H.; Oldenburg, Darby G.; Kara, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses encode proteins with homology to the cellular purine metabolic enzyme formyl-glycinamide-phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase (FGARAT), but the role of these viral FGARATs (vFGARATs) in the pathogenesis of a natural host has not been investigated. We report a novel role for the ORF75A vFGARAT of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) in infectious virion production and colonization of mice. MHV68 mutants with premature stop codons in orf75A exhibited a log reduction in acute replication in the lungs after intranasal infection, which preceded a defect in colonization of multiple host reservoirs including the mediastinal lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the spleen. Intraperitoneal infection rescued splenic latency, but not reactivation. The 75A.stop virus also exhibited defective replication in primary fibroblast and macrophage cells. Viruses produced in the absence of ORF75A were characterized by an increase in the ratio of particles to PFU. In the next round of infection this led to the alteration of early events in lytic replication including the deposition of the ORF75C tegument protein, the accelerated kinetics of viral gene expression, and induction of TNFα release and cell death. Infecting cells to deliver equivalent genomes revealed that ORF75A was required for initiating early events in infection. In contrast with the numerous phenotypes observed in the absence of ORF75A, ORF75B was dispensable for replication and pathogenesis. These studies reveal that murine rhadinovirus vFGARAT family members ORF75A and ORF75C have evolved to perform divergent functions that promote replication and colonization of the host. PMID:29390024

  19. Viral FGARAT ORF75A promotes early events in lytic infection and gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Van Skike, Nick D; Minkah, Nana K; Hogan, Chad H; Wu, Gary; Benziger, Peter T; Oldenburg, Darby G; Kara, Mehmet; Kim-Holzapfel, Deborah M; White, Douglas W; Tibbetts, Scott A; French, Jarrod B; Krug, Laurie T

    2018-02-01

    Gammaherpesviruses encode proteins with homology to the cellular purine metabolic enzyme formyl-glycinamide-phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase (FGARAT), but the role of these viral FGARATs (vFGARATs) in the pathogenesis of a natural host has not been investigated. We report a novel role for the ORF75A vFGARAT of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) in infectious virion production and colonization of mice. MHV68 mutants with premature stop codons in orf75A exhibited a log reduction in acute replication in the lungs after intranasal infection, which preceded a defect in colonization of multiple host reservoirs including the mediastinal lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the spleen. Intraperitoneal infection rescued splenic latency, but not reactivation. The 75A.stop virus also exhibited defective replication in primary fibroblast and macrophage cells. Viruses produced in the absence of ORF75A were characterized by an increase in the ratio of particles to PFU. In the next round of infection this led to the alteration of early events in lytic replication including the deposition of the ORF75C tegument protein, the accelerated kinetics of viral gene expression, and induction of TNFα release and cell death. Infecting cells to deliver equivalent genomes revealed that ORF75A was required for initiating early events in infection. In contrast with the numerous phenotypes observed in the absence of ORF75A, ORF75B was dispensable for replication and pathogenesis. These studies reveal that murine rhadinovirus vFGARAT family members ORF75A and ORF75C have evolved to perform divergent functions that promote replication and colonization of the host.

  20. Breast cancer and psychosocial factors: early stressful life events, social support, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Karni; Wrensch, Margaret; Rice, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Spiegel, David

    2008-01-01

    The allostasis theory postulates that stress causes the body to activate physiologic systems in order to maintain stability. The authors sought to examine the relationship between earlier stress and later development of breast cancer (BC). Authors correlated discrete and interactive relationships of stressful life events, social support, and well-being during childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of BC in adulthood among 300 women with primary BC and 305 matched control subjects. BC patients and control subjects reported similar childhood experiences. Yet, although childhood stressful life events were associated with reports of less family support and well being among the controls, those in the BC group who experienced high stress in early childhood actually expressed higher levels of family support and well-being than did those who had experienced lower levels of stress. These findings may reflect a tendency toward a repressive coping style among the BC group, which may be either a risk factor for the disease or a result of having it.

  1. New Early Jurassic Tetrapod Assemblages Constrain Triassic-Jurassic Tetrapod Extinction Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Shubin, N. H.; Anders, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The discovery of the first definitively correlated earliest Jurassic (200 million years before present) tetrapod assemblage (Fundy basin, Newark Supergroup, Nova Scotia) allows reevaluation of the duration of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinction event. Present are tritheledont and mammal-like reptiles, prosauropod, theropod, and ornithischian dinosaurs, protosuchian and sphenosuchian crocodylomorphs, sphenodontids, and hybodont, semionotid, and palaeonisciform fishes. All of the families are known from Late Triassic and Jurassic strata from elsewhere; however, pollen and spore, radiometric, and geochemical correlation indicate an early Hettangian age for these assemblages. Because all ``typical Triassic'' forms are absent from these assemblages, most Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinctions occurred before this time and without the introduction of new families. As was previously suggested by studies of marine invertebrates, this pattern is consistent with a global extinction event at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The Manicouagan impact structure of Quebec provides dates broadly compatible with the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and, following the impact theory of mass extinctions, may be implicated in the cause.

  2. Excessive Heat Events and National Security: Building Resilience based on Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintzileos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive heat events (EHE) affect security of Nations in multiple direct and indirect ways. EHE are the top cause for morbidity/mortality associated to any atmospheric extremes. Higher energy consumption used for cooling can lead to black-outs and social disorder. EHE affect the food supply chain reducing crop yield and increasing the probability of food contamination during delivery and storage. Distribution of goods during EHE can be severely disrupted due to mechanical failure of transportation equipment. EHE during athletic events e.g., marathons, may result to a high number of casualties. Finally, EHE may also affect military planning by e.g. reducing hours of exercise and by altering combat gear. Early warning systems for EHE allow for building resilience. In this paper we first define EHE as at least two consecutive heat days; a heat day is defined as a day with a maximum heat index with probability of occurrence that exceeds a certain threshold. We then use retrospective forecasts performed with a multitude of operational models and show that it is feasible to forecast EHE at forecast lead of week-2 and week-3 over the contiguous United States. We finally introduce an improved definition of EHE based on an intensity index and investigate forecast skill of the predictive system in the tropics and subtropics.

  3. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Karen A; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Rovet, Joanne F

    2014-07-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO) exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH), a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH), who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel protein kinase D inhibitor attenuates early events of experimental pancreatitis in isolated rat acini.

    PubMed

    Thrower, Edwin C; Yuan, Jingzhen; Usmani, Ashar; Liu, Yannan; Jones, Courtney; Minervini, Samantha N; Alexandre, Martine; Pandol, Stephen J; Guha, Sushovan

    2011-01-01

    Novel protein kinase C isoforms (PKC δ and ε) mediate early events in acute pancreatitis. Protein kinase D (PKD/PKD1) is a convergent point of PKC δ and ε in the signaling pathways triggered through CCK or cholinergic receptors and has been shown to activate the transcription factor NF-κB in acute pancreatitis. For the present study we hypothesized that a newly developed PKD/PKD1 inhibitor, CRT0066101, would prevent the initial events leading to pancreatitis. We pretreated isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells with CRT0066101 and a commercially available inhibitor Gö6976 (10 μM). This was followed by stimulation for 60 min with high concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, 0.1 μM), carbachol (CCh, 1 mM), or bombesin (10 μM) to induce initial events of pancreatitis. PKD/PKD1 phosphorylation and activity were measured as well as zymogen activation, amylase secretion, cell injury and NF-κB activation. CRT0066101 dose dependently inhibited secretagogue-induced PKD/PKD1 activation and autophosphorylation at Ser-916 with an IC(50) ∼3.75-5 μM but had no effect on PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the PKD/PKD1 activation loop (Ser-744/748). Furthermore, CRT0066101 reduced secretagogue-induced zymogen activation and amylase secretion. Gö6976 reduced zymogen activation but not amylase secretion. Neither inhibitor affected basal zymogen activation or secretion. CRT0066101 did not affect secretagogue-induced cell injury or changes in cell morphology, but it reduced NF-κB activation by 75% of maximal for CCK- and CCh-stimulated acinar cells. In conclusion, CRT0066101 is a potent and specific PKD family inhibitor. Furthermore, PKD/PKD1 is a potential mediator of zymogen activation, amylase secretion, and NF-κB activation induced by a range of secretagogues in pancreatic acinar cells.

  5. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  6. Membrane remodeling, an early event in benzo[alpha]pyrene-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Huc, Laurence

    2010-02-15

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) often serves as a model for mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our previous work suggested a role of membrane fluidity in B[alpha]P-induced apoptotic process. In this study, we report that B[alpha]P modifies the composition of cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in rat liver F258 epithelial cells. The cellular distribution of the ganglioside-GM1 was markedly changed following B[alpha]P exposure. B[alpha]P also modified fatty acid composition and decreased the cholesterol content of cholesterol-rich microdomains. B[alpha]P-induced depletion of cholesterol in lipid rafts was linked to a reduced expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and B[alpha]P-related H{submore » 2}O{sub 2} formation were involved in the reduced expression of HMG-CoA reductase and in the remodeling of membrane microdomains. The B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling resulted in an intracellular alkalinization observed during the early phase of apoptosis. In conclusion, B[alpha]P altered the composition of plasma membrane microstructures through AhR and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dependent-regulation of lipid biosynthesis. In F258 cells, the B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling was identified as an early apoptotic event leading to an intracellular alkalinization.« less

  7. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Cao, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:26265791

  9. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    PubMed

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Chelsea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2014-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013). We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  11. Early life events and motor development in childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Grace, Tegan; Bulsara, Max; Robinson, Monique; Hands, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have reported on early life risk factors for motor development outcomes past childhood. Antenatal, perinatal and neonatal factors affecting motor development from late childhood to adolescence were explored. As sex differences in motor development have been previously reported, males and females were examined separately. Participants (n = 2868) were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study. Obstetric and neonatal data were examined to determine factors related to motor development at 10 (n = 1622), 14 (n = 1584) and 17 (n = 1221) years. The Neuromuscular Development Index (NDI) of the McCarron Assessment of Motor Development determined offspring motor proficiency. Linear mixed models were developed to allow for changes in motor development over time. Maternal pre-eclampsia, Caesarean section and low income were negatively related to male and female motor outcomes. Lower percentage of optimal birthweight was related to a lower male NDI. Younger maternal age, smoking during early pregnancy and stress during later pregnancy were related to lower female NDIs. Events experienced during pregnancy were related to motor development into late adolescence. Males and females were influenced differently by antenatal and perinatal risk factors; this may be due to sex-specific developmental pathways. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A catastrophic event in Lake Geneva region during the Early Bronze Age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Katrina; Yrro, Blé; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Corboud, Pierre; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Similarly to steep oceanic continental margins, lake slopes can collapse, producing large sublacustrine landslides and tsunamis. Lake sediments are excellent natural archives of such mass movements and their study allows the reconstructions of these prehistoric events, such as the 563 AD large tsunami over Lake Geneva (Kremer et al, 2012). In Lake Geneva, more than 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles reveal the late Holocene sedimentation history. The seismic record shows a succession of five large lens-shaped seismic units (A to I), characterized by transparent/chaotic seismic facies with irregular lower boundaries, and interpreted as mass-movement deposits. These units are interbedded with parallel, continuous and strong amplitude reflections, interpreted as the 'background' lake sediments. The oldest dated mass movement (Unit D) covers a surface of 22 km2 in the deep basin, near the city of Lausanne. This deposit has an estimated minimum volume of 0.18 km3 and thus was very likely tsunamigenic (Kremer et al, 2012). A 12-m-long sediment core confirms the seismic interpretation of the mass movement unit and shows that the uppermost 3 m of Unit D are characterized by deformed hemipelagic sediments topped by a 5 cm thick turbidite. This deposit can be classified as a slump whose scar can be interpreted in the seismic data and visualized by multibeam bathymetry. This slump of Lausanne was likely triggered by an earthquake but a spontaneous slope collapse cannot be excluded (Girardclos et al, 2007). Radiocarbon dating of plant macro-remains reveals that the unit D happened during Early Bronze Age. Three other mass wasting deposits occurred during the same time period and may have been triggered during the same event, either by a single earthquake or by a tsunami generated by the slump of Lausanne. Although the exact trigger mechanism of the all these mass-wasting deposits remains unknown, a tsunami likely generated by this event may have affected the

  13. Early events in copper-ion catalyzed oxidation of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manish K; Leinisch, Fabian; Sahin, Cagla; Møller, Ian Max; Otzen, Daniel E; Davies, Michael J; Bjerrum, Morten J

    2018-04-22

    Previous studies on metal-ion catalyzed oxidation of α-synuclein oxidation have mostly used conditions that result in extensive modification precluding an understanding of the early events in this process. In this study, we have examined time-dependent oxidative events related to α-synuclein modification using six different molar ratios of Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 /protein and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 /ascorbate/protein resulting in mild to moderate extents of oxidation. For a Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 /protein molar ratio of 2.3:7.8:1 only low levels of carbonyls were detected (0.078 carbonyls per protein), whereas a molar ratio of 4.7:15.6:1 gave 0.22 carbonyls per α-synuclein within 15 min. With the latter conditions, rapid conversion of 3 out of 4 methionines (Met) to methionine sulfoxide, and 2 out of 4 tyrosines (Tyr) were converted to products including inter- and intra-molecular dityrosine cross-links and protein oligomers, as determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Limited histidine (His) modification was observed. The rapid formation of dityrosine cross-links was confirmed by fluorescence and mass-spectrometry. These data indicate that Met and Tyr oxidation are early events in Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 -mediated damage, with carbonyl formation being a minor process. With the Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 /ascorbate system, rapid protein carbonyl formation was detected with the first 5 min, but after this time point, little additional carbonyl formation was detected. With this system, lower levels of Met and Tyr oxidation were detected (2 Met and 1 Tyr modified with a Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 /ascorbate/protein ratio of 2.3:7.8:7.8:1), but greater His oxidation. Only low levels of intra- dityrosine cross-links and no inter- dityrosine oligomers were detected under these conditions, suggesting that ascorbate limits Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 -induced α-synuclein modification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Early pulmonary events of nose-only water pipe (shisha) smoking exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Hemeiri, Ahmed Al; Hammadi, Naser Al; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Elwasila, Mohamed; Ali, Badreldin H; Adeghate, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS) is increasing in popularity and prevalence worldwide. Convincing data suggest that the toxicants in WPS are similar to that of cigarette smoke. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms related to the early pulmonary events of WPS exposure are not understood. Here, we evaluated the early pulmonary events of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS generated by commercially available honey flavored “moasel” tobacco. BALB/c mice were exposed to WPS 30 min/day for 5 days. Control mice were exposed using the same protocol to atmospheric air only. We measured airway resistance using forced oscillation technique, and pulmonary inflammation was evaluated histopathologically and by biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue. Lung oxidative stress was evaluated biochemically by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mice exposed to WPS showed a significant increase in the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (P < 0.001). Moreover, total protein (P < 0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.005), and endothelin (P < 0.05) levels were augmented in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.005) and interleukin 6 (P < 0.05) concentrations were significantly increased in lung following the exposure to WPS. Both ROS (P < 0.05) and LPO (P < 0.005) in lung tissue were significantly increased, whereas the level and activity of antioxidants including GSH (P < 0.0001), catalase (P < 0.005), and SOD (P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased after WPS exposure, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. In contrast, airway resistance was not increased in WPS exposure. We conclude that subacute, nose-only exposure to WPS causes lung inflammation and oxidative stress without affecting pulmonary function suggesting that inflammation and oxidative stress are

  15. Early pulmonary events of nose-only water pipe (shisha) smoking exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al Hemeiri, Ahmed; Al Hammadi, Naser; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Elwasila, Mohamed; Ali, Badreldin H; Adeghate, Ernest

    2015-03-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS) is increasing in popularity and prevalence worldwide. Convincing data suggest that the toxicants in WPS are similar to that of cigarette smoke. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms related to the early pulmonary events of WPS exposure are not understood. Here, we evaluated the early pulmonary events of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS generated by commercially available honey flavored "moasel" tobacco. BALB/c mice were exposed to WPS 30 min/day for 5 days. Control mice were exposed using the same protocol to atmospheric air only. We measured airway resistance using forced oscillation technique, and pulmonary inflammation was evaluated histopathologically and by biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue. Lung oxidative stress was evaluated biochemically by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mice exposed to WPS showed a significant increase in the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (P < 0.001). Moreover, total protein (P < 0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.005), and endothelin (P < 0.05) levels were augmented in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.005) and interleukin 6 (P < 0.05) concentrations were significantly increased in lung following the exposure to WPS. Both ROS (P < 0.05) and LPO (P < 0.005) in lung tissue were significantly increased, whereas the level and activity of antioxidants including GSH (P < 0.0001), catalase (P < 0.005), and SOD (P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased after WPS exposure, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. In contrast, airway resistance was not increased in WPS exposure. We conclude that subacute, nose-only exposure to WPS causes lung inflammation and oxidative stress without affecting pulmonary function suggesting that inflammation and oxidative stress are early

  16. Reflections on some early events related to behavior analysis of child development

    PubMed Central

    Bijou, Sidney W.

    1996-01-01

    A series of events related to the early application of behavioral principles to child behavior and development is described. The events began in the 1930s at Columbia University with a solicited letter from John B. Watson suggesting a master's degree thesis problem, and continued through the 1950s and 1960s at the University of Washington. Specifically, these happenings resulted in (a) research demonstrating that Skinner's laboratory method for studying nonhuman organisms could be profitably applied to the laboratory study of young normal children; (b) a demonstration that by successive approximations, a normal child can be operantly conditioned to respond to an arbitrary situation; (c) research showing that the effects of simple schedules of reinforcement obtained with nonhuman organisms could be duplicated in young normal and retarded children; (d) the demonstration that Skinner's operant laboratory method could be adapted to study young children in field situations; (e) research showing that operant principles can be successfully applied to the treatment of a young autistic boy with a serious visual handicap; (f) laboratory studies showing that mothers can be trained to treat their own young children who have behavior problems; (g) an in-home study demonstrating that a mother can treat her own child who has behavior problems; (h) a demonstration that operant principles can be applied effectively to teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic to children with retardation; and (i) publication of a book, Child Development: A Systematic and Empirical Theory, in collaboration with Donald M. Baer, by Prentice Hall in their Century Psychological Series. PMID:22478239

  17. Extracellular matrix disruption is an early event in the pathogenesis of skeletal disease in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Jonathan M; Zaucke, Frank; Clarke, Lorne A

    2015-02-01

    Progressive skeletal and connective tissue disease represents a significant clinical burden in all of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Despite the introduction of enzyme replacement strategies for many of the mucopolysaccharidoses, symptomatology related to bone and joint disease appears to be recalcitrant to current therapies. In order to address these unmet medical needs a clearer understanding of skeletal and connective tissue disease pathogenesis is required. Historically the pathogenesis of the mucopolysaccharidoses has been assumed to directly relate to progressive storage of glycosaminoglycans. It is now apparent for many lysosomal storage disorders that more complex pathogenic mechanisms underlie patients' clinical symptoms. We have used proteomic and genome wide expression studies in the murine mucopolysaccharidosis I model to identify early pathogenic events occurring in micro-dissected growth plate tissue. Studies were conducted using 3 and 5-week-old mice thus representing a time at which no obvious morphological changes of bone or joints have taken place. An unbiased iTRAQ differential proteomic approach was used to identify candidates followed by validation with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. These studies reveal significant decreases in six key structural and signaling extracellular matrix proteins; biglycan, fibromodulin, PRELP, type I collagen, lactotransferrin, and SERPINF1. Genome-wide expression studies in embryonic day 13.5 limb cartilage and 5 week growth plate cartilage followed by specific gene candidate qPCR studies in the 5week growth plate identified fourteen significantly deregulated mRNAs (Adamts12, Aspn, Chad, Col2a1, Col9a1, Hapln4, Lum, Matn1, Mmp3, Ogn, Omd, P4ha2, Prelp, and Rab32). The involvement of biglycan, PRELP and fibromodulin; all members of the small leucine repeat proteoglycan family is intriguing, as this protein family is implicated in the pathogenesis of late onset osteoarthritis

  18. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  19. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: A Southern Hemisphere record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bernárdez, Enrique; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The Early Toarcian was marked by important environmental changes, marine oxygen deficiency and extensive organic-rich sediment deposition (T-OAE; ˜182 Ma, Early Jurassic). The T-OAE coincides with a marked negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in marine carbonate, and marine and terrestrial organic carbon. This is commonly attributed to the massive release of isotopically light carbon to the atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs derived from the destabilization of methane hydrates from marine sediments and/or the emissions of thermogenic methane from the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (e.g., Hesselbo et al., 2000; Kemp et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2007; Mazzini et al., 2010). Moreover, in most documented marine sections, this episode is marked by a generalized crisis in carbonate production and marine invertebrate extinctions (e.g. Jenkyns, 1988; Röhl et al., 2005; Suan et al., 2001). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available from the Southern Hemisphere, leading to large uncertainty concerning the exact expression of this event in this part of the world. The aims of this study are to characterize the sediments deposited during the Andean equivalents of the tenuicostatum and falciferum European Zones and establish in which way the T-OAE affected this region. In the Early Jurassic, the Andean basin was in a back-arc setting with marine corridors connected to Panthalassa. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical data from the sections of El Peñon and Quebrada Asiento, located in Chile in the northeastern area of the city of Copiapó, Atacama region. The biostratigraphy of these sections has been studied by von Hillebrandt and Schidt-Effing (1981) and complemented here by a biostratigraphy based on calcareous nannofossils. The sections consist of a succession of marl, limestone and siltstone of Pliensbachian and

  20. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-12-17

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.

  1. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D.; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D.; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A.; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-01-01

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI. PMID:26674602

  2. Eye coding mechanisms in early human face event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Guillaume A; Ince, Robin A A; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-11-10

    In humans, the N170 event-related potential (ERP) is an integrated measure of cortical activity that varies in amplitude and latency across trials. Researchers often conjecture that N170 variations reflect cortical mechanisms of stimulus coding for recognition. Here, to settle the conjecture and understand cortical information processing mechanisms, we unraveled the coding function of N170 latency and amplitude variations in possibly the simplest socially important natural visual task: face detection. On each experimental trial, 16 observers saw face and noise pictures sparsely sampled with small Gaussian apertures. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information theory revealed that the presence of the eye specifically covaries with behavioral and neural measurements: the left eye strongly modulates reaction times and lateral electrodes represent mainly the presence of the contralateral eye during the rising part of the N170, with maximum sensitivity before the N170 peak. Furthermore, single-trial N170 latencies code more about the presence of the contralateral eye than N170 amplitudes and early latencies are associated with faster reaction times. The absence of these effects in control images that did not contain a face refutes alternative accounts based on retinal biases or allocation of attention to the eye location on the face. We conclude that the rising part of the N170, roughly 120-170 ms post-stimulus, is a critical time-window in human face processing mechanisms, reflecting predominantly, in a face detection task, the encoding of a single feature: the contralateral eye. © 2014 ARVO.

  3. Early Events in Insulin Fibrillization Studied by Time-Lapse Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Podestà, Alessandro; Tiana, Guido; Milani, Paolo; Manno, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The importance of understanding the mechanism of protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils lies not only in its medical consequences, but also in its more basic properties of self-organization. The discovery that a large number of uncorrelated proteins can form, under proper conditions, structurally similar fibrils has suggested that the underlying mechanism is a general feature of polypeptide chains. In this work, we address the early events preceding amyloid fibril formation in solutions of zinc-free human insulin incubated at low pH and high temperature. Here, we show by time-lapse atomic force microscopy that a steady-state distribution of protein oligomers with a quasiexponential tail is reached within a few minutes after heating. This metastable phase lasts for a few hours, until fibrillar aggregates are observable. Although for such complex systems different aggregation mechanisms can occur simultaneously, our results indicate that the prefibrillar phase is mainly controlled by a simple coagulation-evaporation kinetic mechanism, in which concentration acts as a critical parameter. These experimental facts, along with the kinetic model used, suggest a critical role for thermal concentration fluctuations in the process of fibril nucleation. PMID:16239333

  4. Redox signaling is an early event in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hartono, Stella P; Knudsen, Bruce E; Zubair, Adeel S; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen J; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2013-09-10

    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in the development of chronic renal damage in patients with renovascular hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, it is not known how these pathways intersect to produce chronic renal damage. We tested the hypothesis that renal parenchymal cells are subjected to oxidant stress early in the development of RVH and produce signals that promote influx of inflammatory cells, which may then propagate chronic renal injury. We established a reproducible murine model of RVH by placing a tetrafluoroethylene cuff on the right renal artery. Three days after cuff placement, renal tissue demonstrates no histologic abnormalities despite up regulation of both pro- and anti-oxidant genes. Mild renal atrophy was observed after seven days and was associated with induction of Tnfα and influx of CD3⁺ T cells and F4/80⁺ macrophages. By 28 days, kidneys developed severe renal atrophy with interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, despite normalization of plasma renin activity. Based on these considerations, we propose that renal parenchymal cells initiate a progressive cascade of events leading to oxidative stress, interstitial inflammation, renal fibrosis, and atrophy.

  5. Impact of early and late winter icing events on sub-arctic dwarf shrubs.

    PubMed

    Preece, C; Phoenix, G K

    2014-01-01

    Polar regions are predicted to undergo large increases in winter temperature and an increased frequency of freeze-thaw cycles, which can cause ice layers in the snow pack and ice encasement of vegetation. Early or late winter timing of ice encasement could, however, modify the extent of damage caused to plants. To determine impacts of the date of ice encasement, a novel field experiment was established in sub-arctic Sweden, with icing events simulated in January and March 2008 and 2009. In the subsequent summers, reproduction, phenology, growth and mortality, as well as physiological indicators of leaf damage were measured in the three dominant dwarf shrubs: Vaccinium uliginosum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Empetrum nigrum. It was hypothesised that January icing would be more damaging compared to March icing due to the longer duration of ice encasement. Following 2 years of icing, E. nigrum berry production was 83% lower in January-iced plots compared to controls, and V. vitis-idaea electrolyte leakage was increased by 69%. Conversely, electrolyte leakage of E. nigrum was 25% lower and leaf emergence of V. vitis-idaea commenced 11 days earlier in March-iced plots compared to control plots in 2009. There was no effect of icing on any of the other parameters measured, indicating that overall these study species have moderate to high tolerance to ice encasement. Even much longer exposure under the January icing treatment does not clearly increase damage. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Visualization of early events in acetic acid denaturation of HIV-1 protease: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Aditi Narendra; Rout, Manoj Kumar; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2011-01-01

    Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR) was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH) solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH reveal that the PR denaturation begins by separation of dimer into intact monomers and it is only after this separation that the monomer units start denaturing. The denaturation of the monomers is flagged off by the loss of crucial interactions between the α-helix at C-terminal and surrounding β-strands. This causes the structure to transit from the equilibrium dynamics to random non-equilibrating dynamics. Residence time calculations indicate that denaturation occurs via direct interaction of the acetic acid molecules with certain regions of the protein in 9 M AcOH. All these observations have helped to decipher a picture of the early events in acetic acid denaturation of PR and have illustrated that the α-helix and the β-sheet at the C-terminus of a native and functional PR dimer should maintain both the stability and the function of the enzyme and thus present newer targets for blocking PR function.

  7. A Time Scale for Major Events in Early Mars Crustal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2004-01-01

    The population of visible and buried impact basins > 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA data and the cumulative frequency curves derived for these pvide a basis for a chronology of major events in early martian history. The relative chronology can be given in terms of N(200) crater retention ages; 'absolute ages' can be assigued using the Hartmann-Neukum (H&N) model chronology. In terms of billions of H&N years, the crustal dichotomy formed by large impact basins at 4.12 +/- 0.08 BYA (N(200) = 3.0-3.2) and the global magnetic field died at about or slightly before the same time (4.15 +/- 0.08 BYA (N(200) = 3.5). In this chronology, the buried lowlands are approx. 120 my younger than the buried highlands, approx. 160 my younger than the highlands overall and approx. 340 my younger than the oldest crater retention surface we see, defined by the largest impact basins.

  8. Fractal analysis of GPS time series for early detection of disastrous seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Denis M.; Lyubushin, Alexey A.

    2017-03-01

    A new method of fractal analysis of time series for estimating the chaoticity of behaviour of open stochastic dynamical systems is developed. The method is a modification of the conventional detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique. We start from analysing both methods from the physical point of view and demonstrate the difference between them which results in a higher accuracy of the new method compared to the conventional DFA. Then, applying the developed method to estimate the measure of chaoticity of a real dynamical system - the Earth's crust, we reveal that the latter exhibits two distinct mechanisms of transition to a critical state: while the first mechanism has already been known due to numerous studies of other dynamical systems, the second one is new and has not previously been described. Using GPS time series, we demonstrate efficiency of the developed method in identification of critical states of the Earth's crust. Finally we employ the method to solve a practically important task: we show how the developed measure of chaoticity can be used for early detection of disastrous seismic events and provide a detailed discussion of the numerical results, which are shown to be consistent with outcomes of other researches on the topic.

  9. Stimulus ambiguity elicits response conflict.

    PubMed

    Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, André; De Baene, Wouter; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2008-04-18

    Conflict monitoring theory [M.M. Botvinick, T. Braver, D. Barch, C. Carter, J.D. Cohen, Conflict monitoring and cognitive control, Psychol. Rev. 108 (2001) 625-652] assumes that perceptual ambiguity among choice stimuli elicits response conflict in choice reaction. It hence predicts that response conflict is also involved in elementary variants of choice reaction time (RT) tasks, i.e., those variants that, by contrast with the Stroop task or the Go/No-Go task for instance, are rarely associated with cognitive control. In order to test this prediction, an experiment was designed in which participants performed a simple RT task and a regular between-hand 2-choice RT task under three different levels of stimulus ambiguity. The data show that response conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), was elicited in the 2-choice RT task but not in the simple RT task and that the degree of response conflict in the 2-choice RT task was a function of stimulus ambiguity. These results show that response conflict is also present in a regular choice RT task which is traditionally not considered to be a measure of cognitive conflict.

  10. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) continues that the re- quirements analyst uses the products of domain analysis when implementing a new system [Kang 90, p...Peterson, A. Spencer. Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study. Technical Report CMU/SEI-90-TR-21, ADA235785, Software Engineering...3.3 Problems of Volatility 12 4 Current Elicitation Techniques 15 4.1 Information Gathering 16 4.2 Requirements Expression and Analysis 19 4.3

  11. Ophthalmic Vascular Events after Primary Unilateral Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in Early and Recent Eras.

    PubMed

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Ancona-Lezama, David; Lucio-Alvarez, J Antonio; Masoomian, Babak; Jabbour, Pascal; Shields, Carol L

    2018-06-16

    To assess risk factors for ophthalmic vascular events after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who received unilateral IAC as primary treatment for retinoblastoma from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2017, at a single center. Records were reviewed for patient demographics, tumor features, IAC parameters, and treatment-related vascular events in the early IAC era (2009-2011) compared with the recent era (2012-2017) using the t test and Fisher exact test. Change in event rates over time was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, with Spearman's rho used to test correlation. Rate of IAC-induced ophthalmic vascular events. There were 243 chemotherapy infusions in 76 eyes of 76 patients, divided into early (22 eyes, 57 infusions) and recent (54 eyes, 186 infusions) eras. Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of melphalan (243 infusions), topotecan (124 infusions), and carboplatin (9 infusions). A comparison (early vs. recent era) revealed fewer mean number of infusions (2.6 vs. 3.4, P = 0.02) with similar mean patient age and presenting tumor features. Event rates decreased over time (P < 0.01), with fewer ophthalmic vascular events (early era vs. recent era) in the recent era (59% vs. 9% per eye, 23% vs. 3% per infusion, P < 0.01), including peripheral retinal nonperfusion (5% vs. 2% per eye, P = 0.50), vitreous hemorrhage (9% vs. 2%, P = 0.20), subretinal hemorrhage (0% vs. 2%, P = 0.99), branch retinal vein occlusion (5% vs. 0%, P = 0.29), choroidal ischemia (14% vs. 4%, P = 0.14), and ophthalmic artery spasm/occlusion (27% vs. 0%, P < 0.01). Events did not correlate to patient age (P = 0.75), tumor diameter (P = 0.32), tumor thickness (P = 0.59), or cumulative dosage of melphalan (P = 0.13) or topotecan (P = 0.59). There were no IAC-induced vascular events in 72 infusions of 21 consecutively treated eyes in 2016 to 2017. Ophthalmic vascular events after IAC have decreased from the early era

  12. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON THE EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS AND EARLY SIGNALING EVENTS IN PRIMARY HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Arsenicals on the Expression of Cell Cycle Proteins and Early Signaling Events in Primary Human Keratinocytes.

    Mudipalli, A, Owen R. D. and R. J. Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is a m...

  13. Developing Fluorescence Sensor Systems for Early Detection of Nitrification Events in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events ...

  14. Toward an orbital chronology for the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a, ~ 120 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Bralower, Timothy J.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Osleger, David A.; Arthur, Michael A.; Bice, David M.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Erba, Elisabetta; Premoli Silva, Isabella

    2008-07-01

    The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a, 120 Ma) represents a geologically brief time interval in the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse world that is characterized by increased organic carbon accumulation in marine sediments, sudden biotic changes, and abrupt carbon-isotope excursions indicative of significant perturbations to global carbon cycling. The brevity of these drastic environmental changes (< 10 6 year) and the typically 10 6 year temporal resolution of the available chronologies, however, represent a critical gap in our knowledge of OAE1a. We have conducted a high-resolution investigation of three widely distributed sections, including the Cismon APTICORE in Italy, Santa Rosa Canyon in northeastern Mexico, and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 398 off the Iberian margin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which represent a range of depositional environments where condensed and moderately expanded OAE1a intervals are recorded. The objectives of this study are to establish orbital chronologies for these sections and to construct a common, high-resolution timescale for OAE1a. Spectral analyses of the closely-spaced (corresponding to ~ 5 to 10 kyr) measurements of calcium carbonate content of the APTICORE, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) of the Santa Rosa samples, and MS, ARM and ARM/IRM, where IRM is isothermal remanent magnetization, of Site 398 samples reveal statistically significant cycles. These cycles exhibit periodicity ratios and modulation patterns similar to those of the mid-Cretaceous orbital cycles, suggesting that orbital variations may have modulated depositional processes. Orbital control allows us to estimate the duration of unique, globally identifiable stages of OAE1a. Although OAE1a had a duration of ~ 1.0 to 1.3 Myr, the initial perturbation represented by the negative carbon-isotope excursion was rapid, lasting for ~ 27-44 kyr. This estimate could serve as a basis for constraining triggering

  15. Shorter Exposures to Harder X-Rays Trigger Early Apoptotic Events in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, JiaJia; Mury, Sean P.; Drahos, Karen E.; Moscovitch, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and utilized for therapeutic

  16. Loss of heterozygosity at D8S262: an early genetic event of hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiao; Gong, Li; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Ren, Pin; Zhang, Wendong; Yao, Li; Han, Xiujuan; Zhu, Shaojun; Lan, Miao; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factor, multi-step, multi-gene and complicated process resulting from the accumulation of sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations. An important change among them is from precancerous lesions to HCC. However, only few studies have been reported about the sequential genetic changes during hepatocarcinogenesis. We observed firstly molecular karyotypes of 10 matched HCC using Affymetrix single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 arrays, and found chromosomal fragments with high incidence (more than 70%) of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Then, we selected 28 microsatellite markers at some gene spanning these chromosomal fragments, and examined the frequency of LOH of 128 matched HCC and 43 matched precancerous lesions-dysplastic nodules (DN) by a PCR-based analysis. Finally, we investigated the expression of proteins encoded by these genes in HCC, DN and the surrounding hepatic tissues. The result of Affymetrix SNP6.0 arrays demonstrated that more than 70% (7/10) cases had chromosomal fragment deletion on 4q13.3-35.1, 8p23.2-21.2, 16q11.2-24.3, and 17p13.3-12. Among 28 microsatellite markers selected, LOH frequencies at D8S262 for DN and HCC were found to be the highest, 51.2% and 72.7%, respectively. Immunohistochemically, the positive rate of its adjacent gene CSMD1 in HCC, DN, and the surrounding hepatic tissues were 27.3% (35/128), 75% (33/44), and 82% (105/128), respectively. LOH at D8S262 may be associated with an early genetic event of hepatocarcinogenesis, and a predictor for the monitor and prevention of HCC. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1557074981159099 .

  17. Evaluation of an early warning system for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) events in Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    People in Cordillera Blanca range in Peru have a long history dealing with natural disasters associated to high mountains; particularly Glacier Lakes Outburst Flood (GLOF). Examples in the Cordillera Blanca vary from a GLOF that occurred in 1941 that killed more than 5000 people in the city of Huaraz to recent events from Lake Artison Baja in 2012 and Lake 513 on 2010, which were not devastating thanks to safety systems previously installed in those lakes. However, glaciers continue melting leaving new lakes or changing the characteristics of lakes that were previously controlled making safety systems obsolete that worked successfully in the past protecting communities downstream. Lake Palcacocha has evolved from being safe after the installation of a safety system in 1970 to an imminent source of GLOF risk due to the expansion that has occurred during the last 40 years increasing from a volume of 500,000 to 17 million m3. In response to this risk the community in Huaraz is planning an Early Warning System (EWS) that will allow the population to mobilize to a safe area in case a GLOF occurs. In this work we present an adaptation of the LifeSIM model to calculate the benefits from such an EWS using 2007 census data and a FLO-2D flood simulation model. The outputs are the number of people in Huaraz that could lose their life due to a GLOF. Our results indicate that without an EWS around 19,773 people could lose their life; whereas, if an EWS is installed the number of victims reduces to 7344. Finally, if mobilization of the affected population is improved the value reduces to 2865. The results show the importance of the EWS as well as informing and training the population to how to react if a GLOF occurs.

