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Sample records for early follicular phase

  1. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    PubMed

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming < or =100 mg of caffeine to 45.2 pg/mL for women consuming > or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  2. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in early follicular phase for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linli; Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of recombinant human luteinizing hormone supplementation (rLH priming) during the early follicular phase on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. In order to evaluate available evidence regarding the efficacy of rLH priming in IVF/ICSI procedures, a systematic review and meta-analysis was preformed. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE®, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials without language limitation, but were restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Three RCTs including 346 patients were included in this meta-analysis, which demonstrated that rLH priming did not increase ongoing pregnancy rate. Although less recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) was required and the oestradiol level was higher on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in the rLH priming group, the numbers of oocytes retrieved and embryos produced were comparable between patients treated with rLH priming and those treated with rFSH alone. This systematic review and meta-analysis has demonstrated that at present there is insufficient evidence that patients undergoing IVF/ICSI may benefit from rLH priming during the early follicular phase.

  3. Brain responses to food images during the early and late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy young women: relation to fasting and feeding1234

    PubMed Central

    Ziemke, Florencia; Magkos, Faidon; Barrios, Fernando A; Brinkoetter, Mary; Boyd, Ingrid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Yannakoulia, Mary; Rojas, Rafael; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food intake fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle; it is greater during the early follicular and luteal phases than in the late follicular (periovulatory) phase. Ovarian steroids can influence brain areas that process food-related information, but the specific contribution of individual hormones and the importance of the prandial state remain unknown. Objective: The objective was to examine whether brain activation during food visualization is affected by changes in estradiol concentration in the fasted and fed conditions. Design: Nine eumenorrheic, lean young women [mean (±SD) age: 26.2 ± 3.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.4 ± 1.2] completed 2 visits, one in the early (low estradiol) and one in the late (high estradiol) follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. At each visit, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed food and nonfood images, before and after a standardized meal. Region-of-interest analysis was used to examine the effect of follicular phase and prandial state on brain activation (food > nonfood contrast) and its association with estradiol concentration. Results: Differences were identified in the inferior frontal and fusiform gyri. In these areas, visualization of food elicited greater activation in the fed state than during fasting but only in the late follicular phase, when estradiol concentration was high. The change in estradiol concentration across the follicular phase (late minus early) was inversely correlated with the change in fusiform gyrus activation in the fasted state but not in the fed state. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that estradiol may reduce food intake by decreasing sensitivity to food cues in the ventral visual pathway under conditions of energy deprivation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00130117. PMID:21593494

  4. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  5. Timing of follicular phase events and the postovulatory progesterone rise following synchronisation of oestrus in cows.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, G R; Gutierrez, C G; Peters, A R; Mann, G E

    2006-07-01

    In cows the timing of both ovulation and the subsequent postovulatory progesterone rise are critical to successful fertilisation and early embryo development. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of variability in the timing of ovulation relative to other follicular phase events and to determine how variations in the timing of follicular phase events contribute to the timing of the postovulatory progesterone rise. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol and luteinising hormone (LH) and the timing of oestrus and ovulation were determined following induction of luteolysis were determined in 18 mature, non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four cows were excluded on the basis of abnormal reproductive function. In the remaining 14 cows oestrus occurred at 57.4+/-4.3h and the LH surge at 54.6+/-4.0h following luteolysis (progesterone <1ngmL(-1)) followed by a fall in circulating oestradiol concentration at 64.6+/-4.4h. Cows ovulated at 88.0+/-4.7h with the postovulatory progesterone rise (to >1ngmL(-1)) occurring 159+/-7.2h after luteolysis. There was considerable variation in the timing of ovulation following luteolysis (range 64-136h) onset of oestrus (range 24-40h) and onset of the LH surge (range 24-44h). Cows were then split on the basis of interval from progesterone fall to progesterone rise giving groups (n=7 per group) with intervals of 180.6+/-6.7 and 138.3+/-5.7h (P<0.001). Between groups, both the intervals from luteolysis to ovulation (98.3+/-6.9 vs 77.7+/-3.4h; P<0.05) and ovulation to progesterone rise (82.3+/-4.2 vs. 60.6+/-5.5h; P<0.01) were longer in late rise cows. There was no difference between groups in the interval from oestrus or LH surge to ovulation. In conclusion the results of this study further highlight the high variability that exists in the timing and interrelationships of follicular phase events in the modern dairy cow, reemphasising the challenges that exist in optimising mating strategies. However, the data do

