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  1. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suggestions for Early Motion Picture Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Garth S.

    Only by examining the motion picture as a mass medium, shaped and defined within a specific socio-cultural period in history, can we increase our understanding of the function and contribution of this entertainment form. This paper offers several suggestions for further research into early motion picture history. One glaring deficiency among…

  3. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  4. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  5. The Early Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  6. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  7. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  8. Music Experiences in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andress, Barbara

    This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…

  9. ABCs of Early Mathematics Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensen, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    Children begin to develop mathematical thinking before they enter school. Art, baking, playing with blocks, counting numbers, games, puzzles, singing, playing with pretend money, water play all these early mathematical experiences help the children to learn in the elementary school years.

  10. Maximizing the Online Learning Experience: Suggestions for Educators and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicco, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This article will discuss ways of maximizing the online course experience for teachers- and counselors-in-training. The widespread popularity of online instruction makes it a necessary learning experience for future teachers and counselors (Ash, 2011). New teachers and counselors take on the responsibility of preparing their students for real-life…

  11. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  12. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  13. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  14. Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Fred; Gunz, Philipp; Neubauer, Simon; Stelzer, Stefanie; Scott, Nadia; Kwekason, Amandus; Dean, M Christopher

    2015-03-05

    Besides Homo erectus (sensu lato), the eastern African fossil record of early Homo has been interpreted as representing either a single variable species, Homo habilis, or two species. In the latter case, however, there is no consensus over the respective groupings, and which of the two includes OH 7, the 1.8-million-year-old H. habilis holotype. This partial skull and hand from Olduvai Gorge remains pivotal to evaluating the early evolution of the Homo lineage, and by priority names one or other of the two taxa. However, the distorted preservation of the diagnostically important OH 7 mandible has hindered attempts to compare this specimen with other fossils. Here we present a virtual reconstruction of the OH 7 mandible, and compare it to other early Homo fossils. The reconstructed mandible is remarkably primitive, with a long and narrow dental arcade more similar to Australopithecus afarensis than to the derived parabolic arcades of Homo sapiens or H. erectus. We find that this shape variability is not consistent with a single species of early Homo. Importantly, the jaw morphology of OH 7 is incompatible with fossils assigned to Homo rudolfensis and with the A.L. 666-1 Homo maxilla. The latter is morphologically more derived than OH 7 but 500,000 years older, suggesting that the H. habilis lineage originated before 2.3 million years ago, thus marking deep-rooted species diversity in the genus Homo. We also reconstructed the parietal bones of OH 7 and estimated its endocranial volume. At between 729 and 824 ml it is larger than any previously published value, and emphasizes the near-complete overlap in brain size among species of early Homo. Our results clarify the H. habilis hypodigm, but raise questions about its phylogenetic relationships. Differences between species of early Homo appear to be characterized more by gnathic diversity than by differences in brain size, which was highly variable within all taxa.

  15. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  16. Enduring Influences of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    Implications of three basic facts about very young infants are delineated in this summary. Normally, human infants are capable of a wide range of functions, such as "appetitive responses" (e.g., the rooting reflex) and defensive maneuvers. They experience pleasure and feel pain. Additionally, they undergo a transition from subcortical to…

  17. Early diagnostic suggestions improve accuracy of family physicians: a randomized controlled trial in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Lionis, Christos; Angelaki, Agapi; Ayis, Salma; Durbaba, Stevo; Delaney, Brendan C

    2015-06-01

    In a recent randomized controlled trial, providing UK family physicians with 'early support' (possible diagnoses to consider before any information gathering) was associated with diagnosing hypothetical patients on computer more accurately than control. Another group of physicians, who gathered information, gave a diagnosis, and subsequently received a list of possible diagnoses to consider ('late support'), were no more accurate than control, despite being able to change their initial diagnoses. To replicate the UK study findings in another country with a different primary health care system. All study materials were translated into Greek. Greek family physicians were randomly allocated to one of three groups: control, early support and late support. Participants saw nine scenarios in random order. After reading some information about the patient and the reason for encounter, they requested more information to diagnose. The main outcome measure was diagnostic accuracy. One hundred fifty Greek family physicians participated. The early support group was more accurate than control [odds ratio (OR): 1.67 (1.21-2.31)]. Like their UK counterparts, physicians in the late support group rarely changed their initial diagnoses after receiving support. The pooled OR for the early support versus control comparison from the meta-analysis of the UK and Greek data was 1.40 (1.13-1.67). Using the same methodology with a different sample of family physicians in a different country, we found that suggesting diagnoses to consider before physicians start gathering information was associated with more accurate diagnoses. This constitutes further supportive evidence of a generalizable effect of early support. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Primordial odontogenic tumor: Subepithelial expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 suggests origin during early odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, R; Mikami, T; Pereira-Prado, V; Tapia-Repetto, G; Pires, F R; Carlos, R; Mosqueda-Taylor, A

    2018-03-01

    Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is composed of variably cellular myxoid connective tissue, surrounded by cuboidal to columnar odontogenic epithelium resembling the inner epithelium of the enamel organ, which often invaginates into the underlying connective tissue. The tumor is delimited at least partially by a thin fibrous capsule. It derives from the early stages of tooth development. Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a physiological role in several cellular functions, including maintenance of the epithelial architecture, cell-to-cell adhesion and interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, and with diverse growth factors, stimulating cell proliferation. Ki-67 is considered the gold standard as a cell proliferation marker. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 proliferation index in POT and normal tooth germs to better understand the biological behavior of this tumor. Results showed that Syndecan-1 was more intensely expressed in subepithelial mesenchymal areas of POT, in a pattern that resembles the early stages of tooth development. The cell proliferation index (4.1%) suggests that POT is a slow growing tumor. Syndecan-1 expression in tooth germs in late cap and early bell stages was similar to POT, showing immunopositivity in subepithelial mesenchymal condensed areas. The immunohistochemical findings showed a pattern in which the population of subepithelial mesenchymal cells exhibited greater proliferative activity than the central portion of the dental papilla. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs.

    PubMed

    Charles Deeming, D; Mayr, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis. Known elongation ratios of Mesozoic bird eggs allowed us to predict egg mass and hence the load mass an egg could endure before cracking. These values were compared to the predicted body masses of the adult birds based on skeletal remains. Based on 21 fossil species, we show that for nonornithothoracine birds body mass was 187% of the load mass of the eggs. For Enantiornithes, body mass was 127% greater than the egg load mass, but some early Cretaceous ornithuromorphs were 179% heavier than their eggs could support. Our indirect approach provides the best evidence yet that early birds could not have sat on their eggs without running the risk of causing damage. We suggest that contact incubation evolved comparatively late in birds. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra

    PubMed Central

    Emerling, Christopher A.; Springer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution. PMID:25540280

  1. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  2. The plasticity of early memory reports: social pressure, hypnotizability, compliance, and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Malinoski, P T; Lynn, S J

    1999-10-01

    Early autobiographical memory reports by adults were very sensitive to social influence in a leading interview. The mean age of initial earliest memory report was 3.7 years. When participants were instructed to close their eyes, visualize, and focus on their 2nd birthday, 59% reported a birthday memory. After repeated probes for earlier memories, 78% of subjects reported memories at or prior to 24 months of age, and 33% reported memories within the first 12 months of age. The mean age of the final earliest memory reported was 1.6 years. Participants rated their memory reports as accurate and did not recant them when given an opportunity. The age of earliest memory reports in the suggestive interview correlated negatively with measures of compliance, hypnotizability, and interrogative suggestibility.

  3. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2014-11-20

    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5 Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia.

  4. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    PubMed

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  5. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  6. Early Response of Mouse Joint Tissues to Noninvasive Knee Injury Suggests Treatment Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, P.; Holguin, N.; Silva, M. J.; Fu, M.; Liao, W.; Sandell, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Joint trauma can lead to a spectrum of acute lesions, including cartilage degradation, ligament or meniscus tears, and synovitis, all potentially associated with osteoarthritis. The goal of this study was to generate and validate a murine model of knee joint trauma following non-invasive controlled injurious compression in vivo and to investigate early molecular events. Methods The right knees of 8-week old mice were placed in a hyperflexed position and subjected to compressive joint loading at one of three peak forces (3, 6, 9 N) for 60 cycles in a single loading period and harvested at 5, 9 and 14 days post loading (n=3–5 mice for each time point and for each loading). The left knees were not loaded and served as the contralateral controls. Histological, immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses were performed to evaluate acute pathologic features in chondrocyte viability, cartilage matrix metabolism, synovial reaction, and serum COMP levels. Results Acute joint pathology was associated with increased injurious loads. All loading regimens induced chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage matrix degradation, disruption of cartilage collagen fibril arrangement, and increased levels of serum COMP. We also observed that 6N loading induced mild synovitis by day 5 whereas at 9 N, with tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament, severe posttraumatic synovitis and ectopic cartilage formation were observed. Conclusion We have established and analyzed some early events in a murine model of knee joint trauma with different degrees of over-loading in vivo. These results suggest that immediate therapies particularly targeted to apoptosis and synovial cell proliferation could affect the acute posttraumatic reaction to potentially limit chronic consequences and osteoarthritis. PMID:24470303

  7. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  8. Suggestibility, Social Support, and Memory for a Novel Experience in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, J.A.; Wallin, A.R.; Papini, S.; Lench, H.; Scullin, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened…

  9. Does the Nature of the Experience Influence Suggestibility? A Study of Children's Event Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Camilla; Mega, Carolina; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined effects of event modality on young children's memory and suggestibility. Findings indicated that 5-year-olds were more accurate than 3-year-olds and those participating in the event were more accurate than those either observing or listening to a narrative. Assessment method, level of event learning, delay to testing, and…

  10. Pedagogical Play Types: What Do They Suggest for Learning about Sustainability in Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability education is increasingly understood as necessary for young children. An important aspect of early childhood sustainability education is associated with how best to integrate the conceptual basis of sustainability education with existing play-based pedagogies. Play-based pedagogies can be understood as occurring along a continuum,…

  11. NCLB: State Interpretations, Early Effects, and Suggestions for Reauthorization. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2007-01-01

    The upcoming reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will be contentious, especially given the size of the act and the role it gives the federal government. When making decisions about reauthorization, it is important to consider the early evidence about the act's implementation and effectiveness. The first important finding about NCLB is…

  12. Spectroscopic imaging of the pilocarpine model of human epilepsy suggests that early NAA reduction predicts epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gomes, W A; Lado, F A; de Lanerolle, N C; Takahashi, K; Pan, C; Hetherington, H P

    2007-08-01

    Reduced hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is commonly observed in patients with advanced, chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It is unclear, however, whether an NAA deficit is also present during the clinically quiescent latent period that characterizes early TLE. This question has important implications for the use of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the early identification of patients at risk for TLE. To determine whether NAA is diminished during the latent period, we obtained high-resolution (1)H spectroscopic imaging during the latent period of the rat pilocarpine model of human TLE. We used actively detuneable surface reception and volume transmission coils to enhance sensitivity and a semiautomated voxel shifting method to accurately position voxels within the hippocampi. During the latent period, 2 and 7 d following pilocarpine treatment, hippocampal NAA was significantly reduced by 27.5 +/- 6.9% (P < 0.001) and 17.3 +/- 6.9% (P < 0.001) at 2 and 7 d, respectively. Quantitative estimates of neuronal loss at 7 d (2.3 +/- 7.7% reduction; P = 0.58, not significant) demonstrate that the NAA deficit is not due to neuron loss and therefore likely represents metabolic impairment of hippocampal neurons during the latent phase. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging provides an early marker for metabolic dysfunction in this model of TLE.

  13. Quality of experience in real and virtual environments: some suggestions for the development of positive technologies.

    PubMed

    Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    What does one feel when one uses virtual reality? How does this experience differ from the experience associated with "real life" activities and situations? To answer these questions, we used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a procedure that allows researchers to investigate the daily fluctuations in the quality of experience through on-line self reports that participants fill out during daily life. The investigation consisted in one-week ESM observation (N = 42). During this week, participants underwent two virtual reality sessions: Immediately after the exposure to virtual environments, they were asked to complete a ESM report. For data analysis, experiential variables were aggregated into four dimensions: Mood, Engagement, Confidence, and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation. Findings showed that virtual experience is characterized by a specific configuration, which comprises significantly positive values for affective and cognitive components. In particular, positive scores of Mood suggest that participants perceived VR as an intrinsically pleasurable activity, while positive values of Engagement indicate that the use of VR and the experimental task provided valid opportunities for action and high skill investment. Furthermore, results showed that virtual experience is associated with Flow, a state of consciousness characterized by narrowed focus of attention, deep concentration, positive affect and intrinsic reward. Implications for VR research and practice are discussed.

  14. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  15. Ion bombardment experiments suggesting an origin for organic particles in pre-cometary and cometary ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    During the Giotto and Vega encounters with Comet Halley both organic particles called CHON and energetic ions were detected. The acceleration of ions to hundreds of keV in the vicinity of the bow shock and near the nucleus may be a demonstration of a situation occurring in the early solar system (perhaps during the T Tauri stage) that led to the formation of organic particles only now released. Utilizing a Van de Graaff accelerator and a target chamber having cryogenic and mass spectrometer capabilities, frozen gases were bombarded at 10 K with 175 keV protons with the result that fluffy solid material remains after sublimation of the ice. Initial experiments were carried out with a gas mixture in parts of 170 carbon monoxide, 170 argon, 25 water, 20 nitrogen, and 15 methane formulated to reflect an interstellar composition in experiments involving the freezing out of the products of a plasma. The plasma experiments resulted in a varnish-like film residue that exhibited luminescence when excited with ultraviolet radiation, while the ion bombardment created particulate material that was not luminescent.

  16. Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Wallin, Allison R; Papini, Silvia; Lench, Heather; Scullin, Matthew H

    2005-08-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed.

  17. Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Wallin, Allison R.; Papini, Silvia; Lench, Heather; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed. PMID:15904929

  18. Starflo glaucoma implant: early experience in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    István, Cseke; Péter, Vámosi; Mária, Bausz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the early experience with the implantation technique, safety and efficiency of STARflo™ device for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: referring intra- and postoperative clinical experience with a series of seven cases in three glaucoma centers in Hungary. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative inflammatory signs disappeared rapidly. The mean IOP reduction was from 27,6 ± 5,0 mmHg to 18,9±3,4 mmHg (32% reduction/ patient) at six months postoperatively. Conclusion: STARflo™ implant was safe and (except for one case with neovascular glaucoma) effective in our cases. The learning curve for experienced anterior segment surgeons was short. PMID:27220226

  19. Two functions of early language experience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  20. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning to measures individual differences with face categories for which men and women may differ in experience, using the faces of Barbie dolls and of Transformers. The results show a crossover interaction between subject gender and category, where men outperform women with Transformers' faces. We demonstrate that men can outperform women with some categories of faces, suggesting that explanations for a general face recognition advantage for women are in fact not needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Site fidelity and condition metrics suggest sequential habitat use by early juvenile snook

    Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole; Peebles, Ernst B; Hollander, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The common snook Centropomus undecimalis is an estuarine-dependent fish that relies on landward wetlands as nursery habitat. Despite its economic importance, portions of the snook's early life history are poorly understood. We compared habitat use of young-of-the-year (YOY) snook in 2 geomorphic mesohabitats (tidal pond and tidal creek) along an estuarine gradient (upstream vs. downstream) within a single wetland during fall recruitment. We used abundance, length, condition indices, and stable isotopes to assess ontogenetic mesohabitat use and site fidelity. We found that (1) YOY snook were more abundant within the upstream creek and ponds; (2) the smallest snook were found only in ponds; (3) snook from ponds had lower condition (Fulton's K and hepatosomatic index); (4) snook began moving from ponds to the creek at ~40 mm standard length; and (5) snook from the 2 mesohabitats were isotopically distinct, indicating high site fidelity at rather small spatial scales. Collectively, these data identified sequential use of mesohabitats, wherein seaward-spawned YOY snook moved landward and recruited to pond habitats, where they dedicated energy to growth (as length) before making an ontogenetic habitat shift to the creek. Once in the creek, YOY snook condition improved as they approached maturity and started the downstream return towards seaward locations. The wetland network that was previously viewed as generalized nursery habitat instead consists of mesohabitats that support different life stages in sequence. This represents ontogenetic habitat complementation, in which lower availability of a required mesohabitat type may limit the entire wetland's contribution to the adult population.

  2. Toward early safety alert endpoints: exploring biomarkers suggestive of microbicide failure.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Lai, Jaim Jou; Weiner, Debra H; Chandra, Neelima; Fichorova, Raina N; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Hillier, Sharon L; Archer, David F; Creinin, Mitchell D; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-11-01

    Several microbicides, including nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and cellulose sulfate (CS), looked promising during early trials but failed in efficacy trials. We aimed to identify Phase I mucosal safety endpoints that might explain that failure. In a blinded, randomized, parallel trial, 60 healthy premenopausal sexually abstinent women applied Universal HEC placebo, 6% CS or 4% N-9 gel twice daily for 13½ days. Endpoints included immune biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and endocervical cytobrushes, inflammatory infiltrates in vaginal biopsies, epithelial integrity by naked eye, colposcopy, and histology, CVL anti-HIV activity, vaginal microflora, pH, and adverse events. Twenty women enrolled per group. Soluble/cellular markers were similar with CS and placebo, except secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) levels decreased in CVL, and CD3(+) and CD45(+) cells increased in biopsies after CS use. Increases in interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1, IL-1RA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreases in SLPI were significant with N-9. CVL anti-HIV activity was significantly higher during CS use compared to N-9 or placebo. CS users tended to have a higher prevalence of intermediate Nugent score, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus and fewer gram-negative rods. Most Nugent scores diagnostic for bacterial vaginosis were in N-9 users. All cases of histological inflammation or deep epithelial disruption occurred in N-9 users. While the surfactant N-9 showed obvious biochemical and histological signs of inflammation, more subtle changes, including depression of SLPI, tissue influx of CD45(+) and CD3(+) cells, and subclinical microflora shifts were associated with CS use and may help to explain the clinical failure of nonsurfactant microbicides.

  3. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  4. A dynamic early East Antarctic Ice Sheet suggested by ice-covered fjord landscapes.

    PubMed

    Young, Duncan A; Wright, Andrew P; Roberts, Jason L; Warner, Roland C; Young, Neal W; Greenbaum, Jamin S; Schroeder, Dustin M; Holt, John W; Sugden, David E; Blankenship, Donald D; van Ommen, Tas D; Siegert, Martin J

    2011-06-02

    The first Cenozoic ice sheets initiated in Antarctica from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and other highlands as a result of rapid global cooling ∼34 million years ago. In the subsequent 20 million years, at a time of declining atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and an evolving Antarctic circumpolar current, sedimentary sequence interpretation and numerical modelling suggest that cyclical periods of ice-sheet expansion to the continental margin, followed by retreat to the subglacial highlands, occurred up to thirty times. These fluctuations were paced by orbital changes and were a major influence on global sea levels. Ice-sheet models show that the nature of such oscillations is critically dependent on the pattern and extent of Antarctic topographic lowlands. Here we show that the basal topography of the Aurora Subglacial Basin of East Antarctica, at present overlain by 2-4.5 km of ice, is characterized by a series of well-defined topographic channels within a mountain block landscape. The identification of this fjord landscape, based on new data from ice-penetrating radar, provides an improved understanding of the topography of the Aurora Subglacial Basin and its surroundings, and reveals a complex surface sculpted by a succession of ice-sheet configurations substantially different from today's. At different stages during its fluctuations, the edge of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet lay pinned along the margins of the Aurora Subglacial Basin, the upland boundaries of which are currently above sea level and the deepest parts of which are more than 1 km below sea level. Although the timing of the channel incision remains uncertain, our results suggest that the fjord landscape was carved by at least two iceflow regimes of different scales and directions, each of which would have over-deepened existing topographic depressions, reversing valley floor slopes.

  5. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  6. Biological Perspectives on the Effects of Early Psychosocial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Kenney, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    There is much current interest in how adverse experiences early in life might affect certain elements of physiological, behavioral, and psychological functioning across the lifespan. Recent conceptual frameworks for studying the effects of early experience have involved constructs such as experience-expectant, experience-dependent, and…

  7. Studying the Effects of Early Experiences on Women's Career Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    Virtually all psychological theories assume that early life experiences have an impact on later life choices. However, increasing doubts have been expressed about the universality and permanence of the relationship between women's work and family lives. To explore how early family experiences and early adult decisions affect women's later career…

  8. Accidents on board merchant ships. Suggestions based on Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) experience.

    PubMed

    Napoleone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This statistical study was performed to find out the occurrence of accidents on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) during the years 2010-2015, with the aim of providing suggestions in accident prevention, based on such a wide experience. The case histories of CIRM in the years 2010-2015 were examined. The total number of accidents per year was calculated and compared as a percentage with the total number of cases assisted by CIRM per year. The incidence of accidents on board in these years ranged between 14.4% and 18.4% of total cases assisted per year, which is constantly increasing. The most common injuries on board among cases treated by CIRM were contusions and wounds. Also burns and eye injuries were significantly represented. Multiple injuries and head injuries were found to be the most frequent cause of death on board due to an accident. More information on the occurrence and type of accidents and on the body injured areas should represent the basis for developing strategies and campaigns for their prevention.

  9. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  10. Use of insulin pumps in India: suggested guidelines based on experience and cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Kesavadev, Jothydev; Das, Ashok Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Joshi, Shashank R; Ramachandran, Ambady; Shamsudeen, Jisha; Krishnan, Gopika; Jothydev, Sunitha; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-10-01

    subcutaneous insulin infusion in selected T2DM subjects. This article aims at suggesting guidelines based on clinical experience and cultural diversity for India and developing countries.

  11. Use of Insulin Pumps in India: Suggested Guidelines Based on Experience and Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Joshi, Shashank R.; Ramachandran, Ambady; Shamsudeen, Jisha; Krishnan, Gopika; Jothydev, Sunitha; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in selected T2DM subjects. This article aims at suggesting guidelines based on clinical experience and cultural diversity for India and developing countries. PMID:20807118

  12. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E.

    2014-01-01

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. PMID:24993021

  13. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. © 2014 ARVO.

  14. 78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... ideas for new institutionally based experiments designed to test alternative ways of administering the... Secretary will design experiments and corresponding evaluation plans. The Secretary will subsequently... requirements. Many of these requirements are also designed to provide protections and safeguards to students...

  15. Our Man-Made Environment. A Collection of Experiences, Resources and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group for Environmental Education, Philadelphia, PA.

    This collection of activities, experiences, and resources focuses on the man-made environment. The activities and resources were compiled to facilitate a program based upon the teacher's and student's own living experiences in their own environment. The goals of the program are to develop the individual's awareness of his environment and…

  16. Suggestions for Implementing First Year Experience Learning Communities in Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Kathryn; Genareo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a First Year Experience learning community in a teacher education program. The First Year Experience model was adopted by the university because of declining enrollment, retention, and graduation rates and has been generally successful in the education department. With little information available for teacher…

  17. Women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home.

    PubMed

    Hedqvist, Maria; Brolin, Lina; Tydén, Tanja; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home and to investigate their perceptions of the information provided before the abortion. The study also aimed to investigate possible differences between groups of women. The study is cross-sectional with a descriptive and comparative design. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 119 women who had undergone a medical abortion at home. Almost half of the women (43%, n = 51) experienced the bleeding as more than expected and one-fourth (26%, n = 31) bled for more than four weeks. One-third (34%, n = 41) stated a lack of information, especially about the bleeding and pain. The experience of pain differed between groups. Women who had undergone an earlier abortion and women who had previously given birth experienced the abortion as being less painful than that experienced by first-time gravidae (p < 0.05). The finding that women experience information about the pain and bleeding to be insufficient suggests that information in those areas can be improved. The result that women without previous experience of abortion or childbirth stated the pain as being worse than other groups investigated suggests that special attention should be paid to those women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  19. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  20. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  1. Altered gene expression in dry age-related macular degeneration suggests early loss of choroidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, S Scott; Braun, Terry A; Skeie, Jessica M; Haas, Christine M; Sohn, Elliott H; Stone, Edwin M; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ≥50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ≥ median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = -2.61; raw p value=0.0008). GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker expression. These results are

  2. The Near Future Trend: Combining Web Access and Local CD Networks. Experience and a Few Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the trend to combine Web access and CD networks, benefits of considering the community network environment as a whole, and need for flexibility in considering new technologies. Describes the Occidental College Library (California) experience of building and sharing a network and network file server. (PEN)

  3. Generative Role of Experiments in Physics and in Teaching Physics: A Suggestion for Epistemological Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Mantyla, Terhi

    2006-01-01

    In physics teaching experimentality is an integral component in giving the starting point of knowledge formation and conceptualization. However, epistemology of experiments is not often addressed directly in the educational and pedagogical literature. This warrants an attempt to produce an acceptable reconstruction of the epistemological role of…

  4. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  5. Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-02-01

    In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  7. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  8. Simulation of Viking biology experiments suggests smectites not palagonites, as martian soil analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Margulies, L.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental comparison of palagonites and a smectite (montmorillonite) was performed in a simulation of the Viking Biology Labelled Release (LR) experiment in order to judge which mineral is a better Mars soil analog material (MarSAM). Samples of palagonite were obtained from cold weathering environments and volcanic soil, and the smectite was extracted from Wyoming Bentonite and converted to H or Fe types. Decomposition reaction kinetics were examined in the LR simulation, which on the Lander involved interaction of the martian soil with organic compounds. Reflectance spectroscopy indicated that smectites bearing Fe(III) in well-crystallized sites are not good MarSAMS. The palagonites did not cause the formate decomposition and C-14 emission detected in the LR, indicating that palagonites are also not good MarSAMS. Smectites, however, may be responsible for ion exchange, molecular adsorption, and catalysis in martian soil.

  9. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  10. Apparent changes in body insulation of juvenile king penguins suggest an energetic challenge during their early life at sea.