  18. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event and its sedimentary record in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In the Jurassic period, the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), about 183 Ma ago, was a global perturbation of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions. This episode was associated with a crisis in marine carbonate accumulation, climate warming, an increase in sea level, ocean acidification, enhanced continental weathering, whereas organic-rich sediments are noticeable for example in the Atlantic and in the Tethys. This episode is associated with a negative carbon excursion, which is recorded both in marine and terrestrial environments. The cause(s) of this environmental crisis remain(s) still controversial. Nevertheless, the development of negative δ13C excursions is commonly interpreted as due to the injection of isotopically-light carbon associated with gas hydrate dissociation, the thermal metamorphism of carbon-rich sediments and input of thermogenic and volcanogenic carbon related to the formation of the Karoo-Ferrar basaltic province in southern Gondwana (Hesselbo et al., 2000, 2007; Beerling et al., 2002; Cohen et al., 2004, 2007; McElwain et al., 2005, Beerling and Brentnall, 2007; Svensen et al., 2007; Hermoso et al., 2009, 2012; Mazzini et al., 2010). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available concerning the Swiss sedimentary records. Therefore, we focused on two sections in the Jura Plateau (canton Aargau): the Rietheim section (Montero-Serrano et al., submitted) and the Gipf section (current study). A multidisciplinary approach has been chosen and the tools to be used are based on sedimentological observations (sedimentary condensation, etc.), biostratigraphy, mineralogy (bulk-rock composition), facies and microfacies analysis (presence or absence of benthos), clay-mineralogy composition (climatic conditions), major and trace-element analyses (productivity, redox conditions, etc.), phosphorus (trophic levels, anoxia), carbon isotopes and organic

  19. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sara; Wakam, Glenn; Hubbard, Alan E.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms. Methods Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV]). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tweet utilization were compared across events. Results Over 3.8 million tweets were analyzed (SH 1.8 m, BB 1.1m, SF 430k, MV 250k, NE 205k). Peak tweets per min ranged from 209–3326. The mean followers per tweeter ranged from 3382–9992 across events. Retweets were tweeted a mean of 82–564 times per event. Tweets occurred very rapidly for all events (<2 mins) and represented 1% of the total event specific tweets in a median of 13 minutes of the first 911 calls. A 200 tweets/min threshold was reached fastest with NE (2 min), BB (7 min), and SF (18 mins). If this threshold was utilized as a signaling mechanism to place local hospitals on standby for possible large scale events, in all case studies, this signal would have preceded patient arrival. Importantly, this threshold for signaling would also have preceded traditional disaster notification mechanisms in SF, NE, and simultaneous with BB and MV. Conclusions Social media data has demonstrated that this mechanism is a powerful, predictable, and potentially important resource for optimizing disaster response. Further investigated is warranted to assess the utility of prospective signally thresholds for hospital based activation. PMID:28982201

  20. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions, however comparing events is difficult. Two studies test whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events (‘progressive alignment’) while learning new verbs, and whether this influence changes with age. In Study 1, 2 ½- and 3 ½-year-old children participated in an interactive task. Children who saw a pair of similar events and then varied events were able to extend verbs at test, differing from a control group; children who saw two pairs of varied events did not differ from the control group. In Study 2, events were presented on a monitor. Following the initial pair of events that varied by condition, a Tobii x120 eye tracker recorded 2 ½-, 3 ½- and 4 ½-year-olds’ fixations to specific elements of events (AOIs) during the second pair of events, which were the same across conditions. After seeing the pair of events that were highly similar, 2 ½-year-olds showed significantly longer fixation durations to agents and to affected objects as compared to the all varied condition. At test, 3 ½-year-olds were able to extend the verb, but only in the progressive alignment condition. These results are important because they show children’s visual attention to relevant elements in dynamic events is influenced by their prior comparison experience, and they show that young children benefit from seeing similar events as they learn to compare events to each other. PMID:27092030

  1. Functional insulin receptors are overexpressed in thyroid tumors: is this an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis?

    PubMed

    Frittitta, L; Sciacca, L; Catalfamo, R; Ippolito, A; Gangemi, P; Pezzino, V; Filetti, S; Vigneri, R

    1999-01-15

    Insulin receptor (IR), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, is expressed in normal thyroid cells and affects thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation. The authors measured IR content in benign and malignant thyroid tumors by three independent methods: a specific radioimmunoassay, 125I-insulin binding studies, and immunohistochemistry. The results obtained were compared with the IR content in paired, adjacent, normal thyroid tissue. To assess IR function in thyroid carcinoma cells, glucose uptake responsiveness to insulin was also studied in a human transformed thyroid cell line (B-CPAP) and in follicular carcinoma cells in primary culture. In 9 toxic adenomas, the average IR content was similar to that observed in the 9 paired normal thyroid tissue specimens from the same patients (2.2+/-0.3 vs. 2.1+/-0.3). In 13 benign nonfunctioning, or "cold," adenomas, the average IR content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in paired normal tissue specimens (4.3+/-0.5 vs. 1.8+/-0.1). In 12 papillary and 10 follicular carcinomas, IR content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue (4.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.6+/-0.2 and 5.6+/-1.0 vs. 1.8+/-0.2, respectively). The finding of a higher IR content in benign "cold" adenomas and in thyroid carcinomas was confirmed by both binding and immunostaining studies. The current studies indicate that 1) IR content is elevated in most follicular and papillary differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 2) IR content is also elevated in most benign follicular adenomas ("cold" nodules) but not in highly differentiated, hyperfunctioning follicular adenomas ("hot" nodules), which very rarely become malignant. This observation suggests that increased IR expression is not restricted to the thyroid malignant phenotype but is already present in the premalignant "cold" adenomas. It may contribute, therefore, to thyroid tumorigenesis and/or represent an early event that gives a selective growth advantage

  2. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  3. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An important question in palaeoanthropology is whether, among the australopiths and the first fossil hominins attributed to early Homo, there was a shift towards a more prolonged period of growth that can be distinguished from that of the living great apes and whether between the end of weaning and the beginning of puberty there was a slow period of growth as there is in modern humans. Evidence for the pace of growth in early fossil hominins comes from preserved tooth microstructure. A record of incremental growth in enamel and dentine persists, which allows us to reconstruct tooth growth and compare key measures of dental maturation with modern humans and living great apes. Despite their diverse diets and way of life, it is currently difficult to identify any clear differences in the timing of dental development among living great apes, australopiths and the earliest hominins attributed to the genus Homo. There is, however, limited evidence that some early hominins may have attained a greater proportion of their body mass and stature relatively earlier in the growth period than is typical of modern humans today. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298465

  4. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  5. Gender Differences in Early Mother-Child Interactions: Talking about an Imminent Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Examines maternal modes of organizing an imminent emotional event, a brief separation from the child. Finds that the mothers displayed two ways of structuring the future event, and these different modes were related statistically to the gender of the child. Investigates how the mother directs the child's mental processes by using augments of…

  6. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  7. Modeling Temporal Processes in Early Spacecraft Design: Application of Discrete-Event Simulations for Darpa's F6 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubos, Gregory F.; Cornford, Steven

    2012-01-01

    While the ability to model the state of a space system over time is essential during spacecraft operations, the use of time-based simulations remains rare in preliminary design. The absence of the time dimension in most traditional early design tools can however become a hurdle when designing complex systems whose development and operations can be disrupted by various events, such as delays or failures. As the value delivered by a space system is highly affected by such events, exploring the trade space for designs that yield the maximum value calls for the explicit modeling of time.This paper discusses the use of discrete-event models to simulate spacecraft development schedule as well as operational scenarios and on-orbit resources in the presence of uncertainty. It illustrates how such simulations can be utilized to support trade studies, through the example of a tool developed for DARPA's F6 program to assist the design of "fractionated spacecraft".

  8. A Systematic Review of Early Warning Systems' Effects on Nurses' Clinical Performance and Adverse Events Among Deteriorating Ward Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Ry; Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sun-Aee; Oh, Eui Geum

    2018-04-25

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are an integral part of processes that aim to improve the early identification and management of deteriorating patients in general wards. However, the widespread implementation of these systems has not generated robust data regarding nurses' clinical performance and patients' adverse events. This review aimed to determine the ability of EWSs to improve nurses' clinical performance and prevent adverse events among deteriorating ward patients. The PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications (January 1, 1997, to April 12, 2017). In addition, a grey literature search evaluated several guideline Web sites. The main outcome measures were nurses' clinical performance (vital sign monitoring and rapid response team notification) and patients' adverse events (in-hospital mortality, cardiac arrest, and unplanned intensive care unit [ICU] admission). The search identified 888 reports, although only five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings of these studies revealed that EWSs implementation had a positive effect on nurses' clinical performance, based on their frequency of documenting vital signs that were related to the patient's clinical deterioration. In addition, postimplementation reductions were identified for cardiac arrest, unplanned ICU admission, and unexpected death. It seems that EWSs can improve nurses' clinical performance and prevent adverse events (e.g., in-hospital mortality, unplanned ICU admission, and cardiac arrest) among deteriorating ward patients. However, additional high-quality evidence is needed to more comprehensively evaluate the effects of EWSs on these outcomes.

  9. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  10. Early Holocene hydroclimate of Baffin Bay: Understanding the interplay between abrupt climate change events and ice sheet fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, M. C.; Thomas, E. K.; Castañeda, I. S.; Briner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the causes of ice sheet fluctuations resulting in sea level rise is essential in today's warming climate. In high-latitude ice-sheet-proximal environments such as Baffin Bay, studying both the cause and the rate of ice sheet variability during past abrupt climate change events aids in predictions. Past climate reconstructions are used to understand ice sheet responses to changes in temperature and precipitation. The 9,300 and 8,200 yr BP events are examples of abrupt climate change events in the Baffin Bay region during which there were multiple re-advances of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets. High-resolution (decadal-scale) hydroclimate variability near the ice sheet margins during these abrupt climate change events is still unknown. We will generate a decadal-scale record of early Holocene temperature and precipitation using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes, δ2Hwax, from a lake sediment archive on Baffin Island, western Baffin Bay, to better understand abrupt climate change in this region. Shifts in temperature and moisture source result in changes in environmental water δ2H, which in turn is reflected in δ2Hwax, allowing for past hydroclimate to be determined from these compound-specific isotopes. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax is used to determine soil evaporation and is ultimately used to reconstruct moisture variability. We will compare our results with a previous analysis of δ2Hwax and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, a temperature and pH proxy, in lake sediment from western Greenland, eastern Baffin Bay, which indicates that cool and dry climate occurred in response to freshwater forcing events in the Labrador Sea. Reconstructing and comparing records on both the western and eastern sides of Baffin Bay during the early Holocene will allow for a spatial understanding of temperature and moisture balance changes during abrupt climate events, aiding in ice sheet modeling and predictions of future sea level

  11. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  12. Slow slip events in the early part of the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Nicholas K.; Malservisi, Rocco; Dixon, Timothy H.; Protti, Marino