  6. Defense cells profile of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Ayen, Esmail; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Tabatabaei, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense cells changes of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo. Reproductive organs of the adult and apparently healthy female buffaloes were collected from the slaughterhouse. By visual investigation of both the ovaries for presence of corpus luteum and growing follicles, the luteal and follicular phase of each buffalo was specified. Cervical discharge samples were collected by sterile swabs and then spread over the glass slides, dried and fixed with methanol. The specimens were undergone Giemsa staining. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes (macrophages), eosinophils and basophils in each case (for both the follicular and luteal phases) were obtained at 20 microscopic fields. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils and basophils in luteal phase were higher than the follicular phase. The percentage of eosinophils in follicular phase was higher than the luteal phase. The percentage of monocytes (macrophages) in luteal and follicular phases was nearly equal. The statistical analysis showed that the differences of all cells between follicular and luteal phase were not significant (P > 0.05). The most defense cells in discharges of external os of cervix (both follicular and luteal phases) were neutrophils and lymphocytes. PMID:25653745

  7. Neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex in response to male faces increases during the follicular phase

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather A.; James, Thomas W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2009-01-01

    Women’s sexual interest changes with hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. It is unclear how hormones modify women’s sexual behavior and desire, but one possibility is that they alter women’s positive appraisals of stimuli and thus their sexual interest. Using 3 T fMRI, we measured neural activation in women at two time points in their menstrual cycle (late follicular, luteal) while they evaluated photos of men presented as potential sexual partners. Participants were ten heterosexual women aged 23–28 none of who was using hormonal contraceptives or in a committed relationship. In an event-related design, the women were presented with as series of photos of male faces and asked questions to assess their degree of sexual interest in the men depicted. Results demonstrate an overall effect of menstrual cycle phase on neural activation. During their follicular versus luteal phase, women demonstrated increased activation in the right medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), suggesting increased positive appraisal. Activation in the OFC was positively correlated with women’s estradiol to progesterone ratios. There were no areas that demonstrated increased activation during the luteal versus follicular phase. The observed increase in activation in the OFC during the follicular phase may reflect a hormonally mediated increase in appetitive motivation and may prime women towards increased sexual interest and behavior around ovulation. PMID:19306881

  8. Methylation Markers for Early Detection and Differentiation of Follicular Thyroid Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Josena K.; Chen, Kang Mei; Merritt, Jason; Chitale, Dhananjay; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer has the fastest rising incidence rates and is the fifth most common cancer in women. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90%, followed by medullary cancers (3%−5%) and anaplastic carcinomas (<3%). For individuals who present with early stage disease of papillary and follicular cancers, there are no accurate markers to predict whether they will develop metastatic or recurrent disease. Our immediate goal is to molecularly differentiate follicular cancer subtypes for enhanced classification. Promoter methylation status of genes with reported associations in thyroid cancer (CASP8, CDKN2A, DAPK1, ESR1, NIS, RASSF1 and TIMP3) were examined in a cohort of follicular thyroid cancers comprising of 26 Hurthle and 27 Classic subtypes utilizing quantitative methylation-specific PCR. RASSF1 was differentially methylated in Classic tumor tissue compared to Hurthle (p<0.001). Methylation of RASSF1 pointed to racial group differences between African Americans and Caucasian Americans (p=0.05). Extra thyroidal extension was found to be associated with DAPK1 (p=0.014) and ESR1 (p=0.036) methylation. Late stage disease was associated with older age (p<0.001) and methylation of DAPK1 (p=0.034) and ESR1 (p=0.035). The methylation status of RASSF1, DAPK1 and ESR1 suggests the utility of methylation markers to molecularly differentiate thyroid cancer subtypes for enhanced classification and early detection of thyroid cancer. PMID:27158284