    PubMed

    Enstipp, Manfred R; Bost, Charles-André; Le Bohec, Céline; Bost, Caroline; Le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri; Handrich, Yves

    2017-07-15

    Little is known about the early life at sea of marine top predators, like deep-diving king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ), although this dispersal phase is probably a critical phase in their life. Apart from finding favourable foraging sites, they have to develop effective prey search patterns as well as physiological capacities that enable them to capture sufficient prey to meet their energetic needs. To investigate the ontogeny of their thermoregulatory responses at sea, we implanted 30 juvenile king penguins and 8 adult breeders with a small data logger that recorded pressure and subcutaneous temperature continuously for up to 2.5 years. We found important changes in the development of peripheral temperature patterns of foraging juvenile king penguins throughout their first year at sea. Peripheral temperature during foraging bouts fell to increasingly lower levels during the first 6 months at sea, after which it stabilized. Most importantly, these changes re-occurred during their second year at sea, after birds had fasted for ∼4 weeks on land during their second moult. Furthermore, similar peripheral temperature patterns were also present in adult birds during foraging trips throughout their breeding cycle. We suggest that rather than being a simple consequence of concurrent changes in dive effort or an indication of a physiological maturation process, these seasonal temperature changes mainly reflect differences in thermal insulation. Heat loss estimates for juveniles at sea were initially high but declined to approximately half after ∼6 months at sea, suggesting that juvenile king penguins face a strong energetic challenge during their early oceanic existence. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  12. Early-Time HANE Simulation and Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    we suggest attacking the question of structure with target variation. Irregular structure in laboratory simulations of HANE’s can arise from...plasma instabilities even when the illuminating laser beam and target are optimized to yield a very uniform initial expansion. Irregularities ... irregular structure be purposely explored. In particular we encourage the use of a wide variety of inhomogeneous targets. Target irregularities

  13. Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others

    A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…

  14. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  15. Early experiences with E-prescribing.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John

    2006-01-01

    Most physicians understand that e-prescribing will reduce medical errors and will be perceived by patients as making the prescription process easier. However, they are skeptical about a number of things. They worry whether their office processes will be improved or streamlined; e-prescribing will interface seamlessly with their existing practice management software; training and support will be available; e-prescribing data will be seamlessly transferable to an electronic health record when they implement a more advanced clinical record system for their practice; and if they will achieve a return on investment. Early adopting clinicians in Massachusetts can convince the majority of clinicians to adopt e-prescribing by sharing their motivations for adopting e-prescribing, the challenges that they needed to overcome, the hardware and software requirements, and integration into their office workflow. Finally, interaction with the physicians and practice managers in the audience makes the adoption of e-prescribing seem both reasonable and exciting. Resources such as vendor lists, questions to ask, and hardware and software requirements also need to be readily available and in a form that non-technical staff can read and understand. Physicians who know the "why" would also like to know

  16. Kame deltas provide evidence for a new glacial lake and suggest early glacial retreat from central Lower Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzl, Randall J.; Lepper, Kenneth; Thomas, Sarah E.; Grove, Leslie; Treiber, Emma; Farmer, Alison; Fillmore, Austin; Lee, Jordan; Dickerson, Bethany; Alme, Kayleigh

    2017-03-01

    In association with an undergraduate Honors Seminar at Michigan State University, we studied two small kame deltas in north-central Lower Michigan. These recently identified deltas provide clear evidence for a previously unknown proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Roscommon) in this large basin located in an interlobate upland. Our first goal was to document and characterize the geomorphology of these deltas. Because both deltas are tied to ice-contact ridges that mark the former position of the retreating ice margin within the lake, our second goal was to establish the age of one of the deltas, thereby constraining the timing of ice retreat in this part of Michigan, for which little information currently exists. Both deltas are composed of well-sorted fine and medium sands with little gravel, and have broad, nearly flat surfaces and comparatively steep fronts. Samples taken from the upper 1.5 m of the deltas show little spatial variation in texture, aside from a general fining toward their outer margins. Gullies on the outer margins of both deltas probably postdate the formation of the deltas proper; we suggest that they formed by runoff during a permafrost period, subsequent to lake drawdown. We named the ice lobe that once covered this area the Mackinac Lobe, because it had likely advanced into the region across the Mackinac Straits area. Five of six optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from one of the deltas had minimal scatter and were within ± 1000 years of one another, with a mean age of 23.1 ± 0.4 ka. These ages suggest that the Mackinac Lobe had started to retreat from the region considerably earlier than previously thought, even while ice was near its maximum extent in Illinois and Indiana, and the remainder of Michigan was ice-covered. This early retreat, which appears to coincide with a short-lived warm period indicated from the Greenland ice core, formed an "opening" that was at least occasionally flooded. Thick and deep, fine-textured deposits

  17. Early experiences of accredited clinical informatics fellowships.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Christopher A; Pageler, Natalie M; Palma, Jonathan P; Finnell, John T; Levy, Bruce P; Yackel, Thomas R; Mohan, Vishnu; Hersh, William R

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of the clinical informatics subspecialty for physicians in 2013, over 1100 physicians have used the practice and education pathways to become board-certified in clinical informatics. Starting in 2018, only physicians who have completed a 2-year clinical informatics fellowship program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education will be eligible to take the board exam. The purpose of this viewpoint piece is to describe the collective experience of the first four programs accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education and to share lessons learned in developing new fellowship programs in this novel medical subspecialty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarker abnormalities suggest early neurological injury in a subset of individuals during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Price, Richard W; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolites. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = -0.35, P = .02; r = -0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation.

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarker Abnormalities Suggest Early Neurological Injury in a Subset of Individuals During Primary HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Michael J.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Price, Richard W.; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C.; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J.; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. Methods. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)–based metabolites. Results. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = −0.35, P = .02; r = −0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation. PMID:23460748

  1. Comparison of color to fluorescein angiographic images from patients with early-adult onset grouped drusen suggests drusen substructure.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen R; Gupta, Raghav R; Folk, James C; Mullins, Robert F; Hageman, Gregory S

    2004-05-01

    Recent structural and histochemical data from our laboratory indicate that human drusen often possess distinct, structural core domains. A similar, corelike structure is frequently noted clinically in some drusen-related conditions. To assess the nature of the corelike structures observed clinically, we evaluated color photographs and fluorescein angiograms from patients with early-adult onset grouped drusen (EAOGD). Retrospective case series. The areas of the six largest drusen and hyperfluorescent lesions for eight patients confirmed to have EAOGD were estimated by two masked examiners (RRG, JCF). Data were normalized using a logarithmic transformation and evaluated using a mixed model analysis to account for intragrader, interobserver and intrasubject effects. The average color to hyperfluorescence drusen area ratio was 2.29 (SE, 0.06). The area of drusen viewed in color photographs significantly exceeds that of the corresponding area of hyperfluorescence (P <.0001). The average drusen area (geometric mean) was 0.014 mm(2) (SE, 0.001 mm(2)) and the average hyperfluorescent lesion area was 0.006 mm(2) (SE, 0.0005 mm(2)). The areas of the hyperfluorescent lesions do not vary among the capillary, venous, and washout angiographic phases. The lesions exceed choroidal intensity and demonstrate prominent, uniformly hyperintense fluorescence throughout all but the choroidal phases of the angiogram. These data show that large visible drusen in EAOGD are concentric to regions of hyperfluorescence, suggesting that drusen may possess clinically detectable, substructural domains. Ongoing studies seek to determine whether clinical evidence of drusen substructure may exist in other drusen-associated disorders, such as in age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Suggestions for planning a migration-monitoring network based on the experience of establishing and operating the maps program

    David F. DeSante

    2005-01-01

    Based on the experience of creating and implementing the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program, I suggest that, to be successful, a migration-monitoring network must: (1) provide strong justification for the data it proposes to collect; (2) provide direct links between those monitoring data and both research and management goals; (3) provide...

  3. Cultural sensitivity or professional acculturation in early clinical experience?

    PubMed

    Whitford, David L; Hubail, Amal Redha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the early clinical experience of medical students following the adaptation of an Early Patient Contact curriculum from a European culture in Ireland to an Arab culture in Bahrain. Medical students in Bahrain took part in an Early Patient Contact module modelled on a similar module from a partner medical school in Ireland. We used a qualitative approach employing thematic analysis of 54 student reflective logbooks. Particular attention was placed on reflections of cultural influences of experience in the course. Medical students undergoing this module received reported documented benefits of early clinical experience. However, students in Bahrain were exposed to cultural norms of the local Arab society including gender values, visiting the homes of strangers, language barriers and generous hospitality that led to additional challenges and learning for the medical students in acculturating to norms of the medical profession. Modules intended for curriculum adaptation between two cultures would be best served by a group of "core" learning outcomes with "secondary" outcomes culturally appropriate to each site. Within the context of the Arab culture, early clinical experience has the added benefit of allowing students to learn about both local and professional cultural norms, thereby facilitating integration of these two cultures.

  4. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  5. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  6. Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the occipital components P1, N170, and P400 compared to family-reared children. By 42 months, ERP amplitudes and latencies of children placed in foster care were intermediate between the institutionalized and family-reared children, suggesting that foster care may be partially effective in ameliorating adverse neural changes caused by institutionalization. The age at which children were placed into foster care was unrelated to their ERP outcomes at 42 months. Facial emotion processing was similar in all 3 groups of children; specifically, fearful faces elicited larger amplitude and longer latency responses than happy faces for the frontocentral components P250 and Nc. These results have important implications for understanding of the role that experience plays in shaping the developing brain.

  7. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  8. New Directions in the Study of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I; Campos, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Greenough, Black, and Wallace's (1987) conceptual framework for understanding the effects of early experience and sensitive periods on development, and illustrates the applicability of their model with recent data on the consequences for animals and human infants of the acquistion of self-produced locomotion. (BN)

  9. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  10. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  11. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  12. Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) RPC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Callie

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the background, objectives, methodology, validation, and present status of the Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment. The potential NASA contribution to CREWS Decision Support Tool (DST) centers on remotely sensed imagery products.

  13. Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak complex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Fredrikson, Mats; Unge, Patrik; Hagenfeldt, Andrea; Valind, Sven; Larhammar, Dan; Larsson, Marcus

    2005-04-29

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with weak (micro Tesla) complex waveform fields have been claimed to evoke the sensed presence of a sentient being in up to 80% in the general population. These findings have had a questionable neurophysiological foundation as the fields are approximately six orders of magnitude weaker than ordinary TMS fields. Also, no independent replication has been reported. To replicate and extend previous findings, we performed a double-blind experiment (N=89), with a sham-field control group. Personality characteristics indicating suggestibility (absorption, signs of abnormal temporal lobe activity, and a "new age"-lifestyle orientation) were used as predictors. Sensed presence, mystical, and other somatosensory experiences previously reported from the magnetic field stimulation were outcome measures. We found no evidence for any effects of the magnetic fields, neither in the entire group, nor in individuals high in suggestibility. Because the personality characteristics significantly predicted outcomes, suggestibility may account for previously reported effects. Our results strongly question the earlier claims of experiential effects of weak magnetic fields.

  14. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  15. Developing the Effective Teaching Skills of Teacher Candidates during Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Kelly A.; Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of effective teaching skills in teacher candidates in the context of early field experiences directly tied to a pedagogical course. Evidence from faculty instructors, mentor teachers, and teacher candidates suggests secondary education candidates were able to develop effective teaching skills related to…

  16. Effects of Cyberbullying Experience and Cyberbullying Tendency on School Violence in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871

  17. A website to improve asthma care by suggesting patient questions for physicians: qualitative analysis of user experiences.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christine W; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Blanch, Danielle C; Mui, Sarah; Lawless, Heather; Manocchia, Michael; Rosen, Rochelle K; Pietropaoli, Anthony

    2007-02-07

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States, yet despite the existence of national guidelines, nearly three fourths of patients with asthma do not have adequate control and clinical adherence to guidelines is low. While there are many reasons for this, physician inertia with respect to treatment change is partly to blame. Research suggests that patients who ask for specific tests and treatments are more likely to receive them. This study investigated the impact and experience of using an interactive patient website designed to give patients individual feedback about their condition and to suggest tailored questions for patients to ask their physician. The website was designed to be used prior to a physician visit, to increase the likelihood that patients would receive recommended tests and treatments. A total of 37 adult patients with asthma participated in semi-structured telephone interviews aimed at eliciting information about their experiences with the website. Transcripts were coded using qualitative data analysis techniques and software. Themes were developed from subsets of codes generated through the analysis. In addition, 26 physicians were surveyed regarding their impressions of the website. Opportunities exist for improving website feedback, although the majority of both patient and physician respondents held favorable opinions about the site. Two major themes emerged regarding patients' experiences with the website. First, many patients who used the website had a positive shift in their attitudes regarding interactions with their physicians. Second, use of the website prompted patients to become more actively involved in their asthma care. No patient reported any negative experiences as a result of using the website. Physicians rated the website positively. Patients perceived that the interactive website intervention improved communication and interaction with their physicians, suggesting that patients can play a role in

  18. Seclusion and restraint in psychiatry: patients' experiences and practical suggestions on how to improve practices and use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Kontio, Raija; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hane, Kimmo; Holi, Matti; Välimäki, Maritta

    2012-01-01

    This study explored psychiatric inpatients' experiences of, and their suggestions for, improvement of seclusion/restraint, and alternatives to their use in Finland. The data were collected by focused interviews (n= 30) and were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Patients' perspectives received insufficient attention during seclusion/restraint processes. Improvements (e.g., humane treatment) and alternatives (e.g., empathetic patient-staff interaction) to seclusion/restraint, as suggested by the patients, focused on essential parts of nursing practice but have not been largely adopted. Patients' basic needs have to be met, and patient-staff interaction has to also continue during seclusion/restraint. Providing patients with meaningful activities, planning beforehand, documenting the patients' wishes, and making patient-staff agreements reduce the need for restrictions and offer alternatives for seclusion/restraint. Service users must be involved in all practical development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Medical students, early general practice placements and positive supervisor experiences.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.

  20. Increased plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 suggests early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Natalia; Skupien, Jan; Niewczas, Monika A.; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Major, Melissa; Croall, Stephanie; Smiles, Adam; Warram, James H.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    Progressively decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or renal decline, is seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Here we examined the associations of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in plasma and urine with the risk of renal decline and determine whether those associations are independent of markers of glomerular damage. The study group comprised patients with T1D from the 2nd Joslin Kidney Study of which 259 had normoalbuminuria and 203 had microalbuminuria. Serial measurements over 4 to 10 years of follow-up (median 8 years) of serum creatinine and cystatin C were used jointly to estimate eGFRcr-cys slopes and time of onset of CKD stage 3 or higher. Baseline urinary excretion of IgG2 and albumin were used as markers of glomerular damage, and urinary excretion of KIM-1 and its plasma concentration were used as markers of proximal tubular damage. All patients had normal renal function at baseline. During follow-up, renal decline (eGFRcr-cys loss 3.3% or more per year) developed in 96 patients and 62 progressed to CKD stage 3. For both outcomes, the risk rose with increasing baseline levels of plasma KIM-1. In multivariable models, elevated baseline plasma KIM-1 was strongly associated with risk of early progressive renal decline, regardless of baseline clinical characteristics, serum TNFR1 or markers of glomerular damage. Thus, damage to proximal tubules may play an independent role in the development of early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with T1D. PMID:26509588

  1. Components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP)

    1969-07-20

    AS11-37-5551 (20 July 1969) --- Two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) are seen deployed on the lunar surface in this view photographed from inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the far background is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); and to the right and closer to the camera is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3). The footprints of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are very distinct in the lunar soil.

  2. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

    PubMed

    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  4. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ghaskadbi, Saroj

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1) and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70) proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla. PMID:24083246

  5. Structural and sequence similarities of hydra xeroderma pigmentosum A protein to human homolog suggest early evolution and conservation.

    PubMed

    Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1) and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70) proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  6. [Narrative analysis on survivor's experience of Daegu subway fire disaster--the hypothetical suggestions for disaster nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Choi, Namhee

    2005-04-01

    Some fifty survivors participated in the narrative therapy sessions from March 2003 to December 2004, and thirty cases were analyzed using the transcripts. Each participant's surviving story was summarized, and then interpreted and reinterpreted by the survivors themselves in collaboration with the researcher. The two main principles in narrative analysis were hermeneutical distanciation and hermeneutical circulation. First, nursing involvement should play active roles from the early stages of disaster incidents. Specifically, emergency nursing and flexible coping plans are to be available according to the specific properties of each case. Secondly, it is necessary to try to understand the extreme emotional experiences of disaster survival. The horror and pain people feel at an incident cannot simply be generalized, and it requires that each case be approached individually to help stop social alienation. Thirdly, more constant and long-term studies are required to set up nursing strategies for disaster survivors. Forming a trusting relationship with survivors is basic, and formally registering as participants is necessary for continuous interventions. Fourthly, we should deeply appreciate the danger and complexity of modern society and understand the complex nature of disaster. Fifthly, interdisciplinary activities and studies are necessary in combination with various other fields to establish a framework of total nursing care for disaster incidents. Lastly, it is urgently necessary to educate families and friends of the survivors and the society as a whole about life after a disaster.

  7. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  8. Early evolution of endoparasitic group in powdery mildews: molecular phylogeny suggests missing link between Phyllactinia and Leveillula.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Siahaan, Siska A S; Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Cabrera de Álvarez, Maria G; Braun, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Of the 17 genera of the Erysiphaceae, only four genera (viz. Leveillula, Phyllactinia, Pleochaeta and Queirozia) exhibit (partly) endoparasitism. To investigate early evolution of this endoparasitic nature, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of powdery mildews belonging to the tribe Phyllactinieae collected in North and South America. The most ancestral taxa in the tribe Phyllactinieae belong to the Pleochaeta/Queirozia group, from which the genus Phyllactinia was derived. Finally, the truly endoparasitic genus Leveillula emerged from a part of Phyllactinia The present study showed clear evolutional polarity in the powdery mildews concerned (that is, partly endoparasitic group evolved from ectoparasitic group) and then a truly endoparasitic group emerged from a partly endoparasitic group. In addition, a group with distinctly dimorphic conidia proved to be basal in the Phyllactinieae, and a group without distinctly dimorphic conidia was derived from that group. The present analyses clearly showed that Leveillula derived from a part of the "Basal Phyllactinia group". However, all sister taxa to Leveillula were distributed in North and South America. Because the putative geographic origin of Leveillula is assumed to be Central and Western Asia or the Mediterranean region, we postulate a missing link during the evolution of Leveillula from Phyllactinia Based on the present phylogenetic studies and the new rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (McNeill et al. 2012), the following new species and taxonomic re-allocations are proposed: Phyllactinia bougainvilleae sp. nov., Ph. caricae comb. nov., Ph. caricicola comb. nov., Ph. durantae comb. nov., Ph. leveilluloides sp. nov., Ph. obclavata comb. nov., and Ph. papayae comb. nov. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    PubMed

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  10. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling Suggests Early Indications for Predisposition to Latent Insulin Resistance in Children Conceived by ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Margeli, Alexandra; Mantzou, Emilia; Konsta, Maria; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Mastorakos, George; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Klapa, Maria I.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Chrousos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been increasing indications about an epigenetically-based elevated predisposition of assisted reproductive technology (ART) offspring to insulin resistance, which can lead to an unfavorable cardio-metabolic profile in adult life. However, the relevant long-term systematic molecular studies are limited, especially for the IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) method, introduced in 1992. In this study, we carefully defined a group of 42 prepubertal ICSI and 42 naturally conceived (NC) children. We assessed differences in their metabolic profile based on biochemical measurements, while, for a subgroup, plasma metabolomic analysis was also performed, investigating any relevant insulin resistance indices. Methods & Results Auxological and biochemical parameters of 42 6.8±2.1 yrs old ICSI-conceived and 42 age-matched controls were measured. Significant differences between the groups were determined using univariate and multivariate statistics, indicating low urea and low-grade inflammation markers (YKL-40, hsCRP) and high triiodothyronine (T3) in ICSI-children compared to controls. Moreover, plasma metabolomic analysis carried out for a subgroup of 10 ICSI- and 10 NC girls using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated clear differences between the two groups, characterized by 36 metabolites linked to obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Notably, the distinction between the two girl subgroups was accentuated when both their biochemical and metabolomic measurements were employed. Conclusions The present study contributes a large auxological and biochemical dataset of a well-defined group of pre-pubertal ICSI-conceived subjects to the research of the ART effect to the offspring's health. Moreover, it is the first time that the relevant usefulness of metabolomics was investigated. The acquired results are consistent with early insulin resistance in ICSI-offspring, paving the way for further systematic investigations

  11. An enigmatic crocodyliform tooth from the bauxites of western Hungary suggests hidden mesoeucrocodylian diversity in the Early Cretaceous European archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Márton; Makádi, László

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Cretaceous of southern Europe was characterized by an archipelago setting with faunas of mixed composition of endemic, Laurasian and Gondwanan elements. However, little is known about the relative timing of these faunal influences. The Lower Cretaceous of East-Central Europe holds a great promise for understanding the biogeographic history of Cretaceous European biotas because of the former proximity of the area to Gondwana (as part of the Apulian microcontinent). However, East-Central European vertebrates are typically poorly known from this time period. Here, we report on a ziphodont crocodyliform tooth discovered in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Alsópere Bauxite Formation of Olaszfalu, western Hungary. Methods. The morphology of the tooth is described and compared with that of other similar Cretaceous crocodyliforms. Results. Based on the triangular, slightly distally curved, constricted and labiolingually flattened crown, the small, subequal-sized true serrations on the carinae mesially and distally, the longitudinal fluting labially, and the extended shelves along the carinae lingually the tooth is most similar to some peirosaurid, non-baurusuchian sebecosuchian, and uruguaysuchid notosuchians. In addition, the paralligatorid Wannchampsus also possesses similar anterior teeth, thus the Hungarian tooth is referred here to Mesoeucrocodylia indet. Discussion. Supposing a notosuchian affinity, this tooth is the earliest occurrence of the group in Europe and one of the earliest in Laurasia. In case of a paralligatorid relationship the Hungarian tooth would represent their first European record, further expanding their cosmopolitan distribution. In any case, the ziphodont tooth from the Albian bauxite deposit of western Hungary belongs to a group still unknown from the Early Cretaceous European archipelago and therefore implies a hidden diversity of crocodyliforms in the area. PMID:26339542

  12. Structure of the Fibrillin-1 N-Terminal Domains Suggests that Heparan Sulfate Regulates the Early Stages of Microfibril Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yadin, David A.; Robertson, Ian B.; McNaught-Davis, Joanne; Evans, Paul; Stoddart, David; Handford, Penny A.; Jensen, Sacha A.; Redfield, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Summary The human extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibrillin-1 is the primary component of the 10- to 12-nm-diameter microfibrils, which perform key structural and regulatory roles in connective tissues. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of fibrillin assembly into microfibrils. Studies using recombinant fibrillin fragments indicate that an interaction between the N- and C-terminal regions drives head-to-tail assembly. Here, we present the structure of a fibrillin N-terminal fragment comprising the fibrillin unique N-terminal (FUN) and the first three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains (FUN-EGF3). Two rod-like domain pairs are separated by a short, flexible linker between the EGF1 and EGF2 domains. We also show that the binding site for the C-terminal region spans multiple domains and overlaps with a heparin interaction site. These data suggest that heparan sulfate may sequester fibrillin at the cell surface via FUN-EGF3 prior to aggregation of the C terminus, thereby regulating microfibril assembly. PMID:24035709

  13. Correlation between white matter microstructure and executive functions suggests early developmental influence on long fibre tracts in preterm born adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Brigitte; Lundequist, Aiko; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Nagy, Zoltan; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    . Importantly, these alterations in WM tracts are correlated with measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities. Our findings suggest that disturbance of neural pathways, rather than changes in regional brain volumes, are involved in the impaired cognitive functions.

  14. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  15. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  16. Utilisation of the healthcare system for authentic early experience placements.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Authentic early experience in clinical contexts adds interest and relevance to basic medical education, and is regarded positively by both learners and teachers. However, with the recent expansion of medical education, the healthcare system appears close to reaching its capacity for student supervision. This study explores the utilisation of the healthcare system for early clinical placements. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database, collected from the 2010 annual questionnaire, focusing on the timing, duration and location of clinical placements during 2009 within the first half of basic medical education programs in Australia. Data was received for 67% of Australian medical students, reporting a total of 16 812 early clinical placements that occupied 97 319 days of supervised time in a wide variety of hospital, general practice and Indigenous health contexts, both urban and rural, across the Australian healthcare system. These early placements occupied about 16% of total clinical placement time for all students in all training years during 2009. The majority of these placements were for only a few hours or days; exceptions were longitudinal placements in regional and rural communities at a minority of schools. Early clinical placements may pose significant resource costs for placement providers, particularly supervision time and expertise. As medical education expands and the teaching capacity of the Australian healthcare system appears to reach its limits, it may be necessary to allocate placements according to their specific learning outcomes, prioritise more acute settings for more senior students, and increase capacity in less acute health and social care settings.

  17. Enhancing the Early Reading Experience: Books, Strategies, and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Michael; Abbott, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Selecting books for young children can not only be a fun and rewarding experience but also a little daunting, considering the number of books available. Frequent collaboration between an author and a public librarian has produced valuable insights about how to begin reading with very young children. Suggestions are offered for how parents and…

  18. The Eole experiment - Early results and current objectives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Eole experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon, floating freely at approximately the 200-mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an rms uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the Eole wind data are given for describing the mean 200-mb zonal and meridional circulations.

  19. Early Results from the RAIDS Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of three photometers, three spectrometers, and two spectrographs which span the wavelength range 55-874 nm and remotely sense the thermosphere and ionosphere by scanning and imaging the limb. RAIDS was scheduled to fly to the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. RAIDS along with a companion hyperspectral imaging experiment will serve as the first US payload on the JEM-EF. The scientific objectives of the new RAIDS experiment are to study the temperature of the lower thermosphere (100-200 km), to measure composition and chemistry of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, and to measure the initial source of OII 83.4 nm emission. RAIDS will provide valuable data useful for exploring tidal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere system, validating dayside ionospheric remote sensing methods, and studying local time variations in important chemical and thermal processes. Early observational results from the RAIDS experiment will be presented. The RAIDS sensor suite performs multispectral limb scanning from the open end of the HICO-RAIDS Experiment Payload aboard the ISS.

  20. Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments: origins and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nestar John Charles

    2011-03-01

    Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments remain one of the most inspired contributions in the field of social psychology. Although Milgram undertook more than 20 experimental variations, his most (in)famous result was the first official trial run - the remote condition and its 65% completion rate. Drawing on many unpublished documents from Milgram's personal archive at Yale University, this article traces the historical origins and early evolution of the obedience experiments. Part 1 presents the previous experiences that led to Milgram's conception of his rudimentary research idea and then details the role of his intuition in its refinement. Part 2 traces the conversion of Milgram's evolving idea into a reality, paying particular attention to his application of the exploratory method of discovery during several pilot studies. Both parts illuminate Milgram's ad hoc introduction of various manipulative techniques and subtle tension-resolving refinements. The procedural adjustments continued until Milgram was confident that the first official experiment would produce a high completion rate, a result contrary to expectations of people's behaviour. Showing how Milgram conceived of, then arrived at, this first official result is important because the insights gained may help others to determine theoretically why so many participants completed this experiment. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Making Visible Teacher Reports of Their Teaching Experiences: The Early Childhood Teacher Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; Perlman, Staci; Sproul, Faith; Minney, Ashley; Perry, Marlo A.; Li, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    The study developed multiple independent scales of early childhood teacher experiences (ECTES). ECTES was co-constructed with preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teachers in a large urban school district. Demographic, ECTES, and teaching practices data were collected from 584 teachers. Factor analyses documented three teacher experience…

  2. [Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients].

    PubMed

    Hebein, Ursula; Quantschnig, Bettina; Andreas, Sylke

    2018-03-01

    Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients Objectives: The present investigation studied the differences in emotional experiences among alcohol-dependent patients in inpatient psychotherapy, taking into account their traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles. Three standardized instruments were used on this clinical sample of 70 patients in inpatient psychotherapy: (1) Scales for Experiencing Emotions (SEE), (2) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), (3) Relationship-Specific Attachment Scales for Adults (RASA). The results showed that traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescence as well as relationship-specific attachment styles were indeed associated with deficits in emotional experience and regulation. Especially emotional abuse was associated with deficits in emotional experience. An insecure attachment style was associated with a lower level of acceptance of emotions, a lower level of self-control, and dysfunctional emotion regulation. In particular, the attachment style to the mother seems to be important. These results suggest that a distinction of alcohol-addicted patients, with respect to attachment styles and traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescent, seems to be important in order to define specific interventions to improve the ability to regulate emotions.