    2017-08-01

    In February 2014 a Mw = 7.0 slow slip event (SSE) took place beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This event occurred 17 months after the 5 September 2012, Mw = 7.6, earthquake and along the same subduction zone segment, during a period when significant postseismic deformation was ongoing. A second SSE occurred in the middle of 2015, 21 months after the 2014 SSE and 38 months after the earthquake. The recurrence interval for Nicoya SSEs was unchanged by the earthquake. However, the spatial distribution of slip for the 2014 event differed significantly from previous events, having only deep ( 40 km) slip, compared to previous events, which had both deep and shallow slip. The 2015 SSE marked a return to the combination of deep plus shallow slip of preearthquake SSEs. However, slip magnitude in 2015 was nearly twice as large (Mw = 7.2) as preearthquake SSEs. We employ Coulomb Failure Stress change modeling in order to explain these changes. Stress changes associated with the earthquake and afterslip were highest near the shallow portion of the megathrust, where preearthquake SSEs had significant slip. Lower stress change occurred on the deeper parts of the plate interface, perhaps explaining why the deep ( 40 km) region for SSEs remained unchanged. The large amount of shallow slip in the 2015 SSE may reflect lack of shallow slip in the prior SSE. These observations highlight the variability of aseismic strain release rates throughout the earthquake cycle.Plain Language SummaryWe analyzed small signals in continuous GPS time series. By averaging many GPS measurements over a day, we are able to get very precise measurements of the motion of the ground. We found two <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica where the GPS changed direction and began moving toward the oceanic trench in the opposite direction of subduction plate motion. These <span class="hlt">events</span> are called slow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11277825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11277825"><span>Effects of atorvastatin on <span class="hlt">early</span> recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> in acute coronary syndromes: the MIRACL study: a randomized controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwartz, G G; Olsson, A G; Ezekowitz, M D; Ganz, P; Oliver, M F; Waters, D; Zeiher, A; Chaitman, B R; Leslie, S; Stern, T</p> <p>2001-04-04</p> <p>Patients experience the highest rate of death and recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> during the <span class="hlt">early</span> period after an acute coronary syndrome, but it is not known whether <span class="hlt">early</span> initiation of treatment with a statin can reduce the occurrence of these <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span>. To determine whether treatment with atorvastatin, 80 mg/d, initiated 24 to 96 hours after an acute coronary syndrome, reduces death and nonfatal ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span>. A randomized, double-blind trial conducted from May 1997 to September 1999, with follow-up through 16 weeks at 122 clinical centers in Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australasia. A total of 3086 adults aged 18 years or older with unstable angina or non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction. Patients were stratified by center and randomly assigned to receive treatment with atorvastatin (80 mg/d) or matching placebo between 24 and 96 hours after hospital admission. Primary end point <span class="hlt">event</span> defined as death, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest with resuscitation, or recurrent symptomatic myocardial ischemia with objective evidence and requiring emergency rehospitalization. A primary end point <span class="hlt">event</span> occurred in 228 patients (14.8%) in the atorvastatin group and 269 patients (17.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.00; P =.048). There were no significant differences in risk of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest between the atorvastatin group and the placebo group, although the atorvastatin group had a lower risk of symptomatic ischemia with objective evidence and requiring emergency rehospitalization (6.2% vs 8.4%; RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P =.02). Likewise, there were no significant differences between the atorvastatin group and the placebo group in the incidence of secondary outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures, worsening heart failure, or worsening angina, although there were fewer strokes in the atorvastatin group than in the placebo group (12</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025735','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025735"><span>Middle Devonian to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Carboniferous <span class="hlt">event</span> stratigraphy of Devils Gate and Northern Antelope Range sections, Nevada, U.S.A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sandberg, C.A.; Morrow, J.R.; Poole, F.G.; Ziegler, W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The classic type section of the Devils Gate Limestone at Devils Gate Pass is situated on the eastern slope of a proto-Antler forebulge that resulted from convergence of the west side of the North American continent with an ocean plate. The original Late Devonian forebulge, the site of which is now located between Devils Gate Pass and the Northern Antelope Range, separated the continental-rise to deep-slope Woodruff basin on the west from the backbulge Pilot basin on the east. Two connections between these basins are recorded by deeper water siltstone beds at Devils Gate; the older one is the lower tongue of the Woodruff Formation, which forms the basal unit of the upper member of the type Devils Gate, and the upper one is the overlying, thin lower member of the Pilot Shale. The forebulge and the backbulge Pilot basin originated during the middle Frasnian (<span class="hlt">early</span> Late Devonian) <span class="hlt">Early</span> hassi Zone, shortly following the Alamo Impact within the punctata Zone in southern Nevada. Evidence of this impact is recorded by coeval and reworked shocked quartz grains in the Northern Antelope Range and possibly by a unique bypass-channel or megatsunami-uprush sandy diamictite within carbonate-platform rocks of the lower member of the type Devils Gate Limestone. Besides the Alamo Impact and three regional <span class="hlt">events</span>, two other important global <span class="hlt">events</span> are recorded in the Devils Gate section. The semichatovae eustatic rise, the maximum Late Devonian flooding <span class="hlt">event</span>, coincides with the sharp lithogenetic change at the discordant boundary above the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone. Most significantly, the Devils Gate section contains the thickest and most complete rock record in North America across the late Frasnian linguiformis Zone mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>. Excellent exposures include not only the extinction shale, but also a younger. <span class="hlt">Early</span> triangularis Zone tsunamite breccia, produced by global collapse of carbonate platforms during a shallowing <span class="hlt">event</span> that continued into the next</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2562610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2562610"><span>Suicidal Ideation and Its Recurrence in Boys and Men from <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adulthood: An <span class="hlt">Event</span> History Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee. D.; Capaldi, Deborah M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Occurrence and recurrences of suicidal ideation (SI) were modeled among boys/men assessed annually from ages 12 to 29 years. Multiple-spell discrete-time <span class="hlt">event</span> history analyses permitted (a) determination of whether risk for SI escalates with prior experiences of SI (Spell effects), (b) while accounting for changes in risk with time (Period effects), and (c) controlling for vulnerability factors. Self-reported SI (presence/absence in past week), depressive symptoms, alcohol/substance use, and antisocial behavior, and official arrest records were collected annually from 205 boys recruited on the basis of community risk for delinquency. Parents’ self-reported psychopathology and SES were collected in childhood. Period effects supported decreasing risk for SI over time. Spell and time-varying, 1-year lagged substance use and depressive symptoms independently predicted increased risk for SI. Models involving SI with intent were explored. Consistent with interpersonal psychological theory, risk for young men’s SI increases with past experience of SI, even with key propensities controlled; however, risk also decays over time. Targeting conditions that confer risk for SI is essential. Preventing and delaying SI occurrence and recurrence may represent independent mechanisms by which prevention efforts operate. PMID:18729614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29635145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29635145"><span>Treatment decisions and the impact of adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> before and during extended endocrine therapy in postmenopausal <span class="hlt">early</span> breast cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blok, Erik J; Kroep, Judith R; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Duijm-de Carpentier, Marjolijn; Putter, Hein; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Seynaeve, Caroline M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Extended endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for postmenopausal breast cancer has been studied within multiple phase III trials. Treatment compliance in these trials is generally poor. In this analysis, we aimed to determine factors that were associated with participation in the phase III Investigation on the Duration of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole (IDEAL) trial and with <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation, and how this influenced survival outcome. In the IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients were randomised between 2.5 or 5 years of extended letrozole, after completing 5 years of endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive <span class="hlt">early</span> breast cancer. A subgroup of this population participated earlier in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial (5 years of exemestane or 2.5 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane as primary adjuvant therapy) in which we explored which factors were determinative for enrolment in the IDEAL study. In the IDEAL cohort, we evaluated which factors predicted for <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation and the effect of <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation on disease-free survival (DFS). Nodal status, younger age and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with higher enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In the IDEAL cohort, adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (AEs), the type of primary endocrine therapy and the interval between primary and extended therapy were associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation. Among the reported AEs, depressive feelings (56%) were most frequently associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation. <span class="hlt">Early</span> treatment discontinuation was not associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.76-1.37). In this analysis, we found that risk factors were most strongly associated enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In contrast, patient experiences were the most significant factors leading to <span class="hlt">early</span> treatment discontinuation, with no effect on DFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28969806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28969806"><span>Root phonotropism: <span class="hlt">Early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> following sound perception in Arabidopsis roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Bazihizina, Nadia; Azzarello, Elisa; Masi, Elisa; Tran, Daniel; Bouteau, François; Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Sound is a fundamental form of energy and it has been suggested that plants can make use of acoustic cues to obtain information regarding their environments and alter and fine-tune their growth and development. Despite an increasing body of evidence indicating that it can influence plant growth and physiology, many questions concerning the effect of sound waves on plant growth and the underlying signalling mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, exposure to sound waves (200Hz) for 2 weeks induced positive phonotropism in roots, which grew towards to sound source. We found that sound waves triggered very quickly (within  minutes) an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ , possibly mediated by an influx through plasma membrane and a release from internal stock. Sound waves likewise <span class="hlt">elicited</span> rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and K + efflux. Taken together these results suggest that changes in ion fluxes (Ca 2+ and K + ) and an increase in superoxide production are involved in sound perception in plants, as previously established in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28398139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28398139"><span>The association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity and <span class="hlt">early</span> recurrence of ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> after minor stroke or TIA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rao, Zilong; Zheng, Huaguang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Anxin; Liu, Liping; Dong, Kehui; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Cao, Yibin</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>To evaluate the role of HTPR in predicting <span class="hlt">early</span> recurrence of ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. From January 2014 to September 2014, a single center continuously enrolled patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA and gave them antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin with clopidogrel. HTPR was assessed by TEG after 7 days of antiplatelet therapy and detected CYP2C19 genotype. The incidence of recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> was assessed 3 months after onset. The incidence of recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> was compared between the HTPR and NTPR groups with the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk factors associated with recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span>. We enrolled 278 eligible patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. Through TEG testing, patients with HTPR were 22.7%, and carriers were not associated with HTPR to ADP by TEG-ADP(%) (p = 0.193). A total of 265 patients completed 3 months of follow-up, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with HTPR had a higher percentage of recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> compared with patients with NTPR (p = 0.002). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, history of ischemic stroke or TIA (HR 4.45, 95% CI 1.77-11.16, p = 0.001) and HTPR (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.41-7.91, p = 0.006) was independently associated with recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span>. In patients with minor stroke or TIA, the prevalence of HTPR was 22.7%, and HTPR was independently associated with recurrent ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5928903','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5928903"><span>Graphene oxide sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutics by inducing <span class="hlt">early</span> autophagy <span class="hlt">events</span>, promoting nuclear trafficking and necrosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Kuan-Chen; Lin, Mei-Wei; Hsu, Mu-Nung; Yu-Chen, Guan; Chao, Yu-Chan; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hu, Yu-Chen</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Rationale: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug but chemoresistance to CDDP impedes its wide use for cancer therapy. Autophagy is an <span class="hlt">event</span> occurring in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic LC3 puncta formation is a hallmark of autophagy. Graphene oxide (GO) is a nanomaterial that provokes autophagy in CT26 colon cancer cells and confers antitumor effects. Here we aimed to evaluate whether combined use of GO with CDDP (GO/CDDP) overcomes chemoresistance in different cancer cells and uncover the underlying mechanism. Methods: We treated different cancer cells with GO/CDDP and evaluated the cytotoxicity, death mechanism, autophagy induction and nuclear entry of CDDP. We further knocked down genes essential for autophagic flux and deciphered which step is critical to nuclear import and cell death. Finally, we performed immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence labeling to evaluate the association of LC3 and CDDP. Results: We uncovered that combination of GO and CDDP (GO/CDDP) promoted the killing of not only CT26 cells, but also ovarian, cervical and prostate cancer cells. In the highly chemosensitized Skov-3 cells, GO/CDDP significantly enhanced concurrent nuclear import of CDDP and autophagy marker LC3 and elevated cell necrosis, which required autophagy initiation and progression but did not necessitate late autophagy <span class="hlt">events</span> (e.g., autophagosome completion and autolysosome formation). The GO/CDDP-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> nuclear trafficking and cell death also required importin α/β, and LC3 also co-migrated with CDDP and histone H1/H4 into the nucleus. In particular, GO/CDDP triggered histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus, which could decondense the chromosome and enable CDDP to more effectively access chromosomal DNA to trigger cell death. Conclusion: These findings shed light on the mechanisms of GO/CDDP-induced chemosensitization and implicate the potential applications of GO/CDDP to treat multiple cancers. PMID:29721093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Clinical+AND+trials+AND+PTSD&pg=2&id=EJ936794','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Clinical+AND+trials+AND+PTSD&pg=2&id=EJ936794"><span>Traumatic and Stressful <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: Can Treatment Help Those at Highest Risk?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Harris, William W.; Van Horn, Patricia; Lieberman, Alicia F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective: This study involves a reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to examine whether child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), an empirically based treatment focusing on the parent-child relationship as the vehicle for child improvement, is efficacious for children who experienced multiple traumatic and stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> (TSEs).…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=separate+AND+work+AND+home+AND+teachers&id=EJ828153','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=separate+AND+work+AND+home+AND+teachers&id=EJ828153"><span>It's the Little Things: Exploring the Importance of Commonplace <span class="hlt">Events</span> for <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Career Teachers' Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kitching, Karl; Morgan, Mark; O'Leary, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper seeks to provide a rationale for further researching the everyday <span class="hlt">events</span> that keep teachers motivated or that discourage them. We put forward the idea that routine Affect Triggering Incidents (ATIs) are an important area for researchers to investigate in terms of how they impact teacher motivation and resilience. Two groups of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hot+AND+papers&pg=5&id=EJ957137','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hot+AND+papers&pg=5&id=EJ957137"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural <span class="hlt">events</span> were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=papas&id=EJ897745','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=papas&id=EJ897745"><span>Exposure to Potentially Traumatic <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood: Differential Links to Emergent Psychopathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Clark, Roseanne; Augustyn, Marilyn; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Ford, Julian D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Research NeedsObjective: To examine associations between exposure to potentially traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> (PTEs) and clinical patterns of symptoms and disorders in preschool children. Method: Two hundred and thirteen referred and non-referred children, ages 24 to 48 months (MN = 34.9, SD = 6.7 months) were studied. Lifetime exposure to PTEs (family…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753931"><span>Seismology-based <span class="hlt">early</span> identification of dam-formation landquake <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua</p> <p>2016-01-12</p> <p>Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten <span class="hlt">events</span>, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake <span class="hlt">events</span> (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hope+AND+life&id=EJ1099060','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hope+AND+life&id=EJ1099060"><span>Origins of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span>, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+profile&pg=5&id=EJ741426','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+profile&pg=5&id=EJ741426"><span>Mood Reactivity to Daily Negative <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence: Relationship to Risk for Psychopathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schneiders, Josien; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Feron, Frans J.; van Os, Jim; deVries, Marten W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Emotional responses to negative daily experiences in young adolescents may provide important clues to the development of psychopathology, but research is lacking. This study assessed momentary mood reactivity to daily <span class="hlt">events</span> as a function of risk profile in a school sample, ages 11-14. High-risk (HR, n = 25) and low-risk (LR, n = 106) subgroups…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362053','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362053"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling <span class="hlt">Event</span> Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling <span class="hlt">event</span>, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling <span class="hlt">event</span> is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile <span class="hlt">event</span>. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946460"><span>Cytokine Signatures Associated With <span class="hlt">Early</span> Onset, Active Lesions and Late Cicatricial <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Retinochoroidal Commitment in Infants With Congenital Toxoplasmosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Costa, Julia Gatti Ladeia; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>Ocular toxoplasmosis is a prominent and severe condition of high incidence in Brazil. The current study provides new insights into the immunological <span class="hlt">events</span> that can be associated with retinochoroiditis in the setting of congenital toxoplasmosis in human infants. Flow cytometry of intracytoplasmic cytokines in leukocyte subsets following in vitro short-term antigenic recall in infants with congenital T. gondii infection. Our data demonstrates that whereas neutrophils and monocytes from T. gondii-infected infants display a combination of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine profiles, natural killer cells showed a predominantly proinflammatory profile upon in vitro T. gondii stimulation. The proinflammatory response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, characterized by the production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 in patients with an active retinochoroidal lesion, revealed the presence of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor α during <span class="hlt">early</span> and late immunological <span class="hlt">events</span>. This specific proinflammatory pattern is associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> and active retinochoroidal lesion, whereas a robust monocyte-derived interleukin 10-mediated profile is observed in children with cicatricial ocular lesions. These findings support the existence of a progressive immunological environment concomitant with the initial, apical, and cicatricial phases in the process of retinochoroidal lesion formation in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis that may be relevant in the establishment of stage-specific clinical management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+beliefs&pg=5&id=EJ875145','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+beliefs&pg=5&id=EJ875145"><span>Family Support for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Literacy and Numeracy: Examining <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Home and Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Anne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> childhood educators often make assumptions about the nature of families' understandings and what they do at home to support their young children's literacy and numeracy development and learning. Sometimes educator's have a limited understanding of children's every day experiences at home or in their community and the potential for these to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25026534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25026534"><span>Spiders do not evoke greater <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity in the <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential as snakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Hongshen; Kubo, Kenta; Kawai, Nobuyuki</p> <p>2014-09-10</p> <p>It has been long believed that both snakes and spiders are archetypal fear stimuli for humans. Furthermore, snakes have been assumed as stronger threat cues for nonhuman primates. However, it is still unclear whether spiders hold a special status in human perception. The current study explored to what extent spider pictures draw <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attention [as assessed with <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN)] when compared with insects similar to spiders. To measure the EPN, participants watched a random rapid serial presentation of pictures, which consisted of two conditions: spider condition (spider, wasp, bumblebee, beetle) and snake condition (snake, bird). EPN amplitudes revealed no significant difference between spider, wasp, bumblebee, and beetle pictures, whereas EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to bird pictures. In addition, EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to spider pictures. These results suggest that the <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attentional capture of animate objects is stronger for snakes, whereas spiders do not appear to hold special <span class="hlt">early</span> attentional value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..288...10T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..288...10T"><span>3D modelling of the climatic impact of outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> on <span class="hlt">early</span> Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Mars was characterized by cataclysmic groundwater-sourced surface flooding that formed large outflow channels and that may have altered the climate for extensive periods during the Hesperian era. In particular, it has been speculated that such <span class="hlt">events</span> could have induced significant rainfall and caused the formation of late-stage valley networks. We present the results of 3-D Global Climate Model simulations reproducing the short and long term climatic impact of a wide range of outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> under cold ancient Mars conditions. We find that the most intense of these <span class="hlt">events</span> (volumes of water up to 107 km3 and released at temperatures up to 320 K) cannot trigger long-term greenhouse global warming, regardless of how favorable are the external conditions (e.g. obliquity and seasons). Furthermore, the intensity of the response of the <span class="hlt">events</span> is significantly affected by the atmospheric pressure, a parameter not well constrained for the Hesperian era. Thin atmospheres (P < 80 mbar) can be heated efficiently because of their low volumetric heat capacity, triggering the formation of a convective plume that is very efficient in transporting water vapor and ice at the global scale. Thick atmospheres (P > 0.5 bar) have difficulty in producing precipitation far from the water flow area, and are more efficient in generating snowmelt. In any case, outflow channel formation <span class="hlt">events</span> at any atmospheric pressure are unable to produce rainfall or significant snowmelt at latitudes below 40°N. As an example, for an outflow channel <span class="hlt">event</span> (under a 0.2 bar atmospheric pressure and 45° obliquity) releasing 106 km3 of water heated at 300 K and at a discharge rate of 109 m3 s-1 , the flow of water reaches the lowest point of the northern lowlands (around ∼70°N, 30°W) after ∼3 days and forms a 200 m deep lake of 4.2 × 106 km2 after ∼20 days; the lake becomes entirely covered by an ice layer after ∼500 days. Over the short term, such an <span class="hlt">event</span> leaves 6.5 × 103 km3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060021587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060021587"><span>Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Meteorite, Dhofar 378: An <span class="hlt">Early</span> Shock <span class="hlt">Event</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Martian meteorite, Dhofar 378 (Dho378) is a basaltic shergottite from Oman, weighing 15 g, and possessing a black fusion crust. Chemical similarities between Dho378 and the Los Angeles 001 shergottite suggests that they might have derived from the same Mars locale. The plagioclase in other shergottites has been converted to maskelenite by shock, but Dho378 apparently experienced even more intense shock heating, estimated at 55-75 GPa. Dho378 feldspar (approximately 43 modal %) melted, partially flowed and vesiculated, and then partially recrystallized. Areas of feldspathic glass are appreciably enriched in K, whereas individual plagioclases show a range in the Or/An ratio of approximately 0.18-0.017. Radiometric dating of martian shergottites indicate variable formation times of 160-475 Myr, whereas cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of shergottites indicate most were ejected from Mars within the past few Myr. Most determined Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of shergottites appear older than other radiometric ages because of the presence of large amounts of martian atmosphere or interior Ar-40. Among all types of meteorites and returned lunar rocks, the impact <span class="hlt">event</span> that initiated the CRE age very rarely reset the Ar-Ar age. This is because a minimum time and temperature is required to facilitate Ar diffusion loss. It is generally assumed that the shock-texture characteristics in martian meteorites were produced by the impact <span class="hlt">events</span> that ejected the rocks from Mars, although the time of these shock <span class="hlt">events</span> (as opposed to CRE ages) are not directly dated. Here we report Ar-39-Ar-40 dating of Dho378 plagioclase. We suggest that the determined age dates the intense shock heating <span class="hlt">event</span> this meteorite experienced, but that it was not the impact that initiated the CRE age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289463"><span>Stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> and neuroticism as predictors of late-life versus <span class="hlt">early</span>-life depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Herrmann, François R; Bartolomei, Javier; Digiorgio, Sergio; Ortiz Chicherio, Nadia; Delaloye, Christophe; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lecerf, Thierry; De Ribaupierre, Anik; Canuto, Alessandra</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The occurrence of depression in younger adults is related to the combination of long-standing factors such as personality traits (neuroticism) and more acute factors such as the subjective impact of stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Whether an increase in physical illnesses changes these associations in old age depression remains a matter of debate. We compared 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 never-depressed controls; subjects included both young (mean age: 35 years) and older (mean age: 70 years) adults. Assessments included the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, NEO Personality Inventory and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between depression and subjective impact of stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> while controlling for neuroticism and physical illness. Patients and controls experienced the same number of stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> in the past 12 months. However, in contrast to the controls, patients associated the <span class="hlt">events</span> with a subjective negative emotional impact. Negative stress impact and levels of neuroticism, but not physical illness, significantly predicted depression in young age. In old age, negative stress impact was weakly associated with depression. In this age group, depressive illness was also determined by physical illness burden and neuroticism. Our data suggest that the subjective impact of life stressors, although rated as of the same magnitude, plays a less important role in accounting for depression in older age compared to young age. They also indicate an increasing weight of physical illness burden in the prediction of depression occurrence in old age. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339368"><span>Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive <span class="hlt">Events</span> on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative <span class="hlt">events</span> and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive <span class="hlt">events</span> and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive <span class="hlt">events</span>), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive <span class="hlt">events</span> as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSeis.tmp...53M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSeis.tmp...53M"><span>The instrumental seismicity of the Barents and Kara sea region: relocated <span class="hlt">event</span> catalog from <span class="hlt">early</span> twentieth century to 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morozov, Alexey Nikolaevich; Vaganova, Natalya V.; Asming, Vladimir E.; Konechnaya, Yana V.; Evtyugina, Zinaida A.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>We have relocated seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> registered within the Barents and Kara sea region from <span class="hlt">early</span> twentieth century to 1989 with a view to creating a relocated catalog. For the relocation, we collected all available seismic bulletins from the global network using data from the ISC Bulletin (International Seismological Centre), ISC-GEM project (International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model), EuroSeismos project, and by Soviet seismic stations from Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The location was performed by applying a modified method of generalized beamforming. We have considered several travel time models and selected one with the best location accuracy for ground truth <span class="hlt">events</span>. Verification of the modified method and selection of the travel time model were performed using data on four nuclear explosions that occurred in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and in the north of the European part of Russia. The modified method and the Barents travel time model provide sufficient accuracy for <span class="hlt">event</span> location in the region. The relocation procedure was applied to 31 of 36 seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> registered within the Barents and Kara sea region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=428463','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=428463"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reed, Laura K.; Markow, Therese A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Capturing the process of speciation <span class="hlt">early</span> enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an <span class="hlt">early</span> stage. PMID:15184657</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184657"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A</p> <p>2004-06-15</p> <p>Capturing the process of speciation <span class="hlt">early</span> enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an <span class="hlt">early</span> stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3650896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3650896"><span>Role of intestinal inflammation as an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in obesity and insulin resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Shengli; Lund, Pauline K.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review To highlight recent evidence supporting a concept that intestinal inflammation is a mediator or contributor to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent findings Current views suggest that obesity-associated systemic and adipose tissue inflammation promote insulin resistance, which underlies many obesity-linked health risks. Diet-induced changes in gut microbiota also contribute to obesity. Recent findings support a concept that high fat diet and bacteria interact to promote <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory changes in the small intestine that contribute to development of or susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a role of intestinal inflammation in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and discusses mechanisms. Summary The role of diet-induced intestinal inflammation as an <span class="hlt">early</span> biomarker and mediator of obesity, and insulin resistance warrants further study. PMID:21587067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556935"><span>Temporally selective attention modulates <span class="hlt">early</span> perceptual processing: <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, Lisa D; Astheimer, Lori B</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Some of the most important information we encounter changes so rapidly that our perceptual systems cannot process all of it in detail. Spatially selective attention is critical for perception when more information than can be processed in detail is presented simultaneously at distinct locations. When presented with complex, rapidly changing information, listeners may need to selectively attend to specific times rather than to locations. We present evidence that listeners can direct selective attention to time points that differ by as little as 500 msec, and that doing so improves target detection, affects baseline neural activity preceding stimulus presentation, and modulates auditory evoked potentials at a perceptually <span class="hlt">early</span> stage. These data demonstrate that attentional modulation of <span class="hlt">early</span> perceptual processing is temporally precise and that listeners can flexibly allocate temporally selective attention over short intervals, making it a viable mechanism for preferentially processing the most relevant segments in rapidly changing streams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGP43C1487G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGP43C1487G"><span>Paleomagnetic and Geochronologic Data from Central Asia: Inferences for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution and Timing of Worldwide Glacial <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, L. C.; Meert, J. G.; Levashova, N.; Grice, W. C.; Gibsher, A.; Rybanin, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Neoproterozoic to <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic Ural-Mongol belt that runs through Central Asia is crucial for determining the enigmatic amalgamation of microcontinents that make up the Eurasian subcontinent. Two unique models have been proposed for the evolution of Ural-Mongol belt. One involves a complex assemblage of cratonic blocks that have collided and rifted apart during diachronous opening and closing of Neoproterozoic to Devonian aged ocean basins. The opposing model of Sengor and Natal"in proposes a long-standing volcanic arc system that connected Central Asian blocks with the Baltica continent. The Aktau-Mointy and Dzabkhan microcontinents in Kazakhstan and Central Mongolia make up the central section of the Ural-Mongol belt, and both contain glacial sequences characteristic of the hypothesized snowball earth <span class="hlt">event</span>. These worldwide glaciations are currently under considerable debate, and paleomagnetic data from these microcontients are a useful contribution to the snowball controversy. We have sampled volcanic and sedimentary sequences in Central Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan for paleomagnetic and geochronologic study. U-Pb data, 13C curves and abundant fossil records place age constraints on sequences that contain glacial deposits of the hypothesized snowball earth <span class="hlt">events</span>. Carbonates in the Zavkhan Basin in Mongolia are likely remagnetized, but fossil evidence within the sequence suggests a readjusted age control on two glacial <span class="hlt">events</span> that were previously labeled as Sturtian and Marinoan. U-Pb ages from both Kazakhstan and Mongolian volcanic sequences imply a similar evolution history of the areas as part of the Ural-Mongol fold belt, and these ages paired with paleomagnetic and 13C records have important tectonic implications. We will present these data in order to place better constraints on the Precambrian to <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic tectonic evolution of Central Asia and the timing of glacial <span class="hlt">events</span> recorded in the area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903250"><span>Does silent reading speed in normal adult readers depend on <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processes? evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the <span class="hlt">early</span> P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical Decision Task (LDT) and a Face Decision Task (FDT). Amplitudes of the N170 component in the LDT but, interestingly, also in the FDT correlated with behavioral tests measuring silent reading speed. We suggest that reading speed performance can be at least partially accounted for by the extraction of essential structural information from visual stimuli, consisting of a domain-general and a domain-specific expertise-based portion. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22402544-early-warning-indicator-atmospheric-blocking-events-using-transfer-operators','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22402544-early-warning-indicator-atmospheric-blocking-events-using-transfer-operators"><span>An <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator for atmospheric blocking <span class="hlt">events</span> using transfer operators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tantet, Alexis, E-mail: a.j.j.tantet@uu.nl; Burgt, Fiona R. van der; Dijkstra, Henk A.</p> <p></p> <p>The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric flow regimes with time-scales larger than 5–10 days and indications of preferred transitions between them motivates to develop <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicators for such regime transitions. In this paper, we use a hemispheric barotropic model together with estimates of transfer operators on a reduced phase space to develop an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator of the zonal to blocked flow transition in this model. It is shown that the spectrum of the transfer operators can be used to study the slow dynamics of the flow as well as the non-Markovian character of the reduction. The slowest motionsmore » are thereby found to have time scales of three to six weeks and to be associated with meta-stable regimes (and their transitions) which can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths. Even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the <span class="hlt">early</span> warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050198881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050198881"><span>Age Dating Merger <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bothun, G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby <span class="hlt">early</span> type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5200905','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5200905"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> during retinoic acid induced differentiation of neuromesodermal progenitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Thomas J.; Colas, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) residing in the caudal epiblast drive coordinated body axis extension by generating both posterior neuroectoderm and presomitic mesoderm. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for body axis extension, however the <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular response to RA signaling is poorly defined, as is its relationship to NMP biology. As endogenous RA is first seen near the time when NMPs appear, we used WNT/FGF agonists to differentiate embryonic stem cells to NMPs which were then treated with a short 2-h pulse of 25 nM RA or 1 µM RA followed by RNA-seq transcriptome analysis. Differential expression analysis of this dataset indicated that treatment with 25 nM RA, but not 1 µM RA, provided physiologically relevant findings. The 25 nM RA dataset yielded a cohort of previously known caudal RA target genes including Fgf8 (repressed) and Sox2 (activated), plus novel <span class="hlt">early</span> RA signaling targets with nearby conserved RA response elements. Importantly, validation of top-ranked genes in vivo using RA-deficient Raldh2−/− embryos identified novel examples of RA activation (Nkx1-2, Zfp503, Zfp703, Gbx2, Fgf15, Nt5e) or RA repression (Id1) of genes expressed in the NMP niche or progeny. These findings provide evidence for <span class="hlt">early</span> instructive and permissive roles of RA in controlling differentiation of NMPs to neural and mesodermal lineages. PMID:27793834</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S44C..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S44C..07F"><span>Performance of Earthquake <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning Systems during the Major <span class="hlt">Events</span> of the 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Festa, G.; Picozzi, M.; Alessandro, C.; Colombelli, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Marzorati, S.; Supino, M.; Zollo, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake <span class="hlt">early</span> warning systems (EEWS) are systems nowadays contributing to the seismic risk mitigation actions, both in terms of losses and societal resilience, by issuing an alert promptly after the earthquake origin and before the ground shaking impacts the targets to be protected. EEWS systems can be grouped in two main classes: network based and stand-alone systems. Network based EEWS make use of dense seismic networks surrounding the fault (e.g. Near Fault Observatory; NFO) generating the <span class="hlt">event</span>. The rapid processing of the P-wave <span class="hlt">early</span> portion allows for the location and magnitude estimation of the <span class="hlt">event</span> then used to predict the shaking through ground motion prediction equations. Stand-alone systems instead analyze the <span class="hlt">early</span> P-wave signal to predict the ground shaking carried by the late S or surface waves, through empirically calibrated scaling relationships, at the recording site itself. We compared the network-based (PRESTo, PRobabilistic and Evolutionary <span class="hlt">early</span> warning SysTem, www.prestoews.org, Satriano et al., 2011) and the stand-alone (SAVE, on-Site-Alert-leVEl, Caruso et al., 2017) systems, by analyzing their performance during the 2016-2017 Central Italy sequence. We analyzed 9 earthquakes having magnitude 5.0 < M < 6.5 at about 200 stations located within 200 km from the epicentral area, including stations of The Altotiberina NFO (TABOO). Performances are evaluated in terms of rate of success of ground shaking intensity prediction and available lead-time, i.e. the time available for security actions. PRESTo also evaluated the accuracy of location and magnitude. Both systems well predict the ground shaking nearby the <span class="hlt">event</span> source, with a success rate around 90% within the potential damage zone. The lead-time is significantly larger for the network based system, increasing to more than 10s at 40 km from the <span class="hlt">event</span> epicentre. The stand-alone system better performs in the near-source region showing a positive albeit small lead-time (<3s). Far away from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909766','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909766"><span>Parental Substance Abuse As an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Traumatic <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs <span class="hlt">Early</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span>. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">early</span> exposure to drugs as a traumatic <span class="hlt">event</span>, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs <span class="hlt">early</span> in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs <span class="hlt">early</span>, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489862','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489862"><span>Impaired <span class="hlt">Early</span> Attentional Processes in Parkinson’s Disease: A High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Event</span>-Related Potentials Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bocquillon, Perrine; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe; Dujardin, Kathy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD), with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect <span class="hlt">early</span> inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs) performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA). Results PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents. Conclusion Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of attentional processes. PMID:26135906</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060049104&hterms=parents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dparents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060049104&hterms=parents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dparents"><span>Ar-39-Ar-40 Evidence for <span class="hlt">Early</span> Impact <span class="hlt">Events</span> on the LL Parent Body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, E. T.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Rubin, A. E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We determined Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of eight LL chondrites, and one igneous inclusion from an LL chondrite, with the object of understanding the thermal history of the LL-chondrite parent body. The meteorites in this study have a range of petrographic types from LL3.3 to LL6, and shock stages from S1 to S4. These meteorites reveal a range of K-Ar ages from 23.66 to 24.50 Ga, and peak ages from 23.74 to 24.55 Ga. Significantly, three of the eight chondrites (LL4, 5, 6) have K-Ar ages of -4.27 Ga. One of these (MIL99301) preserves an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.23 +/- 0.03 Ga from low-temperature extractions, and an older age of 4.52 +/- 0.08 Ga from the highest temperature extractions. In addition, an igneous-textured impact melt DOM85505,22 has a peak Ar-39-Ar-40 age of >= 4.27 Ga. We interpret these results as evidence for impact <span class="hlt">events</span> that occurred at about 4.27 Ga on the LL parent body that produced local impact melts, reset the Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of some meteorites, and exhumed (or interred) others, resulting in a range of cooling ages. The somewhat younger peak age of 3.74 Ga from GR095658 (LL3.3) suggests an additional impact <span class="hlt">event</span> close to timing of impact-reset ages of some other ordinary chondrites between 3.6-3.8 Ga. The results from MIL99301 suggest that some apparently unshocked (Sl) chondrites may have substantially reset Ar-39-Ar-40 ages. A previous petrographic investigation of MIL99301 suggested that reheating to temperatures less than or equal to type 4 petrographic conditions (600C) caused fractures in olivine to anneal, resulting in a low apparent shock stage of S1 (unshocked). The Ar-39-Ar-40 age spectrum of MIL99301 is consistent with this interpretation. Older ages from high-T extractions may date an earlier impact <span class="hlt">event</span> at 4.52 +/- 0.08 Ga, whereas younger ages from lower-T extractions date a later impact <span class="hlt">event</span> at 4.23 Ar-39-Ar-40 0.03 Ga that may have caused annealing of feldspar and olivine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4025992','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4025992"><span>The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: A prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present research was an examination of the onset of childhood amnesia and how it relates to maternal narrative style, an important determinant of autobiographical memory development. Children and their mothers discussed unique <span class="hlt">events</span> when the children were 3 years of age. Different subgroups of children were tested for recall of the <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. At the later session, they were interviewed by an experimenter about the <span class="hlt">events</span> discussed 2 to 6 years previously with their mothers (<span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>). Children ages 5, 6, and 7 remembered 60% or more of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. In contrast, children ages 8 and 9 years remembered fewer than 40% of the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Overall maternal narrative style predicted children's contributions to mother-child conversations at age 3 years; it did not have cross-lagged relations to memory for <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span> at ages 5 to 9 years. Maternal deflections of the conversational turn to the child predicted the amount of information children later reported about the <span class="hlt">early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span>. The findings have implications for our understanding of the onset of childhood amnesia and the achievement of an adult-like distribution of memories in the school years. They highlight the importance of forgetting processes in explanations of the amnesia. PMID:24236647</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404733"><span>Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of <span class="hlt">early</span> polarization <span class="hlt">events</span> in germinating Arabidopsis pollen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular <span class="hlt">events</span> during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597714','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597714"><span>Impact of Prior Traumatic Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> on Parental <span class="hlt">Early</span> Stage Reactions following a Child's Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boman, Krister K.; Kjällander, Ylva; Eksborg, Staffan; Becker, Jeremy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In pediatric oncology, effective clinic–based management of acute and long–term distress in families calls for investigation of determinants of parents' psychological response to the child's cancer. We examined the relationship between parents' prior exposure to traumatic life <span class="hlt">events</span> (TLE) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following their child's cancer diagnosis. Factors mediating the TLE–PTSS relationship were analyzed. Methodology The study comprised 169 parents (97 mothers, 72 fathers) of 103 cancer diagnosed children (median age: 5,9 years; range 0.1–19.7 years). Thirty five parents were of immigrant origin (20.7%). Prior TLE were collated using a standardized questionnaire, PTSS was assessed using the Impact of Events–Revised (IES–R) questionnaire covering intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The predictive significance of prior TLE on PTSS was tested in adjusted regression models. Results Mothers demonstrated more severe PTSS across all symptom dimensions. TLE were associated with significantly increased hyperarousal symptoms. Parents' gender, age and immigrant status did not significantly influence the TLE–PTSS relationship. Conclusions Prior traumatic life–<span class="hlt">events</span> aggravate posttraumatic hyperarousal symptoms. In clinic–based psychological care of parents of high–risk pediatric patients, attention needs to be paid to life history, and to heightened vulnerability to PTSS associated with female gender. PMID:23516408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1347118-dynamic-crystallography-reveals-early-signalling-events-ultraviolet-photoreceptor-uvr8','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1347118-dynamic-crystallography-reveals-early-signalling-events-ultraviolet-photoreceptor-uvr8"><span>Dynamic crystallography reveals <span class="hlt">early</span> signalling <span class="hlt">events</span> in ultraviolet photoreceptor UVR8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zeng, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhong; Wu, Qi; ...</p> <p>2015-01-08</p> <p>Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 (AtUVR8) is a long-sought-after photoreceptor that undergoes dimer dissociation in response to UV-B light. Crystallographic and mutational studies have identified two crucial tryptophan residues for UV-B responses in AtUVR8. However, the mechanism of UV-B perception and structural <span class="hlt">events</span> leading up to dimer dissociation remain elusive at the molecular level. We applied dynamic crystallography to capture light-induced structural <span class="hlt">events</span> in photoactive AtUVR8 crystals. Here we report two intermediate structures at 1.67Å resolution. At the epicenter of UV-B signaling, concerted motions associated with Trp285/Trp233 lead to ejection of a water molecule, which weakens an intricate network of hydrogen bondsmore » and salt bridges at the dimer interface. Partial opening of the β-propeller structure due to thermal relaxation of conformational strains originating in the epicenter further disrupts the dimer interface and leads to dimer dissociation. Ultimately, these dynamic crystallographic observations provide structural insights into the photo-perception and signaling mechanism of UVR8.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5237696-early-paleozoic-magmatic-events-eastern-klamath-mountains-northern-california','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5237696-early-paleozoic-magmatic-events-eastern-klamath-mountains-northern-california"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Paleozoic magmatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wallin, E.T.; Mattinson, J.M.; Potter, A.W.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>New U-Pb zircon ages for nine samples of tonalite and pegmatitic trondhjemite from the Trinity ophiolite and associated melange reveal a complex history of magmatic activity extending back into the earliest Cambrian, much older than previously believed. Earlier investigations, based on limited data, recognized lower Paleozoic crustal elements in the eastern Klamath terrane (EKT) ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to <span class="hlt">Early</span> to Middle Devonian. The new work in the Yreka-Callahan area of the EKT confirms the Ordovician (440-475 Ma) and younger ages, but reveals for the first time the presence of tonalitic rocks that crystallized during a narrow timemore » interval at about 565-570 Ma. The authors also recognize younger, Late Silurian magmatism at 412 Ma. In the context of available mapping, these ages indicate that the Trinity ophiolite is broadly polygenetic because parts of it yield crystallization ages that span approximately 150 m.y. Superjacent dismembered units of probable <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic age may be tectonostratigraphically equivalent to the Sierra City melange in the northern Sierra Nevada.