  9. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    PubMed

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  11. Effect of progesterone elevation in follicular phase of IVF-cycles on the endometrial receptivity.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, B; Fatemi, H M

    2017-04-01

    The premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event, and emerging evidence shows that premature progesterone rise does negatively affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. The effect of elevated peripheral progesterone levels in the late follicular phase seems to be on the endometrium and the window of implantation, which may lead to asynchrony between the endometrium and the developing embryo. In stimulated cycles, endometrial maturation is advanced on the day of oocyte retrieval, and patients with a progesterone level above 1.5 ng/ml on the day of final oocyte maturation have different endometrial gene expression profiles. This progesterone level seems to represent the critical threshold, at which a negative effect on the ongoing pregnancy rate in fresh IVF cycles can be observed. Moreover, no association exists between progesterone elevation in the fresh cycle, and the probability of pregnancy after transfer of frozen-thawed embryos, originating from that cycle. The causes of premature progesterone elevation during ovarian stimulation are still unclear; however, recent studies point towards enhanced FSH-stimulation as a cause for progesterone elevation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Initiation of follicular atresia: gene networks during early atresia in pig ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbi; Liu, Yang; Yao, Wang; Li, Qifa; Liu, Hong-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang

    2018-05-09

    In mammals, more than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo a degenerative process known as atresia. The molecular events involve in atresia initiation remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze differential gene expression profiles of medium antral ovarian follicles during early atresia in pig. The transcriptome evaluation was performed on cDNA microarrays using healthy and early atretic follicle samples and was validated by quantitative PCR. Annotation analysis applying current database (sus scrofa 11.1) revealed 450 significantly differential expressed genes between healthy and early atretic follicles. Among them, 142 were significantly up-regulated in early atretic with respect to healthy group and 308 were down-regulated. Similar expression trends were observed between microarray data and qRT-PCR confirmation, which indicated the reliability of the microarray analysis. Further analysis of the differential expressed genes revealed the most significantly affected biological functions during early atresia including blood vessel development, regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress and negative regulation of cell adhesion. The pathway and interaction analysis suggested that atresia initiation associates with 1) a crosstalk of cell apoptosis, autophagy, and ferroptosis rather than change of typical apoptosis markers, 2) dramatic shift of steroidogenic enzymes, 3) deficient glutathione metabolism, and 4) vascular degeneration. The novel gene candidates and pathways identified in the current study will lead to a comprehensive view of the molecular regulation of ovarian follicular atresia and a new understanding of atresia initiation.

  13. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    SciT

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during theirmore » follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.« less

  14. Altered Memory Circulating T Follicular Helper-B Cell Interaction in Early Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Roshell; Metcalf, Talibah; Tardif, Virginie; Takata, Hiroshi; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kroon, Eugene; Colby, Donn J.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Valcour, Victor; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Trautmann, Lydie; Haddad, Elias K.

    2016-01-01

    The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) from this cohort was examined, and cTfh and memory B cell populations were phenotyped. Impaired cTfh cell function was observed in individuals treated in stage 3 when compared to stage 1/2. The cTfh/B cell cocultures showed lower B cell survival and IgG secretion at stage 3 compared to stage 1/2. This coincided with lower IL-10 and increased RANTES and TNF-α suggesting a role for inflammation in altering cTfh and B cell responses. Elevated plasma viral load in stage 3 was found to correlate with decreased cTfh-mediated B cell IgG production indicating a role for increased viremia in cTfh impairment and dysfunctional humoral response. Phenotypic perturbations were also evident in the mature B cell compartment, most notably a decrease in resting memory B cells in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with higher viremia. Our coculture assay also suggested that intrinsic memory B cell defects could contribute to the impaired response despite at a lower level. Overall, cTfh-mediated B cell responses are significantly altered in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with increased inflammation and a reduction in memory B cells. These data suggest that early ART for acutely HIV infected individuals could prevent immune dysregulation while preserving cTfh function and B cell memory. PMID:27463374