  3. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  4. The early postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers.

    PubMed

    Ladores, Sigrid; Aroian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of becoming a new mother from the unique perspectives of previously infertile women. A descriptive phenomenological design was used to extract the fundamental structure of the postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers. Central Florida. Twelve first-time, previously infertile mothers age 27 to 43 years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted twice with each participant. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Colaizzi's approach. Two main themes emerged that described the early postpartum experience of first-time, previously infertile mothers: (a) lingering identity as infertile and (b) gratitude for the gift of motherhood. Participants reported that their lingering identities as infertile and immense gratitude for the gift of motherhood propelled them to establish unrealistic expectations to be perfect mothers. When they were unable to live up this expectation, they censored their feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and shame. Findings from this study may help to sensitize health care providers to the difficulties faced by previously infertile women during their transition to motherhood. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience.

    PubMed

    Phan, Mimi L; Vicario, David S

    2010-02-02

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the role of early experience in the development of lateralized sensory processing in the brain, using the songbird model of vocal learning. By controlling exposure to natural vocalizations (through isolation, song tutoring, and muting), we manipulated the postnatal auditory environment of developing zebra finches, and then assessed effects on hemispheric specialization for communication sounds in adulthood. Using bilateral multielectrode recordings from a forebrain auditory area known to selectively process species-specific vocalizations, we found that auditory responses to species-typical songs and long calls, in both male and female birds, were stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and that right-side responses adapted more rapidly to stimulus repetition. We describe specific instances, particularly in males, where these lateral differences show an influence of auditory experience with song and/or the bird's own voice during development.

  6. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  7. Sweet and Sour Preferences During Childhood: Role of Early Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. PMID:12430162

  8. Early experience in microtia reconstruction: the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-04-01

    Auricular reconstruction in Microtia is a challenging operation with a steep learning curve. In view its rarity attaining a high standard for new surgeons is extremely difficult. This study analyses the first 100 microtia cases looking at complications, technique, pattern of progress and aesthetic outcome. The author performed 100 autologous ear reconstructions for microtia over a period of 4 years utilizing the two stage technique popularised by Nagata and Firmin. In 11 cases a temroparietal fascial flap was utilised because of either a low hairline or scarring. Follow up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Data was collected prospectively. There were 7 cases of partial skin necrosis, 3 of which healed with conservative management. In early cases deficiencies were seen in the proportions of the reconstructed ear and the quality of definition. Better shape and definition were evident as more surgical experience was gained. This occurred as a result of increased appreciation of the ear proportions and improved framework carving. Although two stages were planned 21 cases required further procedures. The series demonstrates the early learning curve in microtia reconstruction and underlines the importance of appropriate training and case availability in achieving high quality results in autologous ear reconstruction. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early MIMD experience on the CRAY X-MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Clifford E.; Stevens, K. G.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting four physics simulation programs to the CRAY X-MP, a current Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors each with an architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. As a multi-processor, the CRAY X-MP together with the high speed Solid-state Storage Device (SSD) in an ideal machine upon which to study MIMD algorithms for solving the equations of mathematical physics because it is fast enough to run real problems. The computer programs used in this study are all FORTRAN versions of original production codes. They range in sophistication from a one-dimensional numerical simulation of collisionless plasma to a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with heat flow to a couple of three-dimensional fluid dynamics codes with varying degrees of viscous modeling. Early research with a dual processor configuration has shown speed-ups ranging from 1.55 to 1.98. It has been observed that a few simple extensions to FORTRAN allow a typical programmer to achieve a remarkable level of efficiency. These extensions involve the concept of memory local to a concurrent subprogram and memory common to all concurrent subprograms.

  10. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  11. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  12. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  13. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  15. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Endo, Kaori; French, Paul; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshi A; Hasegawa-Hiraiwa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N  = 4478). We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015). The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p  < .001) was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = -.0066, p  = 0.318) and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p  = 0.321) were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  16. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  17. A Suggestion for an Experiment that Integrates the Teaching of Science with Everyday Life: "Why Are the Seas Blue?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    "Why are the seas blue?" is a huge question that may reach far beyond the middle school level. However, our objective is to bring "simple" tools into the classroom to explain science without tampering with its essence and complexity. The experiment described in this article is only concerned with teaching the subject of absorption as related to…

  18. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  20. Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L

    2018-04-01

    I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Germany: A qualitative study on pregnant women's attitudes, experiences, and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Görig, Tatiana; Schneider, Sven; Bock, Christina; Maul, Holger; Kleinwechter, Helmut; Diehl, Katharina

    2015-11-01

    to explore pregnant women's experiences with the recently implemented screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). qualitative study. Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan region, Germany. 20 pregnant women aged 27-41 years (mean: 32.6 years) who were at least in gestational week 29, i.e., those who should have already been screened for GDM. semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted via telephone between November 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. The screening was seen as an important instrument to detect GDM and thus to prevent possible health problems in both mother and child. Some deviations from the recommended screening procedure were reported in the interviews, e.g., collecting capillary blood instead of venous blood during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); offering an OGTT without a prior glucose challenge test (GCT); conducting a GCT after an overnight fast. Two women had to actively ask for the screening to be done. One woman reported that her gynaecologist advised her against the screening. this qualitative study reflects the women's experiences with the new screening for GDM. Our findings show that two years after the introduction of universal GDM screening in Germany the screening procedure does not always seem to meet the standards of the German maternity guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  3. Consumer-directed health plans: enrollee views, early employer experience.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Severoni, Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are a new health insurance product that is of growing interest to employers who are struggling to cope with rising health insurance premium costs and to consumers who are desiring more choice and engagement in their health care. This paper presents the results of a study of California consumer awareness of, and attitudes toward, CDHPs in the context of several national surveys and the experiences of some early-adopting employers. California Health Decisions conducted a telephone survey of 800 insured adult California residents in November 2002. Few respondents had heard of CDHPs. They appealed more to younger, single, less educated, and healthier respondents and those who did not understand them well. The most attractive CDHP features were greater provider choice and health savings accounts' portability and flexibility. Concerns centered on personal financial exposure. While CDHPs' commercial market penetration is increasing, their greatest potential future contributions might be to reduce the number of uninsured Americans by offering an affordable health insurance product and to fund additional health services for retirees. As CDHPs further evolve, more consumer involvement in their refinement, implementation, and evaluation is essential.

  4. Early experience with endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Kaur, Simranjit; Wilson, Paul

    2016-05-01

    We describe our endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy technique and our early experience using it to treat plantar hyperhidrosis. We reviewed 20 lumbar sympathectomies performed in our vascular unit for plantar hyperhidrosis in 10 patients from 2011 and 2014. Demographics and outcomes were analyzed and a review of the literature conducted. All procedures were carried out endoscopically with no intraoperative or postoperative morbidity. Plantar anhidrosis was achieved in all the patients, although two patients (20%) suffered a relapse. Unwanted side-effects occurred in the form of compensatory sweating in three patients (30%) and post-sympathectomy neuralgia in two patients (20%). None of the patients experienced sexual dysfunction. Management of plantar hyperhidrosis may be based upon a therapeutic ladder starting with conservative measures and working up to surgery depending on the severity of the disease. Minimally invasive (endoscopic) sympathectomy for the thoracic chain is well established, but minimally invasive sympathectomy for the lumbar chain is a relatively new technique. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy provides an effective, minimally invasive method of surgical management, but long-term data are lacking. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, C.; Bazin, S.; Blikra, L. H.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2013-10-01

    Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established) and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

  6. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas T

    2015-02-01

    The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway.

  7. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  8. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  9. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Multidimensional Relationship between Early Adult Body Weight and Women’s Childbearing Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  11. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A global experiment suggests climate warming will not accelerate litter decomposition in streams but might reduce carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Gessner, Mark O; Barmuta, Leon A; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Dudgeon, David; Boulton, Andrew J; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Helson, Julie E; Bruder, Andreas; Albariño, Ricardo J; Yule, Catherine M; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Davies, Judy N; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Ramírez, Alonso; Death, Russell G; Iwata, Tomoya; Mathooko, Jude M; Mathuriau, Catherine; Gonçalves, José F; Moretti, Marcelo S; Jinggut, Tajang; Lamothe, Sylvain; M'Erimba, Charles; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Schindler, Markus H; Castela, José; Buria, Leonardo M; Cornejo, Aydeé; Villanueva, Verónica D; West, Derek C

    2011-03-01

    The decomposition of plant litter is one of the most important ecosystem processes in the biosphere and is particularly sensitive to climate warming. Aquatic ecosystems are well suited to studying warming effects on decomposition because the otherwise confounding influence of moisture is constant. By using a latitudinal temperature gradient in an unprecedented global experiment in streams, we found that climate warming will likely hasten microbial litter decomposition and produce an equivalent decline in detritivore-mediated decomposition rates. As a result, overall decomposition rates should remain unchanged. Nevertheless, the process would be profoundly altered, because the shift in importance from detritivores to microbes in warm climates would likely increase CO(2) production and decrease the generation and sequestration of recalcitrant organic particles. In view of recent estimates showing that inland waters are a significant component of the global carbon cycle, this implies consequences for global biogeochemistry and a possible positive climate feedback. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Lawrence, Chameli; Petäjistö, Katrine; Johansson, Maria K; Wiklund, Maja; Olsson, Christina; Andersson, Leif; Andersson, Lisa S; Røed, Knut H; Ihler, Carl-Fredrik; Strand, Eric; Lindgren, Gabriella; Velie, Brandon D

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  14. Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 “Gait Keeper” mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Chameli; Petäjistö, Katrine; Johansson, Maria K.; Wiklund, Maja; Olsson, Christina; Andersson, Leif; Andersson, Lisa S; Røed, Knut H.; Ihler, Carl-Fredrik; Strand, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs. PMID:28489879

  15. Tuned by experience: How orientation probability modulates early perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-09-01

    Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early experience with Suboxone maintenance therapy in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Farkas, Judit; Csorba, József; Németh, Attila; Mervó, Barbara; Szemelyácz, János; Fleischmann, Enikö; Kassai-Farkas, Akos; Petke, Zsolt; Oroján, Tibor; Rózsa, Sándor; Rigó, Péter; Funk, Sándor; Kapitány, Máté; Kollár, Anna; Rácz, József

    2009-12-01

    Suboxone (Buprenorphine/naloxone) is a novel drug used in opiate substitution therapy. In Hungary, it was introduced in November 2007. Suboxone is a product for sublingual administration containing the partial mu-receptor agonist buprenorphine and antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. Objectives of our study were to monitor and evaluate the effects of Suboxone treatment. 6 outpatient centers participated in the study, 3 from Budapest and 3 from smaller cities in Hungary. At these centers, all patients entering Suboxone maintenance therapy between November 2007 and March 2008, altogether 80 persons (55 males, 35 females, mean age = 30.2 years, SD=5.48) were included in the study sample. During the 6-month period of treatment, data were collected 4 times; when entering treatment, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after entering treatment. Applied measures were the Addiction Severity Index, SCID-I, SCID-II, Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, STAI-S State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Heroin Craving Questionnaire, WHO Well-being Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, ADHD retrospective questionnaire, TCI short version, and Ways of Coping questionnaire. Nearly fourth of the altogether 80 heroin dependent patients (18 persons, 22.5%) dropped out of treatment during the first month (the majority, 12 persons [15%] during the first week) or chose methadone substitution instead. Following this period however, dropout rate decreased and the six-month treatment period was completed by 32 patients (40%). During the first month of treatment significant positive changes were experienced in all studied psychological and behavioral dimensions that proved to be stabile throughout the studied period. According to the early experience with Suboxone treatment, it is a well tolerable and successfully applicable drug in the substitution therapy of opiate addicts. A critical phase seems to be the first one or two weeks of treatment. Dropout rate is high during this

  17. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  18. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  19. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  20. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  1. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K. J.; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H.; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L.; Mills, John G.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M.; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-01-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.044), activities (χ2 = 6.7, P = 0.036), and areas (χ2 = 9.4, P = 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ2 = 9.3, P = 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ2 = 12.3, P = 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  2. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K J; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Mills, John G; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-05-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  3. Robotic Inguinal Hernia Repair: Technique and Early Experience.

    PubMed

    Arcerito, Massimo; Changchien, Eric; Bernal, Oscar; Konkoly-Thege, Adam; Moon, John

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been shown to have multiple advantages compared with open repair such as less postoperative pain and earlier resume of daily activities with a comparable recurrence rate. We speculate robotic inguinal hernia repair may yield equivalent benefits, while providing the surgeon added dexterity. One hundred consecutive robotic inguinal hernia repairs with mesh were performed with a mean age of 56 years (25-96). Fifty-six unilateral hernias and 22 bilateral hernias were repaired amongst 62 males and 16 females. Polypropylene mesh was used for reconstruction. All but, two patients were completed robotically. Mean operative time was 52 minutes per hernia repair (45-67). Five patients were admitted overnight based on their advanced age. Regular diet was resumed immediately. Postoperative pain was minimal and regular activity was achieved after an average of four days. One patient recurred after three months in our earlier experience and he was repaired robotically. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. These data, compared with laparoscopic approach, suggest similar recurrence rates and postoperative pain. We believe comparative studies with laparoscopic approach need to be performed to assess the role robotic surgery has in the treatment of inguinal hernia repair.

  4. Simultaneous Presence of Non- and Highly Mutated Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH)-Specific Plasmablasts Early after Primary KLH Immunization Suggests Cross-Reactive Memory B Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, Claudia; Meyer, Tim; Durek, Pawel; Maul, Jochen; Preiß, Jan; Jacobs, Joannes F M; Thiel, Andreas; Radbruch, Andreas; Ullrich, Reiner; Dörner, Thomas

    2018-06-15

    There are currently limited insights into the progression of human primary humoral immunity despite numerous studies in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed a primary and related secondary parenteral keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization in five human adults. The primary challenge elicited discordant KLH-specific serum and blood effector B cell responses (i.e., dominant serum KLH-specific IgG and IgM levels versus dominant KLH-specific IgA plasmablast frequencies). Single-cell IgH sequencing revealed early appearance of highly (>15 mutations) mutated circulating KLH-specific plasmablasts 2 wk after primary KLH immunization, with simultaneous KLH-specific plasmablasts carrying non- and low-mutated IgH sequences. The data suggest that the highly mutated cells might originate from cross-reactive memory B cells (mBCs) rather than from the naive B cell repertoire, consistent with previous reported mutation rates and the presence of KLH-reactive mBCs in naive vaccinees prior to immunization. Whereas upon secondary immunization, serum Ab response kinetics and plasmablast mutation loads suggested the exclusive reactivation of KLH-specific mBCs, we, however, detected only little clonal overlap between the peripheral KLH-specific secondary plasmablast IgH repertoire and the primary plasmablast and mBC repertoire, respectively. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into human humoral immune responses and suggest that primary KLH immunization recruits both naive B cells and cross-reactive mBCs, whereas secondary challenge exclusively recruits from a memory repertoire, with little clonal overlap with the primary response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Witnessing peer rejection during early adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have begun to reveal the neural bases of empathy; however, this research has focused on empathy for physical pain, rather than empathy for negative social experiences. Moreover, this work has not examined adolescents who may frequently witness and empathize with others who experience negative social experiences like peer rejection. Here, we examined neural activity among early adolescents observing social exclusion compared to observing inclusion, and how this activity related to both trait empathy and subsequent prosocial behavior. Participants were scanned while they observed an individual whom they believed was being socially excluded. At least one day prior to the scan they reported their trait empathy, and following the scan they wrote emails to the excluded victim that were rated for prosocial behavior (e.g., helping, comforting). Observing exclusion compared to inclusion activated regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; DMPFC), particularly among highly empathic individuals. Additionally, individuals who displayed more activity in affective, pain-related regions during observed exclusion compared to inclusion subsequently wrote more prosocial emails to excluded victims. Overall findings suggest that when early adolescents witness social exclusion in their daily lives, some may actually ‘feel the pain’ of the victims and act more prosocially toward them as a result. PMID:20602283

  6. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  7. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  8. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  9. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  10. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  11. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  12. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  13. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  14. Novel mouse models of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) reveal early onset mitochondrial defects and suggest loss of PABPN1 may contribute to pathology.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Phillips, Brittany L; Banerjee, Ayan; Apponi, Luciano H; Dammer, Eric B; Xu, Weiting; Zheng, Dinghai; Yu, Julia; Tian, Bin; Pavlath, Grace K; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-09-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late onset disease caused by polyalanine expansion in the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Several mouse models have been generated to study OPMD; however, most of these models have employed transgenic overexpression of alanine-expanded PABPN1. These models do not recapitulate the OPMD patient genotype and PABPN1 overexpression could confound molecular phenotypes. We have developed a knock-in mouse model of OPMD (Pabpn1+/A17) that contains one alanine-expanded Pabpn1 allele under the control of the native promoter and one wild-type Pabpn1 allele. This mouse is the closest available genocopy of OPMD patients. We show that Pabpn1+/A17 mice have a mild myopathic phenotype in adult and aged animals. We examined early molecular and biochemical phenotypes associated with expressing native levels of A17-PABPN1 and detected shorter poly(A) tails, modest changes in poly(A) signal (PAS) usage, and evidence of mitochondrial damage in these mice. Recent studies have suggested that a loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to muscle pathology in OPMD. To investigate a loss of function model of pathology, we generated a heterozygous Pabpn1 knock-out mouse model (Pabpn1+/Δ). Like the Pabpn1+/A17 mice, Pabpn1+/Δ mice have mild histologic defects, shorter poly(A) tails, and evidence of mitochondrial damage. However, the phenotypes detected in Pabpn1+/Δ mice only partially overlap with those detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. These results suggest that loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to but may not completely explain the pathology detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Pérez-Dïaz, Ricardo; Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Tapia, Jaime; Casaretto, José A; González, Sebastián; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2012-07-23

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for reproductive development.

  16. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  17. Early breastfeeding problems: A mixed method study of mothers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Jørgine Kirkeby, Mette; Thygesen, Marianne; Danbjørg, Dorthe B; Kronborg, Hanne

    2018-06-01

    Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Still length of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers' perspectives on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also to identify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers' open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Up to 40% of the mothers had experienced early breastfeeding problems. The problems were associated with the mother, the infant and to lack of support from health care professionals. Most prominent problems were infant's inability to latch on (40%) and mothers having sore, wounded and cracked nipples (38%). Pain often occurred when experiencing breastfeeding problems. Factors associated with the problems were primiparity, lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived knowledge of breastfeeding. Mothers with no or short education reported less frequently breastfeeding problems. Breastfeeding problems occurred frequently in the early postnatal period and often caused breastfeeding to be painful. Health care professionals should prepare mothers to deal with possible breastfeeding problems. New support options should be reviewed in an early postnatal discharge setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  19. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  20. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  1. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  2. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  3. New Languages of Possibility: Early Experiments in Education as Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Brendan; Lalor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Asia's first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879-1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893-1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall…

  4. The Minnesota Experience with Family-Centered Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lois

    1988-01-01

    The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)

  5. Systems-Oriented Workplace Learning Experiences for Early Learners: Three Models.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Bachhuber, Melissa R; Teherani, Arianne; Iker, Theresa M; Batt, Joanne; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-05-01

    Early workplace learning experiences may be effective for learning systems-based practice. This study explores systems-oriented workplace learning experiences (SOWLEs) for early learners to suggest a framework for their development. The authors used a two-phase qualitative case study design. In Phase 1 (spring 2014), they prepared case write-ups based on transcribed interviews from 10 SOWLE leaders at the authors' institution and, through comparative analysis of cases, identified three SOWLE models. In Phase 2 (summer 2014), studying seven 8-week SOWLE pilots, the authors used interview and observational data collected from the seven participating medical students, two pharmacy students, and site leaders to construct case write-ups of each pilot and to verify and elaborate the models. In Model 1, students performed specific patient care activities that addressed a system gap. Some site leaders helped students connect the activities to larger systems problems and potential improvements. In Model 2, students participated in predetermined systems improvement (SI) projects, gaining experience in the improvement process. Site leaders had experience in SI and often had significant roles in the projects. In Model 3, students worked with key stakeholders to develop a project and conduct a small test of change. They experienced most elements of an improvement cycle. Site leaders often had experience with SI and knew how to guide and support students' learning. Each model could offer systems-oriented learning opportunities provided that key elements are in place including site leaders facile in SI concepts and able to guide students in SOWLE activities.

  6. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  7. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  8. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this paper a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets “under the skin.” The paper begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain development, and then to the ways experience interacts with and modifies the structures and functions of the developing brain. Much of the attention is focused on early experience and sensitive periods, although it is made clear that later experience also plays an important role in maintaining and elaborating this early wiring diagram, which is critical to establishing a solid footing for development beyond the early years. PMID:20331653

  9. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846

  11. Different early rearing experiences have long term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Stephanie L.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Reamer, Lisa A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition, however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. PMID:24206013

  12. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. PMID:22490184

  13. When Early Experiences Build a Wall to Others’ Emotions: An Electrophysiological and Autonomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Sestito, Mariateresa; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Facial expression of emotions is a powerful vehicle for communicating information about others’ emotional states and it normally induces facial mimicry in the observers. The aim of this study was to investigate if early aversive experiences could interfere with emotion recognition, facial mimicry, and with the autonomic regulation of social behaviors. We conducted a facial emotion recognition task in a group of “street-boys” and in an age-matched control group. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG), a marker of facial mimicry, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of the recruitment of autonomic system promoting social behaviors and predisposition, in response to the observation of facial expressions of emotions. Results showed an over-attribution of anger, and reduced EMG responses during the observation of both positive and negative expressions only among street-boys. Street-boys also showed lower RSA after observation of facial expressions and ineffective RSA suppression during presentation of non-threatening expressions. Our findings suggest that early aversive experiences alter not only emotion recognition but also facial mimicry of emotions. These deficits affect the autonomic regulation of social behaviors inducing lower social predisposition after the visualization of facial expressions and an ineffective recruitment of defensive behavior in response to non-threatening expressions. PMID:23593374

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-10-01

    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  16. Dietary protein hydrolysate and trypsin inhibitor effects on digestive capacities and performances during early-stages of spotted wolffish: suggested mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Savoie, A; Le François, N R; Lamarre, S G; Blier, P U; Beaulieu, L; Cahu, C

    2011-04-01

    Growth rate is dependent upon adequate provision of amino acids especially in newly-hatched fish which experience very high growth rate. The replacement of a fraction of protein content by partially hydrolyzed (pre-digested) proteins was carried out and the digestive capacities and performances of larval/juvenile spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor) were measured. The goal of this study was to verify whether the scope for growth is principally dictated by the proteolytic capacity of the digestive system by examining the effect of protein hydrolysates (PH) and trypsin inhibitor dietary inclusion on protein digestion/assimilation capacities, growth and survival. Four experimental diets were examined: C (control) I (supplemented with 750 mg/kg soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI)) H (supplemented with 20% PH) and HI (supplemented with 20% PH and 750 mg/kg SBTI). Protein hydrolysate supplementation gave significantly higher body mass than control at day 15 post-hatching. Unexpectedly, at day 30 and 60, fish administered diet HI (containing trypsin inhibitor) were heavier than the other groups. Suggested mechanisms are presented and discussed. The main conclusions of this study are that wolffish larval stage lasts roughly 15 days and that juvenile growth is linked to proteolytic capacity, but also very likely to absorption capacity of peptides and amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  18. Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

    2010-07-06

    The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable.

  19. Medical abortion in early pregnancy: experience in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Linan

    2006-07-01

    When medical abortion was first introduced in China, prostaglandins (PGs) were used alone or in combination with Chinese herbs or steroid drugs, but the results were not satisfactory. Mifepristone is now produced in three companies in China and is commonly used with PGs for medical abortion. We performed a Chinese- and English-language literature review of medical abortion in early pregnancy in China. A large multicenter trial conducted in China showed that, when used with a PGF(2alpha) analogue, the complete abortion rate in women given multiple doses of mifepristone (total, 150 mg) was significantly higher than that in women given a single dose of 200 mg of mifepristone. Oral misoprostol (0.6 mg) with mifepristone is now the most commonly used regimen, with a complete abortion rate of over 93%. In China, medical abortion is currently restricted to pregnancies before 49 days, but some hospitals have recently extended the use of medical abortion to pregnancies beyond 49 days. Prolonged bleeding is the main medical abortion side effect and is more likely to occur if the blood levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin fall slowly or when the gestational sac is big. Prescription of testosterone propionate may reduce the duration of bleeding. Over 80% of Chinese women are satisfied with current medical abortion regimens and will choose medical abortion again if they need to terminate a future unwanted pregnancy. Currently, medical abortion is a safe, efficient and acceptable method for the termination of early pregnancy in China.

  20. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  1. Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

  2. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  3. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health. PMID:17016842

  4. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Reported experiences from occupational therapists interacting with teachers in inclusive early childhood classrooms.

    PubMed

    Bose, Pia; Hinojosa, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This grounded theory study described the perspectives of school-based occupational therapists working in inclusive early childhood classrooms emphasizing interactions with teaching staff. Six therapists were interviewed multiple times over several months. The participants viewed their interactions with teaching staff as challenging but potentially rewarding experiences. Viewing collaboration as valuable, their descriptions nonetheless generally omitted many collaborative features, with therapists often assigned the role of "expert." Data analysis revealed four major themes: (1) "It's Not Like I Don't Value Collaboration" (the benefits of collaboration); (2) "Collaboration--I Can't Do It Alone" (the challenges of interactions); (3) "My Opinion, Please Ask for It" (attachment to the expert status), and (4) "Is This Collaboration?" (interactions in practice). The results of this study suggest that current recommendations for collaboration for inclusion in school-based occupational therapy are not optimally implemented in all practice settings.