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27885062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27885062"><span>Quantifying risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> relapse in patients with first demyelinating <span class="hlt">events</span>: Prediction in clinical practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spelman, Tim; Meyniel, Claire; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grand'Maison, Francois; Boz, Cavit; Alroughani, Raed; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Iuliano, Gerardo; Duquette, Pierre; Terzi, Murat; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Pucci, Eugenio; Verheul, Freek; Fiol, Marcela; Van Pesch, Vincent; Cristiano, Edgardo; Petersen, Thor; Moore, Fraser; Kalincik, Tomas; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Characteristics at clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) examination assist in identification of patient at highest risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> second attack and could benefit the most from <span class="hlt">early</span> disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). To examine determinants of second attack and validate a prognostic nomogram for individualised risk assessment of clinical conversion. Patients with CIS were prospectively followed up in the MSBase Incident Study. Predictors of clinical conversion were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Prognostic nomograms were derived to calculate conversion probability and validated using concordance indices. A total of 3296 patients from 50 clinics in 22 countries were followed up for a median (inter-quartile range (IQR)) of 1.92 years (0.90, 3.71). In all, 1953 (59.3%) patients recorded a second attack. Higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at baseline, first symptom location, oligoclonal bands and various brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics were all predictors of conversion. Conversely, older age and DMD exposure post-CIS were associated with reduced rates. Prognostic nomograms demonstrated high concordance between estimated and observed conversion probabilities. This multinational study shows that age at CIS onset, DMD exposure, EDSS, multiple brain and spinal MRI criteria and oligoclonal bands are associated with shorter time to relapse. Nomogram assessment may be useful in clinical practice for estimating future clinical conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27190065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27190065"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> coagulation <span class="hlt">events</span> induce acute lung injury in a rat model of blunt traumatic brain injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yasui, Hideki; Donahue, Deborah L; Walsh, Mark; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic coagulopathy are serious complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that frequently lead to poor clinical outcomes. Although the release of tissue factor (TF), a potent initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, from the injured brain is thought to play a key role in coagulopathy after TBI, its function in ALI following TBI remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the systemic appearance of TF correlated with the ensuing coagulopathy that follows TBI in ALI using an anesthetized rat blunt trauma TBI model. Blood and lung samples were obtained after TBI. Compared with controls, pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary permeability were observed as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 5 min after TBI without evidence of norepinephrine involvement. Systemic TF increased at 5 min and then diminished 60 min after TBI. Lung injury and alveolar hemorrhaging were also observed as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 5 min after TBI. A biphasic elevation of TF was observed in the lungs after TBI, and TF-positive microparticles (MPs) were detected in the alveolar spaces. Fibrin(ogen) deposition was also observed in the lungs within 60 min after TBI. Additionally, preadministration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, Refludan, attenuated lung injuries, thus implicating thrombin as a direct participant in ALI after TBI. The results from this study demonstrated that enhanced systemic TF may be an initiator of coagulation activation that contributes to ALI after TBI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5612M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5612M"><span>Astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Cretaceous) : implications for the origin of the Weissert <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Reboulet, Stéphane; Riquier, Laurent</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Due to the scarcity of available radioisotopic ages in the Lower Cretaceous, the Geologic Time Scale presents uncertainties that impact palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Particularly, the chronological relationship between the Mid-Valanginian carbon-isotope excursion (namely the 'Weissert <span class="hlt">Event</span>') and the activity of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province is debated. To better constrain this relationship, an astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage is proposed based on high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed on five biostratigraphically well-constrained sections throughout the Vocontian Basin (SE France). The Valanginian sediments of the Vocontian Basin are composed of decimetric hemipelagic marl-limestone alternations. These lithologic cycles are attributed to orbital forcing because marls and limestones display significant differences within clay mineralogy, geochemistry and faunal assemblages and these marl-limestone alternations are correlated throughout the Western Tethys and the Atlantic Ocean. Among the analyzed sections, Vergol (GSSP candidate for the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary), La Charce (GSSP candidate for the Valanginian-Hauterivian boundary) and Angles (Valanginian Hypostratotype) are standard sections for the Valanginian Stage since all ammonite zones and subzones are precisely identified and bounded. Spectral analyses were performed using the multi-taper method and amplitude spectrograms on the gamma-ray signals. The comparison between sedimentary frequency ratios derived from the spectral analyses and orbital frequency ratios calculated from astronomical solutions allows the identification of a pervasive dominance of the precession and the 405 kyr-eccentricity cycles throughout the Valanginian Stage. A duration of 5.1 myr is proposed for the Valanginian Stage on the base of the recognition of the 405 kyr-eccentricity cycles. This duration is in agreement with the orbital calibration proposed from </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23373850"><span>Safety evaluation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate through analysis of adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> reported during <span class="hlt">early</span> post-marketing phase vigilance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakano, Takashi; Okumura, Akihisa; Tanabe, Takuya; Niwa, Shimpei; Fukushima, Masato; Yonemochi, Rie; Eda, Hisano; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Abnormal behavior and delirium are common in children with influenza. While abnormal behavior and delirium are considered to be associated with influenza encephalopathy, an increased risk of such neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients receiving neuraminidase inhibitor treatment is suspected. Laninamivir octanoate hydrate, recently approved in Japan, is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor. It is important to establish a safety profile for laninamivir <span class="hlt">early</span>, based on post-marketing experiences. Spontaneous safety reports collected in the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-marketing phase vigilance were analyzed. Adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> of interest such as abnormal behavior/delirium, dizziness/vertigo, respiratory disorders, shock/syncope, and any other serious <span class="hlt">events</span> were intensively reviewed by the Safety Evaluation Committee. Abnormal behavior/delirium was a frequently reported <span class="hlt">event</span>. Almost all the reported cases were considered to be due to influenza and not laninamivir. There were 32 cases of abnormal behavior/delirium that could lead to dangerous accidents, and these were observed more frequently in males and teenagers. Syncope probably related to the act of inhalation per se of laninamivir was reported during this survey. This safety review revealed that the safety profile of laninamivir for abnormal behavior/delirium and syncope was similar to that of other neuraminidase inhibitors. As stated in the labeling, teenage patients inhaling laninamivir should remain under constant parental supervision for at least 2 days and should be closely monitored for behavioral changes to prevent serious accidents associated with abnormal behavior/delirium. Furthermore, to avoid syncope because of inhalation, patients should be instructed to inhale in a relaxed sitting position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23675494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23675494"><span>Senescent fibroblasts enhance <span class="hlt">early</span> skin carcinogenic <span class="hlt">events</span> via a paracrine MMP-PAR-1 axis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malaquin, Nicolas; Vercamer, Chantal; Bouali, Fatima; Martien, Sébastien; Deruy, Emeric; Wernert, Nicolas; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Pinet, Florence; Abbadie, Corinne; Pourtier, Albin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The incidence of carcinoma increases greatly with aging, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are only partly known. It is established that senescent fibroblasts promote the malignant progression of already-transformed cells through secretion of inflammatory mediators. We investigated here whether the senescent fibroblast secretome might have an impact on the very first stages of carcinogenesis. We chose the cultured normal primary human epidermal keratinocyte model, because after these cells reach the senescence plateau, cells with transformed and tumorigenic properties systematically and spontaneously emerge from the plateau. In the presence of medium conditioned by autologous senescent dermal fibroblasts, a higher frequency of post-senescence emergence was observed and the post-senescence emergent cells showed enhanced migratory properties and a more marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs, and blocking antibodies, we demonstrated that the MMP-1 and MMP-2 matrix metalloproteinases, known to participate in late stages of cancer invasion and metastasis, are responsible for this enhancement of <span class="hlt">early</span> migratory capacity. We present evidence that MMPs act by activating the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), whose expression is specifically increased in post-senescence emergent keratinocytes. The physiopathological relevance of these results was tested by analyzing MMP activity and PAR-1 expression in skin sections. Both were higher in skin sections from aged subjects than in ones from young subjects. Altogether, our results suggest that during aging, the dermal and epidermal skin compartments might be activated coordinately for initiation of skin carcinoma, via a paracrine axis in which MMPs secreted by senescent fibroblasts promote very <span class="hlt">early</span> epithelial-mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes undergoing transformation and oversynthesizing the MMP-activatable receptor PAR-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7761K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7761K"><span>Modeling long recovery <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some <span class="hlt">early</span> VLF <span class="hlt">events</span>. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering <span class="hlt">events</span> can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization <span class="hlt">events</span> (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..401W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..66..401W"><span>Climate forcing due to the 8200 cal yr BP <span class="hlt">event</span> observed at <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic sites in the eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weninger, Bernhard; Alram-Stern, Eva; Bauer, Eva; Clare, Lee; Danzeglocke, Uwe; Jöris, Olaf; Kubatzki, Claudia; Rollefson, Gary; Todorova, Henrieta; van Andel, Tjeerd</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>We explore the hypothesis that the abrupt drainage of Laurentide lakes and associated rapid switch of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation 8200 yr ago had a catastrophic influence on Neolithic civilisation in large parts of southeastern Europe, Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Near East. The <span class="hlt">event</span> at 8200 cal yr BP is observed in a large number of high-resolution climate proxies in the Northern Hemisphere, and in many cases corresponds to markedly cold and arid conditions. We identify the relevant archaeological levels of major Neolithic settlements in Central Anatolia, Cyprus, Greece and Bulgaria, and examine published stratigraphic, architectural, cultural and geoarchaeological studies for these sites. The specific archaeological <span class="hlt">events</span> and processes we observe at a number of these sites during the study interval 8400-8000 cal yr BP lead us to refine some previously established Neolithisation models. The introduction of farming to South-East Europe occurs in all study regions (Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Bulgaria) near 8200 cal yr BP. We observe major disruptions of Neolithic cultures in the Levant, North Syria, South-East Anatolia, Central Anatolia and Cyprus, at the same time. We conclude that the 8200 cal yr BP aridity <span class="hlt">event</span> triggered the spread of <span class="hlt">early</span> farmers, by different routes, out of West Asia and the Near East into Greece and Bulgaria.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15203055"><span>Dipole source localization of <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain activity indicative of an <span class="hlt">early</span> visual selective attention deficit in ADHD children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jonkman, L M; Kenemans, J L; Kemner, C; Verbaten, M N; van Engeland, H</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>This study was aimed at investigating whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children suffer from specific <span class="hlt">early</span> selective attention deficits in the visual modality with the aid of <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials (ERPs). Furthermore, brain source localization was applied to identify brain areas underlying possible deficits in selective visual processing in ADHD children. A two-channel visual color selection task was administered to 18 ADHD and 18 control subjects in the age range of 7-13 years and ERP activity was derived from 30 electrodes. ADHD children exhibited lower perceptual sensitivity scores resulting in poorer target selection. The ERP data suggested an <span class="hlt">early</span> selective-attention deficit as manifested in smaller frontal positive activity (frontal selection positivity; FSP) in ADHD children around 200 ms whereas later occipital and fronto-central negative activity (OSN and N2b; 200-400 ms latency) appeared to be unaffected. Source localization explained the FSP by posterior-medial equivalent dipoles in control subjects, which may reflect the contribution of numerous surrounding areas. ADHD children have problems with selective visual processing that might be caused by a specific <span class="hlt">early</span> filtering deficit (absent FSP) occurring around 200 ms. The neural sources underlying these problems have to be further identified. Source localization also suggested abnormalities in the 200-400 ms time range, pertaining to the distribution of attention-modulated activity in lateral frontal areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sc%26Ed..21..311S"><span>Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural <span class="hlt">Events</span> in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural <span class="hlt">events</span> were communicated in two different newspapers—the capital newspaper Diário de Notícias ( Daily News) and the Diário dos Açores ( Azores Daily). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout Europe, was reported by the capital newspaper, and how news on seismology were conveyed in the period 1907-1910 in the newspaper published in Azores, an archipelago with a significant seismic and volcanic activity. We argue that the importance conceded to these scientific news was related to their overwhelming features, that their dissimilar presentation stemmed from their local relevance allied to their different nature, predictable in the case of eclipses, and unpredictable in the case of earthquakes, and that behind these two instances of science journalism laid an attempt by the scientific and political communities to gain the support of the general public to such an extent that these two specific instances of science journalism transcended their usual features to become successful forms of expository science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649335"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in speciation: Cryptic species of Drosophila aldrichi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro Vargas, Cynthia; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Mariana; Markow, Therese Ann</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Understanding the earliest <span class="hlt">events</span> in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi , a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we show that D. aldrichi actually is paraphyletic with respect to its closest relative, Drosophila wheeleri , and that divergent D. aldrichi lineages show complete hybrid male sterility when crossed. Our data support the interpretation that there are at least two species of D. aldrichi, making these flies particularly attractive for studies of speciation in an ecological and geographical context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2015R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2015R"><span>Droughts and Excessive Moisture <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Southern Siberia in the Late XXth - <span class="hlt">Early</span> XXIst Centuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryazanova, A. A.; Voropay, N. N.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In recent years much research has been devoted to global and regional climate changes. Special attention was paid to climate extremes, such as droughts and excessive moisture <span class="hlt">events</span>. In this study the moisture and aridity of Southern Siberia are estimated using web-GIS called “CLIMATE”. The system “CLIMATE” is part of a hardware and software cloud storage complex for data analysis of various climatic data sets, with algorithms for searching, extracting, processing, and visualizing the data. The ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data for Southern Siberia (50-65°N, 60-120°E) from 1979 to 2010 with a grid cell of 0.75×0.75° is used. Some hydrothermal conditions are estimated using the so-called Ped index (Si), which is a normalized indicator of the ratio of air temperature to precipitation. The mountain regions of Eastern Siberia are becoming more and more arid each month during the last 30 years. In Western Siberia, aridity increases in May and decreases in June, in the other months positive and negative trends are found. The greatest differences between the trends of the aridity index (Si), air temperature, and precipitation are observed in July.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP23B1308W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP23B1308W"><span>A Possible Late Paleocene-<span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene Ocean Acidification <span class="hlt">Event</span> Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) <span class="hlt">event</span> ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20105590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20105590"><span>Cholangiocyte apoptosis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> during induced metamorphosis in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boomer, Laura A; Bellister, Seth A; Stephenson, Linda L; Hillyard, Stanley D; Khoury, Joseph D; Youson, John H; Gosche, John R</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Research in biliary atresia has been hindered by lack of a suitable animal model. Lampreys are primitive vertebrates with distinct larval and adult life cycle stages. During metamorphosis the biliary system of the larval lamprey disappears. Lamprey metamorphosis has been proposed as a model for biliary atresia. We have begun to explore cellular <span class="hlt">events</span> during lamprey metamorphosis by assessing for cholangiocyte apoptosis. Sea lamprey larvae were housed under controlled environmental conditions. Premetamorphic larvae were induced to undergo metamorphosis by exposure to 0.01% KClO(4). Animals were photographed weekly, and the stage of metamorphosis was assigned based upon external features. Livers were harvested and processed for routine histology and immunohistochemistry. DNA fragmentation was detected using deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and cholangiocytes were identified with antibodies to cytokeratin-19. Percent TUNEL+ cholangiocytes at different stages of metamorphosis was determined. The percentage of TUNEL+ cholangiocytes was 10% in premetamorphic (stage 0) lamprey (n = 6), 51% at stage 1 (n = 6), 40% at stage 2 (n = 5), 18% at stage 3 (n = 5), and 9% stage 4 (n = 4). Routine hemotoxylin and eosin stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections revealed frequent apoptotic bodies at stages 3 and 4 of metamorphosis without histologic evidence of necrosis. DNA fragmentation is identified at the earliest stages of metamorphosis during induced metamorphosis in lampreys. Additional studies are necessary to validate this potentially valuable animal model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865782"><span>Relationship between specific adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> and efficacy of exemestane therapy in <span class="hlt">early</span> postmenopausal breast cancer patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fontein, D B Y; Houtsma, D; Hille, E T M; Seynaeve, C; Putter, H; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Guchelaar, H J; Gelderblom, H; Dirix, L Y; Paridaens, R; Bartlett, J M S; Nortier, J W R; van de Velde, C J H</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Many adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (AEs) associated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) involve symptoms related to the depletion of circulating estrogens, and may be related to efficacy. We assessed the relationship between specific AEs [hot flashes (HF) and musculoskeletal AEs (MSAE)] and survival outcomes in Dutch and Belgian patients treated with exemestane (EXE) in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial. Additionally, the relationship between hormone receptor expression and AEs was assessed. Efficacy end points were relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), starting at 6 months after starting EXE treatment. AEs reported in the first 6 months of treatment were included. Specific AEs comprised HF and/or MSAE. Landmark analyses and Cox proportional hazards models assessed survival differences up to 5 years. A total of 1485 EXE patients were included. Patients with HF had a better RFS than patients without HF [multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.393, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.813; P = 0.012]. The occurrence of MSAE versus no MSAE did not relate to better RFS (multivariate HR 0.677, 95% CI 0.392-1.169; P = 0.162). Trends were maintained for OS and BCSM. Quantitative hormone receptor expression was not associated with specific AEs. Some AEs associated with estrogen depletion are related to better outcomes and may be valuable biomarkers in AI treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/957605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/957605"><span>Injury of the cell's respiratory system by heat and by formaldehyde. Thermokinetics and <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, H A; Wiske, P S</p> <p>1976-08-01</p> <p>This is a study of the manner in which the respiratory system of the cell is injured either by elevated temperature or by exposure to diluted formaldehyde. Molecular mechanisms were identified by thermokinetic measurements. The rates at which respiratory failure developed in mouse liver slices in an injurious environment were measured at various temperatures. The data were fitted to the Arrhenius equation, and the effective activation energies of the injury processes were calculated. These data show that (1) the thermokinetics of injury to the cell's respiratory system, whether by thermal or chemical means, follows the Arrhenius law. (2) Thermal injury of the cell's respiratory system has a high activation energy, indicating that the critical, rate-determining <span class="hlt">event</span> is a protein denaturation. Other mechanisms such as imbalance of metabolic reaction rates and thermal liquefaction of membrane lipids can be ruled out. (3) Repression of cell respiration by diluted formaldehyde has an activation energy compatible with a chemical reaction but low enough to exclude protein denaturation as a mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472989"><span>Circulating mutational portrait of cancer: manifestation of aggressive clonal <span class="hlt">events</span> in both <span class="hlt">early</span> and late stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Meng; Topaloglu, Umit; Petty, W Jeffrey; Pagni, Matthew; Foley, Kristie L; Grant, Stefan C; Robinson, Mac; Bitting, Rhonda L; Thomas, Alexandra; Alistar, Angela T; Desnoyers, Rodwige J; Goodman, Michael; Albright, Carol; Porosnicu, Mercedes; Vatca, Mihaela; Qasem, Shadi A; DeYoung, Barry; Kytola, Ville; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Levine, Edward A; Staren, Edgar D; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Petro, Robin M; Blackstock, William; Powell, Bayard L; Abraham, Edward; Pasche, Boris; Zhang, Wei</p> <p>2017-05-04</p> <p>Solid tumors residing in tissues and organs leave footprints in circulation through circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNAs (ctDNA). Characterization of the ctDNA portraits and comparison with tumor DNA mutational portraits may reveal clinically actionable information on solid tumors that is traditionally achieved through more invasive approaches. We isolated ctDNAs from plasma of patients of 103 lung cancer and 74 other solid tumors of different tissue origins. Deep sequencing using the Guardant360 test was performed to identify mutations in 73 clinically actionable genes, and the results were associated with clinical characteristics of the patient. The mutation profiles of 37 lung cancer cases with paired ctDNA and tumor genomic DNA sequencing were used to evaluate clonal representation of tumor in circulation. Five lung cancer cases with longitudinal ctDNA sampling were monitored for cancer progression or response to treatments. Mutations in TP53, EGFR, and KRAS genes are most prevalent in our cohort. Mutation rates of ctDNA are similar in <span class="hlt">early</span> (I and II) and late stage (III and IV) cancers. Mutation in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM are found in 18.1% (32/177) of cases. Patients with higher mutation rates had significantly higher mortality rates. Lung cancer of never smokers exhibited significantly higher ctDNA mutation rates as well as higher EGFR and ERBB2 mutations than ever smokers. Comparative analysis of ctDNA and tumor DNA mutation data from the same patients showed that key driver mutations could be detected in plasma even when they were present at a minor clonal population in the tumor. Mutations of key genes found in the tumor tissue could remain in circulation even after frontline radiotherapy and chemotherapy suggesting these mutations represented resistance mechanisms. Longitudinal sampling of five lung cancer cases showed distinct changes in ctDNA mutation portraits that are consistent with cancer progression or response</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARA49005T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..MARA49005T"><span>Real-time visualization of <span class="hlt">early</span> metastasis <span class="hlt">events</span> in Danio rerio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, Kandice</p> <p></p> <p>Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells travel from a primary tumor to establish lesions in distant organs, is the cause of most cancer-related deaths. One critical process during metastasis is the transit of cells from a primary tumor and through the vasculature or lymphatic systems to a distant site prior to metastatic colonization. However, visualization of cellular behavior in the vasculature is difficult in most model systems, where final cell destination is not known beforehand. Here, we used bone- and brain-tropic subclones of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells (231BO and 231BR, respectively) injected into the circulation of embryonic zebrafish as a model xenograft system of metastasis. The zebrafish vasculature contains vessels on the scale of human capillaries. Real-time intravital imaging revealed metastatic spread to be an inefficient process, with less than 20% of cells passing through a given organ remaining there following 14 h of imaging. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the organ-specific residence time or migration speed of single 231BO and 231BR cells in the organ vasculature. Instead, cell capture was dependent on vessel topography and the function of integrin β1. Interestingly, a fraction of cells extravasated from the vasculature and survived in a perivascular position in the head and caudal venous plexus for up to two weeks. In conclusion, use of the zebrafish vasculature as a model capillary bed has revealed critical steps in <span class="hlt">early</span> metastasis that are difficult to capture in other systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28673401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28673401"><span>An exposome perspective: <span class="hlt">Early</span>-life <span class="hlt">events</span> and immune development in a changing world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renz, Harald; Holt, Patrick G; Inouye, Michael; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L; Sly, Peter D</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system. The result is a transformed view of future prevention and treatment of chronic noncommunicable diseases, including allergy. Paradigm-shifting gains in scientific knowledge are occurring at a time of rapid global environmental change, urbanization, and biodiversity losses. Multifactorial and multigenerational implications of total environmental exposures, the exposome, require coordinated interdisciplinary efforts. It is clear that the genome alone cannot provide answers to urgent questions. Here we review the historical origins of exposome research and define a new concept, the metaexposome, which considers the bidirectional effect of the environment on human subjects and the human influence on all living systems and their genomes. The latter is essential for human health. We place the metaexposome in the context of <span class="hlt">early</span>-life immune functioning and describe how various aspects of a changing environment, especially through microbiota exposures, can influence health and disease over the life course. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3350749','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3350749"><span>Multiple cytokines are involved in the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> leading to the Alzheimer’s disease pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wilberding, Akiko; Morimoto, Kaori; Satoh, Haruhisa; Harano, Keiko; Harano, Teruo; Arita, Seizaburo; Tooyama, Ikuo; Konishi, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>It is likely that neuroinflammation begins well before detectable cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) occurs. Clarifying the alterations occurring prior to the clinical manifestation of overt AD dementia may provide valuable insight into the <span class="hlt">early</span> diagnosis and management of AD. Herein, to address the issue that neuroinflammation precedes development of AD pathology, we analyzed cytokine expression profiles of the brain, with focus on non-demented control patients with increasing AD pathology, referred to as high pathology control (HPC) cases, who provide an intermediate subset between AD and normal control cases referred to as low pathology control (LPC) cases. With a semi-quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA, among 15 cytokines and their related molecules tested, we found the involvement of eight: interleukin-1(IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 during the development from LPC to HPC, while decreases in IL-1ra, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNFα, and an increase in TACE were implicated in the later development from HPC to AD. These findings indicate that neuroinflammation precedes the clinical manifestation of overt dementia, rather than being involved at the later stages of AD. PMID:22586434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120343&hterms=jj&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Djj','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120343&hterms=jj&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Djj"><span>A comparative study of diversification <span class="hlt">events</span>: the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic versus the Mesozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erwin, D. H.; Valentine, J. W.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>We compare two major long-term diversifications of marine animal families that began during periods of low diversity but produced strikingly different numbers of phyla, classes, and orders. The first is the <span class="hlt">early</span>-Paleozoic diversification (late Vendian-Ordovician; 182 MY duration) and the other the Mesozoic phase of the post-Paleozoic diversification (183 MY duration). The earlier diversification was associated with a great burst of morphological invention producing many phyla, classes, and orders and displaying high per taxon rates of family origination. The later diversification lacked novel morphologies recognized as phyla and classes, produced fewer orders, and displayed lower per taxon rates of family appearances. The chief difference between the diversifications appears to be that the earlier one proceeded from relatively narrow portions of adaptive space, whereas the latter proceeded from species widely scattered among adaptive zones and representing a variety of body plans. This difference is believed to explain the major differences in the products of these great radiations. Our data support those models that hold that evolutionary opportunity is a major factor in the outcome of evolutionary processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1371C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1371C"><span>CISN ShakeAlert: Faster Warning Information Through Multiple Threshold <span class="hlt">Event</span> Detection in the Virtual Seismologist (VS) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning Algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cua, G. B.; Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake <span class="hlt">early</span> warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network since February 2009. We discuss recent enhancements to the VS EEW algorithm that are being integrated into CISN ShakeAlert. We developed and continue to test a multiple-threshold <span class="hlt">event</span> detection scheme, which uses different association / location approaches depending on the peak amplitudes associated with an incoming P pick. With this scheme, an <span class="hlt">event</span> with sufficiently high initial amplitudes can be declared on the basis of a single station, maximizing warning times for damaging <span class="hlt">events</span> for which EEW is most relevant. Smaller, non-damaging <span class="hlt">events</span>, which will have lower initial amplitudes, will require more picks to initiate an <span class="hlt">event</span> declaration, with the goal of reducing false alarms. This transforms the VS codes from a regional EEW approach reliant on traditional location estimation (and the requirement of at least 4 picks as implemented by the Binder Earthworm phase associator) into an on-site/regional approach capable of providing a continuously evolving stream of EEW information starting from the first P-detection. Real-time and offline analysis on Swiss and California waveform datasets indicate that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397682"><span>Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion <span class="hlt">event</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> fetal development of the human penile urethra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence</p> <p></p> <p>We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion <span class="hlt">events</span>, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162...53F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162...53F"><span>The <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span>: Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change across the Alpine Tethys (Switzerland)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change associated with the Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span> (T-OAE) was evaluated in five successions located in Switzerland. They represent different paleogeographic settings across the Alpine Tethys: the northern shelf (Gipf, Riniken and Rietheim), the Sub-Briançonnais basin (Creux de l'Ours), and the Lombardian basin (Breggia). The multi-proxy approach chosen (whole-rock and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, major and trace elements) shows that local environmental conditions modulated the response to the T-OAE across the Alpine Tethys. On the northern shelf and in the Sub-Briançonnais basin, high kaolinite contents and detrital proxies (detrital index, Ti, Zr, Si) in the T-OAE interval suggest a change towards a warmer and more humid climate coupled with an increase in the chemical weathering rates. In contrast, low kaolinite content in the Lombardian basin is likely related to a more arid climate along the southern Tethys margin and/or to a deeper and more distal setting. Redox-sensitive trace-element (V, Mo, Cu, Ni) enrichments in the T-OAE intervals reveal that dysoxic to anoxic conditions developed on the northern shelf, whereas reducing conditions were less severe in the Sub-Briançonnais basin. In the Lombardian basin well-oxygenated bottom water conditions prevailed. Phosphorus (P) speciation analysis was performed at Riniken and Creux de l'Ours. This is the first report of P speciation data for T-OAE sections, clearly suggesting that high P contents during this time interval are mainly linked to the presence of an authigenic phases and fish remains. The development of oxygen-depleted conditions during the T-OAE seems to have promoted the release of the organic-bound P back into the water column, thereby further sustaining primary productivity in a positive feedback loop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366424"><span>Alcohol Intake More than Doubles the Risk of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Young Hypertensive Smokers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Saladini, Francesca; Casiglia, Edoardo</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>An interactive effect of tobacco and alcohol use has been described for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effect of smoking and alcohol intake on major adverse cardiovascular and renal <span class="hlt">events</span> (MACE) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. A total of 1204 untreated patients aged from 18 to 45 years (mean 33.1) were included in this prospective cohort study. Subjects were classified into 4 categories of cigarette smoking and 3 classes of alcohol use. Main outcome variable was risk for MACE. During a 12.6-year follow-up, there were 74 fatal and nonfatal MACE. In multivariable Cox models, current smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with risk of MACE. In a multivariable model also including follow-up changes in blood pressure and body weight, hazard ratio (HR) was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.83) for smoking and was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.05-3.15) for alcohol use. In addition, an interactive effect was found between smoking and alcohol on risk of MACE (P <.001). Among the 142 smokers who also drank alcoholic beverages, the risk of MACE (HR 4.02; 95% CI, 1.98-8.15) was more than doubled compared with the 112 smokers who abstained from drinking (HR 1.64; 95% CI, 0.63-4.27). In the group of heavy smokers who also were alcohol drinkers (n = 51), the risk of MACE was even quadrupled (HR 7.79; 95% CI, 4.22-14.37). Alcohol use potentiates the deleterious cardiovascular effects of heavy smoking in stage 1 hypertensive subjects younger than 45 years. These results call for prompt intervention addressed to improve unhealthy behaviors in these subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446379"><span>Prior chronic clopidogrel therapy is associated with increased adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> and <span class="hlt">early</span> stent thrombosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asher, Elad; Fefer, Paul; Sabbag, Avi; Herscovici, Romana; Regev, Ehud; Mazin, Israel; Shlomo, Nir; Zahger, Doron; Atar, Shaul; Hammerman, Haim; Polak, Arthur; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite the growing use of clopidogrel, limited data exist regarding the prognostic significance of chronic clopidogrel therapy in patients sustaining acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our aim was to determine whether patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel therapy have a worse prognosis than clopidogrel-naïve patients. A total of 5,386 consecutive ACS patients were prospectively characterised and followed-up for 30 days. Of them, 680 (13%) were treated with clopidogrel prior to the index ACS. Major adverse cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (MACE) were defined as death, recurrent ACS, stroke and/or stent thrombosis. Compared with clopidogrel-naïve, chronic clopidogrel-treated patients were older (66 ± 12 vs 63 ± 13, respectively; p<0.01), suffered more from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, prior cardiovascular history, including prior myocardial infarction, revascularisation, coronary artery bypass graft and stroke (p<0.01 for all), and were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (21% vs 45%; respectively; p < 0.001). Prior clopidogrel therapy was associated with a two-fold increase in in-hospital (1.6% vs 0.6%, respectively; p =0.006) as well as 30-day stent thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.0%, respectively; p=0.007). MACE at 30 days was also higher among chronic clopidogrel-treated compared with clopidogrel-naïve patients [12.3% vs 9.4%, respectively; p<0.01]. In multivariate log regression analysis chronic clopidogrel treatment was an independent predictor of stent thrombosis [OR=2.6 (95%CI 1.2-5.6), p=0.001]. Patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel treatment are at higher risk for in-hospital and 30-day adverse outcomes, including stent thrombosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26337158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26337158"><span>Complement inhibition decreases <span class="hlt">early</span> fibrogenic <span class="hlt">events</span> in the lung of septic baboons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Zhu, Hua; Georgescu, Constantin; Popescu, Narcis; Keshari, Ravi S; Peer, Glenn; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B; Pereira, Heloise Anne; Kinasewitz, Gary; Lambris, John D; Lupu, Florea</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by severe sepsis can trigger persistent inflammation and fibrosis. We have shown that experimental sepsis in baboons recapitulates ARDS progression in humans, including chronic inflammation and long-lasting fibrosis in the lung. Complement activation products may contribute to the fibroproliferative response, suggesting that complement inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents. We have been suggested that treatment of septic baboons with compstatin, a C3 convertase inhibitor protects against ARDS-induced fibroproliferation. Baboons challenged with 10(9) cfu/kg (LD50) live E. coli by intravenous infusion were treated or not with compstatin at the time of challenge or 5 hrs thereafter. Changes in the fibroproliferative response at 24 hrs post-challenge were analysed at both transcript and protein levels. Gene expression analysis showed that sepsis induced fibrotic responses in the lung as <span class="hlt">early</span> as 24 hrs post-bacterial challenge. Immunochemical and biochemical analysis revealed enhanced collagen synthesis, induction of profibrotic factors and increased cell recruitment and proliferation. Specific inhibition of complement with compstatin down-regulated sepsis-induced fibrosis genes, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), various collagens and chemokines responsible for fibrocyte recruitment (e.g. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and 12 (CCL12)). Compstatin decreased the accumulation of myofibroblasts and proliferating cells, reduced the production of fibrosis mediators (TGF-β, phospho-Smad-2 and CTGF) and inhibited collagen deposition. Our data demonstrate that complement inhibition effectively attenuates collagen deposition and fibrotic responses in the lung after severe sepsis. Inhibiting complement could prove an attractive strategy for preventing sepsis-induced fibrosis of the lung. © 2015 The Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613072C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613072C"><span>The PRESSCA operational <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall <span class="hlt">event</span> in Central Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides <span class="hlt">events</span> at different spatial scales. For <span class="hlt">early</span> warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall <span class="hlt">event</span> with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall <span class="hlt">event</span> of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=366456','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=366456"><span>The Effect of Arsenate and Other Inhibitors on <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> during the Germination of Lettuce Seeds (Lactuca sativa L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Speer, Henry L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The effect of arsenate, arsenite, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and anaerobiosis on <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in seed germination was investigated using both intact and punched seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). It was found that punching the seed removes penetration barriers to the entrance of inhibitors without an undue loss of germination or light responses. The kinetics of the action of germination inhibitors were established by 2-hour pulse experiments. Arsenate and 2, 4-dinitrophenol have very different kinetics. The inhibition of germination in punched seeds by arsenate given in conjunction with phosphate compared with the lack of inhibition of arsenate plus phosphate on the growing seedling, suggest a distinct metabolic change in the germinating embryo at some time between the onset of germination and subsequent seedling growth. Images PMID:16658515</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075782','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075782"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> nucleation <span class="hlt">events</span> in the polymerization of actin, probed by time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oda, Toshiro; Aihara, Tomoki; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Nucleators generating new F-actin filaments play important roles in cell activities. Detailed information concerning the <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in nucleation of actin alone in vitro is fundamental to understanding these processes, but such information has been hard to come by. We addressed the <span class="hlt">early</span> process of salt-induced polymerization of actin using the time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Actin molecules in low salt solution maintain a monomeric state by an electrostatic repulsive force between molecules. On mixing with salts, the repulsive force was rapidly screened, causing an immediate formation of many of non-polymerizable dimers. SAXS kinetic analysis revealed that tetramerization gives the highest energetic barrier to further polymerization, and the major nucleation is the formation of helical tetramers. Filaments start to grow rapidly with the formation of pentamers. These findings suggest an acceleration mechanism of actin assembly by a variety of nucleators in cells. PMID:27775032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/81013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/81013"><span>The Center for the Study of <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Photosynthesis. Final report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orr, L.A.</p> <p></p> <p>The ASU Center for the Study of <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Photosynthesis was established in 1988 with funding through a five-year grant from the USDA/DOE/NSF Plant Science Center program and a grant from the NSF Biological Facilities program. Its scientific objective is to elucidate the basic principles that govern photosynthetic energy collection and storage. Understanding these principles is vital to mankind, as photosynthesis provides most of our food, fiber and energy needs. The Center attempts to fulfill this objective through research of the highest standard, coupled inextricably with quality education at the undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels. These goals are metmore » via a network of collaborative, interdisciplinary research groups comprising 100 personnel within the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, the Department of Botany, and the Department of Physics and Astronomy. The work of these research groups is facilitated by the Center through a variety of important infrastructural functions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41I..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41I..08B"><span>The Intense Arctic Cyclone of <span class="hlt">Early</span> August 2012: A Dynamically Driven Cyclogenesis <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosart, L. F.; Turchioe, A.; Adamchcik, E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A series of surface cyclones formed along an anomalously strong northeast-southwest oriented baroclinic zone over north-central Russia on 1-3 August 2012. These cyclones moved northeastward, intensified slowly, and crossed the coast of Russia by 4 August. The last cyclone in the series strengthened rapidly as it moved poleward over the Arctic Ocean on 5-6 August, achieved a minimum sea level pressure of < 965 hPa by 6 August, and was arguably the most intense storm system to impact the Arctic Ocean in the modern data record going back to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the structure and life cycle of this Arctic Ocean cyclone from a multiscale perspective. Anticyclonic wave breaking in the upper troposphere across Russia in late July and very <span class="hlt">early</span> August 2012 created an anomalously strong baroclinic zone across northern Asia between 60-80°N. During 1-5 August, negative 850 hPa temperature anomalies between -2° and -4°C were found poleward of 70-75°N between 90°E and the Dateline over the Arctic Ocean while positive 850 hPa temperature anomalies of 8-9°C were found over eastern Russia near 60°N. The associated anomalously strong 850 hPa meridional temperature gradient of ~10°C (2000 km)-1 helped to sustain an anomalously strong (20-30 m s-1) 250 hPa jet along the coast of northeastern Russia. A local wind speed maximum (~50 m s-1 ) embedded in this 250 hPa jet corridor contributed to the extreme intensity of the trailing (last) surface cyclone in the series. Although the dominant surface cyclone in the series of surface cyclones intensified most rapidly over the relatively ice free Arctic Ocean, the impact of surface heat and moisture fluxes appeared to be secondary to jet-driven dynamical processes in the deepening process. Anomalously high observed 1000-500 hPa thickness values between 564-570 dam, precipitable water values between 30-40 mm, and CAPE values between 500-1000 J kg-1 in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S22A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S22A..02F"><span>Multiple-Threshold <span class="hlt">Event</span> Detection and Other Enhancements to the Virtual Seismologist (VS) Earthquake <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning Algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.; Wiemer, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Virtual Seismologist (VS) algorithm is a Bayesian approach to earthquake <span class="hlt">early</span> warning (EEW) being implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich. The application of Bayes’ theorem in earthquake <span class="hlt">early</span> warning states that the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likelihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS algorithm was one of three EEW algorithms involved in the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) real-time EEW testing and performance evaluation effort. Its compelling real-time performance in California over the last three years has led to its inclusion in the new USGS-funded effort to develop key components of CISN ShakeAlert, a prototype EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. A significant portion of VS code development was supported by the SAFER EEW project in Europe. We discuss recent enhancements to the VS EEW algorithm. We developed and continue to test a multiple-threshold <span class="hlt">event</span> detection scheme, which uses different association / location approaches depending on the peak amplitudes associated with an incoming P pick. With this scheme, an <span class="hlt">event</span> with sufficiently high initial amplitudes can be declared on the basis of a single station, maximizing warning times for damaging <span class="hlt">events</span> for which EEW is most relevant. Smaller, non-damaging <span class="hlt">events</span>, which will have lower initial amplitudes, will require more picks to be declared an <span class="hlt">event</span> to reduce false alarms. This transforms the VS codes from a regional EEW approach reliant on traditional location estimation (and it requirement of at least 4 picks as implemented by the Binder Earthworm phase associator) to a hybrid on-site/regional approach capable of providing a continuously evolving stream of EEW</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058698"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> disrupted neurovascular coupling and changed <span class="hlt">event</span> level hemodynamic response function in type 2 diabetes: an fMRI study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duarte, João V; Pereira, João M S; Quendera, Bruno; Raimundo, Miguel; Moreno, Carolina; Gomes, Leonor; Carrilho, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients develop vascular complications and have increased risk for neurophysiological impairment. Vascular pathophysiology may alter the blood flow regulation in cerebral microvasculature, affecting neurovascular coupling. Reduced fMRI signal can result from decreased neuronal activation or disrupted neurovascular coupling. The uncertainty about pathophysiological mechanisms (neurodegenerative, vascular, or both) underlying brain function impairments remains. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated if the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in lesion-free brains of patients is altered by measuring BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent) response to visual motion stimuli. We used a standard block design to examine the BOLD response and an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related deconvolution approach. Importantly, the latter allowed for the first time to directly extract the true shape of HRF without any assumption and probe neurovascular coupling, using performance-matched stimuli. We discovered a change in HRF in <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of diabetes. T2DM patients show significantly different fMRI response profiles. Our visual paradigm therefore demonstrated impaired neurovascular coupling in intact brain tissue. This implies that functional studies in T2DM require the definition of HRF, only achievable with deconvolution in <span class="hlt">event</span>-related experiments. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying impaired neurovascular coupling is needed to understand and potentially prevent the progression of brain function decrements in diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2692014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2692014"><span>Co-ordination of <span class="hlt">early</span> and late ripening <span class="hlt">events</span> in apples is regulated through differential sensitivities to ethylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnston, Jason W.; Gunaseelan, Kularajathaven; Pidakala, Paul; Wang, Mindy; Schaffer, Robert J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this study, it is shown that anti-sense suppression of Malus domestica 1-AMINO-CYCLOPROPANE-CARBOXYLASE OXIDASE (MdACO1) resulted in fruit with an ethylene production sufficiently low to be able to assess ripening in the absence of ethylene. Exposure of these fruit to different concentrations of exogenous ethylene showed that flesh softening, volatile biosynthesis, and starch degradation, had differing ethylene sensitivity and dependency. <span class="hlt">Early</span> ripening <span class="hlt">events</span> such as the conversion of starch to sugars showed a low dependency for ethylene, but a high sensitivity to low concentrations of ethylene (0.01 μl l−1). By contrast, later ripening <span class="hlt">events</span> such as flesh softening and ester volatile production showed a high dependency for ethylene but were less sensitive to low concentrations (needing 0.1 μl l−1 for a response). A sustained exposure to ethylene was required to maintain ripening, indicating that the role of ethylene may go beyond that of ripening initiation. These results suggest a conceptual model for the control of individual ripening characters in apple, based on both ethylene dependency and sensitivity. PMID:19429839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology"><span>Differential Network Analyses of Alzheimer’s Disease Identify <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xia, Jing; Rocke, David M.; Perry, George</p> <p></p> <p>In late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and <span class="hlt">early</span> characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with lowmore » topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in AD pathology. Cellular defense mechanisms try to intervene but fail, finally resulting in AD pathology as the disease progresses. Furthermore, disease annotation of the low TO genes in two independent protein interaction networks has resulted in association between cancer, diabetes, renal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26433030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26433030"><span>Molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> during the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of aggregation of GNNQQNY: An all atom MD simulation study of randomly dispersed peptides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Alka; Balaji, Petety V</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study probes the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> during lag phase of aggregation of GNNQQNY using all atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. Simulations were performed by varying system size, temperature and starting configuration. Peptides dispersed randomly in the simulation box come together <span class="hlt">early</span> on in the simulation and form aggregates. These aggregates are dynamic implying the absence of stabilizing interactions. This facilitates the exploration of alternate arrangements. The constituent peptides sample a variety of conformations, frequently re-orient and re-arrange with respect to each other and dissociate from/re-associate with the aggregate. The size and lifetime of aggregates vary depending upon the number of inter-peptide backbone H-bonds. Most of the aggregates formed are amorphous but crystalline aggregates of smaller size (mainly 2-mers) do appear and sustain for varying durations of time. The peptides in crystalline 2-mers are mostly anti-parallel. The largest crystalline aggregate that appears is a 4-mer in a single sheet and a 4-, 5-, or 6-mer in double layered arrangement. Crystalline aggregates grow either by the sequential addition of peptides, or by the head-on or lateral collision-adhesion of 2-mers. The formation of various smaller aggregates suggests the polymorphic nature of oligomers and heterogeneity in the lag phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566377"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking <span class="hlt">events</span>: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Te Brake, Hans</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on <span class="hlt">early</span> psychosocial intervention after shocking <span class="hlt">events</span> (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Methods Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines’ scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. Results The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Conclusions Although large consensus exists on standards for <span class="hlt">early</span> psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation. PMID:23393613</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198284-differential-network-analyses-alzheimers-disease-identify-early-events-alzheimers-disease-pathology"><span>Differential Network Analyses of Alzheimer’s Disease Identify <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Xia, Jing; Rocke, David M.; Perry, George; ...