  15. Comparison of Follicular and Luteal Phase Mucosal Markers of HIV Susceptibility in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Neelima; Yousefieh, Nazita; Zalenskaya, Irina; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M.; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Schwartz, Jill L.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in vaginal immune cell populations, vaginal tissue gene expression, antimicrobial activity of the cervicovaginal (CV) lavage (CVL), vaginal flora, and p24 antigen production from CV tissues after ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection between follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases of the menstrual cycle. CV tissue biopsies, CV secretions, and blood samples were obtained as part of two longitudinal clinical trials of healthy women (CONRAD D11-119 and A12-124 studies). Participants (n = 39) were HIV-seronegative women not using exogenous hormone supplementation, with normal menstrual cycles, who were screened to exclude sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in the LUT versus the FOL phase of the menstrual cycle. Controlling for race, reported contraceptive use/sexual practices, and clinical trial, we found no differences in vaginal tissue immune cell populations and activation status, transcriptomes, inhibition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Escherichia coli by the CVL, vaginal pH or Nugent score, or production of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection by HIV-1BaL between CV samples obtained in the FOL phase versus the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant correlations between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and CV endpoints. The hypothesis that the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle represents a more vulnerable stage for mucosal infection with HIV was not supported by data from samples obtained from the lower genital tract (ectocervix and vagina) from these two clinical trials. PMID:26750085

  16. Physiological Differences in the Follicular, Luteal, and Menstrual Phases in Healthy Women Determined by Electrovestibulography: Depression, Anxiety, or Other Associations?

    PubMed

    Lithgow, Brian J; Moussavi, Zahra

    2018-06-05

    Electrovestibulography (EVestG) recordings have been previously applied toward classifying and/or measuring the severity of several neurological disorders including depression with and without anxiety. This study's objectives were to: (1) extract EVestG features representing physiological differences of healthy women during their menses, and follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle, and (2) compare these features to those observed in previous studies for depression with and without anxiety. Three EVestG recordings were made on 15 young healthy menstruating females during menses, and follicular and luteal phases. Three features were extracted, using the shape and timing of the detected spontaneously evoked vestibulo-acoustic field potentials. Using these features, a 3-way separation of the 3 phases was achieved, with a leave-one-out cross-validation, resulting in accuracy of > 72%. Using an EVestG shape feature, separation of the follicular and luteal phases was achieved with a leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of > 93%. The mechanism of separation was not like that in previous depression analyses, and is postulated to be more akin to a form of anxiety and/or progesterone sensitivity. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Autologous transplantation versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma experiencing early treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sonali M; Godfrey, James; Ahn, Kwang Woo; DiGilio, Alyssa; Ahmed, Sairah; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Bachanova, Veronika; Bacher, Ulrike; Bashey, Asad; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Cairo, Mitchell; Chen, Andy; Chhabra, Saurabh; Copelan, Edward; Dahi, Parastoo B; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Farooq, Umar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David; Kanate, Abraham S; Karmali, Reem; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Klein, Andreas; Lazarus, Hillard M; Mei, Matthew; Mussetti, Alberto; Nishihori, Taiga; Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Praveen; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Shah, Nirav; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Vij, Ravi; Vose, Julie; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-15