  6. Reflecting on the Challenges of Informal Contexts: Early Field Experiences with Technology in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nick; Obery, Amanda; Cornish, Jamie; Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Hartshorn, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Early field experiences, or those that come early in a teacher's preparation before more formalized opportunities like practicum and student teaching, can provide a venue for pre service teachers to practice technology-specific instructional decision-making and reflective practice. Although research exists on the potential roles of field…

  7. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  8. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  9. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  10. Preparing Beginning Reading Teachers: An Experimental Comparison of Initial Early Literacy Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…

  11. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  12. Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

  13. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sánchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  14. Safe Start: How Early Experiences Can Help Reduce Violence. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…

  15. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A., III.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain…

  16. A Systems Perspective on Practicum Experiences in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Focus on Interprofessional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Van Schagen, Amy; King, Elizabeth; Lippard, Christine

    2018-01-01

    High quality early childhood teachers have a wealth of knowledge and use a range of skills in their daily classroom practices, and research has consistently demonstrated the positive influence effective early childhood teachers have on children's development and long-term outcomes. Given the importance of practicum experiences in the development…

  17. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  18. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  19. Early illness experiences related to unexpected heart surgery: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on patients' experiences following emergency cardiac surgery focus on evaluation of patients after their discharge. Few studies have evaluated patients' experiences after being transferred from intensive care and before being discharged. This study aimed to describe patients' experiences in the early stages of recovery following emergency heart surgery. For this exploratory qualitative descriptive study, 13 patients were recruited from a medical centre in northern Taiwan. Participants had undergone emergency heart surgery and had resided in the cardiothoracic surgical ward for ≥6 days following transfer from the ICU; all expected to be discharged from the hospital within 3 days. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted in private after the patients had been transferred to the cardiothoracic surgical wards. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Data analysis identified four themes, which represented different recovery stages: sudden and serious symptoms, nightmares and vivid dreams, physical and emotional disturbances, and establishing a new life after emergency surgery. A fifth theme, support for a new lifestyle, occurred between the four stages. Participants experienced symptoms of physical and psychological stress during the early recovery stages following emergency heart surgery. A lack of understanding of the process of recovery increased these difficulties; participants wanted and needed multidisciplinary care and education. Emergency heart surgery does not allow healthcare professionals to inform patients of what to expect post-surgery. Our findings suggest that rather than waiting until discharge to offer disease information and treatment plans, multidisciplinary care should be initiated as soon as possible to facilitate recovery. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    PubMed Central

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  1. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    PubMed

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  2. Early flight test experience with Cockpit Displayed Traffic Information (CDTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coded symbology, based on the results of early human factors studies, was displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator and flight tested on an advanced research aircraft in order to subject the coded traffic symbology to a realistic flight environment and to assess its value by means of a direct comparison with simple, uncoded traffic symbology. The tests consisted of 28 curved, decelerating approaches, flown by research-pilot flight crews. The traffic scenarios involved both conflict-free and blunder situations. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefing sessions. The results of these debriefing sessions group conveniently under either of two categories: display factors or task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few aircraft. In terms of task performance, the cockpit displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness.

  3. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973

  4. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Gravity Probe B Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  5. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  6. Lidar In-space Technology Experiment: Overview and early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The September 1994 Shuttle flight of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) brought to fruition 10 years of effort at NASA's Langley Research Center where it was built. Being the first flight of a spaceborne lidar to measure atmospheric constituents and parameters and surface properties, it culminates the efforts of many worldwide over the last 20 years to usher in this new remote sensing technique from space. This paper will describe the LITE instrument, the in-orbit performance, and initial results. In addition, the global correlative measurements program will be outlined which involved 60 groups in 20 countries who made various simultaneous ground-based or aircraft measurements as LITE flew overhead.

  7. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C-Clérouin, C.; Bonnefille, M.; Dattolo, E.; Fremerye, P.; Galmiche, D.; Gauthier, P.; Giorla, J.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Malinie, G.; Masse, L.; Poggi, F.; Seytor, P.

    2008-05-01

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress.

  8. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of the Behavioral Consequences of Early Experience in Prairie Voles

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined intergenerational and epigenetic effects of early handling manipulations on the social behavior of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a monogamous rodent. Laboratory-born parents and their newborn pups were assigned to either a MAN0 “zero handling” manipulation (transfer with a cup during weekly cage changes) or a MAN1 “gloved handling” manipulation (transfer with a gloved hand). Previous studies from our laboratory (Bales et al. 2007) showed that MAN0 juvenile males that received this manipulation as pups are less alloparental and that MAN0 adult females that received this manipulation as pups display impaired pair-bonding. In the present study, when MAN0 and MAN1 pups reached adulthood, they were mated in three combinations (MAN1 female × MAN1 male; MAN0 female × MAN1 male; MAN1 female and MAN0 male). Once the pairs produced offspring, we examined their parental behavior towards their own pups. The offspring of these pairings (F2 generation) also were tested as juveniles for alloparental behavior. MAN1 females paired with a MAN0 male displayed higher levels of parenting behaviors. In the F2 generation, juvenile offspring with a MAN0 parent were less alloparental than were offspring from other pairs. These results suggest that early experiences can be transmitted intergenerationally. PMID:20457234

  10. Early experience of intra-ureteric capsaicin infusion in loin pain haematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T; McLean, A D; Hayes, M; Morgans, B T; Tulloch, D N

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate early results of the intra-ureteric instillation of capsaicin for the treatment of loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS). Ten patients with LPHS were treated using intra-ureteric capsaicin instillation. A solution of capsaicin was infused into the affected ureter through an embolectomy catheter, under anaesthesia. The success of the treatment was assessed using patient questionnaires and the quantitative reduction in the patients' analgesic requirements measured. During a mean follow-up of 6 months, six of the 10 patients had short- to medium-term symptomatic relief after one or more treatments; four had no relief from their symptoms. One patient had a mucosal ulceration in the bladder after extravasation of the capsaicin solution. Two patients subsequently underwent simple nephrectomy for symptomatic nonfunctioning kidneys. These results are consistent with other preliminary reports of the efficacy of capsaicin treatment in LPHS and such treatment therefore has a definite therapeutic role in this difficult condition. We are uncertain if the treatment contributed to the deterioration of the excised kidneys. This early experience suggests a need for careful consideration when contemplating this treatment, with attention directed to both the initial diagnosis and possibly the technique of capsaicin/instillation. We include a protocol to follow when preparing patients for capsaicin treatment.

  11. Early History of BELL'S Theorem Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, John F.

    Before 1980 it was unfashionable for a physicist to admit that he either did not understand and/or doubted the Truth and/or Orthodoxy of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Contemporary wisdom deemed it impossible that it may lead to incorrect predictions. Thus, it was foolish to suggest that it warranted further testing. Said wisdom proclaimed that nothing would ever be gained by any such pursuit. Bohr had won his debates with Einstein. Von Neumann had proven all other interpretations wrong. That was the end to it! Only an iconoclast dared think otherwise. Here I provide a brief history of some of my encounters with a few fellow iconoclasts, past denizens of a QM doubter's subculture.

  12. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  13. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  14. Effects of early dental office visits on dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-10-01

    We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.

  15. Early clinical experience with Guidezilla for transradial interventions in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Diao, Kai-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Jing; He, Yong

    2018-04-03

    Anatomic variations, calcified, tortuous, angulated lesions, and lack of support to increase the complexity of transradial intervention (TRI). Guidezilla is a mother-and-child catheter enabling increased support during complex interventions. As there are few published reports of its use, we describe our experience using this device to assist TRI in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Guidezilla guide extension catheter in complex coronary interventions. Thirty-two patients' clinical characteristics, angiographic details, and in-hospital outcome retrospectively collected between June 2015 and August 2017. Patients were 59.44 ± 10.48 years of age and 26 (81%) were men. The most frequent target vessels were the RCA (34%) and LAD (31%), patients had complex type C (53%) or B (47%) lesions, severely tortuous (41%) and angulated (22%).With the use of Guidezilla, technique success was 100%, and procedural success was 94%. The mean diameter of the deployed stents was 2.97 ± 0.37 mm, and the length was 27.19 ± 8.14 mm. The estimated mean distance of Guidezilla intubation into the target vessel was 7.66 ± 2.29 cm.The Guidezilla catheter extension safely facilitated successful completion of TRI in complex coronary artery lesions. This device can help interventionalists successfully perform difficult procedures.

  16. Associations between maternal experiences of racism and early child health and development: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvonne; Becares, Laia; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that experienced racism might help explain observed ethnic inequalities in early child health and development. There are few studies outside the US context and none that consider mothers' experiences of racism in relation to a range of early childhood health and developmental markers. The authors used cross-sectional data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study on 2136 mothers and their 5-year-old children from ethnic minority groups. Measures of racism tapped two dimensions of mothers' experience: perceived frequency of racist attacks in residential area and interpersonal racism. Markers of child health and development were obesity; socioemotional difficulties; cognitive: verbal, non-verbal and spatial ability test scores. There was a suggestion that the mothers' experience of interpersonal racism was associated with an increased risk of obesity ('received insults' OR=1.47; 'treated unfairly' OR=1.57; 'disrespectful treatment by shop staff' OR=1.55), but all CIs crossed 1.0, and size estimates were attenuated on further statistical adjustment. Perception of racism in the residential area was associated with socioemotional difficulties (fully adjusted coefficient=1.40, SE=0.47) and spatial abilities (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.99, SE=0.93) but not with verbal or non-verbal ability scores. Maternal experiences of racist insults were associated with non-verbal ability scores (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.70, SE=0.88). The results suggest that mothers' experienced racism is linked to markers of early child health and development. Interventions that aim to improve early child development and address ethnic health inequalities need to incorporate approaches to tackling racism at all levels of society.

  17. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  18. Early Experience of Helical Tomotherapy for Hepatobiliary Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Massabeau, Carole; Marchand, Virginie; Zefkili, Sofia; Servois, Vincent; Campana, François; Giraud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT), an image-guided, intensity-modulated, radiation therapy technique, allows for precise targeting while sparing normal tissues. We retrospectively assessed the feasibility and tolerance of the hepatobiliary HT in 9 patients. A total dose of 54 to 60 Gy was prescribed (1.8 or 2 Gy per fraction) with concurrent capecitabine for 7 patients. There were 1 hepatocarcinoma, 3 cholangiocarcinoma, 4 liver metastatic patients, and 1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All but one patient received previous therapies (chemotherapy, liver radiofrequency, and/or surgery). The median doses delivered to the normal liver and to the right kidney were 15.7 Gy and 4.4 Gy, respectively, below the recommended limits for all patients. Most of the treatment-related adverse events were transient and mild in severity. With a median followup of 12 months, no significant late toxicity was noted. Our results suggested that HT could be safely incorporated into the multidisciplinary treatment of hepatobiliary or pancreatic malignant disease. PMID:25954545

  19. Child impulsiveness-inattention, early peer experiences, and the development of early onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Prichard, Joy; Schrepferman, Lynn; Patrick, M Renee; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2004-12-01

    The conjoint influence of child impulsiveness-inattention (I/I) and peer relationships on growth trajectories of conduct problems was assessed in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. I/I reliably predicted teacher- and parent-reported conduct problems at kindergarten entry and growth in those problems over the next 2 years for boys and girls. The relation of boys' I/I to conduct problems was mediated, in part, by peer rejection and involvement in coercive exchanges with peers. The relation of girls' I/I to conduct problems was less clearly mediated by peer processes, but peer difficulties had additive effects. The impact of peer relationships on trajectories of conduct problems was apparent to parents as well as to teachers. Although I/I increments risk for early and persisting conduct problems in concert with poor peer relationships, it does so in complex and gender-specific ways.

  20. Early Career Teachers' Emotional Experiences and Development--A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakhelln, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Emotional experiences that are an integral part of the process of becoming teachers have been insufficiently explored in the research literature. The early experiences of three new teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school are analysed using a collective case-study design and a socio-cultural theoretical framework. Emotions arising in the…

  1. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  2. Supporting Learning to Teach in Early Field Experiences: The UTE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieda, Kristen N.; Dillman, Brittany; Gundlach, Michael; Voogt, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Most teacher preparation programs require prospective teachers (PTs) to engage in early field experiences (EFEs) prior to completing required coursework. These EFEs, however, may lack meaningful connections to course content and provide limited opportunities to experience the demands of classroom teaching. In this paper, we share evidence from the…

  3. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    School districts nationwide are experimenting with a range of reform options, one of which is private management of public schools. This General Accounting Office (GAO) report describes the early experiences of four school districts that contracted with private companies for management of their public schools. Specifically, the report describes:…

  4. Early Intervention Experiences of Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…

  5. A Road Like No Other: Mothers' Experiences with Early Intervention Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Amy Wickizer

    2010-01-01

    This dual case study utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the experiences of two mothers of young children with special needs. Over the course of ten months, the researcher spent many hours interviewing both mothers about their experiences with Early Intervention (EI) professionals. Observations of medical appointments, team meetings,…

  6. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  7. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  8. The Existence of Primary Age-Related Tauopathy Suggests that not all the Cases with Early Braak Stages of Neurofibrillary Pathology are Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Giaccone, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART) is a hotly debated issue. As most lines of evidence support the tenet that tau pathology occurs downstream of amyloid-β deposition, it seems reasonable to consider PART as a separate disease process not necessarily related to Aβ and hence AD. Following this view, the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology may not always be the forerunner of diffuse neurofibrillary changes and AD. The ongoing debate further enhances the need for greater caution against any future predictions using tau cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers.

  9. Experience-Dependent Hemispheric Specialization of Letters and Numbers is Revealed in Early Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared to numbers, while the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared to letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140–170 ms) than did numbers over left occipital channels, while numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves, (starting around 250 ms) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 ms). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics. PMID:24669789

  10. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Amerine, Lindsey B; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T; Rodgers, Philip T; Williams, Dennis M; Pinelli, Nicole R

    2015-11-25

    To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice.

  11. Characteristics of the spouse caregiving experience: Comparison between early- and late-onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the characteristics of the caregiving experience according to age at onset of dementia to adapt support programs. Fifty-seven spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) and 93 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) participated. The characteristics of the caregiving experience were assessed using questionnaires. We compared the two groups according to age at onset of the disease using a multivariate test, Pillai's Trace test. The analysis showed that there were similarities and differences between the two groups of spouse caregivers. All spouse caregivers were confident in their caregiving role and fairly well prepared for future needs and reported mild depressive and anxious symptoms. However, they lacked informal support, had low confidence in requesting respite care and reported effects on their health. Compared to spouse caregivers of PLOD, spouse caregivers of PEOD had more severe perceptions of the cognitive disorders of persons with dementia (PWD) and had a better sense of preparedness and knowledge of services. Spouse caregivers of PLOD were more confident in their ability to control disturbing thoughts. The results suggest that programs should provide information on support networks to improve preparedness for spouse caregivers of PLOD as well as emphasizing positive coping strategies for caregivers of PEOD to maintain good-quality relationships with PWD, which influences the perception of the symptoms. For both groups, family relationships should be considered.

  12. What has changed in the evidence for early experience? Update of a BEME systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Littlewood, Sonia; Margolis, Stephen A; Scherpbier, Albert; Spencer, John; Ypinazar, Valmae; Dornan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We previously reviewed evidence published from 1992 to 2001 concerning early experience for healthcare undergraduates (Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis S, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. 2006. How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Med Teach 28:3-18). This subsequent study reviews evidence published from 2002 to 2008. Identify changes in the evidence base; determine the value of re-reviewing; set a future research agenda. The same search strategy as in the original review was repeated. Newly identified publications were critically appraised against the same benchmarks of strength and educational importance. Twenty-four new empirical studies of early authentic experience in education of health professionals met our inclusion criteria, yielding 96 outcomes. Sixty five outcomes (from 22 studies) were both educationally important and based on strong evidence. A new significant theme was found: the use of early experience to help students understand and align themselves with patient and community perspectives on illness and healthcare. More publications were now from outside Europe and North America. In addition to supporting the findings of our original review, this update shows an expansion in research sources, and a shift in research content focus. There are still questions, however, about how early authentic experience leads to particular learning outcomes and what will make it most educationally effective.

  13. The phenotype of the CRINKLY4 deletion mutant of Physcomitrella patens suggests a broad role in developmental regulation in early land plants.

    PubMed

    Demko, Viktor; Ako, Eugene; Perroud, Pierre-François; Quatrano, Ralph; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2016-07-01

    Deletion of the ancestral gene of the land plant multigene family of receptor like kinase CR4 in Physcomitrella patens demonstrates involvement in developmental control of gametophytic and sporophytic organs. The CRINKLY4 (CR4) family of receptor kinases in angiosperms consists of three clades, one including CR4, the CR4-related CCR1 and CCR2, a second including CCR3 and CCR4 family members, and a third and more distant clade. In addition to crinkly leaves in maize, which gave rise to the mutant gene name, CR4 is implicated in ovule, embryo, flower and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In root tips of the same species the module including a CLAVATA3/ESR-related protein, an Arabidopsis CR4, a CLAVATA1 and a WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (CLE40-ACR4-CLV1-WOX5) is implicated in meristem cell regulation. In embryos and shoots, CR4 acts together with A. thaliana MERISTEM LAYER 1 and PROTODERMAL FACTOR 2 to promote A. thaliana epidermis differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that early land plants, e.g. mosses carry a single ancestral CR4 gene, together with genes encoding the other members of the CLE40-ACR4-CLV1-WOX5 signaling module. Here we show that CR4 serves as a broad regulator of morphogenesis both in gametophyte phyllids, archegonia and in sporophyte epidermis of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phenotype of the CR4 deletion mutant in moss provides insight into the role of the ancestral CR4 gene as a regulator of development in early land plants.

  14. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciT

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less

  15. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Etienne G J; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Da Rocha, Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Guzeeva, Elena Sokolova; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Johannes; Jones, John T; den Akker, Sebastian Eves-van

    2017-10-23

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus , representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus , respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum.

  16. A balancing act in an unknown territory: a metasynthesis of first-time mothers' experiences in early labour.

    PubMed

    Eri, Tine S; Bondas, Terese; Gross, Mechthild M; Janssen, Patricia; Green, Josephine M

    2015-03-01

    to integrate findings of individual studies in order to broaden the understanding of first-time mothers' experiences of early labour. the methodology was metasynthesis which is based on the interpretive meta-ethnography described by Noblit and Hare (1988). Metasynthesis is research on research which synthesises the findings of previous qualitative studies, and the focus is on interpretation and the creation of new knowledge. all included studies originated from high resource countries (USA 2, UK 4, and Scandinavia 5) and all were carried out in a context of hospital based maternity care. a total of 231 women participated in the studies. 11 articles were included. The main results are presented with the metaphor a balancing act in an unknown territory. The 'unknown territory' has a double meaning: as the personal experience of going into labour for the first time and as encountering the maternity care system. On both levels women have to make significant decisions: whether labour really has started and subsequently when to go to the hospital. A key challenge is to balance the arrival on the labour ward at the 'right' time, not too early and not too late. Arriving at the 'right' time leads to a positive path, while arriving 'too soon' might lead to a cascade of negative experiences. The results are further presented with five central themes: 'Finding out if labour has started is absorbing'; 'Dealing with labour at home'; 'Trying to arrive at the labour ward at the right time'; 'There is always a risk of being sent home'; 'Encountering health professionals arouses strong emotions'. the metasynthesis broadens the understanding of first-time mothers' experiences of early labour, and suggests that women's needs when planning a hospital birth are not being adequately met at this stage in the labour process. Three areas of future research are suggested: how to support and strengthen women during pregnancy in order to cope with early labour; women's experiences of early

  17. Combined statistical and mechanistic modelling suggests food and temperature effects on survival of early life stages of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stige, Leif Chr.; Langangen, Øystein; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Vikebø, Frode B.; Bogstad, Bjarte; Ottersen, Geir; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Hjermann, Dag Ø.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the causes of the large interannual fluctuations in the recruitment to many marine fishes is a key challenge in fisheries ecology. We here propose that the combination of mechanistic and statistical modelling of the pelagic early life stages (ELS) prior to recruitment can be a powerful approach for improving our understanding of local-scale and population-scale dynamics. Specifically, this approach allows separating effects of ocean transport and survival, and thereby enhances the knowledge of the processes that regulate recruitment. We analyse data on the pelagic eggs, larvae and post-larvae of Northeast Arctic cod and on copepod nauplii, the main prey of the cod larvae. The data originate from two surveys, one in spring and one in summer, for 30 years. A coupled physical-biological model is used to simulate the transport, ambient temperature and development of cod ELS from spawning through spring and summer. The predictions from this model are used as input in a statistical analysis of the summer data, to investigate effects of covariates thought to be linked to growth and survival. We find significant associations between the local-scale ambient copepod nauplii concentration and temperature in spring and the local-scale occurrence of cod (post)larvae in summer, consistent with effects on survival. Moreover, years with low copepod nauplii concentrations and low temperature in spring are significantly associated with lower mean length of the cod (post)larvae in summer, likely caused in part by higher mortality leading to increased dominance of young and hence small individuals. Finally, we find that the recruitment at age 3 is strongly associated with the mean body length of the cod ELS, highlighting the biological significance of the findings.

  18. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Makran considering recently suggested larger maximum magnitudes and sensitivity analysis for GNSS-based early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, N.; Hoechner, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries frequently affected by destructive earthquakes, as for instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30 000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, nevertheless a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Furthermore, some recent publications discuss the possiblity of rather rare huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We analyze the seismicity at the subduction plate interface and generate various synthetic earthquake catalogs spanning 100000 years. All the events are projected onto the plate interface using scaling relations and a tsunami model is run for every scenario. The tsunami hazard along the coast is computed and presented in the form of annual probability of exceedance, probabilistic tsunami height for different time periods and other measures. We show how the hazard reacts to variation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters and maximum magnitudes.We model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by using an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast by applying it to the 1945 event and by performing a sensitivity analysis.

  19. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Danchin, Etienne G.J.; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Da Rocha, Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Sokolova (Guzeeva), Elena; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Johannes; Jones, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus, representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus, respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum. PMID:29065523

  20. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. "'They' Taught 'Me'": The Benefits of Early Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators participating in a service-learning experience at a Children's Defense Fund Freedom School in the…

  2. The experience of amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios during the early second trimester.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tian-Lun; Hsu, Te-Yao; Tsai, Ching-Chang; Ou, Chia-Yu

    2007-12-01

    In the past, oligohydramnios occurring early during the secondary trimester was the reason to terminate the pregnancy because of poor prognosis. Even though amnioinfusion has been reported for improving the prognosis of the infant, it is still not frequently used because of unfavorable results. We present our experience with amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes. A retrospective study was performed from July 2005 to December 2006 in our hospital. Amnioinfusions were performed in pregnant women found with oligohydramnios during their second trimesters. Chromosomal studies were recommended and performed under informed consent. Level II sonography was performed after each amnioinfusion. Magnetic resonance imaging was arranged for those with suggested urinary tract malformations. Seventeen cases were included in our study. No mother was exposed to drugs that have been associated with oligohydramnios. The women received one to six procedures of amnioinfusion separately with a total of 28 procedures. Only one procedure failed. No chromosomal anomalies were found. Fetal anomalies were found after amnioinfusion in five cases. One woman had preterm delivery within 1 week after amnioinfusion. In the four cases of oligohydramnios with rupture of membranes, one case had a healthy full-term baby delivered. In the 13 cases of oligohydramnios without rupture of membranes, there were two preterm infants delivered before 34 weeks of gestation, including pulmonary hypoplasia in one neonate, and three healthy babies delivered after 35 weeks of gestation. Amnioinfusion performed the first time might provide some benefits for those with early-onset oligohydramnios, such as to provide confirmation of rupture of membranes, detailed sonography examination and further counseling. We would recommend that this procedure be considered once for these cases.

  3. A Quantitative Model of Early Atherosclerotic Plaques Parameterized Using In Vitro Experiments.

    PubMed

    Thon, Moritz P; Ford, Hugh Z; Gee, Michael W; Myerscough, Mary R

    2018-01-01

    There are a growing number of studies that model immunological processes in the artery wall that lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, few of these models use parameters that are obtained from experimental data even though data-driven models are vital if mathematical models are to become clinically relevant. We present the development and analysis of a quantitative mathematical model for the coupled inflammatory, lipid and macrophage dynamics in early atherosclerotic plaques. Our modeling approach is similar to the biologists' experimental approach where the bigger picture of atherosclerosis is put together from many smaller observations and findings from in vitro experiments. We first develop a series of three simpler submodels which are least-squares fitted to various in vitro experimental results from the literature. Subsequently, we use these three submodels to construct a quantitative model of the development of early atherosclerotic plaques. We perform a local sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to its parameters that identifies critical parameters and processes. Further, we present a systematic analysis of the long-term outcome of the model which produces a characterization of the stability of model plaques based on the rates of recruitment of low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins and macrophages. The analysis of the model suggests that further experimental work quantifying the different fates of macrophages as a function of cholesterol load and the balance between free cholesterol and cholesterol ester inside macrophages may give valuable insight into long-term atherosclerotic plaque outcomes. This model is an important step toward models applicable in a clinical setting.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of early regenerating lizard tail suggests that a process of dedifferentiation is involved in the formation of the regenerative blastema.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2018-06-08

    The formation of the regenerating tail blastema of lizards occurs by the multiplication of stem cells but also some dedifferentiation from adult cells may take place after tail loss by autotomy, as it is suggested in the present study. Using 5BrdU-immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy it is shown that part of the damaged tissues undergo progressive cytological de-differentiation (cell reprogramming). This occurs for muscle, fibrocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and cells derived from the spinal cord during the initial 3-8 days post-autotomy of the tail in the wall lizard Podarcis muralis. Dedifferentiating cells loose most endoplasmic reticulum, sarcomeres in myocells, lipid droplets in adipocytes, extracellular matrix in chondrocytes. Numerous cytoplasmic vesicles are formed, perhaps reflecting an initial sufferance of dedifferentiating cells. These cells are not dying because they incorporate 5BrdU and proliferate. Nuclei of small fibrocytes present in the dermis and inter-muscle connective tissues, initially heterochromatic, become euchromatic and their cytoplasm increases in volume although the endoplasmic reticulum remains limited, as it is typical for mesenchymal cells. The present study, supported by previous transcriptome and 5BrdU-labeling data, and from recent tracing studies, suggests that aside stem cells present in different tissues of the tail, also cell dedifferentiation occurs in the injured tail of lizards. The relative contribution between de-differentiation and stem cells for the formation of the regenerating lizard blastema likely depends from the extension of the trauma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Endometriosis education in schools: A New Zealand model examining the impact of an education program in schools on early recognition of symptoms suggesting endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bush, Deborah; Brick, Emily; East, Michael C; Johnson, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Menstrual morbidity plays a significant role in adolescent females' lives. There are no studies to date reporting such data from menstrual health education programs in schools. The aim of our study was to report results from an audit of a menstrual health and endometriosis education program in secondary schools and observe age patterns of young women presenting for menstrual morbidity care. Audit data from education in secondary schools and audit data of patients from an Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Coaching clinic operating in a private endometriosis specialised centre are reported. In a region of consistent delivery of the education program, student awareness of endometriosis was 32% in 2015. Overall in 2015, 13% of students experienced distressing menstrual symptoms and 27% of students sometimes or always missed school due to menstrual symptoms. Further, in one region of consistent delivery of the menstrual health education program, data show an increase in younger patients attending for specialised endometriosis care. There is strong suggestive evidence that consistent delivery of a menstrual health education program in schools increases adolescent student awareness of endometriosis. In addition, there is suggestive evidence that in a geographical area of consistent delivery of the program, a shift in earlier presentation of young women to a specialised health service is observed. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Exposure to a mildly aversive early life experience leads to prefrontal cortex deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Manatos, Vasileios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2016-11-01

    Aversive early life experiences in humans have been shown to result in deficits in the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In an effort to elucidate possible neurobiological mechanisms involved, we investigated in rats, the effects of a mildly aversive early experience on PFC structure and function. The early experience involved exposure of rat pups during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 to a T-maze in which they search for their mother, but upon finding her are prohibited contact with her, thus being denied the expected reward (DER). We found that the DER experience resulted in adulthood in impaired PFC function, as assessed by two PFC-dependent behavioral tests [attention set-shifting task (ASST) and fear extinction]. In the ASST, DER animals showed deficits specifically in the intra-dimensional reversal shifts and a lower activation-as determined by c-Fos immunohistochemistry-of the medial orbital cortex (MO), a PFC subregion involved in this aspect of the task. Furthermore, the DER experience resulted in decreased glutamatergic neuron and dendritic spine density in the MO and infralimbic cortex (IL) in the adult brain. The decreased neuronal density was detected as early as PND12 and was accompanied by increased micro- and astroglia-density in the MO/IL.