</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and <span class="hlt">early</span> characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with lowmore » topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in AD pathology. Cellular defense mechanisms try to intervene but fail, finally resulting in AD pathology as the disease progresses. Furthermore, disease annotation of the low TO genes in two independent protein interaction networks has resulted in association between cancer, diabetes, renal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867962"><span>Implicit processing of heroin and emotional cues in abstinent heroin users: <span class="hlt">early</span> and late <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Ling; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhao, Xin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues is a core characteristic of drug dependence. Previous research has suggested that the late positive potential (LPP) of heroin users is increased by heroin-related stimuli because of the attention-grabbing nature of such stimuli. The present research used a modified emotional Stroop (eStroop) task to examine whether there was an <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN) modulation to heroin cues compared with emotional or neutral stimuli in heroin dependent subjects. Fifteen former heroin users and 15 matched controls performed the eStroop task, which was composed of positive, negative, heroin-related, and neutral pictures with superimposed color squares. Participants responded to the color of the square and not to the picture while behavioral data and <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials were recorded. There were no significant differences of EPN amplitudes to emotional and neutral stimuli between heroin users and controls. However, heroin users displayed increased EPN modulation for heroin cues, whereas this modulation was absent in controls. Drug-related cues acquire motivational salience and automatically capture the attention of heroin users at <span class="hlt">early</span> processing stages, even when engaged in a non-drug-related task. The EPN to heroin cues could represent a novel electrophysiological index with clinical implications for selecting abstinent drug users who are at increased risk of relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP11C2035H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP11C2035H"><span>Timing of the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (<span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic) from correlation of astronomically forced global stratigraphic sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Hesselbo, S. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (OAE) in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic Period is associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming. The Toarcian OAE is thought to have been caused by flood basalt magmatism, and may have been a trigger for mass extinction. However, these proposed causes of the Toarcian OAE and associated biotic crisis are not adequately resolved by a precise chronology. The duration of the Toarcian OAE has been estimated to be anywhere from ~0.12 to ~0.9 Myr, most recently 0.74 to 3.26 Myr from U-Pb dating. The CIE associated with the Toarcian OAE has a similar pattern at numerous localities, and there is evidence for astronomical forcing of marine carbon isotopes. Here we estimate a duration of ~625 kyr for the main negative CIE, ~860 kyr for the polymorphum zone and >1.58 Myr for the levisoni zone based on 405-kyr astronomical eccentricity tuning of the marine section at Peniche (Portugal). This 405-kyr tuned series provides a ~2.5 Myr continuous high-resolution chronology through the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian. There are 6, or possibly 7 short eccentricity cycles in the main CIE interval at Peniche. To confirm this astronomically based estimate, we analyzed five other sections at Yorkshire (UK), Dotternhausen (Germany), Valdorbia (Italy), Mechowo (Poland) and Serrucho, Neuquén (Argentina), from marine and terrestrial carbon isotopic series. These six stratigraphic sections from <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic western Tethys and eastern Panthalassa record the Toarcian OAE with ~6 prominent carbon isotope cycles in the CIE that provide us a 600 ± 100 kyr duration. The Peniche 405 kyr-tuned series indicates that the pre- and post-CIE intervals experienced strong precession-eccentricity-forced climate change, whereas the CIE interval is marked by dominant obliquity forcing. These dramatic and abrupt changes in astronomical response in the carbon isotopes point to fundamental shifting in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Toarcian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928817','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928817"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span>-Life <span class="hlt">Events</span>, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in <span class="hlt">early</span> life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as <span class="hlt">early</span> colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in <span class="hlt">early</span> life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362264"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span>-Life <span class="hlt">Events</span>, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in <span class="hlt">early</span> life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as <span class="hlt">early</span> colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in <span class="hlt">early</span> life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22267883-risk-cerebrovascular-events-elderly-patients-after-radiation-therapy-versus-surgery-early-stage-glottic-cancer','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22267883-risk-cerebrovascular-events-elderly-patients-after-radiation-therapy-versus-surgery-early-stage-glottic-cancer"><span>Risk of Cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for <span class="hlt">Early</span>-Stage Glottic Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai</p> <p></p> <p>Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>, and SEER data for stroke as the causemore » of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H"><span>Subsurface warming in the subpolar North Atlantic during rapid climate <span class="hlt">events</span> in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Mid-Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Sierro, Francisco; Cacho, Isabel; Abel Flores, José</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A new high-resolution reconstruction of the temperature and salinity of the subsurface waters using paired Mg/Ca-δ18O measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistrorsa (sin.) was conducted on a deep-sea sediment core in the subpolar North Atlantic (Site U1314). This study aims to reconstruct millennial-scale subsurface hydrography variations during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Mid-Pleistocene (MIS 31-19). These rapid climate <span class="hlt">events</span> are characterized by abrupt shifts between warm/cold conditions, and ice-sheet oscillations, as evidenced by major ice rafting <span class="hlt">events</span> recorded in the North Atlantic sediments (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2012), similar to those found during the Last Glacial period (Marcott et al, 2011). The Mg/Ca derived paleotemperature and salinity oscillations prior and during IRD discharges at Site U1314 are related to changes in intermediate circulation. The increases in Mg/Ca paleotemperatures and salinities during the IRD <span class="hlt">event</span> are preceded by short episodes of cooling and freshening of subsurface waters. The response of the AMOC to this perturbation is an increased of warm and salty water coming from the south, transported to high latitudes in the North Atlantic beneath the thermocline. This process is accompanied by a southward shift in the convection cell from the Nordic Seas to the subpolar North Atlantic and better ventilation of the North Atlantic at mid-depths. Poleward transport of warm and salty subsurface subtropical waters causes intense basal melting and thinning of marine ice-shelves, that culminates in large-scale instability of the ice sheets, retreat of the grounding line and iceberg discharge. The mechanism proposed involves the coupling of the AMOC with ice-sheet dynamics, and would explain the presence of these fluctuations before the establishment of high-amplitude 100-kyr glacial cycles. Hernández-Almeida, I., Sierro, F.J., Cacho, I., Flores, J.A., 2012. Impact of suborbital climate changes in the North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3602124','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3602124"><span>Subchondral pre-solidified chitosan/blood implants <span class="hlt">elicit</span> reproducible <span class="hlt">early</span> osteochondral wound-repair responses including neutrophil and stromal cell chemotaxis, bone resorption and repair, enhanced repair tissue integration and delayed matrix deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In this study we evaluated a novel approach to guide the bone marrow-driven articular cartilage repair response in skeletally aged rabbits. We hypothesized that dispersed chitosan particles implanted close to the bone marrow degrade in situ in a molecular mass-dependent manner, and attract more stromal cells to the site in aged rabbits compared to the blood clot in untreated controls. Methods Three microdrill hole defects, 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm deep, were created in both knee trochlea of 30 month-old New Zealand White rabbits. Each of 3 isotonic chitosan solutions (150, 40, 10 kDa, 80% degree of deaceylation, with fluorescent chitosan tracer) was mixed with autologous rabbit whole blood, clotted with Tissue Factor to form cylindrical implants, and press-fit in drill holes in the left knee while contralateral holes received Tissue Factor or no treatment. At day 1 or day 21 post-operative, defects were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and stereology for bone and soft tissue repair. Results All 3 implants filled the top of defects at day 1 and were partly degraded in situ at 21 days post-operative. All implants attracted neutrophils, osteoclasts and abundant bone marrow-derived stromal cells, stimulated bone resorption followed by new woven bone repair (bone remodeling) and promoted repair tissue-bone integration. 150 kDa chitosan implant was less degraded, and <span class="hlt">elicited</span> more apoptotic neutrophils and bone resorption than 10 kDa chitosan implant. Drilled controls <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a poorly integrated fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue. Conclusions Pre-solidified implants <span class="hlt">elicit</span> stromal cells and vigorous bone plate remodeling through a phase involving neutrophil chemotaxis. Pre-solidified chitosan implants are tunable by molecular mass, and could be beneficial for augmented marrow stimulation therapy if the recruited stromal cells can progress to bone and cartilage repair. PMID:23324433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27122035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27122035"><span>Stimulus-<span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim</p> <p>2016-04-27</p> <p>-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state network development is influenced by recurring stimulus-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> connectivity through prospective examination of the developing human amygdala-cortical functional connections. Our results provide critical insight into how <span class="hlt">early</span> environmental <span class="hlt">events</span> sculpt functional network architecture across development and highlight childhood as a potential developmental period of heightened malleability for the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings have implications for how both positive and adverse experiences influence the developing brain and motivate future investigations of whether this molding mechanism reflects a general phenomenon of brain development. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364772-14$15.00/0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846673"><span>Stimulus-<span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p> posit and test the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state network development is influenced by recurring stimulus-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> connectivity through prospective examination of the developing human amygdala-cortical functional connections. Our results provide critical insight into how <span class="hlt">early</span> environmental <span class="hlt">events</span> sculpt functional network architecture across development and highlight childhood as a potential developmental period of heightened malleability for the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings have implications for how both positive and adverse experiences influence the developing brain and motivate future investigations of whether this molding mechanism reflects a general phenomenon of brain development. PMID:27122035</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..136...23F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..136...23F"><span>Evidence of resilience to past climate change in Southwest Asia: <span class="hlt">Early</span> farming communities and the 9.2 and 8.2 ka <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flohr, Pascal; Fleitmann, Dominik; Matthews, Roger; Matthews, Wendy; Black, Stuart</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Climate change is often cited as a major factor in social change. The so-called 8.2 ka <span class="hlt">event</span> was one of the most pronounced and abrupt Holocene cold and arid <span class="hlt">events</span>. The 9.2 ka <span class="hlt">event</span> was similar, albeit of a smaller magnitude. Both <span class="hlt">events</span> affected the Northern Hemisphere climate and caused cooling and aridification in Southwest Asia. Yet, the impacts of the 8.2 and 9.2 ka <span class="hlt">events</span> on <span class="hlt">early</span> farming communities in this region are not well understood. Current hypotheses for an effect of the 8.2 ka <span class="hlt">event</span> vary from large-scale site abandonment and migration (including the Neolithisation of Europe) to continuation of occupation and local adaptation, while impacts of the 9.2 ka have not previously been systematically studied. In this paper, we present a thorough assessment of available, quality-checked radiocarbon (14C) dates for sites from Southwest Asia covering the time interval between 9500 and 7500 cal BP, which we interpret in combination with archaeological evidence. In this way, the synchronicity between changes observed in the archaeological record and the rapid climate <span class="hlt">events</span> is tested. It is shown that there is no evidence for a simultaneous and widespread collapse, large-scale site abandonment, or migration at the time of the <span class="hlt">events</span>. However, there are indications for local adaptation. We conclude that <span class="hlt">early</span> farming communities were resilient to the abrupt, severe climate changes at 9250 and 8200 cal BP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106045"><span>Size-resolved aerosol chemical analysis of extreme haze pollution <span class="hlt">events</span> during <span class="hlt">early</span> 2013 in urban Beijing, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tian, Shili; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Yuesi</p> <p>2014-08-30</p> <p>Using size-resolved filter sampling and chemical characterization, high concentrations of water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species and heavy metals were found in both fine (PM2.1) and coarse (PM2.1-9) particles in Beijing during haze <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> 2013. Even on clear days, average mass concentration of submicron particles (PM1.1) was several times higher than that previously measured in most of abroad urban areas. A high concentration of particulate matter on haze days weakens the incident solar radiation, which reduces the generation rate of secondary organic carbon in PM1.1. We show that the peak mass concentration of particles shifted from 0.43-0.65μm on clear days to 0.65-1.1μm on lightly polluted days and to 1.1-2.1μm on heavily polluted days. The peak shifts were also found for the following species: organic carbon, elemental carbon, NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), K, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Our findings demonstrate that secondary inorganic aerosols (36%) and organic matter (26%) dominated the fine particle mass on heavily polluted days, while their contribution reduced to 29% and 18%, respectively, on clear days. Besides fine particles, anthropogenic chemical species also substantially accumulated in the coarse mode, which suggests that particles with aerodynamic diameter larger than 2.1μm cannot be neglected during severe haze <span class="hlt">events</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495521"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. <span class="hlt">Early</span> results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. <span class="hlt">Early</span> results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic <span class="hlt">events</span> suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460664"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular and physiological <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..63..293P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..63..293P"><span>A late eocene-<span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene transgressive <span class="hlt">event</span> in the Golfo San Jorge basin: Palynological results and stratigraphic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paredes, José M.; Foix, Nicolás; Guerstein, G. Raquel; Guler, María V.; Irigoyen, Martín; Moscoso, Pablo; Giordano, Sergio</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A new Cenozoic dataset in the subsurface of the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Santa Cruz province) allowed to identify a non-previously recognized transgressive <span class="hlt">event</span> of late Eocene to <span class="hlt">early</span> Oligocene age. Below of a marine succession containing a dinoflagellate cyst assemblage that characterizes the C/G palynological zone of the Chenque Formation (<span class="hlt">early</span> Miocene), a 80-110 m thick marine succession contains a palynological assemblage integrated by Gelatia inflata, Diphyes colligerum and Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata supporting the occurrence of a marine incursion in the basin during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). The new lithostratigraphic unit - here defined as El Huemul Formation - covers in sharp contact to the Sarmiento Formation, and become thinner from East to West; the unit has been identified in about 1800 well logs covering up to 3500 km2, and its subsurface distribution exceed the boundaries of the study area. The El Huemul Formation consists of a thin lag of glauconitic sandstones with fining-upward log motif, followed by a mudstone-dominated succession that coarsening-upward to sandstones, evidencing a full T-R cycle. Preservation of the El Huemul Formation in the subsurface of the South Flank has been favored by the reactivation of WNW-ESE late Cretaceous normal faults, and by the generation of N-S striking normal faults of Paleocene-Eocene age. Flexural loading associated to igneous intrusions of Paleocene?- middle Eocene age also promoted the increase of subsidence in the South Flank of the basin prior to the transgression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898513"><span>TERT promoter mutation as an <span class="hlt">early</span> genetic <span class="hlt">event</span> activating telomerase in follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and atypical FTA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Na; Liu, Tiantian; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Xu, Dawei</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations C228T and C250T have been found in many malignancies, including in thyroid carcinomas. However, it is unclear how <span class="hlt">early</span> these mutations occur in thyroid tumorigenesis. The study included primary tumors from 58 patients initially diagnosed with follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), a benign entity, 18 with atypical FTA (AFTA) having an uncertain malignant potential, and 52 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the mutational status of the TERT promoter. Telomere length and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was assessed using a Telomerase PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The C228T mutation was identified in 1 of 58 FTA (2%) and 3 of 18 AFTA (17%) samples. These 4 tumors all expressed TERT mRNA and telomerase activity, whereas the majority of C228T-negative adenomas lacked TERT expression (C228T versus wild-type, P = .008). The C228T mutation was associated with NRAS gene mutations (P = .016). The patient with C228T-mutated FTA later developed a scar recurrence and died of FTC, whereas none of the remaining 57 patients with FTA had recurrence. No recurrence occurred in 3 patients with AFTA who carried C228T during the follow-up period (36-285 months). Nine of the 52 FTCs (17%) exhibited the TERT mutation (8 of 9 C228T and 1 of 9 C250T), and the presence of the mutation was associated with shorter patient survival. TERT promoter mutations may occur as an <span class="hlt">early</span> genetic <span class="hlt">event</span> in thyroid follicular tumors that have not developed malignant features on routine histopathological workup. © 2014 American Cancer Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22285261-perturbation-bile-acid-homeostasis-early-pathogenesis-event-drug-induced-liver-injury-rats','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22285261-perturbation-bile-acid-homeostasis-early-pathogenesis-event-drug-induced-liver-injury-rats"><span>Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> pathogenesis <span class="hlt">event</span> of drug induced liver injury in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolitesmore » profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the <span class="hlt">early</span> time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and <span class="hlt">early</span> DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H"><span>Subsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling <span class="hlt">events</span>: evidence from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North Atlantic were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) <span class="hlt">events</span> during cold periods of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / Ca and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North Atlantic in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H"><span>Subsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling <span class="hlt">events</span>: evidences from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North Atlantic were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt IRD <span class="hlt">events</span> during cold periods of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene. We used Mg / Ca-based temperatures of deep-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) planktonic foraminifera and paired Mg / Ca-δ18O measurements to estimate the subsurface temperatures and δ18O of seawater at Site U1314. Carbon isotopes on benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and δ18O of seawater suggest increased temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to enhanced northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of AMOC reduction. Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Warm waters accumulated at subsurface would result in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. Release of heat and salt stored at subsurface would help to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North Atlantic in response to AMOC slowdown during the MIS3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683140"><span>The dimerization of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> and is independent of Rip1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Conte, Annalea; Papa, Benedetta; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the mature cytochrome bc1 complex exists as an obligate homo-dimer in which each monomer consists of ten distinct protein subunits inserted into or bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Among them, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (Rip1), besides its catalytic role in electron transfer, may be implicated in the bc1 complex dimerization. Indeed, Rip1 has the globular domain containing the catalytic center in one monomer while the transmembrane helix interacts with the adjacent monomer. In addition, the lack of Rip1 leads to the accumulation of an immature bc1 intermediate, only loosely associated with cytochrome c oxidase. In this study we have investigated the biogenesis of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex using epitope tagged proteins to purify native assembly intermediates. We showed that the dimerization process is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> during bc1 complex biogenesis and that the presence of Rip1, differently from previous proposals, is not essential for this process. We also investigated the multi-step model of bc1 assembly thereby lending further support to the existence of bona fide subcomplexes during bc1 maturation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Finally, a new model of cytochrome bc1 complex assembly, in which distinct intermediates sequentially interact during bc1 maturation, has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.706E..21S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.706E..21S"><span>Microgravity Effects on the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe <span class="hlt">early</span> biomolecular <span class="hlt">events</span> associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414406"><span>Microhemorrhage is an <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Event</span> in the Pulmonary Fibrotic Disease of PECAM-1 Deficient FVB/n Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Lena C.; Woods, Steven J.; Groshong, Steven D.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Gilchrist, John M.; Higgins, David M.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Bass, Todd A.; Muller, William A.; Schenkel, Alan R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (PECAM-1) deficient mice in the FVB/n strain exhibit fatal chronic pulmonary fibrotic disease. The illness occurs in the absence of a detectable pro-inflammatory <span class="hlt">event</span>. PECAM-1 is vital to the stability of vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation, clotting of platelets, and clearance of apoptotic cells. We show here that the spontaneous development of fibrotic disease in PECAM-1 deficient FVB/n mice is characterized by <span class="hlt">early</span> loss of vascular integrity in pulmonary capillaries, resulting in spontaneous microbleeds. Hemosiderin-positive macrophages were found in interstitial spaces and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in relatively healthy animals. We also observed a gradually increasing presence of hemosiderin-positive macrophages and fibrin deposition in the advanced stages of disease, corresponding to the accumulation of collagen, IL-10 expression, and myofibroblasts expressing alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). Together with the growing evidence that pulmonary microbleeds and coagulation play an active part in human pulmonary fibrosis, this data further supports our hypothesis that PECAM-1 expression is necessary for vascular barrier function control and regulation of homeostasis specifically, in the pulmonary environment. PMID:24972347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24766462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24766462"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> and late HIV-1 membrane fusion <span class="hlt">events</span> are impaired by sphinganine lipidated peptides that target the fusion site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klug, Yoel A; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Viard, Mathias; Porat, Ziv; Blumenthal, Robert; Shai, Yechiel</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>Lipid-conjugated peptides have advanced the understanding of membrane protein functions and the roles of lipids in the membrane milieu. These lipopeptides modulate various biological systems such as viral fusion. A single function has been suggested for the lipid, binding to the membrane and thus elevating the local concentration of the peptide at the target site. In the present paper, we challenged this argument by exploring in-depth the antiviral mechanism of lipopeptides, which comprise sphinganine, the lipid backbone of DHSM (dihydrosphingomyelin), and an HIV-1 envelope-derived peptide. Surprisingly, we discovered a partnership between the lipid and the peptide that impaired <span class="hlt">early</span> membrane fusion <span class="hlt">events</span> by reducing CD4 receptor lateral diffusion and HIV-1 fusion peptide-mediated lipid mixing. Moreover, only the joint function of sphinganine and its conjugate peptide disrupted HIV-1 fusion protein assembly and folding at the later fusion steps. Via imaging techniques we revealed for the first time the direct localization of these lipopeptides to the virus-cell and cell-cell contact sites. Overall, the findings of the present study may suggest lipid-protein interactions in various biological systems and may help uncover a role for elevated DHSM in HIV-1 and its target cell membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290827','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290827"><span>Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-<span class="hlt">early</span> conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer <span class="hlt">events</span>. PMID:22403557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307784&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=herbicide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307784&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=herbicide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Transcriptomic dose-and-time-course indicators of <span class="hlt">early</span> key <span class="hlt">events</span> in a cytotoxicity-mediated mode of action for rodent urinary bladder tumorigenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>TRANSCRIPTOMIC DOSE- AND TIME-COURSE INDICATORS OF <span class="hlt">EARLY</span> KEY <span class="hlt">EVENTS</span> IN A CYTOTOXICITY-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION FOR RODENT URINARY BLADDER TUMORIGENESISDiuron is a substituted urea compound used globally as an herbicide. Urinary bladder tumors were induced in rats after chronic die...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080521"><span>Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark <span class="hlt">Early</span> Preparatory <span class="hlt">Events</span> Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shah, Jubin N.; Kirioukhova, Olga; Pawar, Pallavi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Mateo, Juan L.; Johnston, Amal J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Molecular dissection of apomixis – an asexual reproductive mode – is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis) and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these <span class="hlt">events</span>, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might serve as (epi)genetic regulators of <span class="hlt">early</span> development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologs of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1) and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1) that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologs of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologs were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by global DNA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29229845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29229845"><span>Brain urea increase is an <span class="hlt">early</span> Huntington's disease pathogenic <span class="hlt">event</span> observed in a prodromal transgenic sheep model and HD cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Brauning, Rudiger; Maclean, Paul; Mears, Emily R; Fourie, Imche; Patassini, Stefano; Cooper, Garth J S; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Verma, Paul J; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G</p> <p>2017-12-26</p> <p>The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin ( HTT ) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the <span class="hlt">early</span> molecular <span class="hlt">events</span> in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73 -line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene. Our HD OVT73 sheep are a prodromal model and exhibit minimal pathology and no detectable neuronal loss. We identified significantly increased levels of the urea transporter SLC14A1 in the OVT73 striatum, along with other important osmotic regulators. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of the metabolite urea in the OVT73 striatum and cerebellum, consistent with our recently published observation of increased urea in postmortem human brain from HD cases. Extending that finding, we demonstrate that postmortem human brain urea levels are elevated in a larger cohort of HD cases, including those with low-level neuropathology (Vonsattel grade 0/1). This elevation indicates increased protein catabolism, possibly as an alternate energy source given the generalized metabolic defect in HD. Increased urea and ammonia levels due to dysregulation of the urea cycle are known to cause neurologic impairment. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant urea metabolism could be the primary biochemical disruption initiating neuropathogenesis in HD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..278I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..278I"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">Early</span>, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing <span class="hlt">events</span> and processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing <span class="hlt">events</span> and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The <span class="hlt">Early</span> Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086079"><span>Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment and the risk of incident cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desai, Rishi J; Rao, Jaya K; Hansen, Richard A; Fang, Gang; Maciejewski, Matthew; Farley, Joel</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>To compare the risk of cardiovascular (CV) <span class="hlt">events</span> between use of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) and nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A nested case-control study was conducted using data from Truven's MarketScan commercial and Medicare claims database for patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA who started treatment with either a TNFi or a nonbiologic DMARD between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. Date of CV <span class="hlt">event</span> diagnosis for cases was defined as the <span class="hlt">event</span> date, and 12 age-matched and sex-matched controls were sampled using incidence density sampling. Drug exposure was defined into the following mutually exclusive categories hierarchically: (1) current use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (2) past use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (3) current use of nonbiologics only, and (4) past use of nonbiologics only. Current use was defined as any use in the period 90 days prior to the <span class="hlt">event</span> date. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRR). From the cohort of patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA, 279 cases of incident CV <span class="hlt">events</span> and 3348 matched controls were identified. The adjusted risk of CV <span class="hlt">events</span> was not significantly different between current TNFi users and current nonbiologic users (IRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.59-1.44). However, past users of nonbiologics showed significantly higher risk compared to current nonbiologic users (IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04-2.08). No differences in the CV risk were found between current TNFi and current nonbiologic DMARD treatment in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28701166"><span>Which <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> or current environmental and lifestyle factors influence lung function in adolescents? - results from the GINIplus & LISAplus studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luzak, Agnes; Fuertes, Elaine; Flexeder, Claudia; Standl, Marie; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Schulz, Holger</p> <p>2017-07-12</p> <p>Various factors may affect lung function at different stages in life. Since investigations that simultaneously consider several factors are rare, we examined the relative importance of <span class="hlt">early</span> life, current environmental/lifestyle factors and allergic diseases on lung function in 15-year-olds. Best subset selection was performed for linear regression models to investigate associations between 21 diverse <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> and current factors with spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF 25-75 )) in 1326 participants of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. To reduce model complexity, one model for each spirometric parameter was replicated 1000 times in random subpopulations (N = 884). Only those factors that were included in >70% of the replication models were retained in the final analysis. A higher peak weight velocity and <span class="hlt">early</span> lung infections were the <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> prevalently associated with airflow limitation and FEF 25-75 . Current environmental/lifestyle factors at age 15 years and allergic diseases that were associated with lung function were: indoor second-hand smoke exposure, vitamin D concentration, body mass index (BMI) and asthma status. Sex and height captured the majority of the explained variance (>75%), followed by BMI (≤23.7%). The variance explained by <span class="hlt">early</span> life <span class="hlt">events</span> was comparatively low (median: 4.8%; range: 0.2-22.4%), but these <span class="hlt">events</span> were consistently negatively associated with airway function. Although the explained variance was mainly captured by well-known factors included in lung function prediction equations, our findings indicate <span class="hlt">early</span> life and current factors that should be considered in studies on lung health among adolescents.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27228435"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> blood pressure lowering treatment in acute stroke. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jusufovic, Mirza; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Bath, Philip M; Berge, Eivind</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> blood pressure-lowering treatment appears to be beneficial in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage and potentially in ischaemic stroke. We used a new method for analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial to see if the effect was dependent on the timing of treatment. Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial was a randomized controlled and placebo-controlled trial of candesartan within 30 h of ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Of 2029 patients, 231 (11.4%) had a vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> (vascular death, nonfatal stroke or nonfatal myocardial infarction) during the first 6 months. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score following a vascular <span class="hlt">event</span> was used to categorize vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in order of severity: no <span class="hlt">event</span> (n = 1798), minor (mRS 0-2, n = 59), moderately severe (mRS 3-4, n = 57) and major <span class="hlt">event</span> (mRS 5-6, n = 115). We used ordinal logistic regression for analysis and adjusted for predefined prognostic variables. Candesartan had no overall effect on vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (adjusted common odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.47, P = 0.48), and the effects were the same in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Among the patients treated within 6 h, the adjusted common odds ratio for vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> was 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.84, P = 0.02, and there was no heterogeneity of effect between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> showed no overall effect of candesartan in the subacute phase of stroke. The effect of treatment given within 6 h of stroke onset appears promising, and will be addressed in ongoing trials. Ordinal analysis of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> is feasible and can be used in future trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599585"><span>Impact of COX2 genotype, ER status and body constitution on risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in different treatment groups of breast cancer patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rosendahl, Ann H; Gaber, Alexander; Ingvar, Christian; Rose, Carsten; Jernström, Helena</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>The COX2 rs5277 (306G>C) polymorphism has been associated with inflammation-associated cancers. In breast cancer, tumor COX-2 expression has been associated with increased estrogen levels in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and activated Akt-pathway in ER-negative tumors. Our study investigated the impact of COX2 genotypes on <span class="hlt">early</span> breast cancer <span class="hlt">events</span> and treatment response in relation to tumor ER status and body constitution. In Sweden, between 2002 and 2008, 634 primary breast cancer patients, aged 25-99 years, were included. Disease-free survival was assessed for 570 rs5277-genotyped patients. Body measurements and questionnaires were obtained preoperatively. Clinical data, patient- and tumor-characteristics were obtained from questionnaires, patients' charts, population registries and pathology reports. Minor allele(C) frequency was 16.1%. Genotype was not linked to COX-2 tumor expression. Median follow-up was 5.1 years. G/G genotype was not associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with ER-positive tumors, adjusted HR 0.77 (0.46-1.29), but conferred an over 4-fold increased risk in patients with ER-negative tumors, adjusted HR 4.41 (1.21-16.02)(p(interaction) = 0.015). Chemotherapy-treated G/G-carriers with a breast volume ≥ 850 ml had an increased risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> irrespective of ER status, adjusted HR 8.99 (1.14-70.89). Endocrine-treated C-allele carriers with ER-positive tumors and a breast volume ≥ 850 ml had increased risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span>, adjusted HR 2.30 (1.12-4.75). COX2 genotype, body constitution and ER status had a combined effect on the risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> and treatment response. The high risk for <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in certain subgroups of patients suggests that COX2 genotype in combination with body measurements may identify patients in need of more personalized treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980666"><span>Evolution of GHF5 endoglucanase gene structure in plant-parasitic nematodes: no evidence for an <span class="hlt">early</span> domain shuffling <span class="hlt">event</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kyndt, Tina; Haegeman, Annelies; Gheysen, Godelieve</p> <p>2008-11-03</p> <p> the whole gene cassette, i.e. the GHF5 catalytic domain and the CBM2, rather than that it evolved by domain shuffling. Our evolutionary model for the gene structure in PPN GHF5 endoglucanases implies the occurrence of an <span class="hlt">early</span> duplication <span class="hlt">event</span>, and more recent gene duplications at genus or species level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575480','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575480"><span>Infection of Brachypodium distachyon by Formae Speciales of Puccinia graminis: <span class="hlt">Early</span> Infection <span class="hlt">Events</span> and Host-Pathogen Incompatibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Figueroa, Melania; Alderman, Stephen; Garvin, David F.; Pfender, William F.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Puccinia graminis causes stem rust, a serious disease of cereals and forage grasses. Important formae speciales of P. graminis and their typical hosts are P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pg-tr) in wheat and barley, P. graminis f. sp. lolii (Pg-lo) in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, and P. graminis f. sp. phlei-pratensis (Pg-pp) in timothy grass. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging genetic model to study fungal disease resistance in cereals and temperate grasses. We characterized the P. graminis-Brachypodium pathosystem to evaluate its potential for investigating incompatibility and non-host resistance to P. graminis. Inoculation of eight Brachypodium inbred lines with Pg-tr, Pg-lo or Pg-pp resulted in sporulating lesions later accompanied by necrosis. Histological analysis of <span class="hlt">early</span> infection <span class="hlt">events</span> in one Brachypodium inbred line (Bd1-1) indicated that Pg-lo and Pg-pp were markedly more efficient than Pg-tr at establishing a biotrophic interaction. Formation of appressoria was completed (60–70% of germinated spores) by 12 h post-inoculation (hpi) under dark and wet conditions, and after 4 h of subsequent light exposure fungal penetration structures (penetration peg, substomatal vesicle and primary infection hyphae) had developed. Brachypodium Bd1-1 exhibited pre-haustorial resistance to Pg-tr, i.e. infection usually stopped at appressorial formation. By 68 hpi, only 0.3% and 0.7% of the Pg-tr urediniospores developed haustoria and colonies, respectively. In contrast, development of advanced infection structures by Pg-lo and Pg-pp was significantly more common; however, Brachypodium displayed post-haustorial resistance to these isolates. By 68 hpi the percentage of urediniospores that only develop a haustorium mother cell or haustorium in Pg-lo and Pg-pp reached 8% and 5%, respectively. The formation of colonies reached 14% and 13%, respectively. We conclude that Brachypodium is an apt grass model to study the molecular and genetic components of incompatiblity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=event&pg=7&id=EJ1157100','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=event&pg=7&id=EJ1157100"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Preservice Teachers' Experiences of the Environment: A Case Study of Participation in a Community Outdoor <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van Rooy, Wilhelmina</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Clean Up Australia Day is the country's largest community-based environmental annual <span class="hlt">event</span> when participants work in teams to remove rubbish from their local environment. This article describes an interpretive study in which a sample of preservice primary teachers' (n = 30) responses to questions about their involvement in the <span class="hlt">event</span> were evaluated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089009"><span>Relation of Cardiac Complications in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Phase of Community-Acquired Pneumonia to Long-Term Mortality and Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cangemi, Roberto; Calvieri, Camilla; Falcone, Marco; Bucci, Tommaso; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Scarpellini, Maria G; Barillà, Francesco; Taliani, Gloria; Violi, Francesco</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by cardiac <span class="hlt">events</span> in the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of the disease. Aim of this study was to assess if these intrahospital cardiac complications may account for overall mortality and cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during a long-term follow-up. Three hundred one consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I, with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively recruited and followed up for a median of 17.4 months. Primary end point was the occurrence of death for any cause, and secondary end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke). During the intrahospital stay, 55 patients (18%) experienced a cardiac complication. Of these, 32 had an MI (29 non-ST-elevation MI and 3 ST-elevation MI) and 30 had a new episode of atrial fibrillation (7 nonmutually exclusive <span class="hlt">events</span>). During the follow-up, 89 patients died (51% of patients with an intrahospital cardiac complication and 26% of patients without, p <0.001) and 73 experienced a cardiovascular <span class="hlt">event</span> (47% of patients with and 19% of patients without an intrahospital cardiac complication, p <0.001). A Cox regression analysis showed that intrahospital cardiac complications, age, and Pneumonia Severity Index were significantly associated with overall mortality, whereas intrahospital cardiac complications, age, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly associated with cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> during the follow-up. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that intrahospital cardiac complications in the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase of pneumonia are associated with an enhanced risk of death and cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22522478-reanalyses-anomalous-gravitational-microlensing-events-ogle-iii-early-warning-system-database-combined-data','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22522478-reanalyses-anomalous-gravitational-microlensing-events-ogle-iii-early-warning-system-database-combined-data"><span>REANALYSES OF ANOMALOUS GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING <span class="hlt">EVENTS</span> IN THE OGLE-III <span class="hlt">EARLY</span> WARNING SYSTEM DATABASE WITH COMBINED DATA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jeong, J.; Park, H.; Han, C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We reanalyze microlensing <span class="hlt">events</span> in the published list of anomalous <span class="hlt">events</span> that were observed from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) lensing survey conducted during the 2004–2008 period. In order to check the existence of possible degenerate solutions and extract extra information, we conduct analyses based on combined data from other survey and follow-up observation and consider higher-order effects. Among the analyzed <span class="hlt">events</span>, we present analyses of eight <span class="hlt">events</span> for which either new solutions are identified or additional information is obtained. We find that the previous binary-source interpretations of five <span class="hlt">events</span> are better interpreted by binary-lens models. These <span class="hlt">events</span> includemore » OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2007-BLG-159, OGLE-2007-BLG-491, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, and OGLE-2008-BLG-210. With additional data covering caustic crossings, we detect finite-source effects for six <span class="hlt">events</span> including OGLE-2006-BLG-215, OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2006-BLG-450, OGLE-2008-BLG-143, OGLE-2008-BLG-210, and OGLE-2008-BLG-513. Among them, we are able to measure the Einstein radii of three <span class="hlt">events</span> for which multi-band data are available. These <span class="hlt">events</span> are OGLE-2006-BLG-238, OGLE-2008-BLG-210, and OGLE-2008-BLG-513. For OGLE-2008-BLG-143, we detect higher-order effects induced by the changes of the observer’s position caused by the orbital motion of the Earth around the Sun. In addition, we present degenerate solutions resulting from the known close/wide or ecliptic degeneracy. Finally, we note that the masses of the binary companions of the lenses of OGLE-2006-BLG-450 and OGLE-2008-BLG-210 are in the brown-dwarf regime.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drury&pg=3&id=EJ956878','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drury&pg=3&id=EJ956878"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Left-Anterior Negativity (ELAN) in Syntax Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steinhauer, Karsten; Drury, John E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Within the framework of Friederici's (2002) neurocognitive model of sentence processing, the <span class="hlt">early</span> left anterior negativity (ELAN) in <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs) has been claimed to be a brain marker of syntactic first-pass parsing. As ELAN components seem to be exclusively <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by word category violations (phrase structure violations),…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17574686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17574686"><span>Stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> and depressive problems in <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescent boys and girls: the influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouma, Esther M C; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Oldehinkel, Albertine J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> increase the probability of depressive problems in <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescence. Several genetic and environmental risk factors may change individual sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of these <span class="hlt">events</span>. We examined modification by parental depression and gender, and mediation of the former by temperament and family environment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of (pre)adolescents (n = 2127). During the first assessment wave at approximately age 11, we assessed parental depression, family functioning, perceived parenting behaviours, and temperamental frustration and fearfulness. At the second wave, about two and a half years later, stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> between the first and second assessment were assessed. Depressive problems were measured at both waves. Adolescents with parents who had a (lifetime) depressive episode were more sensitive to the depressogenic effect of stressful <span class="hlt">events</span> than adolescents without depressed parents. Furthermore, girls are more sensitive to these effects than boys. The modifying effect of parental depression was not mediated by temperament, family functioning and perceived parenting. Life <span class="hlt">events</span> were assessed without consideration of contextual information. Depressive problems were measured by questionnaires that did not directly represent DSM-IV criteria. The measure of parental depression was unspecific regarding severity and timing of depressive episodes. The results suggest that gender and parental depression are associated with increased sensitivity to depression after experiencing stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> during adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5646184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5646184"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum, from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian (Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian (Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863820"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Spatial and Temporal <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Spread following Blood-Borne Transmission in a Rabbit Model of Infection ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haynes, Rashade A. H.; Zimmerman, Bevin; Millward, Laurie; Ware, Evan; Premanandan, Christopher; Yu, Lianbo; Phipps, Andrew J.; Lairmore, Michael D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and is associated with a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 transmission occurs by transmission of infected cells via breast-feeding by infected mothers, sexual intercourse, and contaminated blood products. The route of exposure and <span class="hlt">early</span> virus replication <span class="hlt">events</span> are believed to be key determinants of virus-associated spread, antiviral immune responses, and ultimately disease outcomes. The lack of knowledge of <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of HTLV-1 spread following blood-borne transmission of the virus in vivo hinders a more complete understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1 infections. Herein, we have used an established animal model of HTLV-1 infection to study <span class="hlt">early</span> spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">events</span> of the viral infection. Twelve-week-old rabbits were injected intravenously with cell-associated HTLV-1 (ACH-transformed R49). Blood and tissues were collected at defined intervals throughout the study to test the <span class="hlt">early</span> spread of the infection. Antibody and hematologic responses were monitored throughout the infection. HTLV-1 intracellular Tax and soluble p19 matrix were tested from ex vivo cultured lymphocytes. Proviral copy numbers were measured by real-time PCR from blood and tissue mononuclear leukocytes. Our data indicate that intravenous infection with cell-associated HTLV-1 targets lymphocytes located in both primary lymphoid and gut-associated lymphoid compartments. A transient lymphocytosis that correlated with peak virus detection parameters was observed by 1 week postinfection before returning to baseline levels. Our data support emerging evidence that HTLV-1 promotes lymphocyte proliferation preceding <span class="hlt">early</span> viral spread in lymphoid compartments to establish and maintain persistent infection. PMID:20219918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29170576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29170576"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen</p> <p>2017-07-04</p> <p>A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum , from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian ( Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the <span class="hlt">early</span> Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian ( Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction <span class="hlt">event</span> did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1344679.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325703"><span>The relation of <span class="hlt">early</span> experienced negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span>. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life <span class="hlt">event</span> among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life <span class="hlt">events</span> at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23025838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23025838"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> traumatic life <span class="hlt">events</span>, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life <span class="hlt">events</span> during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life <span class="hlt">events</span>, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic <span class="hlt">event</span>. When looking at single <span class="hlt">events</span>, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> than other psychiatric disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JGR....9517605A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JGR....9517605A"><span>A major 2.1 Ga <span class="hlt">event</span> of mafic magmatism in west Africa: An <span class="hlt">Early</span> stage of crustal accretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abouchami, Wafa; Boher, Muriel; Michard, Annie; Albarede, Francis</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p> environments. Back-arc or low-Ti continental flood basalts provide a marginally good agreement but still face some difficulties. Oceanic flood basalts similar to those which form oceanic plateaus (e.g. in the Nauru basin) and later accreted to continents as allochtonous terranes represent the most acceptable modern analogue of many Proterozoic basalts. It is suggested that deep plumes piercing young lithosphere can generate huge amounts of tholeiites in a short time. Birimian basalts, like many <span class="hlt">Early</span> Proterozoic basalts, may also be viewed as recent equivalents of the Archean greenstone belts. The modern komatiite of Gorgona Island is suggested to fit this model of intraplate volcanism. Although the 2.1 Ga magmatic <span class="hlt">event</span> in West Africa has gone virtually unnoticed in the literature, it extends over several thousand kilometers and compares with the distribution of mantle-derived magmatic activity in other major orogenic provinces (e.g. Superior). It shows that the growth rate of continents cannot be extrapolated from the data obtained solely from the best studied continents (North America, Europe, Australia). If such large crustal segments were overlooked, a spurious pattern of episodic activity of the mantle could arise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20962406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20962406"><span>The spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm as a real-time <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution <span class="hlt">events</span> at alpine karst water resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during <span class="hlt">event</span> situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer <span class="hlt">events</span> (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for <span class="hlt">event</span> triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line <span class="hlt">event</span> characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful <span class="hlt">early</span> warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied <span class="hlt">event</span> situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and <span class="hlt">event</span>-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSAES..82..329M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSAES..82..329M"><span>High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian <span class="hlt">Event</span>. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian Paquier <span class="hlt">event</span>. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt <span class="hlt">Event</span>. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt <span class="hlt">Events</span> (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these <span class="hlt">early</span> Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183856"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">Early</span> Recurrent Thromboembolic <span class="hlt">Event</span> and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Procopio, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict <span class="hlt">early</span> ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P =0.03) and ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P =0.0001) for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P =0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P =0.009) for ischemic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P =0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome <span class="hlt">events</span>. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic <span class="hlt">events</span> but not of major bleedings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24046514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24046514"><span>Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of chronic kidney disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m(2), eGFR < 90 group; n=117) and those with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR ≥ 90 group; n=124). The change in renal function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR < 90 group (β=-0.015, p=0.035). baPWV was independently associated with cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (odds ratio=1.002, p=0.048) in the eGFR < 90 group, but not in the eGFR ≥ 90 group. The receiver operative characteristic curve analysis showed that 1,568 cm/sec was the cut-off value of baPWV for predicting CV <span class="hlt">events</span> in the eGFR < 90 group (area under curve=0.691, p=0.03) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> stages of CKD, baPWV was independently associated with the decline in renal function and short-term cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34958','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/34958"><span>Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization-abandonment <span class="hlt">events</span> by male Kirtland's Warblers in an <span class="hlt">early</span> succession habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Habitat colonization and abandonment affects the distribution of a species in space and time, ultimately influencing the duration of time habitat is used and the total area of habitat occupied in any given year. Both aspects have important implications to long-term conservation planning. The importance of patch isolation and area to colonization-extinction <span class="hlt">events</span> is...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25775553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25775553"><span>Synchronous down-modulation of miR-17 family members is an <span class="hlt">early</span> causative <span class="hlt">event</span> in the retinal angiogenic switch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nunes, Diana N; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Edwards, Julianna K; Dobroff, Andrey S; Giordano, Ricardo J; Mandelin, Jami; Brentani, Helena P; Hasselgren, Catrin; Yao, Virginia J; Marchiò, Serena; Pereira, Carlos A B; Passetti, Fabio; Calin, George A; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata</p> <p>2015-03-24</p> <p>Six members of the microRNA-17 (miR-17) family were mapped to three different chromosomes, although they share the same seed sequence and are predicted to target common genes, among which are those encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) and VEGFA. Here, we evaluated the in vivo expression profile of the miR-17 family in the murine retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) model, whereby Vegfa expression is highly enhanced at the <span class="hlt">early</span> stage of retinal neovascularization, and we found simultaneous reduction of all miR-17 family members at this stage. Using gene reporter assays, we observed binding of these miRs to specific sites in the 3' UTRs of Hif1a and Vegfa. Furthermore, overexpression of these miRs decreased HIF1A and VEGFA expression in vitro. Our data indicate that this miR-17 family <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a regulatory synergistic down-regulation of Hif1a and Vegfa expression in this biological model. We propose the existence of a coordinated regulatory network, in which diverse miRs are synchronously regulated to target the Hif1a transcription factor, which in turn, potentiates and reinforces the regulatory effects of the miRs on Vegfa to trigger and sustain a significant physiological response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035318"><span>Technical Performance Scores are strongly associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> mortality, postoperative adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>, and intensive care unit length of stay-analysis of consecutive discharges for 2 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nathan, Meena; Karamichalis, John; Liu, Hua; Gauvreau, Kimberley; Colan, Steven; Saia, Matthew; Pigula, Frank; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Emani, Sitaram; Baird, Christopher; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Previous work in our institution has indicated that the Technical Performance Score (TPS) is highly associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> outcomes in select subsets of procedures and age groups. We hypothesized that the TPS could predict <span class="hlt">early</span> outcomes in a wide range of diagnoses and age groups. Consecutive patients discharged from January 2011 to March 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The TPS was assigned according to the discharge echocardiographic findings and the need for reinterventions in the anatomic area of interest. Case complexity was determined using Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) categories. <span class="hlt">Early</span> mortality and postoperative adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> were recorded. Relationships between the TPS and outcomes were assessed after adjusting for the baseline patient characteristics. The median age of the 1926 patients was 1.8 years (range, 0 days to 68 years). Bypass was used in 1740 (90%); 322 (17%) were neonates, 520 (27%) infants, 873 (45%) children, 211 (11%) adults. TPS was class 1 (optimal) in 956 (50%), class 2 (adequate) in 584 (30%), and class 3 (inadequate) in 226 (12%); 160 patients (8%) could not be scored. A total of 51 <span class="hlt">early</span> deaths (2.6%) and 111 adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (5.7%) occurred. On univariate analysis, age, RACHS-1 category, and TPS were significantly associated with mortality and the occurrence of adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>. On multivariate modeling, class 3 (inadequate) TPS was strongly associated with mortality (odds ratio, 16.9; 95% confidence interval, 6.7-42.9; P < .001), adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-11.6; P < .001), and postoperative intensive care unit length of stay (coefficient, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.6; P < .001) after adjusting for other covariates. The TPS is strongly associated with <span class="hlt">early</span> outcomes across a wide range of ages and disease complexity and can serve as important tool for self-assessment and quality improvement. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113209"><span>Translational and structural requirements of the <span class="hlt">early</span> nodulin gene enod40, a short-open reading frame-containing RNA, for <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of a cell-specific growth response in the alfalfa root cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sousa, C; Johansson, C; Charon, C; Manyani, H; Sautter, C; Kondorosi, A; Crespi, M</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A diversity of mRNAs containing only short open reading frames (sORF-RNAs; encoding less than 30 amino acids) have been shown to be induced in growth and differentiation processes. The <span class="hlt">early</span> nodulin gene enod40, coding for a 0.7-kb sORF-RNA, is expressed in the nodule primordium developing in the root cortex of leguminous plants after infection by symbiotic bacteria. Ballistic microtargeting of this gene into Medicago roots induced division of cortical cells. Translation of two sORFs (I and II, 13 and 27 amino acids, respectively) present in the conserved 5' and 3' regions of enod40 was required for this biological activity. These sORFs may be translated in roots via a reinitiation mechanism. In vitro translation products starting from the ATG of sORF I were detectable by mutating enod40 to yield peptides larger than 38 amino acids. Deletion of a Medicago truncatula enod40 region between the sORFs, spanning a predicted RNA structure, did not affect their translation but resulted in significantly decreased biological activity. Our data reveal a complex regulation of enod40 action, pointing to a role of sORF-encoded peptides and structured RNA signals in developmental processes involving sORF-RNAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4185L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4185L"><span>Impacts of a water stress followed by an <span class="hlt">early</span> frost <span class="hlt">event</span> on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme <span class="hlt">events</span>, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the <span class="hlt">early</span> 2000s: after an <span class="hlt">early</span> frost <span class="hlt">event</span>, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an <span class="hlt">early</span> frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+personality+AND+development&pg=5&id=EJ1025752','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+personality+AND+development&pg=5&id=EJ1025752"><span>Associations of Mother-Child Reminiscing about Negative Past <span class="hlt">Events</span>, Coping, and Self-Concept in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodvin, Rebecca; Romdall, Lisa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Parent-child reminiscing conversations in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood have received theoretical attention as a forum for children's self-concept development, but this has been little addressed in empirical work. This study examines associations between emotion reminiscing and children's self-concepts and, building from the reminiscing and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12384566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12384566"><span>Genome-wide allelotyping of a new in vitro model system reveals <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in breast cancer progression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zheng; Meng, Zhen Hang; Sayeed, Aejaz; Shalaby, Refaat; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Dairkee, Shanaz H</p> <p>2002-10-15</p> <p>Toward the goal of identifying <span class="hlt">early</span> genetic losses, which mediate the release of human breast epithelium from replicative suppression leading to cellular immortalization, we have used a newly developed in vitro model system. This system consists of epithelial cultures derived from noncancerous breast tissue, treated with the chemical carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and continuously passaged to yield cell populations culminating in the immortal phenotype. Genome-wide allelotyping of <span class="hlt">early</span> passage N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-exposed cell populations revealed aberrations at >10% (18 of 169) loci examined. Allelic losses encompassing chromosomes 6q24-6q27, implicating immortalization-associated candidate genes, hZAC and SEN6, occurred in two independently derived cell lines before the Hayflick limit. Additional LOH sites were present in one cell line at 3p11-3p26, 11p15, and 20p12-13. Allelic losses reported in this cell line preceded detectable levels of telomerase activity and the occurrence of p53-related aberrations. Information gained from the search for <span class="hlt">early</span> immortalization-associated genetic deletions in cultured cells was applied in a novel approach toward the analysis of morphologically normal terminal ductal lobular units microdissected from 20 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ. Notably, clonal allelic losses at chromosome 3p24 and 6q24 were an <span class="hlt">early</span> occurrence in adjoining terminal ductal lobular units of a proportion of primary tumors, which displayed loss of heterozygosity (3 of 11 and 3 of 6, respectively). The biological insights provided by the new model system reported here strongly suggest that <span class="hlt">early</span> allelic losses delineated in immortalized cultures and validated in vivo could serve as surrogate endpoints to assist in the identification and intervention of high-risk benign breast tissue, which sustains the potential for continuous proliferation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12697279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12697279"><span>Evidence of a visual-to-auditory cross-modal sensory gating phenomenon as reflected by the human P50 <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potential modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; de Bode, Stella; Baudonnière, Pierre Marie</p> <p>2003-05-08</p> <p>We investigated the existence of a cross-modal sensory gating reflected by the modulation of an <span class="hlt">early</span> electrophysiological index, the P50 component. We analyzed <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by audiovisual speech stimuli manipulated along two dimensions: congruency and discriminability. The results showed that the P50 was attenuated when visual and auditory speech information were redundant (i.e. congruent), in comparison with this same <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential component <span class="hlt">elicited</span> with discrepant audiovisual dubbing. When hard to discriminate, however, bimodal incongruent speech stimuli <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a similar pattern of P50 attenuation. We concluded to the existence of a visual-to-auditory cross-modal sensory gating phenomenon. These results corroborate previous findings revealing a very <span class="hlt">early</span> audiovisual interaction during speech perception. Finally, we postulated that the sensory gating system included a cross-modal dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=363405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=363405"><span>Decreased expression of the stress protein HSP70 is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in murine erythroleukemic cell differentiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hensold, J O; Housman, D E</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional protein gels were used to systematically assess changes in gene expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells after exposure to inducers of differentiation. A rapid decrease in expression of the stress protein HSP70 was observed after exposure to inducers. The kinetics of this change suggest that it may be related to the cellular <span class="hlt">events</span> that regulate the onset of differentiation. Images PMID:3164440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51B0129U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH51B0129U"><span>Anomalous Ionospheric signatures observed at low-mid latitude Indian station Delhi prior to earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span> during the year 2015 to <span class="hlt">early</span> 2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Upadhayaya, A. K.; Gupta, S.; Kotnala, R. K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Five major earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span> measuring greater than six on Richter scale (M>6) that occurred during the year 2015 to <span class="hlt">early</span> 2016, affecting Indian region ionosphere, are analyzed using F2 layer critical parameters (foF2, hmF2) obtained using Digisonde from a low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E, 19.2°N Geomagnetic latitude, 42.4°N Dip). Normal day-to-day variability occurring in ionosphere is segregated by calculating F2 layer critical frequency and peak height variations (ΔfoF2, ΔhmF2) from the normal quiet time behavior. We find that the ionospheric F2 region across Delhi by and large shows some significant perturbations 3-4 days prior to these earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span>, resulting in a large peak electron density variation of 200%. These observed perturbations indicate towards a possibility of seismo-ionospheric coupling as the solar and geomagnetic indices were normally quiet and stable during the period of these <span class="hlt">events</span>. It was also observed that the precursory effect of earthquake was predominantly seen even outside the earthquake preparation zone, as given by Dobrovolsky et al. [1979]. The thermosphere neutral composition (O/N2) as observed by GUVI [Christensen et al., 2003], across Delhi, during these earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span> does not show any marked variation. Further, the effect of earthquake <span class="hlt">events</span> on ionospheric peak electron density is compared to the lower atmosphere meteorological phenomenon of 2015 Sudden Stratospheric Warming <span class="hlt">event</span> and are found to be comparable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974900','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974900"><span>Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> (Mi‐<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM‐<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high‐resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long‐term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Finally, the Mi‐<span class="hlt">events</span> can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton‐rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section. PMID:27546980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30..332A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30..332A"><span>Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> in <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">events</span> (Mi-<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-<span class="hlt">events</span>) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the <span class="hlt">early</span> to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey <span class="hlt">Event</span>. Finally, the Mi-<span class="hlt">events</span> can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116082','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116082"><span>Rumination as a Mechanism Linking Stressful Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> to Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Longitudinal Evidence in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescents and Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Michl, Louisa C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span>, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life <span class="hlt">events</span> and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life <span class="hlt">events</span> in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. PMID:23713497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270610"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> probabilistic expectations: Collaborations between psychologists and economists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch</p> <p>2017-03-28</p> <p>We describe two collaborations in which psychologists and economists provided essential support on foundational projects in major research programs. One project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> adolescents' expectations regarding significant future life <span class="hlt">events</span> affecting their psychological and economic development. The second project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> consumers' expectations regarding inflation, a potentially vital input to their investment, saving, and purchasing decisions. In each project, we sought questions with the precision needed for economic modeling and the simplicity needed for lay respondents. We identify four conditions that, we believe, promoted our ability to sustain these transdisciplinary collaborations and coproduce the research: ( i ) having a shared research goal, which neither discipline could achieve on its own; ( ii ) finding common ground in shared methodology, which met each discipline's essential evidentiary conditions, but without insisting on its culturally acquired tastes; ( iii ) sharing the effort throughout, with common language and sense of ownership; and ( iv ) gaining mutual benefit from both the research process and its products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5380093"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> probabilistic expectations: Collaborations between psychologists and economists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruine de Bruin, Wändi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We describe two collaborations in which psychologists and economists provided essential support on foundational projects in major research programs. One project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> adolescents’ expectations regarding significant future life <span class="hlt">events</span> affecting their psychological and economic development. The second project involved <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> consumers’ expectations regarding inflation, a potentially vital input to their investment, saving, and purchasing decisions. In each project, we sought questions with the precision needed for economic modeling and the simplicity needed for lay respondents. We identify four conditions that, we believe, promoted our ability to sustain these transdisciplinary collaborations and coproduce the research: (i) having a shared research goal, which neither discipline could achieve on its own; (ii) finding common ground in shared methodology, which met each discipline’s essential evidentiary conditions, but without insisting on its culturally acquired tastes; (iii) sharing the effort throughout, with common language and sense of ownership; and (iv) gaining mutual benefit from both the research process and its products. PMID:28270610</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086330"><span>Pain and tactile dissociation, derealization and depersonalization symptoms in women and recalled traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in childhood, adolescence and <span class="hlt">early</span> adulthood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Sobański, Jerzy A; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Klasa, Katarzyna; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Mielimąka, Michał</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The symptoms of dissociation, depersonalization and derealization are often associated with exposure of patients to mental and physical injuries, usually occurring in childhood. Most of these observations were carried out in populations of patients with various disorders (posttraumatic, conversion-dissociation, personality disorders - especially borderline), who reported their exposure to adverse life circumstances through questionnaire interviews. Assessment of the risk associated with various traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in childhood and adolescence concerning the symptoms of pain and tactile dissociation, depersonalization and derealization. The coexistence of the earlier life circumstances and the currently existing symptoms was examined on the basis of KO "0" Symptom Checklist and Life Inventory, completed prior to treatment in a day hospital for neurotic disorders. In the group of 2582 women, patients of a day hospital for neurotic and personality disorders, the symptoms of pain and tactile dissociation, depersonalization and derealization were present in 24-36 % of patients, while the maximum severity of these symptoms reported approximately 4-8 % of patients. The studied patients reported the exposure during childhood and adolescence (before 18yo) to numerous traumatic <span class="hlt">events</span> of varying severity and frequency, including hostility of one parent (approximately 5% of respondents), the sexual initiation before 13yo (1%), worse than peers material conditions (23%), harassment of the family of origin (2%), reluctance of their peers (9%). Conducted regression analysis showed illustrated by the coefficients OR (odds ratios) a statistically significant relationship between the majority of the analyzed symptoms and many of the listed <span class="hlt">events</span>, such as being regarded as worse than siblings, mother's anger in the situation of the patient's disease in childhood, lack of support, indifference of parent, poverty and worseness of the family of origin, inferior position in the classroom</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011957','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011957"><span>High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary <span class="hlt">events</span> determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure <span class="hlt">events</span> across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T <span class="hlt">event</span>, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic <span class="hlt">events</span> in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001940','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001940"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Solar System Alkali Fractionation <span class="hlt">Events</span> Recorded by K-Ca Isotopes in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tatsunori, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiogenic ingrowth of Ca-40 due to decay of K-40 occurred <span class="hlt">early</span> in the solar system history causing the Ca-40 abundance to vary within different <span class="hlt">early</span>-former reservoirs. Marshall and DePaolo ] demonstrated that the K-40/Ca-40 decay system could be a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [3,4] determined 40K/40Ca ages of lunar granitic rock fragments and discussed the chemical characteristics of their source materials. Recently, Yokoyama et al. [5] showed the application of the K-40/Ca-40 chronometer for high K/Ca materials in ordinary chondrites (OCs). High-precision calcium isotopic data are needed to constrain mixing processes among <span class="hlt">early</span> solar system materials and the time of planetesimal formation. To better constrain the solar system calcium isotopic compositions among astromaterials, we have determined the calcium isotopic compositions of OCs and an angrite. We further estimated a source K/Ca ratio for alkali-rich fragments in a chondritic breccia using the estimated solar system initial Ca-40/Ca-44.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420571"><span>Deciphering <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on <span class="hlt">early</span> responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an <span class="hlt">early</span> influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared <span class="hlt">early</span> responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3969528','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3969528"><span>Deciphering <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Bouteau, François</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on <span class="hlt">early</span> responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·–) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an <span class="hlt">early</span> influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·– generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared <span class="hlt">early</span> responses, such as [Ca2+]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD. PMID:24420571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140465"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on <span class="hlt">early</span> to late <span class="hlt">events</span> in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The <span class="hlt">early</span> neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most <span class="hlt">early</span> transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073956"><span>The effect of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies on the incidence of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in a large inception cohort of <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory arthritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barra, Lillian J; Pope, Janet E; Hitchon, Carol; Boire, Gilles; Schieir, Orit; Lin, Daming; Thorne, Carter J; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Haraoui, Boulos; Jamal, Shahin; Bykerk, Vivian P</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>. RA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (CVEs). The objective was to estimate independent effects of RA autoantibodies on the incident CVEs in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> RA. Patients were enrolled in the Canadian <span class="hlt">Early</span> Inflammatory Arthritis Cohort, a prospective multicentre inception cohort. Incident CVEs, including acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>, were self-reported by the patient and partially validated by medical chart review. Seropositive status was defined as either RF or ACPA positive. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of seropositive status on incident CVEs, controlling for RA clinical variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. . A total of 2626 patients were included: the mean symptom duration at diagnosis was 6.3 months ( s . d . 4.6), the mean age was 53 years ( s . d . 15), 72% were female and 86% met classification criteria for RA. Forty-six incident CVEs occurred over 6483 person-years [incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.3, 9.4)]. The CVE rate did not differ in seropositive vs seronegative subjects and seropositivity was not associated with incident CVEs in multivariable Cox regression models. Baseline covariates independently associated with incident CVEs were older age, a history of hypertension and a longer duration of RA symptoms prior to diagnosis. The rate of CVEs <span class="hlt">early</span> in the course of inflammatory arthritis was low; however, delays in the diagnosis of arthritis increased the rate of CVEs. Hypertension was the strongest independent risk factor for CVEs. Results support <span class="hlt">early</span> aggressive management of RA disease activity and co-morbidities to prevent severe complications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311748"><span>Association of Lp-PLA2-A and <span class="hlt">early</span> recurrence of vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> after TIA and minor stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Jinxi; Zheng, Hongwei; Cucchiara, Brett L; Li, Jiejie; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Xianhong; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Mullen, Michael T; Johnston, S Claiborne; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun</p> <p>2015-11-03</p> <p>To determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) measured in the acute period and the short-term risk of recurrent vascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with TIA or minor stroke. We measured Lp-PLA2 activity (Lp-PLA2-A) in a subset of 3,201 participants enrolled in the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span>) trial. Participants with TIA or minor stroke were enrolled within 24 hours of symptom onset and randomized to single or dual antiplatelet therapy. In the current analysis, the primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. The composite endpoint occurred in 299 of 3,021 participants (9.9%). The population average Lp-PLA2-A level was 209 ± 59 nmol/min/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 207-211). Older age, male sex, and current smoking were associated with higher Lp-PLA2-A levels. Lp-PLA2-A was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Similar results were seen for ischemic stroke alone. Adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol attenuated the association between Lp-PLA2-A and the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11 for every 30 nmol/min/mL increase). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2-A in the acute period are associated with increased short-term risk of recurrent vascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150135"><span>Analysis of different device-based intrathoracic impedance vectors for detection of heart failure <span class="hlt">events</span> (from the Detect Fluid <span class="hlt">Early</span> from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring study).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heist, E Kevin; Herre, John M; Binkley, Philip F; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Porterfield, James G; Porterfield, Linda M; Qu, Fujian; Turkel, Melanie; Pavri, Behzad B</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Detect Fluid <span class="hlt">Early</span> from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring (DEFEAT-PE) is a prospective, multicenter study of multiple intrathoracic impedance vectors to detect pulmonary congestion (PC) <span class="hlt">events</span>. Changes in intrathoracic impedance between the right ventricular (RV) coil and device can (RVcoil→Can) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICDs (CRT-Ds) are used clinically for the detection of PC <span class="hlt">events</span>, but other impedance vectors and algorithms have not been studied prospectively. An initial 75-patient study was used to derive optimal impedance vectors to detect PC <span class="hlt">events</span>, with 2 vector combinations selected for prospective analysis in DEFEAT-PE (ICD vectors: RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 13 days; CRT-D vectors: left ventricular ring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days). Impedance changes were considered true positive if detected <30 days before an adjudicated PC <span class="hlt">event</span>. One hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled (80 with ICDs and 82 with CRT-Ds), all with ≥1 previous PC <span class="hlt">event</span>. One hundred forty-four patients provided study data, with 214 patient-years of follow-up and 139 PC <span class="hlt">events</span>. Sensitivity for PC <span class="hlt">events</span> of the prespecified algorithms was as follows: ICD: sensitivity 32.3%, false-positive rate 1.28 per patient-year; CRT-D: sensitivity 32.4%, false-positive rate 1.66 per patient-year. An alternative algorithm, ultimately approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days), resulted in (for all patients) sensitivity of 21.6% and a false-positive rate of 0.9 per patient-year. The CRT-D thoracic impedance vector algorithm selected in the derivation study was not superior to the ICD algorithm RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can when studied prospectively. In conclusion, to achieve an acceptably low false-positive rate, the intrathoracic impedance algorithms studied in DEFEAT-PE resulted in low sensitivity for the prediction of heart</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460020"><span>Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different <span class="hlt">Events</span> during <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G.; de-la-Rua, Concepcion</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. PMID:26053041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053041"><span>Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different <span class="hlt">Events</span> during <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from <span class="hlt">Early</span> Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between <span class="hlt">Early</span> and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24330622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24330622"><span>Training-related changes in <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processing of functionally illiterate adults: evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boltzmann, Melanie; Rüsseler, Jascha</p> <p>2013-12-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Event</span>-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028813','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028813"><span>Training-related changes in <span class="hlt">early</span> visual processing of functionally illiterate adults: evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills. PMID:24330622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H51J1405W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H51J1405W"><span>How Well the <span class="hlt">Early</span> 2017 California Atmospheric River Precipitation <span class="hlt">Events</span> Were Captured by Satellite Products and Ground-based Radars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wen, Y. B.; Behrangi, A.; Chen, H.; Lambrigtsen, B.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>In January and February of 2017, California experienced multiple heavy storms that caused serious destruction of facilities and economic loss, although it also helped to reduce water storage deficit due to prolonged drought in previous years. These extreme precipitation <span class="hlt">events</span> were mainly associated with Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and brought about 174 km3 of water to California according to ground observations. This paper evaluates the performance of six commonly used satellite-based precipitation products (IMERG, 3B42RT, PERSIANN, CCS, CMORPH, and GSMaP), as well as ground-based radar products (Radar-only and Radar-lgc) in capturing the ARs precipitation rate and distribution. It is found that precipitation maps from all products present heavy precipitation in January and February, with more consistent observations over ocean than land. Though large uncertainties exist in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over land, the ensemble mean of different remote sensing precipitation products over California is consistent with gauge measurements. Among the six satellite-based products, IMERG correlates the best with gauge observations both in the detection and quantification of precipitation, but it is not the best product in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) or bias. Compared to satellite products, ground weather radar shows better precipitation detectability and estimation skill. However, neither radar nor satellite QPE products have good performances in quantifying the peak precipitation intensity during the extreme <span class="hlt">events</span>, suggesting that further advancement in quantification of extremely intense precipitation associated with AR in the Western United States is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPa...8..171F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPa...8..171F"><span>Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">events</span>: late Hauterivian to <span class="hlt">early</span> Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian and the pre-Selli <span class="hlt">early</span> Aptian. Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest <span class="hlt">early</span> Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate production on the northern Tethyan shelf. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124123"><span>Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of <span class="hlt">early</span> cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> after acute coronary syndromes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chow, Clara K; Jolly, Sanjit; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Fox, Keith A A; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim</p> <p>2010-02-16</p> <p>Although preventive drug therapy is a priority after acute coronary syndrome, less is known about adherence to behavioral recommendations. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adherence to behavioral recommendations in the short term on risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. The study population included 18 809 patients from 41 countries enrolled in the Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) 5 randomized clinical trial. At the 30-day follow-up, patients reported adherence to diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality were documented to 6 months. About one third of smokers persisted in smoking. Adherence to neither diet nor exercise recommendations was reported by 28.5%, adherence to either diet or exercise by 41.6%, and adherence to both by 29.9%. In contrast, 96.1% of subjects reported antiplatelet use, 78.9% reported statin use, and 72.4% reported angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use. Quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with persistent smoking (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.89). Diet and exercise adherence was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonadherence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.69). Patients who reported persistent smoking and nonadherence to diet and exercise had a 3.8-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 5.9) increased risk of myocardial infarction/stroke/death compared with never smokers who modified diet and exercise. Adherence to behavioral advice (diet, exercise, and smoking cessation) after acute coronary syndrome was associated with a substantially lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span>. These findings suggest that behavioral modification should be given priority similar to other preventive medications immediately after acute coronary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845235"><span>A porin-like protein from oral secretions of Spodoptera littoralis larvae induces defense-related <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in plant leaves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Huijuan; Wielsch, Natalie; Hafke, Jens B; Svatoš, Aleš; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Insect herbivory on plants is a complex incident consisting of at least two different aspects, namely mechanical damage and chemical challenge, as feeding insects introduce oral secretions (OS) into the wounded tissue of the attacked plant. Mechanical wounding alone is sufficient to induce a set of defense-related reactions in host plants, but some <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> such as membrane potential (Vm) changes and cytosolic Ca²⁺-elevations can be triggered only by herbivores suggesting that OS-derived molecules are involved in those processes. Following an assay-guided purification based on planar lipid bilayer membrane technique in combination with proteomic analysis, a porin-like protein (PLP) of most likely bacterial origin was determined from collected OS of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. PLP exhibited channel-forming activity. Further, <span class="hlt">early</span> defense-related <span class="hlt">events</span> in plant-insect interaction were evaluated by using a purified fraction and α-hemolysin (α-HL) as a commercial pore-forming compound. Both up-regulated the calmodulin-like CML42 in Arabidopsis thaliana, which only responds to oral secretion and not to wounding. An elevation of in vivo [Ca²⁺](cyt) was not observed. Because membrane channel formation is a widespread phenomenon in plant-insect interactions, this PLP might represent an example for microbial compounds from the insect gut which are initially involved in plant-insect interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25850859"><span>Probability <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> Under Severe Time Pressure: A Rank-Based Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaspersen, Johannes G; Montibeller, Gilberto</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Probability <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> protocols are used to assess and incorporate subjective probabilities in risk and decision analysis. While most of these protocols use methods that have focused on the precision of the <span class="hlt">elicited</span> probabilities, the speed of the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process has often been neglected. However, speed is also important, particularly when experts need to examine a large number of <span class="hlt">events</span> on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, most existing <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> methods are numerical in nature, but there are various reasons why an expert would refuse to give such precise ratio-scale estimates, even if highly numerate. This may occur, for instance, when there is lack of sufficient hard evidence, when assessing very uncertain <span class="hlt">events</span> (such as emergent threats), or when dealing with politicized topics (such as terrorism or disease outbreaks). In this article, we adopt an ordinal ranking approach from multicriteria decision analysis to provide a fast and nonnumerical probability <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process. Probabilities are subsequently approximated from the ranking by an algorithm based on the principle of maximum entropy, a rule compatible with the ordinal information provided by the expert. The method can <span class="hlt">elicit</span> probabilities for a wide range of different <span class="hlt">event</span> types, including new ways of <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> probabilities for stochastically independent <span class="hlt">events</span> and low-probability <span class="hlt">events</span>. We use a Monte Carlo simulation to test the accuracy of the approximated probabilities and try the method in practice, applying it to a real-world risk analysis recently conducted for DEFRA (the U.K. Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs): the prioritization of animal health threats. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8463L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8463L"><span>The record of Tethyan planktonic foraminifera at the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene hyperthermal <span class="hlt">events</span> and Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum in northeastern Italy: are they comparable?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luciani, Valeria; Giusberti, Luca; Agnini, Claudia; Fornaciari, Eliana; Rio, Domenico</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleogene is one of the more climatically and evolutionary dynamic periods in the Earth history that records a pronounced warming trend peaking in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene, and a successive composite transition towards the modern icehouse world. Ever increasingly scientific attention is dedicated to definitely comprehend timing, nature and characters of the complex, non-linear evolution of the Paleogene climate. Several complete and expanded Paleogene successions (Forada, Possagno, Alano, Farra), with a sound magneto-biochronostratigraphic and stable isotope record crop out in the Venetian Southern Alps (Northeast Italy). Recent studies (Giusberti et. al., 2007; Luciani et al., 2007; Agnini et al., 2008) and unpublished data document the presence in these section of the main short-lived warming <span class="hlt">events</span> (hyperthermals) of the Eocene (Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, PETM, ca 55 Ma, Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin (ELMO, ca 53,6 Ma), X-<span class="hlt">event</span> (ca 52.5 Ma), of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, ca 50-52 Ma) and of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO, ca 40 Ma; Zachos et al., 2001. 2008). All these <span class="hlt">events</span> are typified by marked negative shifts in δ13C curves that correspond to carbonate decrease related to rise of the carbonate compensation depth in turn induced by large introduction in the ocean-atmosphere system of CO2. Common features to the warming <span class="hlt">events</span> are pronounced and complex changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, indicating strong environmental perturbations that perfectly parallel the variations of the stable isotope curves in all the examined <span class="hlt">events</span>. These strict correspondences indicate close cause-effect relationships between changes in environmental conditions and modifications of the assemblages. Our analysis shows that the most striking variations are recorded by the PETM and MECO assemblages that reflect highly perturbed environments. The ELMO, X-<span class="hlt">event</span> and EECO exhibit planktic foraminiferal responses that are similar to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7172H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7172H"><span>Bio- and chemostratigraphy of the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a within the mid-latitudes of northwest Europe (Germany, Lower Saxony Basin)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heldt, Matthias; Mutterlose, Joerg; Berner, Uli; Erbacher, Jochen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Mid-Cretaceous period was characterised by a series of prominent anoxic <span class="hlt">events</span>, one of these was the late <span class="hlt">Early</span> Aptian Oceanic Anoxic <span class="hlt">Event</span> 1a (OAE 1a). The Fischschiefer horizon is the regional sedimentary expression of this <span class="hlt">event</span> in a small epicontinental sea in northwest Europe (Germany, Lower Saxony Basin). In the present study, two sediment cores of Lower to Upper Aptian age (Hoheneggelsen KB 9 and 40) from the Brunswick area, north Germany, have been investigated in detail with respect to their lithostratigraphy, geochemistry (CaCO3, TOC), biostratigraphy (coccoliths, nannoliths) and high-resolution chemostratigraphy (^13Ccarb and ^13Corg). Together with separately published new planktonic foraminifer data of the cores it was possible to establish a detailed time frame and to recognise the OAE 1a. The ^13C data enabled us to subdivide the deposits into isotope segments (C2-C7), which are commonly used as stratigraphic markers in coeval sediments around the world. The carbon isotope curves are compared to recently published Aptian curves from other parts of the Lower Saxony Basin, all of which record the prominent carbon isotope anomaly of the OAE 1a. A high-resolution correlation of the typical isotope trends of OAE 1a (segments C3-6) across the Lower Saxony Basin appears difficult due to an <span class="hlt">early</span> diagenetic overprint of the primary isotope signal. These alterations can be explained by the temporary establishment of euxinic conditions the Lower Saxony Basin during OAE 1a as consequence of an interplay of different factors, such as global warming, restricted palaeogeography, increased fluvial input and intensified stable water stratification, which is supported by several lines of regional evidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134829"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Healing <span class="hlt">Events</span> after Periodontal Surgery: Observations on Soft Tissue Healing, Microcirculation, and Wound Fluid Cytokine Levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton</p> <p>2017-01-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Early</span> wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the <span class="hlt">early</span> inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184612"><span>The Incidence and Predictors of <span class="hlt">Early</span>- and Mid-Term Clinically Relevant Neurological <span class="hlt">Events</span> After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Real-World Patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bosmans, Johan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Gerckens, Ulrich; Wenaweser, Peter; Brecker, Stephen; Tamburino, Corrado; Linke, Axel</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) enables treatment of high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis without open-heart surgery; however, the benefits are mitigated by the potential for neurological <span class="hlt">events</span>. This study sought to determine the timing and causes of clinically relevant neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> after self-expandable TAVR. We enrolled 1,015 patients, of whom 996 underwent TAVR with a self-expandable system at 44 TAVR-experienced centers in Europe, Colombia, and Israel. Neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> were evaluated for 3 distinct time periods: periprocedural (0 to 1 days post TAVR); <span class="hlt">early</span> (2 to 30 days); and late (31 to 730 days). In this real-world study, neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> were first referred to the site neurologist and then reviewed by an independent neurologist. The overall stroke rate was 1.4% through the first day post-procedure, 3.0% at 30 days, and 5.6% at 2 years. There were no significant predictors of periprocedural stroke or stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) combined. Significant predictors of <span class="hlt">early</span> stroke were acute kidney injury (p = 0.03), major vascular complication (p = 0.04), and female sex (p = 0.04). For stroke/TIA combined, prior atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03) and major vascular complication (p = 0.009) were predictive. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery was the only significant predictor of late stroke (p = 0.007) or late stroke/TIA (p = 0.06). Treatment of high-risk patients with aortic stenosis using a self-expandable system was associated with a low stroke rate at short- and long-term follow-up. Multivariable predictors of clinically relevant neurological <span class="hlt">events</span> differed on the basis of the timing after TAVR. (CoreValve Advance International Post Market Study; NCT01074658). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164422"><span>Wedelolactone mitigates UVB induced oxidative stress, inflammation and <span class="hlt">early</span> tumor promotion <span class="hlt">events</span> in murine skin: plausible role of NFkB pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Farrah; Khan, Bilal Azhar; Sultana, Sarwat</p> <p>2016-09-05</p> <p>UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting <span class="hlt">events</span>. We have designed this study to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promotion effect of Wedelolactone (WDL) a specific IKK inhibitor. Results indicate significant restoration of anti-oxidative enzymes due to WDL treatments. We also found that WDL was effective in mitigating inflammatory markers consisting of MPO (myeloperoxidase), Mast cells trafficking, Langerhans cells suppression and COX 2 expression up regulation due to UVB exposure. We also deduce that WDL presented a promising intervention in attenuating <span class="hlt">early</span> tumor promotion <span class="hlt">events</span> caused by UVB exposure as indicated by the results of ODC (Ornithine Decarboxylase), Thymidine assay, Vimentin and VEGF (Vascular-endothelial growth factor) expression. This study was able to provide substantial cues for the therapeutic ability of Wedelolactone against inflammatory and tumor promoting <span class="hlt">events</span> in murine skin depicting plausible role of NFkB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224279"><span>Cognitive constraints on constituent order: Evidence from <span class="hlt">elicited</span> pantomime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall, Matthew L.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To what extent does human cognition influence the structure of human language? Recent experiments using <span class="hlt">elicited</span> pantomime suggest that the prevalence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order across the world's languages may arise in part because SOV order is most compatible with how we conceptually represent transitive <span class="hlt">events</span> (Goldin-Meadow, So, Özyürek, & Mylander, 2008). However, this raises the question as to why non-SOV orders exist. Two recent studies (Meir, Lifshitz, Ilkbasaran, & Padden, 2010; Gibson et al., 2013) suggest that SOV might be suboptimal for describing <span class="hlt">events</span> in which both the agent and patient are plausible agents (e.g. a woman pushing a boy); we call these “reversible” <span class="hlt">events</span>. We replicate these findings using <span class="hlt">elicited</span> pantomime and offer a new interpretation. Meir et al.'s (2010) account is framed largely in terms of constraints on comprehension, while Gibson et al.'s (2013) account involves minimizing the risk of information loss or memory degradation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that is grounded in constraints on production. We consider the implications of these findings for the distribution of constituent order in the world's spoken languages and for the structure of emerging sign languages. PMID:23792806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619637W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619637W"><span>Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded <span class="hlt">Early</span> Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic <span class="hlt">Events</span> under Chilling Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic <span class="hlt">events</span> of direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded <span class="hlt">early</span> rice in double rice cropping system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=emotional+AND+reasoning&pg=6&id=EJ914728','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=emotional+AND+reasoning&pg=6&id=EJ914728"><span>Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life <span class="hlt">Events</span> and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life <span class="hlt">events</span>) on emotional and behavioural problems in <span class="hlt">early</span> adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life <span class="hlt">events</span> on emotional and behavioural…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22435086-mutations-altering-gammaretrovirus-endoproteolytic-motif-affect-glycosylation-envelope-glycoprotein-early-events-virus-life-cycle','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22435086-mutations-altering-gammaretrovirus-endoproteolytic-motif-affect-glycosylation-envelope-glycoprotein-early-events-virus-life-cycle"><span>Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of the virus life cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov</p> <p></p> <p>Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectorsmore » with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding <span class="hlt">events</span> of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745977"><span>Reduced <span class="hlt">event</span>-related low frequency EEG activity in patients with <span class="hlt">early</span> onset schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simmonite, Molly; Bates, Alan Thomas; Groom, Madeleine; Hollis, Chris; Liddle, Peter Francis</p> <p>2015-04-30</p> <p>Low-frequency oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been found to be abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear, however, whether these abnormalities are related to severity of illness or are a marker for risk. This study investigated total and evoked theta and delta activity in schizophrenia patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls (HCs). EEG data were recorded whilst 24 individuals with schizophrenia, 26 unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia and 26 healthy control participants completed a Go/No-Go task. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related total activity and evoked theta and delta activity were calculated for correct hits (CH), failed inhibitions (FI) and correct inhibitions (CI) trials. Patients displayed significantly less total delta, evoked delta, total theta and evoked theta activity when compared with healthy controls. Unaffected siblings displayed abnormalities of evoked delta, but other measures were similar to those in control participants. The findings of this study add to evidence that abnormal low-frequency EEG oscillations contribute to impairments in information processing seen in schizophrenia. These findings also suggest abnormal evoked delta oscillations are associated with an increased familial risk of developing the disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534519"><span>Association of <span class="hlt">early</span> systolic blood pressure response to exercise with future cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Min Soo; Jang, Sun-Joo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Chong-Hun</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The relationship between blood pressure (BP) response during exercise and future cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> remains unclear. We assessed the association between an increase in <span class="hlt">early</span> systolic BP (SBP) during exercise tests and future cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with sustained hypertension (sHT). Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 300 patients newly diagnosed with mild-to-moderate sHT without complications from the Asan Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring registry. All the patients successfully performed treadmill tests, achieving target heart rate according to the Naughton/Balke protocol. The patients were divided into quartiles according to their SBP at 8 min (7.4 metabolic equivalent tasks). The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death, new-onset ischemic heart disease and stroke. The 5-year survival rates did not differ significantly among quartiles 1-4 (100% vs. 96.6% vs. 94.4% vs. 98.3%, P=0.211). Relative to quartile 1, the 5-year <span class="hlt">event</span>-free survival rates were significantly lower in patients in quartiles 3 (86.9% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023) and 4 (88.2% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023). After multivariable adjustment for covariates, the risk for the composite end point was higher for patients in quartiles 3 (Hazard ratio (HR) 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-17.13, P=0.020) and 4 (HR 3.65, 95% CI 0.92-14.50, P=0.065) than in quartiles 1 and 2. Cardiovascular risk was significantly higher in patients with stage 4 SBP (>180 mm Hg) even after adjustment (HR 4.00, 95% CI 1.19-13.44, P=0.025). Increased submaximal SBP response to exercise may be a predictor of future cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> in patients with mild-to-moderate sHT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844517"><span>Interviewing strategically to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> admissions from guilty suspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. <span class="hlt">Early</span> and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.481..162I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26PSL.481..162I"><span>Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian oceanic anoxic <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28117381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28117381"><span>Impairment of blood-brain barrier is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in R6/2 mouse model of Huntington Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Pardo, Alba; Amico, Enrico; Scalabrì, Francesco; Pepe, Giuseppe; Castaldo, Salvatore; Elifani, Francesca; Capocci, Luca; De Sanctis, Claudia; Comerci, Laura; Pompeo, Francesco; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Filosa, Stefania; Crispi, Stefania; Maglione, Vittorio</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, due to the concomitant disruption of the tight junctions (TJs), normally required for the maintenance of BBB function, and to the altered transport of molecules between blood and brain and vice-versa, has been suggested to significantly contribute to the development and progression of different brain disorders including Huntington's disease (HD). Although the detrimental consequence the BBB breakdown may have in the clinical settings, the timing of its alteration remains elusive for many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that BBB disruption in HD is not confined to established symptoms, but occurs <span class="hlt">early</span> in the disease progression. Despite the obvious signs of impaired BBB permeability were only detectable in concomitance with the onset of the disease, signs of deranged TJs integrity occur precociously in the disease and precede the onset of overt symptoms. To our perspective this finding may add a new dimension to the horizons of pathological mechanisms underlying this devastating disease, however much remains to be elucidated for understanding how specific BBB drug targets can be approached in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556101"><span><span class="hlt">Event</span>-related potential study to aversive auditory stimuli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czigler, István; Cox, Trevor J; Gyimesi, Kinga; Horváth, János</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>In an auditory oddball task emotionally negative (aversive) sounds (e.g. rubbing together of polystyrene) and everyday sounds (e.g. ringing of a bicycle bell) were presented as task-irrelevant (novel) sounds. Both the aversive and the everyday sounds <span class="hlt">elicited</span> the orientation-related P3a component of the <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potentials (ERPs). In the 154-250 ms range the ERPs for the aversive sounds were more negative than the ERP of the everyday sounds. For the aversive sounds, this negativity was followed by a frontal positive wave (372-456 ms). The aversive sounds <span class="hlt">elicited</span> larger late positive shift than the everyday sounds. The <span class="hlt">early</span> negativity is considered as an initial effect in a broad neural network including limbic structures, while the later is related to the cognitive assessment of the stimuli and to memory-related processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28603844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28603844"><span>Seaweed morphology and ecology during the great animal diversification <span class="hlt">events</span> of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Paleozoic: A tale of two floras.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LoDuca, S T; Bykova, N; Wu, M; Xiao, S; Zhao, Y</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Non-calcified marine macroalgae ("seaweeds") play a variety of key roles in the modern Earth system, and it is likely that they were also important players in the geological past, particularly during critical transitions such as the Cambrian Explosion (CE) and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification <span class="hlt">Event</span> (GOBE). To investigate the morphology and ecology of seaweeds spanning the time frame from the CE through the GOBE, a carefully vetted database was constructed that includes taxonomic and morphometric information for non-calcified macroalgae from 69 fossil deposits. Analysis of the database shows a pattern of seaweed history that can be explained in terms of two floras: the Cambrian Flora and the Ordovician Flora. The Cambrian Flora was dominated by rather simple morphogroups, whereas the Ordovician Flora, which replaced the Cambrian Flora in the Ordovician and extended through the Silurian, mainly comprised comparatively complex morphogroups. In addition to morphogroup representation, the two floras show marked differences in taxonomic composition, morphospace occupation, functional-form group representation, and life habit, thereby pointing to significant morphological and ecological changes for seaweeds roughly concomitant with the GOBE and the transition from the Cambrian to Paleozoic Evolutionary Faunas. Macroalgal changes of a similar nature and magnitude, however, are not evident in concert with the CE, as the Cambrian Flora consists largely of forms established during the Ediacaran. The cause of such a lag in macroalgal morphological diversification remains unclear, but an intriguing possibility is that it signals a previously unknown difference between the CE and GOBE with regard to the introduction of novel grazing pressures. The consequences of the establishment of the Ordovician Flora for shallow marine ecosystems and Earth system dynamics remain to be explored in detail but could have been multifaceted and potentially include impacts on the global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10699416','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10699416"><span>Face-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> ERPs and affective attitude: brain electric microstate and tomography analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Pascual-Marqui, R D</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that normative affective traits modulate the processing of facial and emotionally charged stimuli, direct electrophysiological evidence for this modulation is still lacking. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related potential (ERP) data associated with personal, traitlike approach- or withdrawal-related attitude (assessed post-recording and 14 months later) were investigated in 18 subjects during task-free (i.e. unrequested, spontaneous) emotional evaluation of faces. Temporal and spatial aspects of 27 channel ERP were analyzed with microstate analysis and low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), a new method to compute 3 dimensional cortical current density implemented in the Talairach brain atlas. Microstate analysis showed group differences 132-196 and 196-272 ms poststimulus, with right-shifted electric gravity centers for subjects with negative affective attitude. During these (over subjects reliably identifiable) personality-modulated, face-<span class="hlt">elicited</span> microstates, LORETA revealed activation of bilateral occipito-temporal regions, reportedly associated with facial configuration extraction processes. Negative compared to positive affective attitude showed higher activity right temporal; positive compared to negative attitude showed higher activity left temporo-parieto-occipital. These temporal and spatial aspects suggest that the subject groups differed in brain activity at <span class="hlt">early</span>, automatic, stimulus-related face processing steps when structural face encoding (configuration extraction) occurs. In sum, the brain functional microstates associated with affect-related personality features modulate brain mechanisms during face processing already at <span class="hlt">early</span> information processing stages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324755"><span>Defective mitochondrial dynamics is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in skeletal muscle of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Guo; Yi, Jianxun; Ma, Changling; Xiao, Yajuan; Yi, Frank; Yu, Tian; Zhou, Jingsong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fusion and fission to maintain their normal functionality. Impairment of mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neuromuscular degenerative disorder characterized by motor neuron death and muscle atrophy. ALS onset and progression clearly involve motor neuron degeneration but accumulating evidence suggests primary muscle pathology may also be involved. Here, we examined mitochondrial dynamics in live skeletal muscle of an ALS mouse model (G93A) harboring a superoxide dismutase mutation (SOD1(G93A)). Using confocal microscopy combined with overexpression of mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, we discovered abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in skeletal muscle of young G93A mice before disease onset. We further demonstrated that similar abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics were induced by overexpression of mutant SOD1(G93A) in skeletal muscle of normal mice, indicating the SOD1 mutation drives ALS-like muscle pathology in the absence of motor neuron degeneration. Mutant SOD1(G93A) forms aggregates inside muscle mitochondria and leads to fragmentation of the mitochondrial network as well as mitochondrial depolarization. Partial depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in normal muscle by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) caused abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics similar to that in the SOD1(G93A) model muscle. A specific mitochondrial fission inhibitor (Mdivi-1) reversed the SOD1(G93A) action on mitochondrial dynamics, indicating SOD1(G93A) likely promotes mitochondrial fission process. Our results suggest that accumulation of mutant SOD1(G93A) inside mitochondria, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics are causally linked and cause intrinsic muscle pathology, which occurs <span class="hlt">early</span> in the course of ALS and may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16299383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16299383"><span>Neurotensin receptor 1 gene activation by the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in human colonic adenomas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souazé, Frédérique; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Roullet, Nicolas; Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Gompel, Anne; Bruyneel, Erik; Comperat, Eva; Faux, Maree C; Mareel, Marc; Rostène, William; Fléjou, Jean-François; Gespach, Christian; Forgez, Patricia</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Alterations in the Wnt/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) signalling pathway, resulting in beta-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcriptional gene activation, are frequently detected in familial and sporadic colon cancers. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Its proliferative and survival effects are mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor. NT1 receptor is not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells, but is over expressed in a number of cancer cells and tissues suggesting a link to the outgrowth of human colon cancer. Our results demonstrate that the upregulation of NT1 receptor occurring in colon cancer is the result of Wnt/APC signalling pathway activation. We first established the functionality of the Tcf response element within the NT1 receptor promoter. Consequently, we observed the activation of NT1 receptor gene by agents causing beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, as well as a strong decline of endogenous receptor when wt-APC was restored. At the cellular level, the re-establishment of wt-APC phenotype resulted in the impaired functionality of NT1 receptor, like the breakdown in NT-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and the loss of NT pro-invasive effect. We corroborated the Wnt/APC signalling pathway on the NT1 receptor promoter activation with human colon carcinogenesis, and showed that NT1 receptor gene activation was perfectly correlated with nuclear or cytoplasmic beta-catenin localization while NT1 receptor was absent when beta-catenin was localized at the cell-cell junction in <span class="hlt">early</span> adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and loss of heterozygosity tumours. In this report we establish a novel link in vitro between the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway and NT1 receptor promoter activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462798','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462798"><span>Root Secreted Metabolites and Proteins Are Involved in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Plant-Plant Recognition Prior to Competition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Badri, Dayakar V.; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Lei, Zhentian; Manter, Daniel K.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Guimarães, Rejane L.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The mechanism whereby organisms interact and differentiate between others has been at the forefront of scientific inquiry, particularly in humans and certain animals. It is widely accepted that plants also interact, but the degree of this interaction has been constricted to competition for space, nutrients, water and light. Here, we analyzed the root secreted metabolites and proteins involved in <span class="hlt">early</span> plant neighbor recognition by using Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 ecotype (Col) as our focal plant co-cultured in vitro with different neighbors [A. thaliana Ler ecotype (Ler) or Capsella rubella (Cap)]. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed that both root secreted secondary metabolites and proteins clustered separately between the plants grown individually (Col-0, Ler and Cap grown alone) and the plants co-cultured with two homozygous individuals (Col-Col, Ler-Ler and Cap-Cap) or with different individuals (Col-Ler and Col-Cap). In particularly, we observed that a greater number of defense- and stress- related proteins were secreted when our control plant, Col, was grown alone as compared to when it was co-cultured with another homozygous individual (Col-Col) or with a different individual (Col-Ler and Col-Cap). However, the total amount of defense proteins in the exudates of the co-cultures was higher than in the plant alone. The opposite pattern of expression was identified for stress-related proteins. These data suggest that plants can sense and respond to the presence of different plant neighbors and that the level of relatedness is perceived upon initial interaction. Furthermore, the role of secondary metabolites and defense- and stress-related proteins widely involved in plant-microbe associations and abiotic responses warrants reassessment for plant-plant interactions. PMID:23056382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286354"><span>Real-time QCM-D monitoring of cancer cell death <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in a dynamic context.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nowacki, Laetitia; Follet, Julie; Vayssade, Muriel; Vigneron, Pascale; Rotellini, Laura; Cambay, Florian; Egles, Christophe; Rossi, Claire</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Since a few years, the acoustic sensing of whole cell is the focus of increasing interest for monitoring the cytoskeletal cellular response to morphological modulators. We aimed at illustrating the potentialities of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique for the real-time detection of the earliest morphological changes that occur at the cell-substrate interface during programmed cell death. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) grown on serum protein-coated gold sensors were placed in dynamic conditions under a continuous medium flow. The mass and viscoelasticity changes of the cells were tracked by monitoring the frequency and dissipation shifts during the first 4h of cell exposure to staurosporine, a well-known apoptosis inducer. We have identified a QCM-D signature characteristic of morphological modifications and cell detachment from the sensing surface that are related to the pro-apoptotic treatment. In particular, for low staurosporine doses below 1 µM, we showed that recording the dissipation shift allows to detect an <span class="hlt">early</span> cell response which is undetectable after the same duration by the classical analytical techniques in cell biology. Furthermore, this sensing method allows quantifying the efficiency of the drug effect in less than 4h without requiring labeling and without interfering in the system, thus preventing any loss of information. In the actual context of targeted cancer therapy development, we believe that these results bring new insights in favor of the use of the non invasive QCM-D technique for quickly probing the cancer cell sensitivity to death inducer drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10556055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10556055"><span>Identification of tissues and patterning <span class="hlt">events</span> required for distinct steps in <span class="hlt">early</span> migration of zebrafish primordial germ cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weidinger, G; Wolke, U; Köprunner, M; Klinger, M; Raz, E</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p> zebrafish at the <span class="hlt">early</span> stages tested, the vasa-expressing cells are committed to the germ cell lineage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27446149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27446149"><span>Exogenous γ-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Application Improved <span class="hlt">Early</span> Growth, Net Photosynthesis, and Associated Physio-Biochemical <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Maize.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wu; Liu, Jianhua; Ashraf, Umair; Li, Gaoke; Li, Yuliang; Lu, Wenjia; Gao, Lei; Han, Fuguang; Hu, Jianguang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous signaling molecule and involved in growth regulations and plant development, however, a little information is available on the consequences of exogenous GABA application on growth, development, and associated physio-biochemical processes in maize. The present study examined the GABA-induced regulations in <span class="hlt">early</span> growth, net photosynthetic rate, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and enzymatic activities in three maize cultivars, i.e., Yuecainuo 6, Zhengtian 68, and Yuecainuo 2. Two levels of GABA, i.e., 0 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1), in solution form, with total application volume of 100 ml per pot containing 15 maize seedlings were exogenously applied. Results revealed that exogenous GABA application improved seedling growth in terms of seedling length and biomass accumulation in all maize cultivars at both 3 and 7 days after treatment (DAT). It also promoted net photosynthesis and variably affected gas exchange attributes, i.e., stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr), as well as leaves SPAD value. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation [in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA)] under GABA treated maize seedlings were also remained variable; however, osmolyte accumulation (protein and proline) and activities of anti-oxidants enzymes, i.e., super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase were also affected differently at both 3 and 7 DAT in all maize cultivars. Furthermore, enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, e.g., nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase were improved. These results suggest the involvement of GABA in various physio-metablical mechanisms which might lead to improvement in morphological growth of maize. In future, research is still needed at molecular and genetic levels to unravel the involvement of GABA-mediated regulations in growth and its associated physio-biochemical mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999278"><span><span class="hlt">Events</span> occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for <span class="hlt">early</span> lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of <span class="hlt">early</span> lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These <span class="hlt">events</span> included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315127"><span>Video <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We describe the concept and method of video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific <span class="hlt">events</span> or moments during interactions. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412003"><span>Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We describe the concept and method of video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific <span class="hlt">events</span> or moments during interactions. Video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176174"><span>Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> among <span class="hlt">early</span>-stage breast cancer survivors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  <80 years, without pre-existing CVD, diagnosed from 1997 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente. Women reported weight at diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  <10-lbs or ±≥10-lbs). Mean (SD) age was 57 (11) years, and BMI was 28 (6) kg-m 2 . Post diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m 2 (vs. BMI < 25-kg/m 2 ) was not associated with CVD, while BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 increased risk by 33% (HR: 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.65), independent of lifestyle and tumor/treatment factors. The increased risk at BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 attenuated with adjustment for pre-existing CVD risk factors to HR: 1.20; 95%CI 0.97-1.50. By contrast, even moderate elevations in WC increased risk of CVD, independent of pre-existing risk factors (HR: 1.93; 95%CI 1.31-2.84 comparing ≥100-cm vs. ≤80-cm). Post-diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the <span class="hlt">early</span> post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917101B"><span>Good practices for the operational safety management in the <span class="hlt">early</span> recovery phase of a seismic <span class="hlt">event</span> using GPR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the <span class="hlt">early</span> recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021398','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021398"><span>Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-<span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary ore-forming <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming <span class="hlt">events</span> in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to <span class="hlt">early</span> Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4842320','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4842320"><span>Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Function predict Major Adverse Cardiac <span class="hlt">Events</span> and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Magdy, Abdel Hamid; Bakhoum, Sameh; Sharaf, Yasser; Sabry, Dina; El-Gengehe, Ahmed T; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are mobilized from the bone marrow and increase in the <span class="hlt">early</span> phase after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of CECs and indices of endothelial dysfunction in patients with STEMI. In 78 patients with acute STEMI, characterization of CD34+/VEGFR2+ CECs, and indices of endothelial damage/dysfunction such as brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were determined. Blood samples for CECs assessment and quantification were obtained within 24 hours of admission and FMD was assessed during the index hospitalization. At 30 days follow up, the primary composite end point of major cardiac adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (MACE) consisting of all-cause mortality, recurrent non-fatal MI, or heart failure and the secondary endpoint of <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling were analyzed. The 17 patients (22%) who developed MACE had significantly higher CEC level (P = 0.004), vWF level (P =0.028), and significantly lower FMD (P = 0.006) compared to the remaining patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that CECs level and LV ejection fraction were independent predictors of MACE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CEC level, FMD, and the logistic model with both markers were 0.73, 0.75, and 0.82 respectively for prediction of the MACE. The 16 patients who developed the secondary endpoint had significantly higher CEC level compared to remaining patients (p =0.038). In conclusion, increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial dysfunction predicted the occurrence of major adverse cardiac <span class="hlt">events</span> and adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with STEMI. PMID:26864952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21B1318I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21B1318I"><span>Remote Correlation of Paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">Events</span> in the Northern Parts of Bering and Barents Seas during the Termination I and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, E. V.; Ovsepyan, E.; Murdmaa, I.; de Vernal, A.; Risebrobakken, B.; Seitkalieva, E.; Radionova, E.; Alekhina, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Barents and Bering seas are closely linked to the High Arctic and to the THC by marine gateways as well as by land-sea and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Our multi-proxy time series demonstrate that these remote seas exhibited dramatic changes during the deglaciation through a succession of global and regional paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">events</span> including the beginning of Termination I (BT1), Heinrich-1 or Oldest Dryas (OD), Bølling-Allerød (B/A), Younger Dryas (YD) and <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene (EH). In the NW Barents Sea, the increased subsurface-to-bottom Atlantic water inflow via the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen trough (cores S 2519 and S 2528) is inferred at the late OD, late B/A and late YD/EH transition. These <span class="hlt">events</span> are generally coupled with the strengthened AMOC. A remarkable sea surface warming and sea ice retreat are documented at ~ 13 ka BP. Surface warming and strong Atlantic water inflow were followed by intense iceberg calving in the Erik Eriksen Trough as indicated by the high IRD content of Core S-2519. The rock fragments are unsorted and mainly angular suggesting their ice-rafted (likely iceberg-rafted) origin. Svalbard glaciers apparently derived the material dominated by black schistous mudstones, hard limestones with coral remains, fine-grained sandstones from nearby islands, and icebergs spread it in the Kvitøya-Erik Eriksen Trough during the <span class="hlt">early</span> deglaciation. The ice rafted coarse terrigenous material supply during the BT1 is also suggested for the NW Bering Sea. In the NW Pacific, NW Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, surface bioproductivity peaked at B/A and EH mainly due to the global warming, enhanced nutrient supply by surface currents from the flooded northeastern shelf, intensified vertical mixing and water exchange through the opened straits. Oxygen-depleted bottom water at intermediate depths characterized several locations including the NW Bering Sea (Core SO201-2-85KL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1158901','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1158901"><span>Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line <span class="hlt">Event</span> Replay and <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning of Grid Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosso, A.</p> <p></p> <p>Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awarenessmore » of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of <span class="hlt">events</span> during a large system disturbance for the post-<span class="hlt">event</span> analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major <span class="hlt">event</span> (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time <span class="hlt">event</span> replay (in seconds) after a major <span class="hlt">event</span> occurs. • <span class="hlt">Early</span> warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAESc.146..296A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAESc.146..296A"><span>Lignite deposits of the Kutch Basin, western India: Carbon isotopic and palynological signatures of the <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span> ETM2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agrawal, Shailesh; Verma, Poonam; Rao, M. R.; Garg, Rahul; Kapur, Vivesh V.; Bajpai, Sunil</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This study presents new results of combined palynological and stable carbon isotope (δ13C) investigations carried out in the well known lignite sequence at Panandhro, District Kutch, in the Gujarat state of western India. Dinoflagellate cysts and associated spore-pollen assemblage assign an <span class="hlt">early</span> Eocene (Ypresian) age to the lignitic succession at Panandhro. Furthermore, a pronounced negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) of about 2.7‰, correlated to the Second Eocene Thermal Maximum (53.7 Ma), a globally recognized hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span>, was discovered in the middle part of the succession, consistent with the palynological constraints. This is the first record of an Eocene hyperthermal <span class="hlt">event</span> (ETM2) from the Kutch Basin. Our data has regional implications for the age of the lignitic sequences across western India as it demonstrates that there is no significant age difference between the lignite deposits of the Kutch and Cambay basins. Our results also support a Lutetian age for the previously described vertebrate fossils, including whales, from the Panandhro mine section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QuRes..71..121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QuRes..71..121G"><span>Patterns of human occupation during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene in the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain) in response to the 8.2 ka climatic <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González-Sampériz, P.; Utrilla, P.; Mazo, C.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Sopena, MC.; Morellón, M.; Sebastián, M.; Moreno, A.; Martínez-Bea, M.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The Central Ebro River Basin (NE Spain) is the most northern area of truly semi-arid Mediterranean climate in Europe and prehistoric human occupation there has been strongly influenced by this extreme environmental condition. Modern climate conditions single out this region due to the harsh environment, characterised by the highest absolute summer temperatures of the Ebro River Basin. The Bajo Aragón region (SE Ebro River Basin) was intensively populated during the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene (9400-8200 cal yr BP) but the settlements were abandoned abruptly at around 8200 cal yr BP. We propose that this "archaeological silence" was caused by the regional impact of the global abrupt 8.2 ka cold <span class="hlt">event</span>. Available regional paleoclimate archives demonstrate the existence of an aridity crisis then that interrupted the humid <span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene. That environmental crisis would have forced hunter-gatherer groups from the Bajo Aragón to migrate to regions with more favourable conditions (i.e. more humid mountainous areas) and only return in the Neolithic. Coherently, archaeological sites persist during this crisis in the nearby Iberian Range (Maestrazgo) and the North Ebro River area (Pre-Pyrenean mountains and along the northwestern Ebro Basin).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835335"><span>Effects of twenty-minute 3G mobile phone irradiation on <span class="hlt">event</span> related potential components and <span class="hlt">early</span> gamma synchronization in auditory oddball paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stefanics, G; Thuróczy, G; Kellényi, L; Hernádi, I</p> <p>2008-11-19</p> <p>We investigated the potential effects of 20 min irradiation from a new generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) 3G mobile phone on human <span class="hlt">event</span> related potentials (ERPs) in an auditory oddball paradigm. In a double-blind task design, subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. Before and after irradiation subjects were presented with a random series of 50 ms tone burst (frequent standards: 1 kHz, P=0.8, rare deviants: 1.5 kHz, P=0.2) at a mean repetition rate of 1500 ms while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The subjects' task was to silently count the appearance of targets. The amplitude and latency of the N100, N200, P200 and P300 components for targets and standards were analyzed in 29 subjects. We found no significant effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) irradiation on the amplitude and latency of the above ERP components. In order to study possible effects of EMF on attentional processes, we applied a wavelet-based time-frequency method to analyze the <span class="hlt">early</span> gamma component of brain responses to auditory stimuli. We found that the <span class="hlt">early</span> evoked gamma activity was insensitive to UMTS RF exposition. Our results support the notion, that a single 20 min irradiation from new generation 3G mobile phones does not induce measurable changes in latency or amplitude of ERP components or in oscillatory gamma-band activity in an auditory oddball paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818840"><span>HCN4 ion channel function is required for <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael</p> <p>2017-10-15</p> <p>Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where <span class="hlt">early</span> embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal <span class="hlt">events</span> are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very <span class="hlt">early</span> in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels ( I h currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked <span class="hlt">early</span> (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5665463','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5665463"><span>HCN4 ion channel function is required for <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pai, Vaibhav P.; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J.; Lemire, Joan M.; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where <span class="hlt">early</span> embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal <span class="hlt">events</span> are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very <span class="hlt">early</span> in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked <span class="hlt">early</span> (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. PMID:28818840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29604063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29604063"><span>Somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in sporadic endometrial and colorectal carcinogenesis, determining driver mutational landscape, clonal neoantigen burden and immune response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Temko, Daniel; Van Gool, Inge C; Rayner, Emily; Glaire, Mark; Makino, Seiko; Brown, Matthew; Chegwidden, Laura; Palles, Claire; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Beggs, Andrew; Stathopoulou, Chaido; Mason, John; Baker, Ann-Marie; Williams, Marc; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Rei, Margarida; Taylor, Jenny C; Schuh, Anna; Ahmed, Ahmed; Amant, Frédéric; Lambrechts, Diether; Smit, Vincent Thbm; Bosse, Tjalling; Graham, Trevor A; Church, David N; Tomlinson, Ian</p> <p>2018-03-31</p> <p>Genomic instability, which is a hallmark of cancer, is generally thought to occur in the middle to late stages of tumourigenesis, following the acquisition of permissive molecular aberrations such as TP53 mutation or whole genome doubling. Tumours with somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations are notable for their extreme genomic instability (their mutation burden is among the highest in human cancer), distinct mutational signature, lymphocytic infiltrate, and excellent prognosis. To what extent these characteristics are determined by the timing of POLE mutations in oncogenesis is unknown. Here, we have shown that pathogenic POLE mutations are detectable in non-malignant precursors of endometrial and colorectal cancer. Using genome and exome sequencing, we found that multiple driver mutations in POLE-mutant cancers show the characteristic POLE mutational signature, including those in genes conventionally regarded as initiators of tumourigenesis. In POLE-mutant cancers, the proportion of monoclonal predicted neoantigens was similar to that in other cancers, but the absolute number was much greater. We also found that the prominent CD8 + T-cell infiltrate present in POLE-mutant cancers was evident in their precursor lesions. Collectively, these data indicate that somatic POLE mutations are <span class="hlt">early</span>, quite possibly initiating, <span class="hlt">events</span> in the endometrial and colorectal cancers in which they occur. The resulting <span class="hlt">early</span> onset of genomic instability may account for the striking immune response and excellent prognosis of these tumours, as well as their <span class="hlt">early</span> presentation. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28404659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28404659"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Glycemic Control and Magnitude of HbA1c Reduction Predict Cardiovascular <span class="hlt">Events</span> and Mortality: Population-Based Cohort Study of 24,752 Metformin Initiators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Svensson, Elisabeth; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Johnsen, Søren P; Pedersen, Lars; Nørrelund, Helene; Buhl, Esben S; Haase, Christiane L; Thomsen, Reimar W</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We investigated the association of <span class="hlt">early</span> achieved HbA 1c level and magnitude of HbA 1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin. This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA 1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA 1c achieved (<6.5% or higher) and by magnitude of HbA 1c change from the pretreatment baseline. We used Cox regression to examine subsequent rates of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death, controlling for baseline HbA 1c and other confounding factors. We included 24,752 metformin initiators (median age 62.5 years, 55% males) with a median follow-up of 2.6 years. The risk of a combined outcome <span class="hlt">event</span> gradually increased with rising levels of HbA 1c achieved compared with a target HbA 1c of <6.5%: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.07-1.30) for 6.5-6.99%, HR 1.23 (1.09-1.40) for 7.0-7.49%, HR 1.34 (1.14-1.57) for 7.5-7.99%, and HR 1.59 (1.37-1.84) for ≥8%. Results were consistent for individual outcome <span class="hlt">events</span> and robust by age-group and other patient characteristics. A large absolute HbA 1c reduction from baseline also predicted outcome: adjusted HR 0.80 (0.65-0.97) for Δ = -4, HR 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for Δ = -3, HR 0.92 (0.78-1.08) for Δ = -2, and HR 0.99 (0.89-1.10) for Δ = -1 compared with no HbA 1c change (Δ = 0). A large initial HbA 1c reduction and achievement of low HbA 1c levels within 6 months after metformin initiation are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular <span class="hlt">events</span> and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=reasons+AND+work+AND+life&pg=2&id=EJ1118699','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=reasons+AND+work+AND+life&pg=2&id=EJ1118699"><span>Realistic Real World Contexts: Model <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doruk, Bekir Kürsat</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-<span class="hlt">eliciting</span> activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Elicitation+AND+requirements&id=ED519050','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Elicitation+AND+requirements&id=ED519050"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078149"><span>LinkIT: a ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> game for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> risk perceptions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Yan; McGill, William L</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The mental models approach, a leading strategy to develop risk communications, involves a time- and labor-intensive interview process and a lengthy questionnaire to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> group-level risk perceptions. We propose that a similarity ratings approach for structural knowledge <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> can be adopted to assist the risk mental models approach. The LinkIT game, inspired by games with a purpose (GWAP) technology, is a ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> tool designed to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> group understanding of the relations between risk factors in a more enjoyable and productive manner when compared to traditional approaches. That is, consistent with the idea of ludic <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>, LinkIT was designed to make the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> process fun and enjoyable in the hopes of increasing participation and data quality in risk studies. Like the mental models approach, the group mental model obtained via the LinkIT game can hence be generated and represented in a form of influence diagrams. In order to examine the external validity of LinkIT, we conducted a study to compare its performance with respect to a more conventional questionnaire-driven approach. Data analysis results conclude that the two group mental models <span class="hlt">elicited</span> from the two approaches are similar to an extent. Yet, LinkIT was more productive and enjoyable than the questionnaire. However, participants commented that the current game has some usability concerns. This presentation summarizes the design and evaluation of the LinkIT game and suggests areas for future work. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ934246','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ934246"><span>Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> by Musical Cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the <span class="hlt">event</span>, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally <span class="hlt">elicit</span> memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=age+AND+communication&pg=6&id=EJ794611','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=age+AND+communication&pg=6&id=EJ794611"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> a Distal Gesture via Dynamic Assessment among Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, Katherine; Cascella, Paul W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study attempted to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> distal gestures within dynamic assessment structured sampling <span class="hlt">events</span> from six children with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ages 8-13). Using four communication temptations and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy across three sessions, three participants who had both pre-symbolic and preintentional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemistry+AND+research+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ1166987','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemistry+AND+research+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ1166987"><span>Self-Explaining Effect in General Chemistry Instruction: <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Overt Categorical Behaviours by Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Villalta-Cerdas, Adrian; Sandi-Urena, Santiago</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Self-explaining refers to the generation of inferences about causal connections between objects and <span class="hlt">events</span>. In science, this may be summarised as making sense of how and why actual or hypothetical phenomena take place. Research findings in educational psychology show that implementing activities that <span class="hlt">elicit</span> self-explaining improves learning in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807482"><span>Lipopolysaccharides <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an oxidative burst as a component of the innate immune system in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loucks, Kyle; Waddell, David; Ross, Cliff</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study represents the first report characterizing the biological effects of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune modulator on a marine vascular plant. LPS was shown to serve as a strong elicitor of the <span class="hlt">early</span> defense response in the subtropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and was capable of inducing an oxidative burst identified at the single cell level. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), detected by a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe and luminol-based chemiluminescence, included a diphenyleneiodonium sensitive response, suggesting the involvement of an NADPH oxidase. A 900 bp cDNA fragment coding for this enzyme was sequenced and found to encode a NAD binding pocket domain with extensive homology to the Arabidopsis thaliana rbohF (respiratory burst oxidase homolog) gene. The triggered release of ROS occurred at 20 min post-<span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and was dose-dependent, requiring a minimal threshold of 50 μg/mL LPS. Pharmacological dissection of the <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> preceding ROS emission indicated that the signal transduction chain of <span class="hlt">events</span> involved extracellular alkalinization, G-proteins, phospholipase A2, as well as K(+), Ca(2+), and anion channels. Despite exclusively thriving in a marine environment, seagrasses contain ROS-generating machinery and signal transduction components that appear to be evolutionarily conserved with the well-characterized defense response systems found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589479','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589479"><span>Evaluation of Epidemic Intelligence Systems Integrated in the <span class="hlt">Early</span> Alerting and Reporting Project for the Detection of A/H5N1 Influenza <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P.; Hartley, David M.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal; on behalf of the Early Alerting, Reporting Project of the Global Health Security Initiative</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7–13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users. PMID:23472077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888929"><span>The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after <span class="hlt">early</span> left hemispheric brain lesions: An <span class="hlt">event</span>-related fMRI study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fair, Damien A.; Choi, Alexander H.; Dosenbach, Yannic B.L.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we use an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single-subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with <span class="hlt">event</span>-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood brain injuries. PMID:19819000</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024307','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024307"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Holocene change in atmospheric circulation in the Northern great plains: An upstream view of the 8.2 ka cold <span class="hlt">event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Elk Lake, in northwestern Minnesota, contains numerous proxy records of climatic and environmental change contained in varved sediments with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. These proxies show that about 8200 calendar years ago (8.2 cal. ka; 7300 radiocarbon years) Elk Lake went from a well-stratified lake that was wind-protected in a boreal forest to a well-mixed lake in open prairie savanna receiving northwesterly wind-blown dust, probably from the dry floor of Lake Agassiz. This change in climate marks the initiation of the widely recognized mid-Holocene "altithermal" in central North America. The coincidence of this change with the so-called 8.2 cal. ka cold <span class="hlt">event</span>, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic discharge of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, suggests that the two "<span class="hlt">events</span>" might be related. Our interpretation of the Elk Lake proxy records, and of other records from less accurately dated sites, suggests that change in climate over North America was the result of a fundamental change in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the <span class="hlt">early</span> Holocene. This change in circulation probably post-dates the final drainage of proglacial lakes along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, and may have produced a minor perturbation in climate over Greenland that resulted in a brief cold pulse detected in ice cores. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472077"><span>Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the <span class="hlt">early</span> alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P; Hartley, David M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Linge, Jens P; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) <span class="hlt">Early</span> Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 <span class="hlt">events</span> by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7-13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819000"><span>The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after <span class="hlt">early</span> left hemispheric brain lesions: An <span class="hlt">event</span>-related fMRI study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fair, Damien A; Choi, Alexander H; Dosenbach, Yannic B L; Coalson, Rebecca S; Miezin, Francis M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon is accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we used an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial-related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial-related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with <span class="hlt">event</span>-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood brain injuries. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352002"><span>Crosstalk between intestinal microbiota, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in systemic low-grade inflammation and the development of obesity and diabetes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bleau, Christian; Karelis, Antony D; St-Pierre, David H; Lamontagne, Lucie</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Obesity is associated with a systemic chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, the etiology of this obesity-related pro-inflammatory process remains unclear. Most studies have focused on adipose tissue dysfunctions and/or insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells as well as changes in adipokine profile and macrophage recruitment as potential sources of inflammation. However, low-grade systemic inflammation probably involves a complex network of signals interconnecting several organs. Recent evidences have suggested that disturbances in the composition of the gut microbial flora and alterations in levels of gut peptides following the ingestion of a high-fat diet may be a cause of low-grade systemic inflammation that may even precede and predispose to obesity, metabolic disorders or type 2 diabetes. This hypothesis is appealing because the gastrointestinal system is first exposed to nutrients and may thereby represent the first link in the chain of <span class="hlt">events</span> leading to the development of obesity-associated systemic inflammation. Therefore, the present review will summarize the latest advances interconnecting intestinal mucosal bacteria-mediated inflammation, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in a coordinated circuitry favouring the onset of a high-fat diet-related systemic low-grade inflammation preceding obesity and predisposing to metabolic disorders and/or type 2 diabetes. A particular emphasis will be given to high-fat diet-induced alterations of gut homeostasis as an <span class="hlt">early</span> initiator <span class="hlt">event</span> of mucosal inflammation and adverse consequences contributing to the promotion of extended systemic inflammation, especially in adipose and muscular tissues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918911W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918911W"><span>Monitoring and forecasting local landslide hazard in the area of Longyearbyen, Svalbard - <span class="hlt">early</span> progress and experiences from the Autumn 2016 <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Thea; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Boje, Søren; Colleuille, Hervé</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since 2013 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has operated a landslide <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system (LEWS) for mainland Norway. The Svalbard islands, situated 800 km north of the Norwegian mainland, and 1200 km from the North Pole, are not part of the conventional <span class="hlt">early</span> warning service. However, following the fatal snow avalanche <span class="hlt">event</span> 19 Dec. 2015 in the settlement of Longyearbyen (78° north latitude), local authorities and the NVE have initiated monitoring of the hydro-meteorological conditions for the area of Longyearbyen, as an extraordinary precaution. Two operational forecasting teams from the NVE; the snow avalanche and the landslide hazard forecasters, perform hazard assessment related to snow avalanches, slush flows, debris flows, shallow slides and local flooding. This abstract will focus on recent experiences made by the landslide hazard team during the autumn 2016 landslide <span class="hlt">events</span>, caused by a record setting wet and warm summer and autumn of 2016. The general concept of the Norwegian LEWS is based on frequency intervals of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions. This general concept has been transposed to the Longyearbyen area. Although the climate is considerably colder and drier than mainland Norway, experiences so far are positive and seem useful to the local authorities. Initially, the landslide hazard evaluation was intended to consider only slush flow hazard during the snow covered season. However, due to the extraordinary warm and wet summer and autumn 2016, the landslide hazard forecasters unexpectedly had to issue warnings for the local authorities due to increased risk of shallow landslides and debris flows. This was done in close cooperation with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, who provided weather forecasts from the recently developed weather prediction model, AROME-Arctic. Two examples, from 14-15 Oct and 8-9 Nov 2016, will be given to demonstrate how the landslide hazard assessment for the Longyearbyen area is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017903"><span>Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing <span class="hlt">early</span> responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span>, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4677922','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4677922"><span>Changes in the Phosphoproteome and Metabolome Link <span class="hlt">Early</span> Signaling <span class="hlt">Events</span> to Rearrangement of Photosynthesis and Central Metabolism in Salinity and Oxidative Stress Response in Arabidopsis1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yanmei; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Salinity and oxidative stress are major factors affecting and limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The molecular and biochemical processes governing the plant response to abiotic stress have often been researched in a reductionist manner. Here, we report a systemic approach combining metabolic labeling and phosphoproteomics to capture <span class="hlt">early</span> signaling <span class="hlt">events</span> with quantitative metabolome analysis and enzyme activity assays to determine the effects of salt and oxidative stress on plant physiology. K+ and Na+ transporters showed coordinated changes in their phosphorylation pattern, indicating the importance of dynamic ion homeostasis for adaptation to salt stress. Unique phosphorylation sites were found for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SNF1 kinase homolog10 and 11, indicating their central roles in the stress-regulated responses. Seven Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinase2 kinases showed varying levels of phosphorylation at multiple serine/threonine residues in their kinase domain upon stress, showing temporally distinct modulation of the various isoforms. Salinity and oxidative stress also lead to changes in protein phosphorylation of proteins central to photosynthesis, in particular the kinase State Transition Protein7 required for state transition and light-harvesting II complex proteins. Furthermore, stress-induced changes of the phosphorylation of enzymes of central metabolism were observed. The phosphorylation patterns of these proteins were concurrent with changes in enzyme activity. This was reflected by altered levels of metabolites, such as the sugars sucrose and fructose, glycolysis intermediates, and amino acids. Together, our study provides evidence for a link between <span class="hlt">early</span> signaling in the salt and oxidative stress response that regulates the state transition of photosynthesis and the rearrangement of primary metabolism. PMID:26471895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793823"><span>The African swine fever virus virion membrane protein pE248R is required for virus infectivity and an <span class="hlt">early</span> postentry <span class="hlt">event</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Irene; Nogal, María L; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Bustos, María J; Salas, María L</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein pE248R, encoded by the gene E248R, is a late structural component of the virus particle. The protein contains intramolecular disulfide bonds and has been previously identified as a substrate of the ASFV-encoded redox system. Its amino acid sequence contains a putative myristoylation site and a hydrophobic transmembrane region near its carboxy terminus. We show here that the protein pE248R is myristoylated during infection and associates with the membrane fraction in infected cells, behaving as an integral membrane protein. Furthermore, the protein localizes at the inner envelope of the virus particles in the cytoplasmic factories. The function of the protein pE248R in ASFV replication was investigated by using a recombinant virus that inducibly expresses the gene E248R. Under repressive conditions, the ASFV polyproteins pp220 and pp62 are normally processed and virus particles with morphology indistinguishable from that of those produced in a wild-type infection or under permissive conditions are generated. Moreover, the mutant virus particles can exit the cell as does the parental virus. However, the infectivity of the pE248R-deficient virions was reduced at least 100-fold. An investigation of the defect of the mutant virus indicated that neither virus binding nor internalization was affected by the absence of the protein pE248R, but a cytopathic effect was not induced and <span class="hlt">early</span> and late gene expression was impaired, indicating that the protein is required for some <span class="hlt">early</span> postentry <span class="hlt">event</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2786719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2786719"><span>The African Swine Fever Virus Virion Membrane Protein pE248R Is Required for Virus Infectivity and an <span class="hlt">Early</span> Postentry <span class="hlt">Event</span> ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Irene; Nogal, María L.; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Bustos, María J.; Salas, María L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein pE248R, encoded by the gene E248R, is a late structural component of the virus particle. The protein contains intramolecular disulfide bonds and has been previously identified as a substrate of the ASFV-encoded redox system. Its amino acid sequence contains a putative myristoylation site and a hydrophobic transmembrane region near its carboxy terminus. We show here that the protein pE248R is myristoylated during infection and associates with the membrane fraction in infected cells, behaving as an integral membrane protein. Furthermore, the protein localizes at the inner envelope of the virus particles in the cytoplasmic factories. The function of the protein pE248R in ASFV replication was investigated by using a recombinant virus that inducibly expresses the gene E248R. Under repressive conditions, the ASFV polyproteins pp220 and pp62 are normally processed and virus particles with morphology indistinguishable from that of those produced in a wild-type infection or under permissive conditions are generated. Moreover, the mutant virus particles can exit the cell as does the parental virus. However, the infectivity of the pE248R-deficient virions was reduced at least 100-fold. An investigation of the defect of the mutant virus indicated that neither virus binding nor internalization was affected by the absence of the protein pE248R, but a cytopathic effect was not induced and <span class="hlt">early</span> and late gene expression was impaired, indicating that the protein is required for some <span class="hlt">early</span> postentry <span class="hlt">event</span>. PMID:19793823</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29649547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29649547"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> onset of disc degeneration in SM/J mice is associated with changes in ion transport systems and fibrotic <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ying; Xiong, Chi; Kudelko, Mateusz; Li, Yan; Wang, Cheng; Wong, Yuk Lun; Tam, Vivian; Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Cheverud, James; Lawson, Heather A; Sandell, Linda; Chan, Wilson C W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Sham, Pak C; Chan, Danny</p> <p>2018-04-09</p> <p>Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes back pain and sciatica, affecting quality of life and resulting in high economic/social burden. The etiology of IDD is not well understood. Along with aging and environmental factors, genetic factors also influence the onset, progression and severity of IDD. Genetic studies of risk factors for IDD using human cohorts are limited by small sample size and low statistical power. Animal models amenable to genetic and functional studies of IDD provide desirable alternatives. Despite differences in size and cellular content as compared to human intervertebral discs (IVDs), the mouse is a powerful model for genetics and assessment of cellular changes relevant to human biology. Here, we provide evidence for <span class="hlt">early</span> onset disc degeneration in SM/J relative to LG/J mice with poor and good tissue healing capacity respectively. In the first few months of life, LG/J mice maintain a relatively constant pool of notochordal-like cells in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the IVD. In contrast, chondrogenic <span class="hlt">events</span> are observed in SM/J mice beginning as <span class="hlt">early</span> as one-week-old, with progressive fibrotic changes. Further, the extracellular matrix changes in the NP are consistent with IVD degeneration. Leveraging on the genomic data of two parental and two recombinant inbred lines, we assessed the genetic contribution to the NP changes and identified processes linked to the regulation of ion transport systems. Significantly, "transport" system is also in the top three gene ontology (GO) terms from a comparative proteomic analysis of the mouse NP. These findings support the potential of the SM/J, LG/J and their recombinant inbred lines for future genetic and biological analysis in mice and validation of candidate genes and biological relevance in human cohort studies. The proteomic data has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE [1] partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD008784. Copyright © 2017. Published by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442140.