    Early treatment failure (ETF) in follicular lymphoma (FL), defined as relapse or progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy, is a newly recognized marker of poor survival and identifies a high-risk group of patients with an expected 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 50%. Transplantation is an established option for relapsed FL, but its efficacy in this specific ETF FL population has not been previously evaluated. This study compared autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) with either matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as the first transplantation approach for patients with ETF FL (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2002 and 2014. The primary endpoint was OS. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Four hundred forty FL patients had ETF (auto-HCT, 240; MSD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HCT], 105; and MUD HCT, 95). With a median follow-up of 69 to 73 months, the adjusted probability of 5-year OS was significantly higher after auto-HCT (70%) or MSD HCT (73%) versus MUD HCT (49%; P = .0008). The 5-year adjusted probability of NRM was significantly lower for auto-HCT (5%) versus MSD (17%) or MUD HCT (33%; P < .0001). The 5-year adjusted probability of disease relapse was lower with MSD (31%) or MUD HCT (23%) versus auto-HCT (58%; P < .0001). Patients with high-risk FL, as defined by ETF, undergoing auto-HCT for FL have low NRM and a promising 5-year OS rate (70%). MSD HCT has lower relapse rates than auto-HCT but similar OS. Cancer 2018;124:2541-51. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. TERT promoter mutation as an early genetic event activating telomerase in follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and atypical FTA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Liu, Tiantian; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Xu, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations C228T and C250T have been found in many malignancies, including in thyroid carcinomas. However, it is unclear how early these mutations occur in thyroid tumorigenesis. The study included primary tumors from 58 patients initially diagnosed with follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), a benign entity, 18 with atypical FTA (AFTA) having an uncertain malignant potential, and 52 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the mutational status of the TERT promoter. Telomere length and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was assessed using a Telomerase PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The C228T mutation was identified in 1 of 58 FTA (2%) and 3 of 18 AFTA (17%) samples. These 4 tumors all expressed TERT mRNA and telomerase activity, whereas the majority of C228T-negative adenomas lacked TERT expression (C228T versus wild-type, P = .008). The C228T mutation was associated with NRAS gene mutations (P = .016). The patient with C228T-mutated FTA later developed a scar recurrence and died of FTC, whereas none of the remaining 57 patients with FTA had recurrence. No recurrence occurred in 3 patients with AFTA who carried C228T during the follow-up period (36-285 months). Nine of the 52 FTCs (17%) exhibited the TERT mutation (8 of 9 C228T and 1 of 9 C250T), and the presence of the mutation was associated with shorter patient survival. TERT promoter mutations may occur as an early genetic event in thyroid follicular tumors that have not developed malignant features on routine histopathological workup. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Relationship between Numerous Mast Cells and Early Follicular Development in Neonatal MRL/MpJ Mouse Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Teppei; Otsuka, Saori; Ichii, Osamu; Sakata, Yuko; Nagasaki, Ken-Ichi; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    In the neonatal mouse ovary, clusters of oocytes called nests break into smaller cysts and subsequently form individual follicles. During this period, we found numerous mast cells in the ovary of MRL/MpJ mice and investigated their appearance and morphology with follicular development. The ovarian mast cells, which were already present at postnatal day 0, tended to localize adjacent to the surface epithelium. Among 11 different mouse strains, MRL/MpJ mice possessed the greatest number of ovarian mast cells. Ovarian mast cells were also found in DBA/1, BALB/c, NZW, and DBA/2 mice but rarely in C57BL/6, NZB, AKR, C3H/He, CBA, and ICR mice. The ovarian mast cells expressed connective tissue mast cell markers, although mast cells around the surface epithelium also expressed a mucosal mast cell marker in MRL/MpJ mice. Some ovarian mast cells migrated into the oocyte nests and directly contacted the compressed and degenerated oocytes. In MRL/MpJ mice, the number of oocytes in the nest was significantly lower than in the other strains, and the number of oocytes showed a positive correlation with the number of ovarian mast cells. The gene expression of a mast cell marker also correlated with the expression of an oocyte nest marker, suggesting a link between the appearance of ovarian ? 4mast cells and early follicular development. Furthermore, the expression of follicle developmental markers was significantly higher in MRL/MpJ mice than in C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that the appearance of ovarian mast cells is a unique phenotype of neonatal MRL/MpJ mice, and that ovarian mast cells participate in early follicular development, especially nest breakdown. PMID:24124609

  20. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

    1998-01-01

    The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism. PMID:9637695

  1. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: influence of follicular characteristics at ovulation on early embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; Smith, M F; MacNeil, M D; Day, M L; Bridges, G A; Perry, G A; Abreu, F M; Atkins, J A; Pohler, K G; Jinks, E M; Madsen, C A