  7. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  8. Early Adverse Experience Increases Emotional Reactivity in Juvenile Rhesus Macaques: Relation to Amygdala Volume

    PubMed Central

    Howell, B.R.; Grand, A. P.; McCormack, K. M.; Shi, Y.; LaPrarie, J.; Maestripieri, D.; Styner, M. A.; Sanchez, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys’ behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. PMID:25196846

  9. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C.; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A.; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J. Michael; Stauss, Harald M.; White, C. Roger; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  10. Auditory brain development in premature infants: the importance of early experience.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Erin; Wintermark, Pia; Lahav, Amir

    2012-04-01

    Preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often close their eyes in response to bright lights, but they cannot close their ears in response to loud sounds. The sudden transition from the womb to the overly noisy world of the NICU increases the vulnerability of these high-risk newborns. There is a growing concern that the excess noise typically experienced by NICU infants disrupts their growth and development, putting them at risk for hearing, language, and cognitive disabilities. Preterm neonates are especially sensitive to noise because their auditory system is at a critical period of neurodevelopment, and they are no longer shielded by maternal tissue. This paper discusses the developmental milestones of the auditory system and suggests ways to enhance the quality control and type of sounds delivered to NICU infants. We argue that positive auditory experience is essential for early brain maturation and may be a contributing factor for healthy neurodevelopment. Further research is needed to optimize the hospital environment for preterm newborns and to increase their potential to develop into healthy children. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Presence of a mitochondrial-type 70-kDa heat shock protein in Trichomonas vaginalis suggests a very early mitochondrial endosymbiosis in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Germot, Agnès; Philippe, Hervé; Le Guyader, Hervé

    1996-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of α-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria. PMID:8962101

  13. Presence of a mitochondrial-type 70-kDa heat shock protein in Trichomonas vaginalis suggests a very early mitochondrial endosymbiosis in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Germot, A; Philippe, H; Le Guyader, H

    1996-12-10

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of alpha-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria.

  14. Long-Term Engagement in Authentic Research with NASA (LEARN): Innovative Practices Suggested By a New Model for Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Joseph, J. D.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Crecelius, S.; Harte, T.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Taylor, J.; Bujosa, R.; Moulton, C.; Haggard, C. S.; Hyater-Adams, S.; Kollmeyer, R.; Weisman, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring by NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, LEARN teachers present scientific posters. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that multiple teachers from the first two cohorts have elected to continue their research. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into particularly effective elements of this new approach. Findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. This presentation will focus on key factors from LEARN's implementation that inform best practices for the incorporation of authentic scientific research into teacher professional development experiences. We suggest that these factors should be considered in the development of other such experiences, including: (1) The involvement of a single scientist as both the project leader/manager and the project scientist, to ensure that the project can meet teachers' needs. (2) An emphasis on framing and approaching scientific research questions, so that teachers can learn to evaluate the feasibility of studies based on scope, scale, and availability of data. (3) Long term, ongoing relationships where teachers and scientists work as collaborators, beyond the workshop "mold." (4) A focus on meeting the needs of individual teachers, whether their needs relate to elements of

  15. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  16. Voices from the Other Side of the Fence: Early Childhood Teachers' Experiences with Mandatory Regulatory Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Guided by feminist research principles, the study reported in this article contributes to the growing research dialogue on early childhood teachers' experiences with, and perceptions of, the impact of regulatory requirements on their teaching and on their perceptions of themselves as professionals. Specifically, three teachers from metropolitan…

  17. Perinatal Experiences: The Association of Stress, Childbearing, Breastfeeding, and Early Mothering

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.; Howell, Olivia S.

    2003-01-01

    The support of women and their families through childbirth, breastfeeding, and early parenting experiences are often treated as separate areas of maternity care. In fact, growing evidence, as cited in this article, links their intertwined impact on the health of mothers, infants, and their families. PMID:17273350

  18. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvund, Stein Erik

    1982-01-01

    Argues that in analyzing effects of early experience on development of cognitive competence, theoretical analyses as well as empirical investigations should be based on a transactional model of development. Shows optimal stimulation hypothesis, particularly the enhancement prediction, seems to represent a transactional approach to the study of…

  19. Developing Reflexive Identities through Collaborative, Interdisciplinary and Precarious Work: The Experience of Early Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Bryony; Facer, Keri

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 24 Early Career Researchers working in interdisciplinary and precarious employment conditions in which they are managing collaborations with multiple partners beyond the university as part of the AHRC's "Connected Communities" Programme. These conditions emerge from conflicting sources--from…

  20. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  1. Teachers' Experiences of Georgia's Early Math Intervention Program: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rachel Amanda Garner

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perceptions that K-5 teachers have toward Georgia's mandated Early Intervention Math Program (EIP) on at risk learners in an elementary school in a rural, North Georgia community. The following questions guided the study: 1. How do K-5 teachers describe their experience with…

  2. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  3. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  4. Early Field Experience Innovations to Increase Positive Impact on K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen; Traynor, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several innovations to an early field experience emerging from a community, school, and university partnership focused on a middle school serving diverse students from low-income neighborhoods. With the primary goal of utilizing teaching candidates to provide direct academic, social, and instructional support to the middle…

  5. Beyond Surviving: Gender Differences in Response to Early Sexual Experiences with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to explore how men and women constructed a sense of self through narrative following an early sexual experience with an adult. Using narrative inquiry methodology, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted in New South Wales, Australia, with 13 women and 9 men ages between 25 and 70. All participants had an early…

  6. Teacher Attunement: Supporting Students' Peer Experiences in the Early Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the role of teacher attunement (teacher accuracy in identifying the peer group memberships of individual students) in children's peer experiences in early elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grades). Social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures assessed and compared students' and teachers'…

  7. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  8. The Hidden Factor in Early Field Experience: Teachers' Perception of the Quality of Life at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divins, Barbara; And Others

    This project identified work environment factors in eight schools where a teacher preparation program placed early field experience students and where the university students reported experiencing positive field placements. The purpose was to determine the impact of certain variables on teachers' perception of the quality of their own professional…

  9. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  10. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  11. The Effect of Early Classroom Teaching Experience Upon the Attitudes and Performance of Science Teacher Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, Diane R.

    Reported is a study on effects of early classroom teaching experience upon the attitudes and performance of teacher candidates from a student group primarily composed of science majors or minors. The subjects were paired mainly on their choice of a credential or noncredential program. One of each pair was randomly assigned to the experimental…

  12. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  13. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  14. Survey Examines Experiences of Families Entering Early Intervention. FPG Snapshot #14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A recent FPG study looked at families' initial experiences in determining their child's eligibility for early intervention (EI) services as mandated by Part C (IDEA), interactions with medical professionals, effort required to get services, participation in planning for services, satisfaction with services, and interactions with professionals. A…

  15. Parent-Child Relationships and Dyadic Friendship Experiences as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…

  16. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  17. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  18. Aesthetic Experience in a Dynamic Cycle: Implications for Early Childhood Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Booyeun

    2005-01-01

    This study describes early childhood teachers' own beliefs and concepts of aesthetic experience in young children. The teachers involved in this study were directly engaged in preschools for 4 and 5 year-olds where arts and aesthetic education are a primary consideration of their integrated curriculum. These teachers identified a variety of…

  19. Early Childhood Development and Social Integration: The Mediterranean Experience. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper explores early childhood education (ECD) and social integration within a common framework and against the backdrop of experience gained in these fields in the following 12 Mediterranean nations: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Turkey. The paper notes that…

  20. The Beliefs and Perceived Experiences of Preservice and Early Service Teachers Who Use Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify commonly held beliefs and perceived experiences of preservice and early service teachers with regard to their use of the social networking site Facebook. This study included recorded and transcribed interviews of 14 participants as well as observations of their Facebook accounts. The…

  1. The Experiences of Early Career Teachers: New Initiatives and Old Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Buchanan, John; Varadharajan, Meera; Burke, Paul F.

    2018-01-01

    The task of supporting beginning teachers has received considerable attention in recent years, and numerous initiatives have been implemented. In this article we investigate the experiences of early career teachers (ECTs) in New South Wales, Australia, at a time when their employing authority mandated the provision of mentors and a reduction in…

  2. Early Experiences with Family Conflict: Implications for Arguments with a Close Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Dunn, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and later conflict management with close friends. Found that argument used by mothers and siblings that considered children's needs was positively associated with children's later constructive argument and resolution techniques. Mothers' use of argument predicted…

  3. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Herbert, Sharonne D.; Fanton, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of family experiences in the early development and maintenance of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in preschool-age children with behavior problems. Method: Participants were 199 3-year-old children with behavior problems who took part in 4 annual child and family assessments. Results:…

  4. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  5. Early Labor Force Experiences and Debt Burden. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Geis, Sonya; Carroll, C. Dennis

    This study used data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond (B&B) and Beginning Postsecondary Student (BPS) studies to examine: the early labor force experiences of college students who either graduated or dropped out; student borrowing for postsecondary education; and student loan debt burden and repayment status. The B&B group (n=11,000) was…

  6. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Early College High School Students' Transformational Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Denise; Farrell, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Focus Group interviews with 31 disadvantaged students in an Early College High School (ECHS) program present insights to students' experience in the hybrid school, specifically regarding their perceptions of college readiness. Student "voice" in research can yield significant information when examining aspects of school design that…

  7. Implicit Association to Infant Faces: How Genetics, Early Care Experiences, and Cultural Factors Influence Caregiving Propensities

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca; Doi, Hirokazu; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Genetics, early experience, and culture shape caregiving, but it is still not clear how genetics, early experiences, and cultural factors might interact to influence specific caregiving propensities, such as adult responsiveness to infant cues. To address this gap, 80 Italian adults (50% M; 18-25 years) were (1) genotyped for two oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298) and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which are implicated in parenting behaviour, (2) completed the Adult Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire to evaluate their recollections of parental behaviours toward them in childhood, and (3) were administered a Single Category Implicit Association Test to evaluate their implicit responses to faces of Italian infants, Japanese infants, and Italian adults. Analysis of implicit associations revealed that Italian infant faces were evaluated as most positive; participants in the rs53576 GG group had the most positive implicit associations to Italian infant faces; the serotonin polymorphism moderated the effect of early care experiences on adults’ implicit association to both Italian infant and adult female faces. Finally, 5-HTTLPR S carriers showed less positive implicit responses to Japanese infant faces. We conclude that adult in-group preference extends to in-group infant faces and that implicit responses to social cues are influenced by interactions of genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors. These findings have implications for understanding processes that regulate adult caregiving. PMID:27650102

  8. Classroom Teachers' Feelings and Experiences in Teaching Early Reading and Writing: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to reveal classroom teachers' feelings and experiences in teaching early reading and writing. Phenomenological research design was applied in the qualitative research methodology of the study. The participants of the study were 15 classroom teachers working in different cities. The data were collected through…

  9. Experiences, Perceived Challenges, and Support Systems of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Karen P.; Combs, Julie P.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the prior experiences, perceived challenges, and support systems of 17 Grade 12 Hispanic students at an early college high school were explored using the framework of social capital theory. Utilizing Moustakas's phenomenological design, data were collected using focus group and individuals interviews. Several themes…

  10. Seeing What They See--A Photovoice Analysis of Exploratory Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marshall A.; Culbertson, Avery L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Ramsey, Jon W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this photovoice study was to investigate what and how pre-service teachers conceive and make meaning of exploration observations of early field experiences (EFEs). EFEs are vital components of the teacher preparation program and include all activities that occur in pre-service teacher education prior to student teaching, including…

  11. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  12. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  13. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    PubMed

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deployment and early experience with remote-presence patient care in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Petelin, J B; Nelson, M E; Goodman, J

    2007-01-01

    efficient than conventional visits during these times (20 min per visit vs 40-min round trip travel + 20-min visit). Patients and nursing personnel both expressed tremendous satisfaction with the remote-presence interaction. The authors' early experience suggests a significant benefit to patients, hospitals, and physicians with the use of RP6. The implications for future development are enormous.

  15. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  16. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  17. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-07-13

    To explore women's experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. England, 2014. Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women's worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 'Differentiating between early and active labour', 'Staff attitudes', 'Not being allowed…', 'Previous labours' and 'Perceived consequences for women'. These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and ethnic minority women reported greater worry about early labour and require additional reassurance.

  18. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting England, 2014. Participants Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. Methods This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women’s worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘Differentiating between early and active labour’, ‘Staff attitudes’, ‘Not being allowed…’, ‘Previous labours’ and ‘Perceived consequences for women’. Conclusion These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and

  19. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  20. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  2. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  3. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  4. Early outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Engin; Keleş, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Akçay, Murat; Ayhan, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Baştuğ, Serdal; Bilen, Emine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a promising alternative to high risk surgical aortic valve replacement. The procedure is mainly indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who cannot undergo surgery or who are at very high surgical risk. Aim Description early results of our single-center experience with balloon expandable aortic valve implantation. Material and methods Between July 2011 and August 2012, we screened in total 75 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and high risk for surgery. Twenty-one of them were found ineligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of various reasons, and finally we treated a total of 54 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who could not be treated by open heart surgery (inoperable) because of high-risk criteria. The average age of the patients was 77.4 ±7.1; 27.8% were male and 72.2% were female. The number of patients in NYHA class II was 7 while the number of patients in class III and class IV was 47. Results The average mortality score of patients according to the STS scoring system was 8.5%. Pre-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were measured as 53.2 ±14.1 mm Hg and 85.5 ±18.9 mm Hg, respectively. Post-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were 9.0 ±3.0 and 18.2 ±5.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was calculated as 54.7 ±14.4% before the operation and 58.0 ±11.1% after the operation (p < 0.0001). The duration of discharge after the operation was 5.29 days, and a statistically significant correlation between the duration of discharge after the operation and STS was found (r = 0385, p = 0.004). Conclusions We consider that with decreasing cost and increasing treatment experience, TAVI will be used more frequently in broader indications. Our experience with TAVI using the Edwards-Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) devices suggests that this is an

  5. Neglected Children: Suggestions for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Karen L.; Roscoe, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Discusses enhancing the development and improving the quality of life of neglected children through acquiring a special understanding and style of interacting with them and by using activities designed specifically to meet their developmental needs. (RH)

  6. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  7. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Early experiences with family conflict: implications for arguments with a close friend.

    PubMed

    Herrera, C; Dunn, J

    1997-09-01

    This study examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and their later management of conflicts with a close friend. Thirty-seven children were observed interacting with their mother and older sibling at 33 months and with a friend at 72 months. Children's early use of argument was not associated with their later behavior during disputes with a friend. However, argument used by the mother and sibling that considered the child needs was positively associated with the child's later use of constructive argument and resolution techniques. The mother's use of argument that focused on her own needs was negatively related to these outcomes. These associations were independent of global characteristics of the mother-child and sibling relationships. Moreover, the mother's use of argument predicted the child's later conflict management independent of the child's early argument patterns, emotion understanding, and verbal fluency.

  9. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  11. Early childhood experiences, cultural beliefs, and oral health of Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Miltiades, Helen B

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative article examines how financial resources, cultural beliefs, and early childhood experiences affect perceptions of oral health and dental utilization of middle-aged and older Mexican American women. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The women's ages range from 49 to 87 years. Most had not visited the dentist in more than 2 years. Most women's early childhood experiences did not include dental visits or dental instruction. Some believed tooth loss was a normal aging process. Misconceptions regarding preventive care, the belief that dental visits were only necessary when experiencing pain, and finances were the primary reasons for not visiting the dentist. The results lend insight into the oral health, self-care practices, and dental utilization of middle-aged and older immigrant Mexican American women.

  12. Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex role of early stressful experiences in producing both vulnerability and resilience to later stress-related psychopathology in a variety of primate models of human development. Two types of models are reviewed: Parental Separation Models (e.g., isolate-rearing, peer-rearing, parental separations, and stress inoculation) and Maternal Behavior Models (e.g., foraging demands, variation in maternal style, and maternal abuse). Based on empirical evidence, it is argued that early life stress exposure does not increase adult vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as a linear function, as is generally believed, but instead reflects a quadratic function. Features of early stress exposure including the type, duration, frequency, ecological validity, sensory modality, and developmental timing, within and between species, are identified to better understand how early stressful experiences alter neurobiological systems to produce such diverse developmental outcomes. This article concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge, providing directions for future research, and discussing the translational implications of these primate models for human development and psychopathology. PMID:20851145

  13. Crossing cultural borders into science teaching: Early life experiences, racial and ethnic identities, and beliefs about diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers influenced both their beliefs about diversity in science classrooms and science teaching pedagogy. Case studies of three preservice teachers from diverse racial and ethnic background are presented: Asian American, African American, and Rural Appalachian. Using Bank's ethnicity typology, findings suggest that racial and ethnic identity, developed in early life experiences of preservice teachers, provided clarity on the rigidity of their beliefs about diversity and how they view science teaching. By learning about the border crossing experiences of preservice teachers in relation to their beliefs about diversity as related to racial and ethnic identities, the researchers hoped to provide insight on preparing preservice teachers for the challenges of working in diverse classrooms.

  14. Providing Quality Early Care and Education to Young Children Who Experience Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Katz, Lynne F.; Manfra, Louis; Ullery, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper highlights the few studies that examine the role of early care and education on the developmental and early academic outcomes of children who experience maltreatment. First, we argue that children who experience maltreatment are at significant risk for poor developmental outcomes as a result of the chronic exposure to stress that…

  15. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  16. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  17. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  18. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. The effects of early institutionalization on emotional face processing: evidence for sparing via an experience-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Young, Audrey; Luyster, Rhiannon J; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-09-01

    Early psychosocial deprivation has profound adverse effects on children's brain and behavioural development, including abnormalities in physical growth, intellectual function, social cognition, and emotional development. Nevertheless, the domain of emotional face processing has appeared in previous research to be relatively spared; here, we test for possible sleeper effects emerging in early adolescence. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural correlates of facial emotion processing in 12-year-old children who took part in a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for early institutionalization. Results revealed no significant group differences in two face and emotion-sensitive ERP components (P1 and N170), nor any association with age at placement or per cent of lifetime spent in an institution. These results converged with previous evidence from this population supporting relative sparing of facial emotion processing. We hypothesize that this sparing is due to an experience-dependent mechanism in which the amount of exposure to faces and facial expressions of emotion children received was sufficient to meet the low threshold required for cortical specialization of structures critical to emotion processing. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Early psychosocial deprivation leads to profoundly detrimental effects on children's brain and behavioural development. With respect to children's emotional face processing abilities, few adverse effects of institutionalized rearing have previously been reported. Recent studies suggest that 'sleeper effects' may emerge many years later, especially in the domain of face processing. What does this study add? Examining a cumulative 12 years of data, we found only minimal group differences and no evidence of a sleeper effect in this particular domain. These findings identify emotional face processing as a unique ability in which relative sparing

  20. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagra, Cristian A.; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less

  1. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    PubMed Central

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  2. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    PubMed

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  3. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.

  4. The impact of arthritis on the early employment experiences of young adults: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Jetha, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase that can determine a person's career trajectory. To date, little research has examined the influence of arthritis on early work experiences. This literature review aims at examining the impact of arthritis on the early career phase of young adults and identifying the barriers to employment. Two independent reviewers searched bibliographic databases for arthritis conditions and a series of employment-related keywords and subject headings. Information on authors, publication year; study design, sample characteristics (e.g., number of participants, age, gender, arthritis type); work outcomes measured; and specific barriers to employment was recorded. Nine studies were uncovered in the review. All studies examined young people with juvenile arthritis (9 of 9 studies) and consisted of sample sizes with less then 150 participants (6 of 9 studies) who were primarily recruited from clinics (7 of 9 studies). All were cross-sectional designs. Employment status was primarily examined and ranged from 11% to 71%. Although not always statistically significant, young adults with arthritis were less likely to be employed when compared to their healthy peers. Greater disease severity, less educational attainment and being female were related to not participating in paid work. This review brings to light the paucity of studies examining the early employment experiences of young adults with arthritis. There is a need to expand research to contribute to recommendations for sustained and productive employment across the working life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions of sex and early life social experiences at two developmental stages shape nonapeptide receptor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Lisa C; Ophir, Alexander G

    2018-05-31

    Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior. We investigated whether oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) distributions of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) change as a function of parental composition within the natal nest or social composition after weaning. We raised pups either in the presence or absence of their fathers. At weaning, offspring were housed either individually or with a same-sex sibling. We also examined whether changes in receptor distributions are sexually dimorphic because the impact of the developmental environment on the nonapeptide system could be sex-dependent. We found that differences in nonapeptide receptor expression were region-, sex-, and rearing condition-specific, indicating a high level of complexity in the ways that early life experiences shape the social brain. We found many more differences in V1aR density compared to OTR density, indicating that nonapeptide receptors demonstrate differential levels of neural plasticity and sensitivity to environmental and biological variables. Our data highlight that critical factors including biological sex and multiple experiences across the developmental continuum interact in complex ways to shape the social brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Experiences with the Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Sung, Yong Won; Moon, Hyun Jong; Lee, Jung Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report our early experiences with the endovascular repair of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAAs), which are a rare and life-threatening condition. Methods Among 42 patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) between October 2010 and September 2015, five patients (11.9%) suffered an rDTAA. Results The mean age was 72.4±5.1 years, and all patients were male. Hemoptysis and hemothorax were present in three (60%) and two (40%) patients, respectively. Hypovolemic shock was noted in three patients who underwent emergency operations. A hybrid operation was performed in three patients. The mean operative time was 269.8±72.3 minutes. The mean total length of aortic coverage was 186.0±49.2 mm. No 30-day mortality occurred. Stroke, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were observed in one patient each. Paraplegia did not occur. Endoleak was found in two patients (40%), one of whom underwent an early and successful reintervention. During the mean follow-up period of 16.8±14.8 months, two patients died; one cause of death was a persistent type 1 endoleak and the other cause was unknown. Conclusion TEVAR for rDTAA was associated with favorable early mortality and morbidity outcomes. However, early reintervention should be considered if persistent endoleak occurs. PMID:27064672

  7. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steven J; Reamer, Lisa A; Hopkins, William D

    2014-03-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed with a processing program (BrainVISA) that extracts cortical sulci. We obtained various measurements from 11 sulci located throughout the brain, as well as whole brain gyrification and white and grey matter volumes. We found that mother-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain morphology in chimpanzees and suggests potential differences in the development of white matter expansion and myelination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    PubMed

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  10. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  11. Parents' early healthcare transition experiences with preterm and acutely ill infants: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D

    2017-11-01

    Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care

  12. Fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer: our experience of LLETZ and pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Rhona; Burton, Kevin; Shanbhag, Smruta; Tolhurst, Jenny; Millan, David; Siddiqui, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Presently, for those diagnosed with early cervical cancer who wish to conserve their fertility, there is the option of radical trachelectomy. Although successful, this procedure is associated with significant obstetric morbidity. The recurrence risk of early cervical cancer is low and in tumors measuring less than 2 cm; if the lymphatics are negative, the likelihood of parametrial involvement is less than 1%. Therefore, pelvic lymph nodes are a surrogate marker of parametrial involvement and radical excision of the parametrium can be omitted if they are negative. The aim of this study was to report our experience of the fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer with repeat large loop excision of the transformation zone and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection. Between 2004 and 2011, a retrospective review of cases of early cervical cancer who had fertility conserving management within Glasgow Royal Infirmary was done. Forty-three patients underwent fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer. Forty were screen-detected cancers; 2 were stage IA1, 4 were stage IA2, and 37 were stage IB1. There were 2 central recurrences during the follow-up period. There have been 15 live children to 12 women and there are 4 ongoing pregnancies. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series described and confirms the low morbidity and mortality of this procedure. However, even within our highly select group, there have been 2 cases of central recurrent disease. We, therefore, are urging caution in the global adoption of this technique and would welcome a multicenter multinational randomized controlled trial.

  13. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    PubMed

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  15. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciT

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  16. Early experience with human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Abigail; Markowitz, Lauri; Deeks, Shelley; Tam, Theresa; Irwin, Kathleen; Garland, Suzanne M; Schuchat, Anne

    2008-08-19

    Successful incorporation of a new vaccine into a nation's vaccination program requires addressing a number of issues, including: 1) establishing national recommendations; 2) assuring education of and acceptance by the public and medical community; 3) establishing and maintaining an appropriate infrastructure for vaccine delivery; 4) financing the vaccine and the program, in addition to political will. This article reviews the early experience with implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. It focuses on the United States of America and Canada and provides a brief report on Australia, where introduction is underway.

  17. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48% girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  18. Individual Differences in Toddlers' Prosociality: Experiences in Early Relationships Explain Variability in Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Newton, Emily K; Thompson, Ross A; Goodman, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Latent class logistic regression analysis was used to investigate sources of individual differences in profiles of prosocial behavior. Eighty-seven 18-month-olds were observed in tasks assessing sharing with a neutral adult, instrumentally helping a neutral adult, and instrumentally helping a sad adult. Maternal mental state language (MSL) and maternal sensitivity were also assessed. Despite differing motivational demands across tasks, we found consistency in children's prosocial behavior with three latent classes: no prosocial behavior, moderate prosocial behavior, and frequent instrumental helping across emotional situations. Maternal sensitivity, MSL, and their interaction predicted toddlers' membership in the classes. These findings evidence moderate consistency in early prosocial behaviors and suggest that these capacities are motivated in early relationships with caregivers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Integrating primary care into community behavioral health settings: programs and early implementation experiences.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Eberhart, Nicole K; Schmidt, Nicole; Vaughan, Christine A; Dutta, Trina; Pincus, Harold Alan; Burnam, M Audrey

    2013-07-01

    This article describes the characteristics and early implementation experiences of community behavioral health agencies that received Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) grants from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to integrate primary care into programs for adults with serious mental illness. Data were collected from 56 programs, across 26 states, that received PBHCI grants in 2009 (N=13) or 2010 (N=43). The authors systematically extracted quantitative and qualitative information about program characteristics from grantee proposals and semistructured telephone interviews with core program staff. Quarterly reports submitted by grantees were coded to identify barriers to implementing integrated care. Grantees shared core features required by the grant but varied widely in terms of characteristics of the organization, such as size and location, and in the way services were integrated, such as through partnerships with a primary care agency. Barriers to program implementation at start-up included difficulty recruiting and retaining qualified staff and issues related to data collection and use of electronic health records, licensing and approvals, and physical space. By the end of the first year, some problems, such as space issues, were largely resolved, but other issues, including problems with staffing and data collection, remained. New challenges, such as patient recruitment, had emerged. Early implementation experiences of PBHCI grantees may inform other programs that seek to integrate primary care into behavioral health settings as part of new, large-scale government initiatives, such as specialty mental health homes.