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED442140.pdf"><span>Fostering and <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Emergent Literacy Skills in Potentially English Proficient Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beers, Elizabeth A.</p> <p></p> <p>This report describes an <span class="hlt">early</span> intervention program to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> emergent literacy skills in Potentially English Proficient kindergarten students. The school is located in a suburb of a large city near a naval base. The problem, lack of literacy readiness skills, was documented with a battery of tests given prior to entrance in kindergarten and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=meta+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ1114289','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=meta+AND+analysis&pg=7&id=EJ1114289"><span><span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Imitation as a Measure of Second Language Proficiency: A Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yan, Xun; Maeda, Yukiko; Lv, Jing; Ginther, April</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elicited</span> imitation (EI) has been widely used to examine second language (L2) proficiency and development and was an especially popular method in the 1970s and <span class="hlt">early</span> 1980s. However, as the field embraced more communicative approaches to both instruction and assessment, the use of EI diminished, and the construct-related validity of EI scores as a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687214"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related brain potentials (ERPs) were <span class="hlt">elicited</span> while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations <span class="hlt">elicited</span> greater negative amplitudes for the <span class="hlt">early</span> time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as <span class="hlt">early</span> as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S31A0789X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S31A0789X"><span>Assessing the short-term clock drift of <span class="hlt">early</span> broadband stations with burst <span class="hlt">events</span> of the 26 s persistent and localized microseism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Ni, S.; Chu, R.; Xia, Y.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Accurate seismometer clock plays an important role in seismological studies including earthquake location and tomography. However, some seismic stations may have clock drift larger than 1 second, especially in <span class="hlt">early</span> days of global seismic network. The 26 s Persistent Localized (PL) microseism <span class="hlt">event</span> in the Gulf of Guinea sometime excites strong and coherent signals, and can be used as repeating source for assessing stability of seismometer clocks. Taking station GSC/TS in southern California, USA as an example, the 26 s PL signal can be easily observed in the ambient Noise Cross-correlation Function (NCF) between GSC/TS and a remote station. The variation of travel-time of this 26 s signal in the NCF is used to infer clock error. A drastic clock error is detected during June, 1992. This short-term clock error is confirmed by both teleseismic and local earthquake records with a magnitude of ±25 s. Using 26 s PL source, the clock can be validated for historical records of sparsely distributed stations, where usual NCF of short period microseism (<20 s) might be less effective due to its attenuation over long interstation distances. However, this method suffers from cycling problem, and should be verified by teleseismic/local P waves. The location change of the 26 s PL source may influence the measured clock drift, using regional stations with stable clock, we estimate the possible location change of the source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16813575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16813575"><span>A C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SGR5, is involved in <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> of gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morita, Miyo T; Sakaguchi, Keitaro; Kiyose, Shin-Ichiro; Taira, Kensuke; Kato, Takehide; Nakamura, Moritaka; Tasaka, Masao</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Plants can sense the direction of gravity and change the growth orientation of their organs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gravity perception and the signal transduction of gravitropism, we have characterized a number of shoot gravitropism (sgr) mutants of Arabidopsis. The sgr5-1 mutant shows reduced gravitropism in the inflorescence stem but its root and hypocotyl have normal gravitropism. SGR5 encodes a zinc finger protein with a coiled-coil motif. The SGR5-GFP fusion protein is localized in the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts, suggesting that SGR5 may act as a transcription factor. Analysis of GUS expression under the control of the SGR5 promoter revealed that SGR5 is mainly expressed in the endodermis, the gravity-sensing tissue in inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the observation that endodermis-specific expression of SGR5 using the SCR promoter in the sgr5-1 mutant restores shoot gravitropism indicates that it could function in the gravity-sensing endodermal cell layer. In contrast to other sgr mutants reported previously, almost all amyloplasts in the endodermal cells of the sgr5-1 mutant sedimented in the direction of gravity. Taken together, our results suggest that SGR5 may be involved in an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in shoot gravitropism such as gravity perception and/or a signaling process subsequent to amyloplast sedimentation as a putative transcription factor in gravity-perceptive cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306527"><span>Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on <span class="hlt">early</span> membrane <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these <span class="hlt">early</span> membrane <span class="hlt">events</span>. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039222','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039222"><span>Capturing the biological impact of CDKN2A and MC1R genes as an <span class="hlt">early</span> predisposing <span class="hlt">event</span> in melanoma and non melanoma skin cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Escámez, María José; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Fabra, Àngels; Martínez-Santamaría, Lucía; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Pevida, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín; del Río, Marcela; Puig, Susana</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Germline mutations in CDKN2A and/or red hair color variants in MC1R genes are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop cutaneous melanoma or non melanoma skin cancer. We studied the impact of the CDKN2A germinal mutation p.G101W and MC1R variants on gene expression and transcription profiles associated with skin cancer. To this end we set-up primary skin cell co-cultures from siblings of melanoma prone-families that were later analyzed using the expression array approach. As a result, we found that 1535 transcripts were deregulated in CDKN2A mutated cells, with over-expression of immunity-related genes (HLA-DPB1, CLEC2B, IFI44, IFI44L, IFI27, IFIT1, IFIT2, SP110 and IFNK) and down-regulation of genes playing a role in the Notch signaling pathway. 3570 transcripts were deregulated in MC1R variant carriers. In particular, genes related to oxidative stress and DNA damage pathways were up-regulated as well as genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer and Huntington. Finally, we observed that the expression signatures indentified in phenotypically normal cells carrying CDKN2A mutations or MC1R variants are maintained in skin cancer tumors (melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma). These results indicate that transcriptome deregulation represents an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> critical for skin cancer development. PMID:24742402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272314','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272314"><span>Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Synaptic Degeneration as <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications to Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Tripathy, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Thirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P.; Calkins, Marcus J.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlate of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid bet (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed that reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. PMID:22037588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061613','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061613"><span>Alcohol Words <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> Reactive Cognitive Control in Low Sensitivity Drinkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bailey, Kira; Bartholow, Bruce D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Previous <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential (ERP) studies shown support for the idea that alcohol-related stimuli are particularly salient to individuals who report low sensitivity to alcohol's effects (LS; a known risk factor for alcohol-related problems), leading such stimuli to spontaneously capture their attention and interfere with self-regulatory goal pursuit. The current study investigated LS individuals’ use of reactive and proactive cognitive control in response to alcohol-related stimuli. Participants performed an alcohol Stroop task in which they indicated the font color of alcohol- and nonalcohol-related words while ERPs were recorded. The probability of alcohol and nonalcohol words was manipulated to test predictions derived from Dual Mechanisms of Control theory. Among LS individuals, infrequent alcohol-related words <span class="hlt">elicited</span> slower responses and larger N2 amplitude, consistent with these stimuli <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> enhanced reactive control responses. Amplitude of the frontal slow wave (FSW) component, associated with proactive control, was marginally larger among LS individuals when alcohol words were more frequent, but response accuracy was lower. These findings demonstrate that LS individuals experience conflict when presented with task-irrelevant alcohol-related stimuli, even in a context where conflict arguably should not be present. Findings further suggest that LS individuals can effectively implement reactive control to deal with this conflict when it is infrequent, but have difficulty implementing proactive control in the context of more frequent conflict. PMID:27545019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381926"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> interval beliefs: An experimental study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peeters, Ronald; Wolk, Leonard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the interval scoring rule as a mechanism to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> subjective beliefs under varying degrees of uncertainty. In our experiment, subjects forecast the termination time of a time series to be generated from a given but unknown stochastic process. Subjects gradually learn more about the underlying process over time and hence the true distribution over termination times. We conduct two treatments, one with a high and one with a low volatility process. We find that <span class="hlt">elicited</span> intervals are better when subjects are facing a low volatility process. In this treatment, participants learn to position their intervals almost optimally over the course of the experiment. This is in contrast with the high volatility treatment, where subjects, over the course of the experiment, learn to optimize the location of their intervals but fail to provide the optimal length. PMID:28380020</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660864"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> craving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28870253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28870253"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> presence of anti-angiogenesis-related adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> as a potential biomarker of antitumor efficacy in metastatic gastric cancer patients treated with apatinib: a cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Xinyang; Qin, Shukui; Wang, Zhichao; Xu, Jianming; Xiong, Jianping; Bai, Yuxian; Wang, Zhehai; Yang, Yan; Sun, Guoping; Wang, Liwei; Zheng, Leizhen; Xu, Nong; Cheng, Ying; Guo, Weijian; Yu, Hao; Liu, Tianshu; Lagiou, Pagona; Li, Jin</p> <p>2017-09-05</p> <p>Reliable biomarkers of apatinib response in gastric cancer (GC) are lacking. We investigated the association between <span class="hlt">early</span> presence of common adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> (AEs) and clinical outcomes in metastatic GC patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data on 269 apatinib-treated GC patients in two clinical trials. AEs were assessed at baseline until 28 days after the last dose of apatinib. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without hypertension (HTN), proteinuria, or hand and foot syndrome (HFS) in the first 4 weeks. Time-to-<span class="hlt">event</span> variables were assessed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Binary endpoints were assessed using logistic regression models. Landmark analyses were performed as sensitivity analyses. Predictive model was analyzed, and risk scores were calculated to predict overall survival. Presence of AEs in the first 4 weeks was associated with prolonged median overall survival (169 vs. 103 days, log-rank p = 0.0039; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.84, p = 0.001), prolonged median progression-free survival (86.5 vs. 62 days, log-rank p = 0.0309; adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91, p = 0.007), and increased disease control rate (54.67 vs. 32.77%; adjusted odds ratio 2.67, p < 0.001). Results remained significant in landmark analyses. The onset of any single AE or any combinations of the AEs were all statistically significantly associated with prolonged OS, except for the presence of proteinuria. An AE-based prediction model and subsequently derived scoring system showed high calibration and discrimination in predicting overall survival. Presence of HTN, proteinuria, or HFS during the first cycle of apatinib treatment was a viable biomarker of antitumor efficacy in metastatic GC patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=echolalia&pg=6&id=ED176432','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=echolalia&pg=6&id=ED176432"><span><span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fritsch, Gudrun</p> <p></p> <p>The booklet discusses and reports on a study of <span class="hlt">elicited</span> imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">early</span> infantile autism. The question of whether or not <span class="hlt">early</span> infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943882"><span>A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning for contamination <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination <span class="hlt">events</span>. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an <span class="hlt">early</span> warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6278J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6278J"><span>SeismoGeodesy: Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations and Rapid Seismic <span class="hlt">Event</span> Notification for Earth Quake <span class="hlt">Early</span> Warning and Volcano Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, Michael; Zimakov, Leonid; Moessmer, Matthias</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, epoch-by-epoch storage integrity, and on-board real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake <span class="hlt">early</span> warning studies, volcano monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring applications. Our presentation will focus on the characteristics of GNSS, seismic, and strong motion sensors in high dynamic environments, including historic earthquakes replicated on a shake table over a range of displacements and frequencies. We will explore the optimum integration of these sensors from a filtering perspective including simple harmonic impulses over varying frequencies and amplitudes and under the dynamic conditions of various earthquake scenarios. We will also explore the tradeoffs between various GNSS processing schemes including real-time precise point positioning (PPP) and real-time kinematic (RTK) as applied to seismogeodesy. In addition we will discuss implementation of a Rapid Seismic <span class="hlt">Event</span> Notification System that provides quick delivery of digital data from seismic stations to the acquisition and processing center and a full data integrity model for real-time earthquake notification that provides warning prior to significant ground shaking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.212..324X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.212..324X"><span>Assessing the short-term clock drift of <span class="hlt">early</span> broadband stations with burst <span class="hlt">events</span> of the 26 s persistent and localized microseism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Jun; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Xia, Yingjie</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Accurate seismometer clock plays an important role in seismological studies including earthquake location and tomography. However, some seismic stations may have clock drift larger than 1 s (e.g. GSC in 1992), especially in <span class="hlt">early</span> days of global seismic networks. The 26 s Persistent Localized (PL) microseism <span class="hlt">event</span> in the Gulf of Guinea sometime excites strong and coherent signals, and can be used as repeating source for assessing stability of seismometer clocks. Taking station GSC, PAS and PFO in the TERRAscope network as an example, the 26 s PL signal can be easily observed in the ambient noise cross-correlation function between these stations and a remote station OBN with interstation distance about 9700 km. The travel-time variation of this 26 s signal in the ambient noise cross-correlation function is used to infer clock error. A drastic clock error is detected during June 1992 for station GSC, but not found for station PAS and PFO. This short-term clock error is confirmed by both teleseismic and local earthquake records with a magnitude of 25 s. Averaged over the three stations, the accuracy of the ambient noise cross-correlation function method with the 26 s source is about 0.3-0.5 s. Using this PL source, the clock can be validated for historical records of sparsely distributed stations, where the usual ambient noise cross-correlation function of short-period (<20 s) ambient noise might be less effective due to its attenuation over long interstation distances. However, this method suffers from cycling problem, and should be verified by teleseismic/local P waves. Further studies are also needed to investigate whether the 26 s source moves spatially and its effects on clock drift detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632923"><span>Decreased expression of 14-3-3 σ, an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> of malignant transformation of respiratory epithelium, also facilitates progression of squamous cell lung cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Nan; Wu, Yongkai; Huang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Dong, Yinan; Ding, Jianqiao; Liu, Yongyu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background It has been shown that 14-3-3 σ serves as a tumor suppressor gene, and is downregulated in various tumor tissues. However, the role of 14-3-3 σ during the initiation and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is not well understood. Methods The expression status of 14-3-3 σ in archival tissue samples from 40 lung SqCC patients (36 with normal bronchia, 19 squamous metaplasia, and 17 dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, in their tissue samples) was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The proliferation rate and tumor formation ability of the H520 cell transfected with 14-3-3 σ was tested with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and nude mice subcutaneous injection, respectively. Results In the normal bronchial epithelia, 14-3-3 σ was highly expressed, whereas it was significantly decreased in precancerous and cancerous tissues. Compared with matched invasive cancer tissues, the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in squamous metaplasia was significantly higher (P = 0.049), while that in dysplasia/carcinoma in situ showed no significant changes (P = 0.135). Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in tumor tissue was associated with the differentiation grade of the tumor (P = 0.001) and the prognosis of the patient (P = 0.003). The overexpression of 14-3-3 σ significantly suppressed the proliferation of H520 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The inactivation of 14-3-3 σ may be a very <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in tumorigenesis and could facilitate the initiation and progression of lung SqCC in a sustainable way. PMID:26557909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255506"><span>Induction of NPY/AgRP orexigenic peptide expression in rat hypothalamus is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> in fasting: relationship with circulating leptin, insulin and glucose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palou, Mariona; Sánchez, Juana; Rodríguez, Ana M; Priego, Teresa; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Hypothalamus is crucial in the control of energy intake and expenditure in mammals, presenting two interconnected populations of neurons producing orexigenic NPY/AgRP (neuropeptide Y; agouti related peptide) and anorexigenic POMC/CART (pro-opiomelanocortin; cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) neuropeptides. We aimed to shed more light on the response and sensitivity in the production of these neuropeptides to face nutritional changes, particularly food deprivation, and on the signals that regulate them. Male Wistar rats were fasted for 0, 4, 8 and 24h and refed for 3h after 8h fasting. mRNA levels of gastric and adipose tissue (retroperitoneal, mesenteric and inguinal) leptin, and of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, POMC, CART, leptin receptor, SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) and insulin receptor were analyzed. Gastric and circulating leptin, and circulating insulin, glucose and ghrelin were also determined. The only neuropeptide mRNAs that responded (increasing) to the short-term periods of fasting used were those of NPY (transiently) and AgRP, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in leptin receptor mRNA levels and by a decrease in adipose and gastric leptin expression and in the circulating levels of leptin, insulin and glucose, but without changes in circulating ghrelin. The elevation in AgRP and leptin receptor mRNA levels and the drop in circulating leptin were not reverted with refeeding. It is suggested that the induction of expression of the orexigenic molecules in NPY/AgRP neurons is an <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> upon fasting, related with changes in leptin, insulin and glucose levels, but with the role of leptin signaling in particular. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784b0023A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784b0023A"><span>9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in <span class="hlt">elicited</span> hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were <span class="hlt">elicited</span> at <span class="hlt">early</span> exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173396"><span>Using process <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was <span class="hlt">elicited</span> through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the <span class="hlt">elicited</span> details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process <span class="hlt">events</span> (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=3&id=EJ1000138','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=3&id=EJ1000138"><span>Onset and Offset of Aversive <span class="hlt">Events</span> Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Two things are worth remembering about an aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>, it becomes a signal for threat and will later <span class="hlt">elicit</span> behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive <span class="hlt">event</span>, it <span class="hlt">elicits</span> behavior indicating…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=true+AND+experimental&pg=6&id=EJ1055907','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=true+AND+experimental&pg=6&id=EJ1055907"><span>Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood <span class="hlt">Events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report on the 1st experimental <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of nonbelieved memories for childhood <span class="hlt">events</span> in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these <span class="hlt">events</span> during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189502"><span>The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span> following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry®.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J; Kennedy, Kevin F; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on <span class="hlt">early</span> outcomes is not well studied. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim <5 and ≥5 mm. Primary outcomes were technical failure and major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">event</span> in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">event</span> (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified. Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or <span class="hlt">early</span> adverse <span class="hlt">events</span>. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3197144','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3197144"><span>Survival Outcomes and Effect of <span class="hlt">Early</span> vs. Deferred cART Among HIV-Infected Patients Diagnosed at the Time of an AIDS-Defining <span class="hlt">Event</span>: A Cohort Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mussini, Cristina; Johnson, Margaret; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Gill, M. John; Sighinolfi, Laura; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Borghi, Vanni; Sabin, Caroline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining <span class="hlt">event</span>, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Methods Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997–2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS <span class="hlt">event</span>, death) was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS <span class="hlt">event</span>. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting <span class="hlt">early</span> (<30 days after AIDS <span class="hlt">event</span>) or deferred (30–270 days after AIDS <span class="hlt">event</span>) cART. Results The median (interquartile range) CD4 count and viral load (VL) at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119) cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7) log10 copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3%) patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (vs. other AIDS <span class="hlt">events</span>) were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6%) received <span class="hlt">early</span> cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART <span class="hlt">early</span> and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20). Conclusions Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting. PMID:22043301</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437..101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437..101B"><span>Oxygen isotope perspective on crustal evolution on <span class="hlt">early</span> Earth: A record of Precambrian shales with emphasis on Paleoproterozoic glaciations and Great Oxygenation <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present stable isotope and chemical data for 206 Precambrian bulk shale and tillite samples that were collected mostly from drillholes on all continents and span the age range from 0.5 to 3.5 Ga with a dense coverage for 2.5-2.2 Ga time interval when Earth experienced four Snowball Earth glaciations and the irreversible rise in atmospheric O2. We observe significant, downward shift of several ‰ and a smaller range of δ18 O values (7 to 9‰) in shales that are associated with the Paleoproterozoic and, potentially, Neoproterozoic glaciations. The Paleoproterozoic samples consist of more than 50% mica minerals and have equal or higher chemical index of alteration than overlying and underlying formations and thus underwent equal or greater degrees of chemical weathering. Their pervasively low δ18 O and δD (down to - 85 ‰) values provide strong evidence of alteration and diagenesis in contact with ultra-low δ18 O glacial meltwaters in lacustrine, deltaic or periglacial lake (sikussak-type) environments associated with the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. The δDsilicate values for the rest of Precambrian shales range from -75 to - 50 ‰ and are comparable to those for Phanerozoic and Archean shales. Likewise, these samples have similar ranges in δ13Corg values (-23 to - 33 ‰ PDB) and Corg content (0.0 to 10 wt%) to Phanerozoic shales. Precambrian shales have a large range of δ18 O values comparable to that of the Phanerozoic shales in each age group and formation, suggesting similar variability in the provenance and intensity of chemical weathering, except for the earliest 3.3-3.5 Ga Archean shales, which have consistently lower δ18 O values. Moreover, Paleoproterozoic shales that bracket in age the Great Oxidation <span class="hlt">Event</span> (GOE) overlap in δ18 O values. Absence of a step-wise increase in δ18 O and δD values suggests that despite the first-order change in the composition of the atmosphere, weathering cycle was not dramatically affected by the GOE at ∼2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016176','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016176"><span>Effect of Microgravity on <span class="hlt">Early</span> <span class="hlt">Events</span> of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">events</span> associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26987599"><span>High <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> rates in patients with questionable eligibility for advanced heart failure therapies: Results from the Medical Arm of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Medamacs) Registry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ambardekar, Amrut V; Forde-McLean, Rhondalyn C; Kittleson, Michelle M; Stewart, Garrick C; Palardy, Maryse; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; DeVore, Adam D; Mountis, Maria M; Cadaret, Linda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Cantor, Ryan S; Lindenfeld, JoAnn</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The prognosis of ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure (HF) who are not yet inotrope dependent and implications for evaluation and timing for transplant or destination therapy with a left ventricular assist device (DT-LVAD) are unknown. We hypothesized that the characteristics defining eligibility for advanced HF therapies would be a primary determinant of outcomes in these patients. Ambulatory patients with advanced HF (New York Heart Association class III-IV, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profiles 4-7) were enrolled across 11 centers from May 2013 to February 2015. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: likely transplant eligible, DT-LVAD eligible, and ineligible for both transplant and DT-LVAD. Clinical characteristics were collected, and patients were prospectively followed for death, transplant, and left ventricular assist device implantation. The study enrolled 144 patients with a mean follow-up of 10 ± 6 months. Patients in the ineligible cohort (n = 43) had worse congestion, renal function, and anemia compared with transplant (n = 51) and DT-LVAD (n = 50) eligible patients. Ineligible patients had higher mortality (23.3% vs 8.0% in DT-LVAD group and 5.9% in transplant group, p = 0.02). The differences in mortality were related to lower rates of transplantation (11.8% in transplant group vs 2.0% in DT-LVAD group and 0% in ineligible group, p = 0.02) and left ventricular assist device implantation (15.7% in transplant group vs 2.0% in DT-LVAD group and 0% in ineligible group, p < 0.01). Ambulatory patients with advanced HF who were deemed ineligible for transplant and DT-LVAD had markers of greater HF severity and a higher rate of mortality compared with patients eligible for transplant or DT-LVAD. The high <span class="hlt">early</span> <span class="hlt">event</span> rate in this group emphasizes the need for timely evaluation and decision making regarding lifesaving therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I"><span>Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic <span class="hlt">events</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itaki, Takuya</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-sea drilling cores have provided important information about environmental changes in the Japan Sea that are related to the global climate and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major changes in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to <span class="hlt">Early</span> Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan Sea via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan Sea via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling <span class="hlt">event</span> at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan Sea Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in sea level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683588"><span>Noncanonical Roles of the Immune System in <span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> Oncogene Addiction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Casey, Stephanie C.; Bellovin, David I.; Felsher, Dean W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression illustrating that cancers can be “oncogene addicted” [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases necessarily their surfeit of activation is paramaount to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic <span class="hlt">events</span> and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is mediated both through both tumor intrinsic cell-autonomous mechanisms including proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular senescence [1,2,4,12] but also host-dependent mechanisms that interact with these tumor intrinsic programs [14,15]. Notably, oncogene inactivation <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16]. Hence, immune effectors are critically involved in tumor initiation and prevention [17-19] and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21-23]. The understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both a robust tumor intrinsic as well as immunological effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. PMID:23571026</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698729"><span>Electrophysiological evidence of automatic <span class="hlt">early</span> semantic processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinojosa, José A; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco; Casado, Pilar; Pozo, Miguel A</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the automatic-controlled nature of <span class="hlt">early</span> semantic processing by means of the Recognition Potential (RP), an <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential response that reflects lexical selection processes. For this purpose tasks differing in their processing requirements were used. Half of the participants performed a physical task involving a lower-upper case discrimination judgement (shallow processing requirements), whereas the other half carried out a semantic task, consisting in detecting animal names (deep processing requirements). Stimuli were identical in the two tasks. Reaction time measures revealed that the physical task was easier to perform than the semantic task. However, RP effects <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by the physical and semantic tasks did not differ in either latency, amplitude, or topographic distribution. Thus, the results from the present study suggest that <span class="hlt">early</span> semantic processing is automatically triggered whenever a linguistic stimulus enters the language processor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1216551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1216551"><span>High gain signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour monitoring in patients <span class="hlt">early</span> after myocardial infarction for bedside prediction of arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cripps, T; Bennett, E D; Camm, A J; Ward, D E</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The value of the high gain, signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the prediction of arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span> was assessed in 159 patients in the first week after myocardial infarction. Eleven patients (7%) suffered arrhythmic <span class="hlt">events</span> during a mean (SD) of 12 (6) months of follow up (range 2-22, median 13 months). The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring was more accurate than either technique alone or than clinical information collected during admission in predicting these <span class="hlt">events</span>. The combination identified a high risk group of 13 (8%) patients, with an arrhythmic <span class="hlt">event</span> rate of 62% and a low risk group with an <span class="hlt">event</span> rate of 2%. The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the first week after myocardial infarction provides a rapid, cheap, and non-invasive bedside method for the prediction of arrhythmias. PMID:3179133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18665861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18665861"><span>The effects of learning on <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential correlates of musical expectancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carrión, Ricardo E; Bly, Benjamin Martin</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Musical processing studies have shown that unexpected endings in familiar musical sequences produce extended latencies of the P300 component. The present study sought to identify <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential (ERP) correlates of musical expectancy by entraining participants with rule-governed chord sequences and testing whether unexpected endings created similar responses. Two experiments were conducted in which participants performed grammaticality classifications without training (Experiment 1) and with training (Experiment 2). In both experiments, deviant chords differing in instrumental timbre <span class="hlt">elicited</span> a MMN/P3a waveform complex. Violations related to learned patterns <span class="hlt">elicited</span> an <span class="hlt">early</span> right anterior negativity and P3b. Latency and amplitude of peak components were modulated by the physical characteristics of the chords, expectations due to prior knowledge of musical harmony, and contextually defined expectations developed through entrainment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5544302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5544302"><span>Bayesian markets to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> private information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., “Are you satisfied with your life?”) or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their “type”) as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others’ types are correlated with one’s own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of metabeliefs regarding others’ signals. PMID:28696293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2838204','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2838204"><span>Parasympathetic Stimulation <span class="hlt">Elicits</span> Cerebral Vasodilatation in Rat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Talman, William T.; Corr, Julie; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Wang, DeQiang</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Forebrain arteries receive nitroxidergic input from parasympathetic ganglionic fibers that arise from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Previous studies have shown that ganglionic stimulation in some species led to cerebral vasodilatation while interruption of those fibers interfered with vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension. Because the ganglionic fibers are quite delicate and are easily damaged when the ganglia are approached with published techniques we sought to develop a method that allowed clear exposure of the ganglia and permitted demonstration of cerebral vasodilatation with electrical stimulation of the ganglia in the rat. We had found that an orbital approach during which the eye was retracted for visualization of the ganglion precluded <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> vasodilatation with ganglionic stimulation. In the current study approaching the ganglion through an incision over the zygomatic arch provided clear exposure of the ganglion and stimulation of the ganglion with that approach led to vasodilatation. PMID:17275420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696293"><span>Bayesian markets to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> private information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baillon, Aurélien</p> <p>2017-07-25</p> <p>Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., "Are you satisfied with your life?") or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their "type") as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others' types are correlated with one's own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of metabeliefs regarding others' signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hwid.book...46C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hwid.book...46C"><span>Augmenting Usability: Cultural <span class="hlt">Elicitation</span> in HCI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy</p> <p></p> <p>This paper offers context and culture <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2856185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2856185"><span>Cellular requirements for cutaneous sensitivity <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aoki, I</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The role of glass-adherent cells in cutaneous sensitivity (CS) <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> has been analyzed in this study. CS responses have been revealed to be mediated by at least two distinct subsets of genetically restricted T cells: I-restricted 'DTH-like' T cells and K/D-restricted 'CTL-like' T cells. Both T-cell responses require I-A-positive glass-adherent cell populations, which lack T-cell markers, to manifest their activities. The role of the adherent cells is different in the 'DTH-like' responses and the 'CTL-like' responses. The disparities between the present results and previous contentions are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4753097"><span><span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>: An alternative imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for use in multi-criteria decision analysis for healthcare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective In this paper, the readers are introduced to <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>, an imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. Methods The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers’ (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. Results The criteria were ranked from 1–5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. Conclusions <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs’ preferences are available to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> decision criteria weights. PMID:26361235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26361235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26361235"><span><span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>: An alternative imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for use in multi-criteria decision analysis for healthcare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the readers are introduced to <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span>, an imprecise weight <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers' (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. The criteria were ranked from 1-5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. <span class="hlt">ELICIT</span> is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs' preferences are available to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> decision criteria weights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10536973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10536973"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> consumer preferences for health plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110161','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110161"><span>User-<span class="hlt">Elicited</span> Tactical Information Requirements with Implications for Symbology and Graphic Portrayal Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>a detailed account of the methodology used for information <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> and organization. Chapter 3 describes the study results in terms of clus- ters...European Setting)., ’The scenario (see Appendix A-2) contained the following elements: (1) an account of the <span class="hlt">events</span> ledding up to the present tactical...As I read these statements I’d like you to think about the appli- cation of these principles to graphic portrayal. For example, the first two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3079726','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3079726"><span>Brain Activity <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> by Positive and Negative Feedback in Preschool-Aged Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mai, Xiaoqin; Tardif, Twila; Doan, Stacey N.; Liu, Chao; Gehring, William J.; Luo, Yue-Jia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4–5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by positive feedback was as large as that <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in <span class="hlt">early</span> childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW) over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and <span class="hlt">early</span> school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period. PMID:21526189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29933407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29933407"><span><span class="hlt">Eliciting</span> improved quantitative judgements using the IDEA protocol: A case study in natural resource management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hemming, Victoria; Walshe, Terry V; Hanea, Anca M; Fidler, Fiona; Burgman, Mark A</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Natural resource management uses expert judgement to estimate facts that inform important decisions. Unfortunately, expert judgement is often derived by informal and largely untested protocols, despite evidence that the quality of judgements can be improved with structured approaches. We attribute the lack of uptake of structured protocols to the dearth of illustrative examples that demonstrate how they can be applied within pressing time and resource constraints, while also improving judgements. In this paper, we demonstrate how the IDEA protocol for structured expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> may be deployed to overcome operational challenges while improving the quality of judgements. The protocol was applied to the estimation of 14 future abiotic and biotic <span class="hlt">events</span> on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Seventy-six participants with varying levels of expertise related to the Great Barrier Reef were recruited and allocated randomly to eight groups. Each participant provided their judgements using the four-step question format of the IDEA protocol ('Investigate', 'Discuss', 'Estimate', 'Aggregate') through remote <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>. When the <span class="hlt">events</span> were realised, the participant judgements were scored in terms of accuracy, calibration and informativeness. The results demonstrate that the IDEA protocol provides a practical, cost-effective, and repeatable approach to the <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of quantitative estimates and uncertainty via remote <span class="hlt">elicitation</span>. We emphasise that i) the aggregation of diverse individual judgements into pooled group judgments almost always outperformed individuals, and ii) use of a modified Delphi approach helped to remove linguistic ambiguity, and further improved individual and group judgements. Importantly, the protocol encourages review, critical appraisal and replication, each of which is required if judgements are to be used in place of data in a scientific context. The results add to the growing body of literature that demonstrates the merit of using structured</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433742"><span>Freeze or flee? Negative stimuli <span class="hlt">elicit</span> selective responding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words <span class="hlt">elicit</span> slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli <span class="hlt">elicit</span> a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing response exhibited by animals under threat. Alternatively, we suggest that negative stimuli only <span class="hlt">elicit</span> slowed responding on tasks for which stimulus valence is irrelevant for responding. To discriminate between these motor suppression and response-relevance hypotheses, we <span class="hlt">elicited</span> both lexical decisions and valence judgments of negative words and positive words. Relative to positive words (e.g., kitten), negative words (e.g., spider) <span class="hlt">elicited</span> slower lexical decisions but faster valence judgments. Results therefore indicate that negative stimuli do not cause a generalized motor suppression. Rather, negative stimuli <span class="hlt">elicit</span> selective responding, with faster responses on tasks for which stimulus valence is response-relevant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695721"><span>Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by subliminal drug cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose</p> <p>2014-04-02</p> <p>Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these <span class="hlt">early</span> cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972727','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972727"><span>Nipping Cue Reactivity in the Bud: Baclofen Prevents Limbic Activation <span class="hlt">Elicited</span> by Subliminal Drug Cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Teresa R.; Roberts, David C.S.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J.; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M.; O'Brien, Charles P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these <span class="hlt">early</span> cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen—a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals—could inhibit mesolimbic activation <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. <span class="hlt">Event</span>-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing—that which occurs outside of awareness—before it evolves into a less manageable state. PMID:24695721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090330"><span>Error-related negativities <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by monetary loss and cues that predict loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dunning, Jonathan P; Hajcak, Greg</p> <p>2007-11-19</p> <p><span class="hlt">Event</span>-related potential studies have reported error-related negativity following both error commission and feedback indicating errors or monetary loss. The present study examined whether error-related negativities could be <span class="hlt">elicited</span> by a predictive cue presented prior to both the decision and subsequent feedback in a gambling task. Participants were presented with a cue that indicated the probability of reward on the upcoming trial (0, 50, and 100%). Results showed a negative deflection in the <span class="hlt">event</span>-related potential in response to loss cues compared with win cues; this waveform shared a similar latency and morphology with the traditional feedback error-related negativity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160312','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160312"><span>Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> of population-level effects of disturbance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now <span class="hlt">eliciting</span> expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert <span class="hlt">elicitation</span> complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T"><span>Acting green <span class="hlt">elicits</span> a literal warm glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) <span class="hlt">elicits</span> psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374241"><span>Snake pictures draw more <span class="hlt">early</span> attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from <span class="hlt">event</span>-related brain potentials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of <span class="hlt">early</span> and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more <span class="hlt">early</span> visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the <span class="hlt">early</span> posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the <span class="hlt">early</span> capture of visual attention and that <span class="hlt">early</span> attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446967"><span>Social conflicts <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an N400-like component.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>When people have different opinions, they often adjust their own attitude to match that of others, known as social conformity. How social conflicts trigger subsequent conformity remains unclear. One possibility is that a conflict with the group opinion is perceived as a violation of social information, analogous to using wrong grammar, and activates conflict monitoring and adjustment mechanisms. Using <span class="hlt">event</span> related potential (ERP) recording combined with a face attractiveness judgment task, we investigated the neural encoding of social conflicts. We found that social conflicts <span class="hlt">elicit</span> an N400-like negative deflection, being more negative for conflict with group opinions than no-conflict condition. The social conflict related signals also have a bi-directional profile similar to reward prediction error signals: it was more negative for under-estimation (i.e. one׳s own ratings were smaller than group ratings) than over-estimation, and the larger the differences between ratings, the larger the N400 amplitude. The N400 effects were significantly diminished in the non-social condition. We conclude that social conflicts are encoded in a bidirectional fashion in the N400-like component, similar to the pattern of reward-based prediction error signals. Our findings also suggest that the N400, a well-established ERP component encoding semantic violation, might be involved in social conflict processing and social learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ1059035','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=autobiographical+AND+memory&pg=2&id=EJ1059035"><span>Parents' Strategies to <span class="hlt">Elicit</span> Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to <span class="hlt">elicit</span> child's participation and recall during past <span class="hlt">event</span> conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27219743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27219743"><span><span class="hlt">Early</span> Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family <span class="hlt">Events</span>, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. We aimed to study the relation of <span class="hlt">early</span> TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, "stressful" family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and sex as possible effect modifiers. We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child's first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and sex was investigated. An interquartile range (26 μg/m 3 ) increase in NO x levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful <span class="hlt">events</span>, or in girls (all interaction p -values < 0.2). This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family <span class="hlt">events</span>, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of <span class="hlt">early</span> TRAP exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006255"><span>Rab4b controls an <span class="hlt">early</span> endosome sorting <span class="hlt">event</span> by interacting with the γ-subunit of the clathrin adaptor complex 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perrin, Laura; Laura, Perrin; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Sandra, Lacas-Gervais; Gilleron, Jérôme; Jérôme, Gilleron; Ceppo, Franck; Franck, Ceppo; Prodon, François; François, Prodon; Benmerah, Alexandre; Alexandre, Benmerah; Tanti, Jean-François; Jean-François, Tanti; Cormont, Mireille; Mireille, Cormont</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small Rab GTPases are involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated, although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis or adaptive immunity. Here, we show that Rab4b is required for <span class="hlt">early</span> endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfRs) to the recycling endosomes, and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of <span class="hlt">early</span> endosome sorting. We show that internalised transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in the absence of Rab4b, whereas it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Rab4b leads to the accumulation of internalised Tf within AP-1- and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in <span class="hlt">early</span> and recycling endocytic markers except for TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, the targeted overexpression of the Rab4b-binding domain of AP1γ to <span class="hlt">early</span> endosome upon its fusion with FYVE domains inhibited the interaction between Rab4b and endogenous AP1γ, and perturbed Tf traffic. We thus proposed that the interaction between <span class="hlt">early</span> endocytic Rab4b and AP1γ could allow the budding of clathrin-coated vesicles for subsequent traffic to recycling endosomes. The data also uncover a novel type of endosomes, characterised by low abundance of either <span class="hlt">early</span> or recycling endocytic markers, which could potentially be generated in cell types that naturally express high level of Rab4b.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6171H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6171H"><span>An <span class="hlt">Early</span> Jurassic 40Ar/39Ar Age for the Puchezh-Katunki Impact Structure (Russia) — No Causal Link to an Extinction <span class="hlt">Event</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holm-Alwmark, S.; Alwmark, C.; Lindström, S.; Ferrière, L.; Scherstén, A.; Masaitis, V. L.; Mashchak, M. S.; Naumov, M. V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We propose a revised age of 192.0 ± 0.8 Ma for the formation of the Puchezh-Katunki impact structure, Russia, based on 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of five impact melt rock samples. This age does not correlate with any known extinction <span class="hlt">event</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252248&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=car&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&nt