    2013-07-01

    Reproductive failure in livestock can result from failure to fertilize the oocyte or embryonic loss during gestation. Although fertilization failure occurs, embryonic mortality represents a greater contribution to reproductive failure. Reproductive success varies among species and production goals but is measured as a binomial trait (i.e., pregnancy), derived by the success or failure of multiple biological steps. This review focuses primarily on follicular characteristics affecting oocyte quality, fertilization, and embryonic health that lead to pregnancy establishment in beef cattle. When estrous cycles are manipulated with assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation is induced, duration of proestrus (i.e., interval from induced luteolysis to induced ovulation), ovulatory follicle growth rate, and ovulatory follicle size are factors that affect the maturation of the follicle and oocyte at induced ovulation. The most critical maturational component of the ovulatory follicle is the production of sufficient estradiol to prepare follicular cells for luteinization and progesterone synthesis and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. The exact roles of estradiol in oocyte maturation remain unclear, but cows that have lesser serum concentrations of estradiol have decreased fertilization rates and decreased embryo survival on d 7 after induced ovulation. When length of proestrus is held constant, perhaps the most practical follicular measure of fertility is ovulatory follicle size because it is an easily measured attribute of the follicle that is highly associated with its ability to produce estradiol.

  2. Associations of Serum Levels of Sex Hormones in Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle with Breast Tissue Characteristics in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Linton, Linda; Taylor, Monica; Dunn, Sheila; Martin, Lisa; Chavez, Sonia; Stanitz, Greg; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman

    2016-01-01

    In previous work in young women aged 15-30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In the present study we have examined the association of percent breast water with serum levels of sex hormones in both follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In 315 healthy white Caucasian young women aged 15-30 with regular menstrual cycles who had not used oral contraceptives or other hormones in the previous 6 months, we used MR to determine percent breast water, and obtained blood samples for hormone assays within 10 days of the onset of the most recent menstrual cycle (follicular phase) of the cycle on the same day as the MR scan, and a second blood sample on days 19-24 of the cycle. Serum progesterone levels of > = 5 mmol/L in days 19-24 were used to define the 225 subjects with ovulatory menstrual cycles, whose data are the subject of the analyses shown here. SHBG was positively associated with percent water in both follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Total and free estradiol and total and free testosterone were not associated with percent water in the follicular phase, but in young women with ovulatory cycles, were all negatively associated with percent water in the luteal phase. Our results from young women aged 15-30 years add to the evidence that the extent of fibroglandular tissue in the breast that is reflected in both mammographic density and breast water is associated positively with higher serum levels of SHBG, but not with higher levels of sex hormones.

  3. Localization of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor B in bovine cervix and vagina during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, H; Akbalik, M E; Saruhan, B G; Ketani, M A

    2011-08-01

    The localization and distribution of estrogen receptors (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PR-B) in the cervix and vagina of sexually mature bovines during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle were studied using immunohistochemistry. The estrous cycle stage of 23 Holstein bovines was assessed by gross and histological appearance of ovaries and blood steroid hormone values. Tissue samples from cervix and vagina were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for routine histological processing. Nuclear staining for ERα and PR-B was observed in the epithelial cells of the surface epithelium, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells. Generally, in the cervix, ERα immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells during the follicular phase and in the epithelial cells during the luteal phase (p < 0.05). PR-B immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells than in the superficial and deep stromal cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). In the vagina, ERα and PR-B immunoreactivities were more intense in the epithelial cells than in the connective tissue cells and smooth muscle cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the frequency and intensity of ERα and PR-B immunoreactivity in the cervix and vagina of bovines varied according to the cervical and vaginal cell types and the phases of the sexual cycle.