  20. Student Teachers' Workplace-Based Learning in Sweden on Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Experiences in Practice Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Workplace-based learning experiences are integral to early childhood teacher education. In Sweden, the objectives of early childhood teacher education programmes require students to develop knowledge and skills about education for sustainability (EfS), in accordance with national policy documents. This includes how to work with EfS in everyday…

  1. International Field Experience as an Impetus for Personal and Professional Transformation: Through the Lens of Early Childhood Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Tina Heather

    2015-01-01

    Research exploring preservice postsecondary students' experiences participating in an international field placement is a relatively new area of study in the domains of Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Early Childhood Leadership (ECL). While there is a growing body of literature offering merit to the profound transformations that can occur for…

  2. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  3. The beneficial effect of oxytocin on avoidance-related facial emotion recognition depends on early life stress experience.

    PubMed

    Feeser, Melanie; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Hahn, Adam; Gärtner, Matti; Aust, Sabine; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OXT) enhances social cognitive processes. It has also been demonstrated that OXT does not uniformly facilitate social cognition. The effects of OXT administration strongly depend on the exposure to stressful experiences in early life. Emotional facial recognition is crucial for social cognition. However, no study has yet examined how the effects of OXT on the ability to identify emotional faces are altered by early life stress (ELS) experiences. Given the role of OXT in modulating social motivational processes, we specifically aimed to investigate its effects on the recognition of approach- and avoidance-related facial emotions. In a double-blind, between-subjects, placebo-controlled design, 82 male participants performed an emotion recognition task with faces taken from the "Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces" set. We clustered the six basic emotions along the dimensions approach (happy, surprise, anger) and avoidance (fear, sadness, disgust). ELS was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Our results showed that OXT improved the ability to recognize avoidance-related emotional faces as compared to approach-related emotional faces. Whereas the performance for avoidance-related emotions in participants with higher ELS scores was comparable in both OXT and placebo condition, OXT enhanced emotion recognition in participants with lower ELS scores. Independent of OXT administration, we observed increased emotion recognition for avoidance-related faces in participants with high ELS scores. Our findings suggest that the investigation of OXT on social recognition requires a broad approach that takes ELS experiences as well as motivational processes into account.

  4. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  5. A mixed methods analysis of experiences and expectations among early-career medical oncologists in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, W K Tim; Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David; Francis, Kay; Karapetis, Christos S; Karikios, Deme; Harrup, Rosemary; Lwin, Zarnie

    2018-01-26

    A viable and sustainable medical oncology profession is integral for meeting the increasing demand for quality cancer care. The aim of this study was to explore the workforce-related experiences, perceptions and career expectations of early-career medical oncologists in Australia. A mixed-methods design, including a survey (n  =  170) and nested qualitative semistructured interviews (n  =  14) with early-career medical oncologists. Recruitment was through the Medical Oncology Group of Australia. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and for the survey results, logistic regression modeling was conducted. Early-career medical oncologists experienced uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities. The competitive job market has made them cautious about securing a preferred job leading to a perceived need to improve their qualifications through higher degree training and research activities. The following themes and trends were identified from the qualitative and quantitative analyses: age, career stage and associated early-career uncertainty; locale, professional competition and training preferences; participation in research and evolving professional expectations; and workload and career development opportunities as linked to career uncertainty. Perceived diminished employment opportunities in the medical oncology profession, and shifting expectations to be "more qualified," have increased uncertainty among junior medical oncologists in terms of their future career prospects. Structural factors relating to adequate funding of medical oncology positions may facilitate or inhibit progressive change in the workforce and its sustainability. Workforce planning and strategies informed by findings from this study will be necessary in ensuring that both the needs of cancer patients and of medical oncologists are met. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Full Field Deformation Measurements in Tensile Kolsky Bar Experiments: Studies and Detailed Analysis of the Early Time History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Gilat, A.; Seidt, J.; Rajan, S.; Kidane, A.

    2018-01-01

    The very early stages of high rate tensile loading are important when attempting to characterize the response of materials during the transient loading time. To improve understanding of the conditions imposed on the specimen during the transient stage, a series of high rate loading experiments are performed using a Kolsky tensile bar system. Specimen forces and velocities during the high rate loading experiment are obtained by performing a thorough method of characteristics analysis of the system employed in the experiments. The in-situ full-field specimen displacements, velocities and accelerations during the loading process are quantified using modern ultra-high-speed imaging systems to provide detailed measurements of specimen response, with emphasis on the earliest stages of loading. Detailed analysis of the image-based measurements confirms that conditions are nominally consistent with those necessary for use of the one-dimensional wave equation within the relatively thin, dog-bone shaped tensile specimen. Specifically, measurements and use of the one-dimensional wave equation show clearly that the specimen has low inertial stresses in comparison to the applied transmitted force. Though the accelerations of the specimen continue for up to 50 μs, measurements show that the specimen is essentially in force equilibrium beginning a few microseconds after initial loading. These local measurements contrast with predictions based on comparison of the wave-based incident force measurements, which suggest that equilibrium occurs much later, on the order of 40-50 μs .

  7. Suggestions for better data presentation in papers: an experience from a comprehensive study on national and sub-national trends of overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Gohari, Kimiya; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2014-12-01

    The importance of data quality whether in collection, analysis or presenting stage is a tangible and undeniable scientific fact and the main objects of researches implementation. This paper aims at explaining the main problems of the Iranian scientific papers for providing better data in the field of national and sub-national prevalence, incidence estimates and trends of obesity and overweight. To assess and evaluate papers, we systematically followed an approved standard protocol. Retrieval of studies was performed through Thomson Reuters Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus, as well as Iranian databases including Irandoc, Scientific Information Database (SID), and IranMedex. Using GBD (Global Burden of Diseases) validated quality assessment forms to assess the quality and availability of data in papers, we considered the following four main domains: a) Quality of studies, b) Quality report of the results, c) Responsiveness of corresponding authors, and d) Diversity in study settings. We retrieved 3,253 records; of these 1,875 were from international and 1378 from national databases. After refining steps, 129 (3.97%) papers remained related to our study domain. More than 51% of relevant papers were excluded because of poor quality of studies. The number of reported total population and points of data were 22,972 and 29 for boys, and 38,985 and 47 for girls, respectively. For all measures, missing values and diversities in studies' setting limited our ability to compare and analyze the results. Moreover, we had some serious problems in contacting the corresponding authors for complementary information necessary (Receptiveness: 17.9%). As the present paper focused on the main problems of Iranian scientific papers and proposed suggestions, the results will have implications for better policy making.

  8. Early experience with diverse foods increases intake of nonfamiliar flavors and feeds in sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2012-08-01

    This study determined whether early experiences by sheep with monotonous or diverse diets influence intake of unfamiliar flavors and feeds later in life. Thirty 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (n = 10): diverse (DIV), diverse with plant toxins (DIV+T), and monotonous (MON). Lambs in DIV received in 9 successive periods of exposure 4-way choice combinations of 2 foods high in energy and 2 foods high in protein from an array of 6 foods: 3 high in energy [beet pulp, oat grain, and a mix of milo:grape pomace (60:40)] and 3 high in digestible protein (DP) (soybean meal, alfalfa, corn gluten meal). Lambs in DIV+T received the same exposure as DIV, but 2 plant toxins, oxalic acid (1.5%) and quebracho tannins (10%), were randomly added to 2 of the feeds in each of the choice combinations. Lambs in MON received a monotonous balanced diet, made with a mixture of all 6 feeds detailed before. All treatments received their feed in 4 separate buckets. During exposure, treatments did not differ in total daily DMI (P = 0.31), but daily intake of ME was less (P < 0.02) and daily intake of DP was greater (P < 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. Treatments did not differ in ADG or G:F (P > 0.05). After exposure, lambs were offered a familiar feed (wheat bran) containing novel flavors (maple, garlic, or bitter) and 2-way choices of novel feeds (fescue hay vs. corn distillers grains, rice vs. calf manna, and green peas vs. rolled oats). Intake of maple-flavored wheat bran tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for lambs in DIV than for lambs in DIV+T and MON. Intake of bitter-flavored and garlic-flavored wheat bran were greater (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. During 2-way choice trials, lambs in DIV, but not in DIV+T, showed greater intakes of fescue hay (P = 0.05) and rice (P = 0.04) than lambs in MON. Intake of green peas was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in

  9. Early tracking would improve the operative experience of general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Stain, Steven C; Biester, Thomas W; Hanks, John B; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Bass, Barbara L; Buyske, Jo

    2010-09-01

    High surgical complexity and individual career goals has led most general surgery (GS) residents to pursue fellowship training, resulting in a shortage of surgeons who practice broad-based general surgery. We hypothesize that early tracking of residents would improve operative experience of residents planning to be general surgeons, and could foster greater interest and confidence in this career path. Surgical Operative Log data from GS and fellowship bound residents (FB) applying for the 2008 American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (QE) were used to construct a hypothetical training model with 6 months of early specialization (ESP) for FB residents in 4 specialties (cardiac, vascular, colorectal, pediatric); and presumed these cases would be available to GS residents within the same program. A total of 142 training programs had both FB residents (n = 237) and GS residents (n = 402), and represented 70% of all 2008 QE applicants. The mean numbers of operations by FB and GS residents were 1131 and 1091, respectively. There were a mean of 252 cases by FB residents in the chief year, theoretically making 126 cases available for each GS resident. In 9 defined categories, the hypothetical model would result in an increase in the 5-year operative experience of GS residents (mastectomy 6.5%; colectomy 22.8%; gastrectomy 23.4%; antireflux procedures 23.4%; pancreatic resection 37.4%; liver resection 29.3%; endocrine procedures 19.6%; trauma operations 13.3%; GI endoscopy 6.5%). The ESP model improves operative experience of GS residents, particularly for complex gastrointestinal procedures. The expansion of subspecialty ESP should be considered.

  10. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  11. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Coping Expectancies, Not Enhancement Expectancies, Mediate Trauma Experience Effects on Problem Alcohol Use: A Prospective Study From Early Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jester, Jennifer M; Steinberg, Davia B; Heitzeg, Mary M; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between experiencing trauma and increased alcohol consumption has been well established. Exposure to childhood trauma has been linked to both early onset of drinking and problematic substance use. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The results of early work suggested that drinking to relieve negative affect (i.e., drinking to cope) was driving this connection. However, the findings of more recent work suggest that drinking might be used to enhance positive affect as a way of addressing the aftereffects of early trauma. The current study looked at these two drinking expectancies as indirect pathways between the experience in early childhood of living in a home with parental violence and peak alcohol use in emerging adulthood. Participants were 1,064 children and their parents involved in a longitudinal community study of children at high risk for the development of alcoholism and a community contrast group of those at lower risk. Baseline assessment was at age 3-5 years, self-reports of internalizing behavior and drinking expectancies were obtained at age 12-14, and drinking measures were assessed at age 18-20. Results indicated that coping expectancy was a mediator of the relationship between early childhood trauma and later peak alcohol use, whereas enhancement expectancy was not. Children living in homes with parental violence were more likely to develop ineffective coping strategies, such as using alcohol to decrease negative affect. These results support the self-medication theory. They also demonstrate the long-term effects of early life experience on drinking behavior in early adulthood.

  13. The Influence of Early Science Experience in Kindergarten on Children's Immediate and Later Science Achievement: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of selected early science experiences in kindergarten (frequency and duration of teachers' teaching of science, availability of sand/water table and science areas, and children's participation in cooking and science equipment activities) on children's science achievement in kindergarten and third grade using data…

  14. Developing Research-Ready Skills: Preparing Early Academic Students for Participation in Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.

  15. Language experience shapes early electrophysiological responses to visual stimuli: the effects of writing system, stimulus length, and presentation duration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gui; Jiang, Ting; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2008-02-15

    How language experience affects visual word recognition has been a topic of intense interest. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study compared the early electrophysiological responses (i.e., N1) to familiar and unfamiliar writings under different conditions. Thirteen native Chinese speakers (with English as their second language) were recruited to passively view four types of scripts: Chinese (familiar logographic writings), English (familiar alphabetic writings), Korean Hangul (unfamiliar logographic writings), and Tibetan (unfamiliar alphabetic writings). Stimuli also differed in lexicality (words vs. non-words, for familiar writings only), length (characters/letters vs. words), and presentation duration (100 ms vs. 750 ms). We found no significant differences between words and non-words, and the effect of language experience (familiar vs. unfamiliar) was significantly modulated by stimulus length and writing system, and to a less degree, by presentation duration. That is, the language experience effect (i.e., a stronger N1 response to familiar writings than to unfamiliar writings) was significant only for alphabetic letters, but not for alphabetic and logographic words. The difference between Chinese characters and unfamiliar logographic characters was significant under the condition of short presentation duration, but not under the condition of long presentation duration. Long stimuli elicited a stronger N1 response than did short stimuli, but this effect was significantly attenuated for familiar writings. These results suggest that N1 response might not reliably differentiate familiar and unfamiliar writings. More importantly, our results suggest that N1 is modulated by visual, linguistic, and task factors, which has important implications for the visual expertise hypothesis.

  16. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  17. Women's experiences of participating in the early external cephalic version 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Murray-Davis, Beth; Marion, Anya; Malott, Anne; Reitsma, Angela; Hutton, Eileen K

    2012-03-01

    The international, multicenter External Cephalic Version 2 (ECV2) Trial compared early external cephalic version at 34(0/7) to 35(6/7) weeks with that at greater than 37 weeks. A total of 1,543 women were randomized from 68 centers in 21 countries. The goal of this component of the trial was to understand women's views about participation in a research trial and timing of external cephalic version. A postpartum questionnaire was completed containing a 5-point Likert scale examining contact and availability of staff, choice of timing of external cephalic version, preference of randomization, convenience of participating, and overall satisfaction. Participants also completed two open-ended questions related to timing of external cephalic version and satisfaction with the trial. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. A total of 1,458 women completed the questionnaire, of whom 86 percent said "yes"-they would participate in the trial again. Themes influencing decisions about participating were perceptions of the external cephalic version experience, preferred mode of delivery, preferred timing of external cephalic version, and perceptions of the effectiveness of external cephalic version and of the trial environment. Many participants preferred the early timing of the procedure offered through the trial because of perceived advantages of a smaller baby being easier to turn and the opportunity for repeat procedures. Women were positive about their participation in the trial. Early external cephalic version was preferred over the traditional timing as it was perceived to afford both physiologic and practical advantages. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  19. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    PubMed

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  20. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  1. When Language Experience Fails to Explain Word Reading Development: Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Young Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Although language experience is a key factor in successful foreign language (FL) learning, many FL learners fail to achieve performance levels that were predicted on the basis of their FL experience. This retrospective study investigated early cognitive and linguistic correlates of learning English as a foreign language (FL) in a group of…

  2. Exploring School-Employer Partnerships to Expand Career Development and Early Work Experiences for Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Cole, Odessa; Swedeen, Beth; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Although career development and early work experiences are associated with improved postschool employment outcomes for youth with disabilities, transition personnel report having few natural community partners to support and enhance these experiences. We surveyed 135 chambers of commerce and other employer networks to examine (a) whether and how…

  3. Troubling Messages: Agency and Learning in the Early Schooling Experiences of Children of Latina/o Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; McManus, Molly

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Early childhood education in the United States is currently suspended between the belief that young children learn through dynamic experiences in which they are able to create and experiment, and the belief that young children's emerging literacy and math skills require formal instruction and assessments to ensure future…

  4. "Little Bit Afraid 'Til I Found How It Was'": Children's Subjective Early School Experiences in a Disadvantaged Community in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Claire; O'Farrelly, Christine; Booth, Ailbhe; Doyle, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that children facing socioeconomic risk often have poorer skills at school entry, greater difficulty adjusting to school, more negative school experiences, and lower scholastic achievement, relative to their peers. However, the promotion of positive early school experiences is constrained by a lack of insight into disadvantaged…

  5. Emotional learning, stress, and development: An ever-changing landscape shaped by early-life experience.

    PubMed

    Pattwell, Siobhan S; Bath, Kevin G

    2017-09-01

    The capacity to learn to associate cues with negative outcomes is a highly adaptive process that appears to be conserved across species. However, when the cue is no longer a valid predictor of danger, but the emotional response persists, this can result in maladaptive behaviors, and in humans contribute to debilitating emotional disorders. Over the past several decades, work in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and biology have uncovered key processes underlying, and structures governing, emotional responding and learning, as well as identified disruptions in the structural and functional integrity of these brain regions in models of pathology. In this review, we highlight some of this elegant body of work as well as incorporate emerging findings from the field of developmental neurobiology to emphasize how development contributes to changes in the ability to learn and express emotional responses, and how early experiences, such as stress, shape the development and functioning of these circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Career Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experiences and Student Persistence in STEM Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Pedone, V. A.; Horn, W.; Rich, H.

    2015-12-01

    STEPS (Students Targeting Engineering and Physical Science) is an NSF-funded program designed to increase the number of California State University Northridge students getting bachelor's degrees in the natural sciences, mathematics, engineering and computer science. The greatest loss of STEM majors occurs between sophomore and junior- years, so we designed Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experience (SITE) as an early career program for these students. Students work closely with a faculty mentor in teams of ten to investigate regionally relevant problems, many of which relate to sustainability efforts on campus or the community. The projects emphasize hands-on activities and team-based learning and decision making. We report data for five years of projects, qualitative assessment through entrance and exit surveys and student interviews, and in initial impact on retention of the participants.

  7. Neurolinguistic development in deaf children: the effect of early language experience.

    PubMed

    Leybaert, Jacqueline; D'Hondt, Murielle

    2003-07-01

    Recent investigations have indicated a relationship between the development of cerebral lateralization for processing language and the level of development of linguistic skills in hearing children. The research on cerebral lateralization for language processing in deaf persons is compatible with this view. We have argued that the absence of appropriate input during a critical time window creates a risk for deaf children that the initial bias for left-hemisphere specialization will be distorted or disappear. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis The results of these investigations showed that children educated early and intensively with cued speech or with sign language display more evidence of left-hemisphere specialization for the processing of their native language than do those who have been exposed later and less intensively to those languages.

  8. Early experiences in evolving an enterprise-wide information model for laboratory and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Zhou, Li; Kashyap, Vipul; Schaeffer, Molly; Dykes, Patricia C; Goldberg, Howard S

    2008-11-06

    As Electronic Healthcare Records become more prevalent, there is an increasing need to ensure unambiguous data capture, interpretation, and exchange within and across heterogeneous applications. To address this need, a common, uniform, and comprehensive approach for representing clinical information is essential. At Partners HealthCare System, we are investigating the development and implementation of enterprise-wide information models to specify the representation of clinical information to support semantic interoperability. This paper summarizes our early experiences in: (1) defining a process for information model development, (2) reviewing and comparing existing healthcare information models, (3) identifying requirements for representation of laboratory and clinical observations, and (4) exploring linkages to existing terminology and data standards. These initial findings provide insight to the various challenges ahead and guidance on next steps for adoption of information models at our organization.

  9. Adult attachment and early parental experiences in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Alessandro; Rizzello, Fernando; Ravegnani, Gianni; Gionchetti, Paolo; Tambasco, Rosy; Straforini, Giulia; Ercolani, Mauro; Campieri, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease. The relationship of attachment to the illness is considered to be bidirectional. The authors investigated aspects of this bidirectional relationship. A group of 102 patients with CD and 306 healthy subjects filled out the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Instrument. Patients with CD exhibit a predominantly insecure attachment and perceived their parents' behaviors as characterized by low maternal care and high paternal overprotection. The evaluation of attachment style and early parental experiences in patients with CD may shed light on the bidirectional relationship between attachment and illness. These findings may confirm the bidirectional relationship between insecure attachment and chronic illness.

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Alcohol Consumption in Midlife and Early Old-Age

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jessica Pui Kei; Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the individual and cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on alcohol consumption in midlife and early old-age, and the role of ACEs in 10-year drinking trajectories across midlife. Methods Data were from the Whitehall II study, a longitudinal British civil service-based cohort study (N = 7870, 69.5% male). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the individual and cumulative effects of ACEs on weekly alcohol consumption. Mixed-effect multilevel modelling was used to explore the relationship between ACEs and change in alcohol consumption longitudinally. Results Participants who were exposed to parental arguments/fights in childhood were 1.24 (95% CI 1.06, 1.45) times more likely to drink at hazardous levels in midlife (mean age 56 years) after controlling for covariates and other ACEs. For each additional exposure to an ACE, the risk of hazardous drinking versus moderate drinking was increased by 1.12 (95% CI 1.03, 1.21) after adjusting for sex, age, adult socio-economic status, ethnicity and marital status. No associations between ACEs and increased risk of hazardous drinking in early old-age (mean age 66 years) were found. In longitudinal analyses, ACEs did not significantly influence 10-year drinking trajectories across midlife. Conclusion The effect of exposure to parental arguments on hazardous drinking persists into midlife. PMID:26553290

  11. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.

  12. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, Adeetee

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714

  13. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    PubMed Central

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design Qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting Primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome The importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results GPs, home-care nurses, pharmacists, and medical secretaries trusted the new MDD technology. The quality of the GPs’ medication records improved. However, health personnel, including the GPs themselves, would not always trust the medication records of the GPs. Checking the multidose bags arriving from the pharmacy was considered unnecessary in the written routines dealing with MDD. However, home-care nurses experienced errors and continued to manually check the bags. Nurses in the home-care service felt a loss of knowledge with regard to the patients’ medications and in turn experienced reduced ability to give medical information to patients and to observe the effects of the drugs. The home-care services’ routines for drug handling were not always trusted by the other groups of health personnel involved. Conclusion Health personnel faced some challenges during the implementation of the MDD system, but most of them remained confident in the new system. Building trust has to be a process that runs in parallel with the introduction of new technology and the establishment of new routines for improving the quality in handling of medicines and to facilitate better cooperation and communication. PMID:21323496

  14. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P < .001), with hospitalization rates between 3% and 66% (P < .001) and surgical rates from 1% to 24% (P < .001). In spite of characteristic scenarios and injury patterns after earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  15. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  16. Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Ros-Simó, Clara; Valverde, Olga

    2012-09-01

    Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and

  18. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-03-01

    Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5-2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the 'baby'; and pain and bleeding. Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and problems from the women's point of view. Competence and caring from

  19. Theories of Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  20. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  1. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  2. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)

  3. Theories of Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William

    1928-01-01

    The word “suggestion” has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence. Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena. The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability. Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct “inhibited in its aim” (transference) and brings in his distinction of “ego” and “ego-ideal” (or “super-ego”) to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible. PMID:19986306

  4. Invisible to Visible: Mapping the Continuum of Literacy Learning Experiences in an Early Years Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…

  5. Review of conservative surgery in early breast cancer. British Columbia experience.

    PubMed

    Holmvang, A M; Grafton, C; Sandy, J T

    1985-05-01

    Conservation mastectomy in combination with radiotherapy is becoming an accepted treatment for early breast cancer. No absolute guidelines exist as to appropriate patient selection or correct surgical technique, but certain unifying trends can be ascertained from the current literature. The purpose of this study was to review the literature and to identify areas of incongruence between present management of patients in British Columbia and suggestions in the current literature. One hundred patients were reviewed. Twenty-six percent of them did not receive preoperative mammograms, and tumor stage was inappropriate in 9 percent. Thirteen percent had excisional biopsies only. A quarter of the patients had tumor resection through unfavorably placed incisions. Eight percent did not have estrogen receptor determination. Thirty-nine percent of the pathology reports made no comment as to adequacy of resection margins. It is hoped that these areas that, with proper attention, can improve cosmetic results and decrease the incidence of local tumor recurrence.

  6. Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  7. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  8. Early Experience with a Brief, Multimodal, Multidisciplinary Treatment Program for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O.; Oh, Terry H.; Guderian, Janet A.; Barton, Debra L.; Luedtke, Connie A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex, heterogeneous disorder for which a multidisciplinary individualized approach is currently advocated. We executed a 1 week multidisciplinary fibromyalgia clinical program with 7 patients, based on our previous experience with our existing 1.5 day multidisciplinary fibromyalgia program that has demonstrated both short- and long-term benefits. The current expanded program was not designed as a clinical study, but rather as a clinical feasibility assessment and was multidisciplinary in nature, with cognitive behavioral therapy, activity pacing and graded exercise therapy as major components. We assessed changes in individual patients at 1 week and 3 months following the program utilizing validated self-report measures of pain, fatigue, and self-efficacy. All patients indicated at least small improvements in pain and physical symptoms both at 1 week and 3 months and all but one patient showed improvement in self-efficacy at 1 week and 3 months. Similar trends were observed for fatigue. Based on our early clinical experience, we conclude that the 1 week multidisciplinary fibromyalgia program is logistically feasible and has potential for clinical efficacy. Further research is needed and is planned to test the clinical efficacy of this program and compare it with other interventions. PMID:24315246

  9. School experiences of early adolescent Latinos/as at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Balagna, Ryan M; Young, Ellie L; Smith, Timothy B

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that Latino/a middle school students exhibiting emotional or behavioral disturbance are at risk for undesirable academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions and experiences of at-risk Latino/a students to identify ways to improve interventions targeted to promote their academic retention and success. Participants included 11 Latino/a students between the ages of 11 and 13 years, 8 males and 3 females, who were screened as being at risk for behavior disorders using the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD). These students shared their perceptions and experiences of schooling during in-depth qualitative interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to understand how these students made sense of their school experiences. Students' descriptions tended to be contextualized within relationships with peers, teachers, and family members. Many students shared experiences of being the target of overt racism and microaggressions from peers. Students believed they were more likely to be successful in school when teachers displayed flexibility with deadlines, provided extra help, and communicated a sense of warmth and caring. The data from this study suggested that school psychologists can benefit from attending to at-risk students' perceptions, which, in the context of this study, would require facilitating an inclusive school climate, fostering effective teacher and student relationships, and facilitating parent-teacher relationships during the difficult transition from elementary to middle school.

  10. Sulfur in the Early Martian Atmosphere Revisited: Experiments with a 3-D Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.

    2013-09-01

    Data returned from the surface of Mars during the 1970s revealed intriguing geological evidence for a warmer and wetter early martian climate. Dendritic valley networks were discovered by Mariner 9 on ancient Noachian terrain [1], indicating that liquid water had flowed across the surface in the distant past. Since this time, geological investigations into early Martian history have attempted to ascertain the nature and level of activity of the early Martian hydrological cycle [e.g. 2-5] while atmospheric modeling efforts have focused on how the atmosphere could be warmed to temperatures great enough to sustain such activity [see 6-7 for reviews]. Geological and spectroscopic investigations have refined the history and chronology of Noachian Mars over time, and circulation of liquid water has been invoked to explain several spatially and temporally distinct morphological and chemical signatures found in the geological record. Detections of iron and magnesium-rich clays are widespread in the oldest Martian terrains, suggesting a period of pH-neutral aqueous alteration [e.g., 8]. Valley network incision also took place during the Noachian period [9]. Some chains of river valleys and craters lakes extend for thousands of kilometers, suggesting temperatures at least clement enough for sustained ice-covered flow [3,10]. The commencement of valley network incision is not well constrained, but the period of Mg/Fe clay formation appears to have ended before the termination of valley network formation, as the visible fluvial systems appear to have remobilized existing clays rather than forming them [5,8]. There is also evidence that the cessation of valley network formation was abrupt [11]. Towards the end of the Noachian, erosion rates appear to have been significantly higher than during subsequent periods, a process that has also been attributed to aqueous processes [12]. A period of sulfate formation followed, likely characterized by acidic, evaporitic playa environments

  11. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  12. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul J; Yoder, Sarah; Fogels, Ed; Krieger, Gary; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA) in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of "health for all." A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  13. Early Experience with a Short, Tapered Titanium Porous Plasma Sprayed Stem with Updated Design.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Adolph V; Manocchio, Antonio G; Berend, Keith R; Morris, Michael J; Adams, Joanne B

    2018-06-01

    Short stem femoral components in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increased in popularity since the advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques. The concept of a short stem is particularly compatible with tapered designs where the goal is to offload forces proximally in the femur. The purpose of this retrospective review was to review our early experience with a short, tapered titanium femoral component with updated design features. Beginning in November 2011 through February 2012, 92 consented patients (93 hips), at a single center, were treated with primary cementless THA using a short stem, tapered femoral component (Taperloc® Complete Microplasty; Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) and were available for review with a minimum two-year follow-up. Mean patient age at surgery was 63.2 years and body mass index (BMI) was 30.8 kg/m2. Mean stem length used was 110.3mm (range, 95-125). Mean follow-up was 4.5 years (2-6). Harris hip scores improved from 52.5 preoperatively to 84.7 at most recent. One stem was revised the same day for periprosthetic fracture. One patient with early infection was treated with single-stage exchange followed by recurrence that was treated successfully with two-stage exchange. A non-healing wound in one patient was treated with incision and debridement. Radiographic assessment demonstrated no evidence of loosening, osteolysis, distal hypertrophy, or pedestal formation in any hip, and all components appeared well fixed and in appropriate alignment. In this series of patients treated with primary THA using a short, tapered titanium porous plasma-sprayed femoral component with updated design features, good results were achieved with a low incidence of complications and revision. No aseptic loosening or osteolysis has occurred. Radiographic assessment was excellent for all patients.

  14. HLA-B*5701 clinical testing: early experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Faruki, Hawazin; Heine, Uwe; Brown, Trisha; Koester, Ruth; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2007-10-01

    HLA-B*5701 testing to provide risk stratification for abacavir hypersensitivity has the potential to reduce incidence of hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals. Early experience with clinical HLA-B*5701 testing of the first 100 specimens, from a large clinical reference laboratory in the United States, is presented. Patient samples were tested using a two-step approach. The first step allowed rapid identification of most HLA-B*5701-negative samples in a high throughput mode. The second step involved resolution of putative positives by DNA sequencing to identify B*5701 specifically as well as other B57 subtypes. Test reporting included a phone call from a genetic counselor to obtain the ethnic background and indication for testing and to provide a patient-specific interpretation. The patients population was comprised of Caucasians, 84%; Hispanics, 13%; and African Americans, 3%. Among the 100 samples tested, 92% were HLA-B*5701-negative and 8% were positive for the HLA-B*5701 allele. All HLA-B*5701 allele positives were identified in Caucasian patients. Where the indication for testing was obtainable (57 patients), pre-abacavir therapy screening was the indication 67% of the time. Clarification of previous suspected history of hypersensitivity was the indication 33% of the time. Among samples tested to help clarify a previous history of hypersensitivity, 16/19 or 84% did not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele whereas 3/19 (16%) were carriers of the HLA-B*5701 allele. Early utilization of HLA-B*5701 testing in community practice was not always consistent with the clinical indications for testing. Post-test communication assisted in providing physician education and interpretation of patient-specific results.

  15. Renal Tumors: Technical Success and Early Clinical Experience with Radiofrequency Ablation of 18 Tumors

    SciT

    Sabharwal, Rohan, E-mail: rohan50000@yahoo.com; Vladica, Philip

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and technical efficacy of image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of small peripheral renal tumors and to report our early results with this treatment modality. Methods. Twenty-two RFA sessions for 18 tumors were performed in 11 patients with renal tumors. Indications included coexistent morbidity, high surgical or anesthetic risk, solitary kidney, and hereditary predisposition to renal cell carcinoma. Ten patients had CT-guided percutaneous RFA performed on an outpatient basis. One patient had open intraoperative ultrasound-guided RFA. Technical success was defined as elimination of areas that enhanced at imaging within the entire tumor. Withmore » the exception of one patient with renal insufficiency who required gadolinium-enhanced MRI, the remaining patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT for post-treatment follow-up assessment. Follow-up was performed after 2-4 weeks and then at 3, 6, 12 months, and every 12 months thereafter. Results. Fourteen (78%) of 18 tumors were successfully ablated with one session. Three of the remaining four tumors required two sessions for successful ablation. One tumor will require a third session for areas of persistent enhancement. Mean patient age was 72.82 {+-} 10.43 years. Mean tumor size was 1.95 {+-} 0.79 cm. Mean follow-up time was 10.91 months. All procedures were performed without any major complications. Conclusions. Our early experience with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation demonstrates it to be a feasible, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment of small peripheral renal tumors.« less

  16. Metamorphic sole formation and early plate interface rheology: Insights from Griggs apparatus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at

  17. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  18. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, AK; Dalal, U; Attri, AK

    2013-01-01

    Objective - To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Place and duration of study - Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. Materials and methods - This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. Conclusion - IRC is a

  19. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital.

    PubMed

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, A K; Dalal, U; Attri, A K

    2013-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. IRC is a safe, simple and effective procedure for early hemorrhoids without any

  20. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of Australian early childhood education and care experiences: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Collette; Cloney, Daniel; Adams, Ray; Ishimine, Karin; Thorpe, Karen; Nguyen, Thi Kim Cuc

    2016-04-21

    In Australia, 61.5 % of children aged 3-4 attend Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Children's experiences within these programs vary widely and impact directly on educational wellbeing and social development. Research has shown that higher quality programs enhance children's learning and developmental outcomes, foster social participation and have long-lasting effects on their productivity as adults. Quality matters, yet we do not know what components of ECEC result in a quality program. Effective Early Educational Experiences (E4Kids) is a 5-year longitudinal study designed to identify and assess the impact of mainstream ECEC programs and program components on children's learning, development, social inclusion and well-being. E4Kids sets out to measure quality ECEC; identify components that add value and positively impact children's outcomes; evaluate the effects of child, family, community and environment characteristics on programs; and provide evidence on how best to invest in ECEC. E4Kids follows a sample of 2,494 children who have experienced a variety of approved care programs (long day care, kindergarten, family day care and occasional care), as well as 157 children who have not accessed such programs. Children are tracked to the first point of National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing at Year 3. The study presents a multi-level design in which ECEC programs were sampled from two states - Queensland and Victoria - then randomly sampled from two greater metropolitan regions and two regional and remote locations. Parents, centre directors, educators and carers complete questionnaires to provide information on demographics and children's progress. Data collected also include the make-up and organisation of ECEC programs and schools children attended. The quality of adult-child interactions is directly assessed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) and direct testing of children's cognitive abilities

  2. First-Year Practicum Experiences for Preservice Early Childhood Education Teachers Working with Birth-to-3-Year-Olds: An Australasian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne; Peter, Mira; Sims, Margaret; Rockel, Jean; Kumeroa, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a project, "Collaboration of Universities Pedagogies of Infants' and Toddlers' Development-'down under' (CUPID)," in which the practicum experiences of 1st-year preservice initial teacher education (ITE) students at five universities across Australia and New Zealand (NZ) engaging in early childhood education (ECE)…

  3. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  4. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  5. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  6. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences and Perceptions of Professionalism and Professionalisation in the Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Hilary; Phillipson, Sivanes

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly early childhood educators are referred to as "professionals," but how do they view themselves in terms of professionalism? What does it mean to be an early childhood professional? This study explored the views of 78 Asian early childhood educators who were upgrading their qualifications to degree level. In groups of five to…

  7. Early Career Experience of Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellows: What to Expect and Need for Their Services.

    PubMed

    Glotzbecker, Michael P; Shore, Benjamin J; Fletcher, Nicholas D; Larson, A Noelle; Hydorn, Christopher R; Sawyer, Jeffery R

    2016-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of pediatric orthopaedic fellows being trained has led to concerns that there may be an oversupply of pediatric orthopaedists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this perception is accurate and whether the practice expectations of recent pediatric fellowship graduates are being met by surveying recent pediatric fellowship graduates about their early practice experiences. A 36-question survey approved by the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) leadership was electronically distributed to 120 recent graduates of pediatric orthopaedic fellowships; 81 responses were ultimately obtained (67.5% response rate). Almost all (91%) of the respondents were very or extremely satisfied with their fellowship experience. Half of the respondents had at least 1 job offer before they entered their fellowships. After completion of fellowships, 35% received 1 job offer and 62.5% received ≥2 job offers; only 2.5% did not receive a job offer. Most reported a practice consisting almost entirely of pediatric orthopaedics, and 93.5% thought this was in line with their expectations; 87% indicated satisfaction with their current volume of pediatric orthopaedics, and 85% with the complexity of their pediatric orthopaedic cases. Despite the high employment percentages and satisfaction with practice profiles, nearly a third (28%) of respondents replied that too many pediatric orthopaedists are being trained. Positive messages from this survey include the satisfaction of graduates with their fellowship training, the high percentage of graduates who readily found employment, and the satisfaction of graduates with their current practice environments; this indicates that the pediatric orthopaedic job environment is not completely saturated and there are continued opportunities for graduating pediatric fellows despite the increased number of fellows being trained. Although not determined by this study, it may be that the stable

  8. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies.

  11. Important first encounter: Service user experience of pathways to care and early detection in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Long duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes. However, few systematic attempts have been made to reduce this delay and little is known of service users' experience of early detection efforts. We explored service users' experience of an early detection service and transition to specialized treatment service, including pathway to care, understanding of illness and barriers to adequate assessment and treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 service users (median age 21, range 18-27, five males and five females) who were diagnosed with a first-episode non-affective psychosis and who were seen by an early detection team (TOP) and currently enrolled in a specialized early intervention service for this disorder (OPUS). Stigma and fear of the 'psychiatric system' were reported as significant barriers to help seeking, while family members were seen as a crucial support. Moreover, the impact of traumatic events on the experience and development of psychosis was highlighted. Finally, participants were relieved by the prospect of receiving help and the early detection team seemed to create a trusting relationship by offering a friendly, 'anti-stigmatized' space, where long-term symptomatology could be disclosed through accurate and validating questioning. Early detection services have two important functions. One is to make accurate assessments and referrals. The other is to instil hope and trust, and to facilitate further treatment by forming an early therapeutic alliance. The findings in this study provide important insights into the way in which early detection efforts and pathways to care are experienced by service users, with direct implications for improving psychiatric services. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Early experience with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI).

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, M; Lim-Howe, D; Savvas, M; Studd, J W

    1988-01-01

    We present our early experience with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), two recently described methods of assisting conception in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Sixty-nine patients (93 cycles) were entered into the study. Thirty-three patients (51 cycles) entered the DIPI/IUI programme and 36 patients (42 cycles) entered the GIFT programme. The mean age, duration and aetiology of infertility were similar in both groups. In the GIFT programme 12 pregnancies occurred, which is a 29% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 33% pregnancy rate per patient. In the DIPI/IUI programme only 3 pregnancies occurred, being a 6% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 9% pregnancy rate per patient. With the live birth rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) being 12% per embryo transfer, we conclude that GIFT is more successful than either DIPI/IUI or IVF in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Further controlled studies are required to assess the future role of DIPI/IUI in clinical practice. PMID:3210194

  13. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    SciT

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from anmore » additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.« less

  14. Early experience with influenza A H1N109 in an Australian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Leen, Tim; Williams, Teresa A; Campbell, Lorraine; Chamberlain, Jenny; Gould, Andree; McEntaggart, Geraldine; Leslie, Gavin D

    2010-08-01

    Influenza is a common seasonal viral infection that affects large numbers of people. In early 2009, many people were admitted to hospitals in Mexico with severe respiratory failure following an influenza-like illness, subtyped as H1N1. An increased mortality rate was observed. By June 2009, H1N1 was upgraded to pandemic status. In June-July, Australian ICUs were experiencing increased activity due to the influenza pandemic. While hospitals implemented plans for the pandemic, the particularly heavy demand to provide critical care facilities to accommodate an influx of people with severe respiratory failure became evident and placed a great burden on provision of these services. This paper describes the initial experience (June to mid September) of the pandemic from the nursing perspective in a single Australian ICU. Patients were noted to be younger with a higher proportion of women, two of whom were pregnant. Two patients had APACHE III comorbidity. Of the 31 patients admitted during this period, three patients died in ICU and one patient died in hospital. Aerosol precautions were initiated for all patients. The requirement for single room accommodation placed enormous demands for bed management in ICU. Specific infection control procedures were developed to deal with this new pandemic influenza. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2011-10-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

  16. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  17. Early Life Experiences and Telomere Length in Adult Rhesus Monkeys: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Schneper, Lisa M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel A.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Child rearing environments have been associated with morbidity in adult rhesus monkeys. We examine whether such links are also seen with leukocyte telomere length. Methods To determine telomere length in leukocytes, blood was collected from 11 adult females aged seven to ten years who had been exposed to different rearing environments between birth and seven months. Four had been reared with their mothers in typical social groups comprised of other females, their offspring, and 1–2 adult males. The other seven had been reared in either small groups of peers or in individual cages with extensive peer interaction daily. After seven months, all shared a common environment. Results Telomere lengths were longer for those adults who had been reared with their mothers in social groups (median = 16.0 kb, interquartile range = 16.5–15.4) than for those who were reared without their mothers (median = 14.0 kb, interquartile range = 14.3–12.7; 2.2 kb/telomere difference, p<0.027). Conclusions This observation adds to emerging knowledge about early adverse child rearing conditions and their potential for influencing later morbidity. As newborns were randomly assigned to the mother or other rearing conditions, the findings are not confounded by other conditions that co-occur with adverse child rearing environments in humans (e.g., prenatal stress, nutrition and health as well as postnatal nutrition and negative life experiences over and above rearing conditions). PMID:27763985

  18. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% ( n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% ( n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants ( n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m 2 ) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 . The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  19. Local drug delivery - the early Berlin experience: single drug administration versus sustained release.

    PubMed

    Speck, Ulrich; Scheller, Bruno; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Laule, Michael; Stangl, Verena

    2011-05-01

    Our initial investigations into restenosis inhibition by local drug delivery were prompted by reports on an improved outcome of coronary interventions, including a lower rate of target lesion revascularisation, when the intervention was performed with an ionic instead of non-ionic contrast medium. Although this was not confirmed in an animal study, the short exposure of the vessel wall to paclitaxel dissolved in contrast agent or coated on balloons proved to be efficacious. A study comparing three methods of local drug delivery to the coronary artery in pigs indicated the following order of efficacy in inhibiting neointimal proliferation: paclitaxel-coated balloons > sirolimus-eluting stents, sustained drug release > paclitaxel in contrast medium. Cell culture experiments confirmed that cell proliferation can be inhibited by very short exposure to the drug. Shorter exposure times require higher drug concentrations. Effective paclitaxel concentrations in porcine arteries are achieved when the drug is dissolved in contrast medium or coated on balloons. Paclitaxel is an exceptional drug in that it stays in the treated tissue for a long time. This may explain the long-lasting efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons, but does not disprove the hypothesis that the agent blocks a process initiating long-lasting excessive neointimal proliferation, which occurs early after vessel injury.

  20. [LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR EARLY OVARIAN CANCER: EXPERIENCE AT THE P. A. HERZEN ONCOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, A S; Novikova, E G; Utkina, A B

    2015-01-01

    For the period from 2003 to 2014 at the Oncogynecology Department laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cancer was performed in 49 patients aged 19 to 76 years. During the surgical interventions special attention was paid to the principles of oncological radicalism and ablastics, the volume of surgery depended on the extent of tumor process, morphological characteristics of tumor, a patient's age and the desire to preserve reproductive function. In 42 (85.7%) cases laparoscopic procedures were conducted to restaging (after non-radical operations in gynecological hospitals). In all 49 patients a histological form of ovarian tumor corresponded to adenocarcinoma. Mean operative time was 140 ± 10,5 minutes, the average blood loss--80,2 ± 14,3 ml. Postoperative complications (bleeding from the omentum) were recorded in 1 (2%) patient, the need for conversion was occurred in 4 (8.2%) cases due to the adhesive process or signs of dissemination. As a result of laparoscopic surgery an increase in staging of disease was fixed in 14 cases (28.6%). Follow-up median was 45 months, relapses occurred in 5 (10.2%) patients. Of 49 patients 2 (4.1%) died from disease progression. Disease-free and overall survival rates were 89.8% and 95.9%, respectively. Thus, data of world literature and our own experience indicate the potential equivalent of laparoscopic and laparotomy approaches in treatment for early ovarian cancer.

  1. Early Career Experiences of Pediatricians Pursuing or Not Pursuing Fellowship Training.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Bobbi J; Katakam, Shesha K; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2015-10-01

    Choosing career paths can be difficult decisions for residents contemplating fellowship training. This study compares the experiences of early career pediatricians who did and did not pursue fellowships. We analyzed national, weighted data from pediatricians 8 to 10 years after residency (n = 842). Work environment, work-life balance, and satisfaction were compared for pediatricians who had pursued fellowship training (fellowship trained) and those who did not pursue fellowship training (generalist trained). Logistic and linear regression examined the independent effects of fellowship training while controlling for demographic differences. A total of 39% of the pediatricians (328/842) pursued fellowship training. The fellowship-trained group was less likely than the generalist-trained group to spend time in direct patient care and more likely to report learning opportunities in their work environment. This group was also more likely to report an income of ≥$150,000, although no difference was found when only full-time pediatricians were examined. Generalist-trained pediatricians were more likely to work <50 hours per week, have flexibility with their schedules, and be satisfied with time spent with their own children. Pediatricians in both the fellowship-trained and generalist-trained groups generally found their work to be rewarding and were satisfied with their lives. Although residents need to consider important life and career differences when contemplating fellowship training and general care, pediatricians in both groups can achieve overall life and career satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Early experiences matter: a review of the effects of prenatal environment on offspring characteristics in poultry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L M; Sparks, N H C; Rutherford, K M D

    2016-03-01

    Early life experiences can be important in determining offspring phenotypes and may influence interaction with the environment and hence health, welfare, and productivity. The prenatal environment of poultry can be divided into the pre-lay environment and the egg storage/incubation environment, both of which can affect offspring outcomes. The ability to separate maternal and egg/incubation effects makes birds well suited to this type of research. There are many factors, including feeding and nutrition, environmental conditions, husbandry practices, housing system, social environment, infectious environment, and maternal health status, that can influence both the health and performance and behavior and cognition of the offspring. There are some aspects of the environments that can be changed to produce beneficial effects in the offspring, like addition of certain additives to feed or short changes in incubation temperatures, while other aspects should be avoided to reduce negative effects, such as unpredictable feeding and lighting regimens. Measures of offspring characteristics may prove to be a useful method of assessing parent stock welfare if known stressors result in predictable offspring outcomes. This has the advantage of assessing the parent environment without interfering with the animals and possibly affecting their responses and could lead to improved welfare for the animals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  3. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  4. Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D

    1993-04-01

    A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

  5. Suggestions from Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    Teachers and administrators can help simplify the adjustment of student teachers to the classroom by being aware of student teacher concerns and problem areas. Asked to voice concerns and suggestions for future students, two groups of students at a Texas university and an Oklahoma university cited discipline, stress and fatigue, and relations with…

  6. Home literacy experiences and early childhood disability: a descriptive study using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) program database.

    PubMed

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M

    2010-01-01

    The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.

  7. Early traumatic experiences in those at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Addington, Jean; Stowkowy, Jacqueline; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a possible association between a history of trauma in childhood and later psychosis or psychotic-like experiences. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of childhood trauma and bullying in young people at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. The sample consisted of 360 individuals who were at CHR of developing psychosis and 180 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All participants were assessed on past trauma and bullying. The CHR participants were also assessed on a range of psychopathology and functioning. Individuals at CHR reported significantly more trauma and bullying than healthy controls. Those who had experienced past trauma and bullying were more likely to have increased levels of depression and anxiety and a poorer sense of self. These results offer preliminary support for an association between a history of trauma and later subthreshold symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Weisleder, Adriana; Fernald, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Infants differ substantially in their rates of language growth, and slower growth predicts later academic difficulties. This study explored how the amount of speech to infants in Spanish-speaking families low in socioeconomic status (SES) influenced the development of children's skill in real-time language processing and vocabulary learning. All-day recordings of parent-infant interactions at home revealed striking variability among families in how much speech caregivers addressed to their child. Infants who experienced more child-directed speech became more efficient in processing familiar words in real time and had larger expressive vocabularies by 24 months, although speech simply overheard by the child was unrelated to vocabulary outcomes. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of child-directed speech on expressive vocabulary was explained by infants’ language-processing efficiency, suggesting that richer language experience strengthens processing skills that facilitate language growth. PMID:24022649

  9. Definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma: experience of 55Gy in 20 fractions.

    PubMed

    Ermiş, Ekin; Teo, Mark; Dyker, Karen E; Fosker, Chris; Sen, Mehmet; Prestwich, Robin Jd

    2015-09-23

    A wide variety of fractionation schedules have been employed for the treatment of early glottic cancer. The aim is to report our 10-year experience of using hypofractionated radiotherapy with 55Gy in 20 fractions at 2.75Gy per fraction. Patients treated between 2004 and 2013 with definitive radiotherapy to a dose of 55Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks for T1/2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis were retrospectively identified. Patients with prior therapeutic minor surgery (eg. laser stripping, cordotomy) were included. The probabilities of local control, ultimate local control (including salvage surgery), regional control, cause specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. One hundred thirty-two patients were identified. Median age was 65 years (range 33-89). Median follow up was 72 months (range 7-124). 50 (38 %), 18 (14 %) and 64 (48 %) of patients had T1a, T1b and T2 disease respectively. Five year local control and ultimate local control rates were: overall - 85.6 % and 97.3 % respectively, T1a - 91.8 % and 100 %, T1b - 81.6 and 93.8 %, and T2 - 80.9 % and 95.8 %. Five year regional control, CSS and OS rates were 95.4 %, 95.7 % and 78.8 % respectively. There were no significant associations of covariates (e.g. T-stage, extent of laryngeal extension, histological grade) with local control on univariate analysis. Only increasing age and transglottic extension in T2 disease were significantly associated with overall survival (both p <0.01). Second primary cancers developed in 17 % of patients. 13 (9.8 %) of patients required enteral tube feeding support during radiotherapy; no patients required long term enteral nutrition. One patient required a tracheostomy due to a non-functioning larynx on long term follow up. Hypofractionated radiation therapy with a dose of 55Gy in 20 fractions for early stage glottic cancer provides high rates of local control with acceptable toxicity.

  10. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  11. The Long-Run Impacts of Early Childhood Education: Evidence from a Failed Policy Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 17085

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCicca, Philip; Smith, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate short and long-term effects of early childhood education using variation created by a unique policy experiment in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings imply starting Kindergarten one year late substantially reduces the probability of repeating the third grade, and meaningfully increases in tenth grade math and reading scores.…

  12. The Transition to Stable Employment: The Experience of U.S. Youth in Their Early Labor Market Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob A.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed to identify patterns in the early labor market and employment experience of a sample of 12,781 U.S. youths who were first interviewed in 1979 (at ages 14 through 21) and last interviewed in 1990 (at ages 25 through 32 years). School-to-work transition patterns were classified by…

  13. The Influence of Income, Experience, and Academic Qualification on the Early Childhood Education Teachers' Creativity in Semarang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setiawan, Risky

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine: (1) the intercorrelation between income, experience, and academic qualification with the early childhood education teachers' teaching creativity; (2) to find out the dominant factors that affect the ability of teachers' Creativity in Semarang. This research uses an experimental design with four variables, including…

  14. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  15. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  16. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  17. Silvicultural options for early-successional stands in Maine: 6-year results of the Silvicultural Intensity and Species Composition Experiment

    Andrew S. Nelson; Robert G. Wagner; Mike R. Saunders

    2014-01-01

    The Silvicultural Intensity and Species Composition (SIComp) experiment was installed in 2003 on a recently clearcut mixedwood site within the Penobscot Experimental Forest in east-central Maine. This study was initiated because the response of early-successional stands to various intensities of silviculture was poorly understood in the region. The goal of SIComp is to...

  18. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  19. Teaching Experience and Expectations of Early-Career Academics in Mozambique: The Case of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Eugénia Flora Rosa; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Fringe, Jorge Jaime dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored how early-career academics (ECA) at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) acquire pedagogical knowledge, develop their teaching experience as well as examine their expectations regarding the teaching profession. A questionnaire, composed mostly of closed questions and one open-ended question, was applied to 71…

  20. Investigating the Use of Vicarious and Mastery Experiences in Influencing Early Childhood Education Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an Early Childhood Education science methods course that focused exclusively on providing various mastery (i.e., enactive, cognitive content, and cognitive pedagogical) and vicarious experiences (i.e., cognitive self-modeling, symbolic modeling, and simulated modeling) in increasing preservice…

  1. Paternal Mental Health Trajectory Classes and Early Fathering Experiences: Prospective Study on a Normative and Formerly Infertile Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vänskä, Mervi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Lindblom, Jallu; Flykt, Marjo; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tulppala, Maija; Tiitinen, Aila

    2017-01-01

    A father's mental health is important for family well-being, but research is scarce on paternal symptoms during the transition to fatherhood. This study identified fathers' latent mental health trajectory classes from the pre- to postnatal period and examined their associations with early fathering experiences. It further analysed, whether a…

  2. Early Career Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Leadership Development: Balancing Structure and Agency in Contrasting School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Joan; Pedder, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a three-year, longitudinal study investigating early career teachers' (ECTs) experiences and perceptions of leadership development in English secondary schools, this paper highlights, from the perspectives of ECTs, some of the factors that support and facilitate leadership development during the first few years of the…

  3. Transactional Analysis of the Reciprocal Links between Peer Experiences and Academic Achievement from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dishion, Thomas J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a transactional model of reciprocal influences regarding students' peer experiences (peer acceptance, peer rejection, and friends' academic achievement) and students' academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. This longitudinal model was tested on 452 students (198 girls), mostly Caucasian and French…

  4. Children's Individual Experiences in Early Care and Education: Relations with Overall Classroom Quality and Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Langill, Carolyn C.; Peterson, Carla A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among children's individual experiences, global classroom quality, and school readiness. Preschool children from low-income backgrounds (N = 138; M = 62.16 months; SD = 3.93; range = 55-70) were observed in their early care and education settings, and their language and cognitive skills were assessed. Research…

  5. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  6. Gastric Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (G-POEM) for the Treatment of Refractory Gastroparesis: Early Experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zubair; Kataria, Rahul; Modayil, Rani; Ehrlich, Adam C; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2018-02-22

    Gastric per oral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) of the pylorus is a technique that is recently being used to treat gastroparesis. Our aim was to report our experience in performing G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis of different etiologies and determine symptom improvement. Thirteen patients undergoing G-POEM are reported. Pre- and post-procedure gastric emptying study (GES) and PAGI-SYM for symptom severity were obtained. Patients underwent G-POEM by creating a submucosal tunnel starting in the greater curvature of the distal antrum and extending it to the beginning of the duodenal bulb, followed by a full thickness pyloromyotomy. All 13 gastroparesis patients successfully underwent G-POEM (one diabetic [DGp], four idiopathic [IGp], eight postsurgical [PSGp]). Postsurgical patients included 4 s/p esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, 3 s/p Nissen fundoplication, and 1 s/p esophagectomy for achalasia. There were no procedure-related side effects. Of 11 patients completing follow-up questionnaires, eight were improved subjectively (four patients reported considerably better, four patients somewhat better, one unchanged, and two worse). Individual symptom severity scores tended to improve, particularly vomiting, retching, and loss of appetite. Of six patients that had post-G-POEM GES; GES improved in four, unchanged in one, and worsened in one). G-POEM for treatment of refractory gastroparesis appears to be a feasible and safe technique that can be successfully performed in patients with a variety of etiologies including different types of postsurgical gastroparesis. Our initial experience suggests that the majority of patients report some improvement in symptoms, particularly symptoms of vomiting, retching, and loss of appetite. Further experience is needed to determine the efficacy and safety of G-POEM and predict those who best respond to this treatment.

  7. Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of mortality data sources

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete and accurate ascertainment of mortality is critically important in any longitudinal study. Tracking of mortality is particularly essential among US military members because of unique occupational exposures (e.g., worldwide deployments as well as combat experiences). Our study objectives were to describe the early mortality experience of Panel 1 of the Millennium Cohort, consisting of participants in a 21-year prospective study of US military service members, and to assess data sources used to ascertain mortality. Methods A population-based random sample (n = 256,400) of all US military service members on service rosters as of October 1, 2000, was selected for study recruitment. Among this original sample, 214,388 had valid mailing addresses, were not in the pilot study, and comprised the group referred to in this study as the invited sample. Panel 1 participants were enrolled from 2001 to 2003, represented all armed service branches, and included active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard members. Crude death rates, as well as age- and sex-adjusted overall and age-adjusted, category-specific death rates were calculated and compared for participants (n = 77,047) and non-participants (n = 137,341) based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) files, and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry, 2001-2006. Numbers of deaths identified by these three data sources, as well as the National Death Index, were compared for 2001-2004. Results There were 341 deaths among the participants for a crude death rate of 80.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.2,89.3) compared to 820 deaths and a crude death rate of 113.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 105.4, 120.9) for non-participants. Age-adjusted, category-specific death rates highlighted consistently higher rates among study non-participants. Although there were advantages and disadvantages for each data source

  8. Operative technique and early experience for robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) using da Vinci Xi.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, Fadi; Swain, Sanjaya; Kallingal, George; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Parekh, Dipen J; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) has been previously utilized for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The da Vinci Xi surgical system was released in April of 2014. We describe our operative technique and early experience for RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system highlighting unique features of this surgical platform. A total of 10 patients with a diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma underwent RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system between April and November of 2014. A novel, oblique "in line" robotic trocar configuration was utilized to access the upper abdomen (nephrectomy portion) and pelvis (bladder cuff excision) without undocking. The port hopping feature of da Vinci Xi was utilized to facilitate optimal, multi-quadrant visualization during RALNU. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was successfully completed without open conversion in all 10 patients. Mean operative time was 184 min (range 140-300 min), mean estimated blood loss was 121 cc (range 60-300 cc), and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. Final pathology demonstrated high grade urothelial carcinoma in all patients. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. No intra-operative complications were encountered. One patient developed a pulmonary embolus after being discharged. No patients required a blood transfusion. Mean patient follow-up was 130 days (range 15-210 days). The use of da Vinci Xi with a novel, oblique "in line" port configuration and camera port hopping technique allows for an efficient and reproducible method for RALNU without the need for repositioning the patient or the robot during surgery.

  9. Effect of early thermal experience on pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kurowicka, Beata; Gajewska, Alina; Franczak, Anita

    2006-03-01

    The reproductive system fully develops during postnatal stages of life, and as such it may be susceptible to environmental cues such as high temperature. Thus, the purpose of the study was to compare how exposure to 34 degrees Celsius ambient temperature affects pituitary-gonadal axis of immature and adult female rats. Three groups of females at proestrous or metaestrous (n=38) were used in the study. The females were housed in ambient temperature of 34 degrees Celsius (WR group, n=10) or room temperature (CR group, n=16) from birth to adulthood. The females from the third group were acclimated to 34 degrees Celsius as adults (WA group, n=12). In the WR group the onset of puberty was delayed in comparison to the CR group. The plasma PRL level was lower during proestrous and higher during metaestrous in the WR group compared to the CR group. During metaestrous, lower FSH and higher progesterone (P(4)) plasma concentrations were found in the WR females. No changes in LH and oestradiol (E(2)) plasma concentrations were demonstrated. Higher in vitro E(2) and lower P(4) secretions under FSH stimulation were observed in the WR follicles compared to those of the CR group. The WR group also demonstrated higher basal and LH-stimulated luteal in vitro secretion of P(4) than controls. Plasma LH and FSH concentrations during metaestrous were higher in WA females than in the WR group, but PRL level was lower. Follicles of the WA group were unresponsive to FSH with respect to steroid secretion. In addition, LH stimulated luteal E(2) secretion in this group. P(4) release by luteal cells was lower in the WA than in the WR group. We concluded that WR females differ from WA in reproductive system adjustments to rearing temperature and that early thermal experience is more effective in antagonizing the effect of high temperature than acclimation of adult females.

  10. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.; ...

    2018-03-13

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T = 5.3 T, I P = 0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L = 0.2–0.4, with n D,L/n L = 0.15–0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L = 0.85–0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region <1.4 × 10 20/m 3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten ofmore » $$\\tau _{{\\rm W}}^{{\\rm *}}$$ /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.« less

  11. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chilenski, M.; Diallo, A.; the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T  =  5.3 T, I P  =  0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L  =  0.2-0.4, with n D,L/n L  =  0.15-0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L  =  0.85-0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region  <1.4  ×  1020/m3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten of τ W* /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.

  12. Reducing radiation exposure during CRT implant procedures: early experience with a sensor-based navigation system.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Bernard; Andrade, Jason G; Dubuc, Marc; Talajic, Mario; Guerra, Peter G; Dyrda, Katia; Macle, Laurent; Rivard, Léna; Roy, Denis; Mondésert, Blandine; Khairy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant procedures are often complex and prolonged, resulting in significant ionizing radiation (IR) exposure to the patient and operator. We report our early experience working with a novel sensor-based electromagnetic tracking system (MediGuide™, MDG, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), in terms of procedural IR exposure reduction. Information regarding patient demographics, procedural details, procedural duration, and IR exposure were prospectively collected on 130 consecutive CRT procedures performed between January 2013 and January 2014. Sixty procedures were performed with MDG guidance, and 70 were performed without MDG guidance. Despite a nonsignificant trend toward shorter procedure duration with the use of MDG (120 minutes vs 138 minutes with non-MDG, P = 0.088), a 66% reduction in total IR exposure (median 769 μGray · m(2) vs 2,608 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001) was found. This reduction was primarily driven by a >90% reduction in IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus (median 80 μGray · m(2) vs 922 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001), and to a lesser extent from a reduction in IR dose required for LV lead placement (median 330 μGray·m(2) vs 737 μGray · m(2), P = 0.059). In addition, a significant learning curve effect was observed with a significantly shorter procedural duration for the last 15 cases compared to the first 15 cases (median 98 minutes vs 175 minutes, P < 0.001). The nonfluoroscopic MDG positioning system is associated with a dramatic reduction in exposure to IR during CRT implant procedures, with a 90% decrease in the IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus. A steep learning curve was quantified. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enzymatic debridement for the treatment of severely burned upper extremities - early single center experiences.

    PubMed

    Cordts, Tomke; Horter, Johannes; Vogelpohl, Julian; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Hernekamp, Jochen-Frederick

    2016-06-24

    Severe burns of hands and arms are complex and challenging injuries. The Standard of care (SOC) - necrosectomy with skin grafting - is often associated with poor functional or aesthetic outcome. Enzymatic debridement (ED) is considered one promising alternative but, until recently, results proved to be highly variable. Between 04/2014 and 04/2015, 16 patients with deep partial- to full-thickness burns of the upper extremities underwent enzymatic debridement (ED) in our Burn Center and were evaluated for extent of additional surgery, wound healing, pain management and functional parameters. Following ED, no further surgical intervention was required in 53.8 % of the study population. In patients who required surgical treatment, the the skin-grafted area could be reduced by 37.0 % when compared to initial assessment. Time from injury to ED was 24.4 h and patients were able to start physical therapy after 2.0 days but suffered from prolonged wound closure (28.0 days). Regionally administered anesthesia proved to be superior to pain medication alone as pain levels and consumed morphine-equivalent were lower. Post-demission follow-up showed good functional results and pain levels with low scores in two self-report questionnaires (DASH, PRWE-G) but 3 patients reported increased susceptibility to shear stress. Based on these early experiences, we developed a 3-step algorithm for consecutive patients allowing appropriate and individualized treatment selection. We see a potential benefit for ED in the treatment of severely burned hands and forearms but further investigations and proper prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to statistically support any outlined assumptions.

  14. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    SciT

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T = 5.3 T, I P = 0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L = 0.2–0.4, with n D,L/n L = 0.15–0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L = 0.85–0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region <1.4 × 10 20/m 3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten ofmore » $$\\tau _{{\\rm W}}^{{\\rm *}}$$ /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.« less

  15. How do early emotional experiences in the operating theatre influence medical student learning in this environment?

    PubMed

    Bowrey, David J; Kidd, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    The emotions experienced by medical students on first exposure to the operating theatre are unknown. It is also unclear what influence these emotions have on the learning process. To understand the emotions experienced by students when in the operating theatre for the first time and the impact of these emotions on learning. Nine 3rd-year medical students participated in semistructured interviews to explore these themes. A qualitative approach was used; interviews were transcribed and coded thematically. All participants reported initial negative emotions (apprehension, anxiety, fear, shame, overwhelmed), with excitement being reported by 3. Six participants considered that their anxiety was so overwhelming that it was detrimental to their learning. Participants described a period of familiarization to the environment, after which learning was facilitated. Early learning experiences centered around adjustment to the physical environment of the operating theatre. Factors driving initial negative feelings were loss of familiarity, organizational issues, concerns about violating protocol, and a fear of syncope. Participants considered that it took a median of 1 week (range = 1 day-3 weeks) or 5 visits to the operating theatre (range = 1-10) before feeling comfortable in the new setting. Emotions experienced on subsequent visits to the operating theatre were predominantly positive (enjoyment, happiness, confident, involved, pride). Two participants reported negative feelings related to social exclusion. Being included in the team was a powerful determinant of enjoyment. These findings indicate that for learning in the operating theatre to be effective, addressing the negative emotions of the students might be beneficial. This could be achieved by a formal orientation program for both learners and tutors in advance of attendance in the operating theatre. For learning to be optimized, students must feel a sense of inclusion in the theatre community of practice.

  16. Preferences for Early Intervention Mental Health Services: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mackenzie P E; Christensen, Bruce K; Cunningham, Charles E; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Chen, Yvonne Y S; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Early intervention services (EISs) for mental illness may improve outcomes, although treatment engagement is often a problem. Incorporating patients' preferences in the design of interventions improves engagement. A discrete-choice conjoint experiment was conducted in Canada to identify EIS attributes that encourage treatment initiation. Sixteen four-level attributes were formalized into a conjoint survey, completed by patients, family members, and mental health professionals (N=562). Participants were asked which EIS option people with mental illness would contact. Latent-class analysis identified respondent classes characterized by shared preferences. Randomized first-choice simulations predicted which hypothetical options, based on attributes, would result in maximum utilization. Participants in the conventional-service class (N=241, 43%) predicted that individuals would contact traditional services (for example, hospital location and staffed by psychologists or psychiatrists). Membership was associated with being a patient or family member and being male. Participants in the convenient-service class (N=321, 57%) predicted that people would contact services promoting easy access (for example, self-referral and access from home). Membership was associated with being a professional. Both classes predicted that people would contact services that included short wait times, direct contact with professionals, patient autonomy, and psychological treatment information. The convenient-service class predicted that people would use an e-health model, whereas the conventional-service class predicted that people would use a primary care or clinic-hospital model. Provision of a range of services may maximize EIS use. Professionals may be more apt to adopt EISs in line with their beliefs regarding patient preferences. Considering several perspectives is important for service design.

  17. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Music and Early Childhood in the Tristes Tropiques: The Brazilian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by ideas that Levi-Strauss (1955) presented in "Tristes Tropiques", the author discusses music and early childhood in Brazil from educational, historical, anthropological, and sociological perspectives. She begins with a short history of early childhood education in Brazil, including changes in educational policies, teacher…

  19. A Qualitative Study of Early Childhood Educators' Beliefs about Key Preschool Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Daugherty, Lindsay; Howes, Carollee; Karoly, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to uncover early childhood educators' beliefs about how to best work with children getting ready for kindergarten. The study involved 11 focus groups with providers from three types of early education settings located in Los Angeles County: (1) public center-based programs, (2) private center-based programs, and (3) family…

  20. Early Academic Skills and Childhood Experiences across the Urban-Rural Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The urban-rural continuum provides unique contexts for development. Differences in access to resources and childrearing norms and practices in urban, suburban, and rural areas may be linked to disparities in early achievement. Yet, few studies examine associations between urbanicity and children's early academic skills. Using nationally…

  1. Early Motherhood in an Intergenerational Perspective: The Experiences of a British Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Uses nationally representative, longitudinal data from Great Britain to examine the fertility patterns of daughters (N=2,183) of teen mothers. Explores how early motherhood is reproduced across generations, including an earlier inherited age of menarche, poor family and educational environments, and an early ideal age of childbearing. (RJM)

  2. Sustaining the Benefits of Early Childhood Education Experiences: A Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased recognition of the short- and long-term benefits of high-quality early childhood education programs, but the systems needed to sustain these benefits throughout early learning transitions (and beyond) have not yet been fully implemented. In this article, the author discusses the importance of early…

  3. Training Early Childhood Teachers for Sustainability: Towards a "Learning Experience of a Different Kind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feriver, Sebnem; Teksöz, Gaye; Olgan, Refika; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we discuss findings from a small-scale project evaluating an in-service teacher training programme focused on "perspective transformation" in early childhood education and education for sustainability (EfS). A bespoke professional development programme was developed for Turkish early childhood teachers, based on a variety…

  4. No One Ever Asked Me That: Parent Experiences with Autism in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajeunesse, Anne Ouwerkerk

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is often a time when parents of children with autism begin to learn about their child's diagnosis and the world of special education, a time of uncertainty and emotion. This narrative inquiry sought to give voice to parents of children with autism who have navigated public early childhood special education. The results were…

  5. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  6. Early experimental and clinical experience with a focal implant for lower extremity post-angioplasty dissection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Giasolli, Robert; Ebner, Adrian; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F

    2015-02-01

    This study provides preliminary data on the safety and feasibility of the use of a novel focal implant for managing post-percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (post-PTA) dissection. Post-PTA dissection of the lower extremity arteries is managed with stent placement. This provides an acceptable post-intervention result but has long-term disadvantages, such as in-stent restenosis. Focal treatment of post-PTA dissection and avoidance of stents are the objectives of the Tack-It (Intact Vascular, Inc., Wayne, Pennsylvania) device. A preclinical study and first-in-human data are presented. Seven swine underwent superficial femoral artery device placement, with a self-expanding nitinol stent on 1 side and a series of 4 Tack-It devices on the other side. Specimens were harvested at 28 days. The clinical study included 15 limbs that underwent revascularization for critical limb ischemia (n = 9) or claudication (n = 6). Twenty-five lesions were treated in the superficial femoral (n = 8), popliteal (n = 7), and tibial (n = 10) arteries. The preclinical study demonstrated a reduction in stenosis with the Tack-It (16.8 ± 2.6%) compared with stents (46.4 ± 9.8%). Neointimal thickness and injury score decreased with the Tack-It. Clinically, Tack-It placement resulted in acute technical success with resolution of the post-PTA dissection in 100% of lesions. There were no device-related complications or major amputations. Eighteen of the 25 lesions were available for angiographic follow-up at 1-year, and patency was 83.3%. Preclinical data suggest that the Tack-It device causes minimal vessel injury. Clinical use of the Tack-It to manage post-PTA dissection was safe and feasible in this early study and resulted in apposition of dissection flaps without stent placement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Staff experiences of an early warning indicator for unstable patients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Anna; Williams, Allison; Allison, William

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore nursing and medical staff's perceptions of a clinical marker referral tool implemented to assist in the early identification of unstable patients in the general surgical and medical ward environment. A descriptive, exploratory survey design was undertaken 6 months after the implementation of a clinical marker referral tool. The target population for the survey was all ward nursing, junior medical staff and intensive care unit (ICU) registrars in a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital in Australia. The survey consisted of open-ended and closed-ended questions, as well as statements asking participants to explore their perceptions, attitudes and perceived understanding of the clinical marker referral tool. The surveys were sent to all targeted staff in a personally addressed envelope via the internal mail system. Overall, nursing and medical staff (n = 178) responses were positive to the clinical marker project/tool, offering clear guidelines for staff to respond to the patient's clinical condition and contact the medical staff and the ICU liaison team as appropriate. Furthermore, comments were made in relation to the ICU liaison team acting as a 'support' and 'prompt back-up' for nursing staff when needed. However, ward medical staff had reservations with the clinical markers chosen and with ward nurses being able to contact the ICU registrar after hours. Additionally, the ICU registrars commented on an increase to their workload in having to review unstable patients after hours. These results suggest that the ward nurses required additional support and guidance in caring for the unstable patient in the ward which may improve patient outcomes. Further research investigating the less-favourable responses of the ward medical staff and ICU medical staff is warranted.

  8. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  9. Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, Rene; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). The results suggest that adolescents…

  10. Role of early experience in ant enslavement: a comparative analysis of a host and a non-host species

    PubMed Central

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Sermage, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Background Ants use the odour of the colony to discriminate nestmates. In some species, this odour is learned during the first days following emergence, and thus early experience has a strong influence on nestmate discrimination. Slave-making ants are social parasites that capture brood of other ant species to increase the worker force of their colony. After emerging in the slave-maker nest, slave workers work as if they were in their own colony. We tested the hypothesis that early experience allows the deception of commonly enslaved species, while non-host species use a different mechanism, which does not involve learning. Results Pupae of a host species, Temnothorax unifasciatus, and a non-host species, T. parvulus, were allowed to emerge in the presence of workers of one of two slave-maker species, Chalepoxenus muellerianus or Myrmoxenus ravouxi. When T. unifasciatus was exposed to slave-makers for 10 days following emergence, they were more aggressive towards their own sisters and groomed the slave-maker more. T. parvulus gave a less clear result: while workers behaved more aggressively towards their sisters when exposed early to C. muellerianus workers, this was not the case when exposed early to M. ravouxi workers. Moreover, T. parvulus workers allogroomed conspecific nestmates less than T. unifasciatus. Allogrooming activity might be very important for the slave-makers because they are tended by their slaves. Conclusion Our findings show that early experience influences nestmate discrimination in the ant T. unifasciatus and can account for the successful enslavement of this species. However, the non-host species T. parvulus is less influenced by the early environment. This might help to explain why this species is never used by social parasites. PMID:16076389

  11. The treatment of posterior urethral disruption associated with pelvic fractures: comparative experience of early realignment versus delayed urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir B; Coburn, Michael; Santucci, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    Urological treatment of the patient with severe mechanical trauma and urethral disruption remains controversial. Debate continues regarding the advisability of early realignment vs delayed open urethroplasty. We analyzed our experience with 96 patients to determine the long-term results of the 2 approaches. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 191 men with posterior urethral disruption after severe blunt pelvic injury between 1984 and 2001, of whom 96 survived. Data on 57 patients who underwent early realignment were compared to those on 39 treated with delayed urethroplasty with an average 8.8-year followup (range 1 to 22). All patients were evaluated postoperatively for incontinence, impotence and urethral strictures. The majority of patients had severe concomitant organ injuries (78%) and severe pelvic fractures (76%). The overall mortality rate was 51%. Diagnosis of urethral rupture was based on clinical findings and retrograde urethrography. Strictures developed in 49% of the early realignment group and in 100% of the suprapubic tube group. Impotence (33.6%) and incontinence (17.7%) were less frequent in the early realignment group than in the delayed reconstruction group (42.1% and 24.9%, respectively). Patients with delayed reconstruction underwent an average of 3.1 procedures compared with an average of 1.6 in the early realignment group. Early realignment may provide better outcomes than delayed open urethroplasty after posterior urethral disruption. Increased complications are not seen and, although it can be inconvenient in the massively injured patient, it appears to be a worthwhile maneuver.

  12. Treatment of early breast cancer, a long-term follow-up study: the GOCS experience.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Julián; Zwenger, Ariel; Leone, José Pablo; Verdera, Palmira Perez; Vallejo, Carlos; Romero, Alberto; Perez, Juán; Machiavelli, Mario; Leone, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of breast cancer are diagnosed at early stage of disease; therefore, treatment is oriented to increase the disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS). The prognosis, in comparison with other malignancies, has improved in the last decades as a result of mammographic screening. The aim of the study was to report the incidence of local and distant recurrence, DFI and OS in patients (pts) with stage I and stage II breast cancer over a period of 26 years divided into three groups. From January 1978 to December 2004, 927 women with early breast cancer (EBC) were included, 350 were stage I and 577 Stage II (AJCC 2002). Patients were divided according to the year of diagnosis into three periods of 10 years: Group A (1978-1987) 135 pts, Group B (1988-1997) 412 pts, and Group C (1998-2004) 380 pts. DFI was analyzed from the date of initial diagnosis to the date of local or distant recurrence. OS was estimated from the date of initial diagnosis to the last follow-up or date of death. Median age was 51 years (28-92). Conservative surgery was performed in 69% of pts, adjuvant radiation therapy in 78%, adjuvant chemotherapy in 29%, and adjuvant hormone therapy in 18%. The median follow-up was 8.4 years (0.3-30). The mean tumor size in Group A was 2.7 cm, in Group B 2.2 cm, and in Group C 1.94 cm (p = 0.0001). The percentage of pts with stage I increased from 13% in Group A to 38% in Group B and to 47% in Group C (p = 0.0001). Local recurrence was documented in 5% of all pts, whereas 28% developed metastatic disease. The DFI and OS showed a statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.005). DFI rate at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years was 71%, 67%, 65%, 65%, and 64%, respectively. OS at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years was 82%, 62%, 49%, 39%, and 28%, respectively. Factors that had an effect in OS demonstrated by the multivariate regression analysis were: Tumor size, ER status, and nodal involvement (p < 0.001). Clinical outcomes in EBC in our

  13. Fragmentation and Unpredictability of Early-Life Experience in Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Solodkin, Ana; Davis, Elysia P.; Stern, Hal; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A.; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety. PMID:22885631

  14. Early nerve repair in traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults: treatment algorithm and first experiences.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van Driest, Finn Y; Groen, Justus L; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment. The result of biceps muscle reanimation was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS Five of the 36 patients were referred within 2 weeks after trauma and were eligible for early surgery. Nerve ruptures and/or avulsions were found in all early cases of surgery. The advantages of early surgery are as follows: no scar formation, easy anatomical identification, and gap length reduction. Disadvantages include less-clear demarcation of vital nerve tissue and unfamiliarity with the interpretation of frozen-section examination findings. All 5 early-treatment patients recovered a biceps force rated Medical Research Council grade 4. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results of nerve repair within 2 weeks of ATBPI are encouraging, and the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. The authors propose a decision algorithm to select patients eligible for early surgery. Referral standards for patients with ATBPI must be adapted to enable early surgery.

  15. Early Experience with the Use of Inner Branches in Endovascular Repair of Complex Abdominal and Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Marques de Marino, Pablo; Mufty, Hozan; Pedro, Luis Mendes; Fernandes, Ruy; Verhoeven, Eric L G

    2018-05-01

    Visceral arteries in fenestrated and branched endovascular repair (F/BEVAR) have been addressed by fenestrations or directional side branches. Inner branches, as used in the arch branched device, could provide an extra option for visceral arteries "unsuitable" for fenestrations or directional side branches. Early experience with the use of inner branches for visceral arteries in F/BEVAR is described. All consecutive patients treated by F/BEVAR for complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or thoraco-abdominal aneurysm (TAAA) using stent grafts with inner branches were included. Data were collected prospectively. Thirty-two patients (28 male, mean age 71.6 ± 8.3 years) were included. Seven (21.9%) patients had a complex AAA and 25 (78.1%) had a TAAA. A stent graft with inner branches only was used in four (12.5%) patients. The remaining 28 (87.5%) patients received a stent graft with fenestrations and inner branches. In total 52 vessels were targeted with inner branches. Technical success was achieved in all 32 (100%) patients. All 38 inner branch target vessels in grafts including fenestrations and inner branches were instantly catheterised (<1 minute), whereas catheterisation of target vessels in "inner branch only" grafts proved more difficult (<1 minute, n = 3; 1-3 min, n = 4; and >3 min, n = 7). The 30 day operative mortality was 3.1% (1/32). Estimated survival at 1 year was 80.0% ± 8.3%. During follow-up, four renal inner branches occluded in three patients. The estimated inner branch target vessel stent patency at 1 year was 91.9 ± 4.5%. The estimated freedom from re-intervention at 1 year was 78.4% ± 8.9%. Early data suggest that visceral inner branches might represent a feasible third option to address selected target vessels in F/BEVAR. Stent grafts with inner branch(es) in combination with fenestrations seem to be a better configuration than stent grafts with inner branches alone. Durability of the inner branch design needs further

  16. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  17. Minding experience: An exploration of the concept of "experience" in the early French anthropology of Durkheim, Lévy-Bruhl, and Lévi-Strauss.

    PubMed

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-01-01

    In line with the growing concern with the unexamined reliance upon the concept of "experience" in anthropology, this article explores in some detail the various usages and definitions of the concept in the work of three of early French anthropology's most influential theorists: Emile Durkheim (1858-1918), Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), and Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-). With its important influence on both British and American anthropology, the early French anthropological tradition, as epitomized in the writings of these three thinkers, has indeed played a pivotal role in shaping many current taken-for-granted understandings of the concept of experience in the discipline of anthropology as a whole. In the process of exploring how experience is viewed by these three scholars, this paper will thus take some initial steps toward the historical contextualization of many of the unquestioned assumptions underpinning current understandings of experience in the discipline of anthropology and the social sciences more generally. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring early twenty-first century developed forest camping experiences and meanings

    Barry A. Garst; Daniel R. Williams; Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    2010-01-01

    This study examines experiences and associated meanings of 38 family groups participating in developed camping. The analysis is guided by discursive social psychology in which expressed meanings reflect interpretive frames campers use to explain experiences. Key elements of camping experience include nature, social interaction, and comfort/convenience. The most common...

  19. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    PubMed

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  20. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Karishma K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Goldenberg, Shira M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Results Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences—early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care—were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. PMID:25458416