  4. Activin B is produced early in antral follicular development and suppresses thecal androgen production

    PubMed Central

    Young, J M; Henderson, S; Souza, C; Ludlow, H; Groome, N; McNeilly, A S

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of activin B during folliculogenesis. This study investigated the expression levels of activin/inhibin subunits (βA, βB, and α), steroid enzyme, and gonadotrophin receptors in theca (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) by QPCR and activin A and B and inhibin A protein levels in follicular fluid (FF) of developing sheep follicles during estrus and anestrus. The effect of activin B on androgen production from primary TC cultures in vitro was also assessed. During folliculogenesis, in anestrus and estrus, FF activin B concentrations and thecal and GC activin βB mRNA levels decreased as follicle diameter increased from 1–3 to >6 mm regardless of estrogenic status. Estrogenic preovulatory follicles had reduced concentrations of FF activins B and A, and TC and GCs expressed higher levels of activin βA mRNA at 3–4 mm, and TCs more inhibin α mRNA at >4 mm stages of development compared with nonestrogenic follicles. Activin B decreased androstenedione production from primary TCs in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin A. Thus, sheep follicles 1–3 mm in diameter contained high FF levels of activin B, which decreased as the follicle size increased, and, like activin A, suppressed thecal androgen production in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin. Furthermore, the theca of large estrogenic follicles expressed high levels of inhibin α and activin βA mRNA suggesting local thecal derived inhibin A production. This would inhibit the negative effects of thecal activins B and A ensuring maximum androgen production for enhanced estradiol production by the preovulatory follicle(s). PMID:22450673

  5. Reduced Phase-Advance of Plasma Melatonin after Bright Morning Light in the Luteal, but not Follicular, Menstrual Cycle Phase in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: An Extended Study

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Martínez, L. Fernando; López, Ana M.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously observed blunted phase-shift responses to morning bright light in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The aim of this study was to determine if we could replicate these findings using a higher intensity, shorter duration light pulse and to compare these results with the effects of an evening bright light pulse. In 17 PMDD patients and 14 normal control (NC) subjects, we measured plasma melatonin at 30 minute intervals from 18:00–10:00 h in dim (< 30 lux) or dark conditions the night before (night 1) and after (night 3) a bright light pulse (administered on night 2) in both follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. The bright light (either 3,000 lux for 6 h or 6,000 lux for 3 h) was given either in the AM, 7 h after the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) measured the previous month, or in the PM, 3 h after the DLMO. In the luteal, but not in the follicular, phase, AM light advanced melatonin offset between night 1 and night 3 significantly less in PMDD than in NC subjects. The effects of PM light were not significant, nor were there significant effects of the light pulse on melatonin measures of onset, duration, peak or area under the curve. These findings replicated our previous finding of a blunted phase-shift response to morning bright light in the luteal, but not the follicular, menstrual cycle phase in PMDD compared with NC women, using a brighter (6,000 vs. 3,000 lux) light pulse for a shorter duration (3 vs. 6 h). As the effect of PM bright light on melatonin phase-shift responses did not differ between groups or significantly alter other melatonin measures, these results suggest that in PMDD there is a luteal phase subsensitivity or an increased resistance to morning bright light cues which are critical in synchronizing human biological rhythms. The resulting circadian rhythm malsynchonization may contribute to the occurrence of luteal phase depressive symptoms in women with PMDD. PMID:21721857

  6. Similarities of prosurvival signals in Bcl-2-positive and Bcl-2-negative follicular lymphomas identified by reverse phase protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Zha, Hongbin; Raffeld, Mark; Charboneau, Lu; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kwak, Larry W; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance A; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2004-02-01

    Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein has been known to play a role in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, 10-15% of FLs are negative for Bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry, raising the possibility that another gene product(s) may provide prosurvival signal(s). We used reverse phase protein microarray to analyze lysates of follicle center cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from: Bcl-2+ FL, Bcl-2- FL and reactive follicular hyperplasia (FH) (nine cases each group). TUNEL assay confirmed similar and reduced levels of apoptosis in Bcl-2+ FL and Bcl-2- FL, indicating the likelihood of Bcl-2-independent inhibition of apoptosis. Arrays were quantitatively analyzed with antibodies to proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. As expected, Bcl-2 levels were up to eight-fold higher in Bcl-2+ FL than in FH and Bcl-2- FL. However, there was no difference in levels of Mcl-1 and survivin among these three groups. Bcl-X(L) showed a trend for increased expression in Bcl-2- FL as compared with Bcl-2+ FL, although the differences did not reach statistical significance (P>0.1). The increase in Bcl-X(L) may provide an alternative antiapoptotic signal in FL negative for Bcl-2 protein. Interestingly, Bax expression was higher in FL (Bcl-2+ or -) than in FH (P=0.001). Notably, phospho-Akt (Ser-473) was increased in FL (Bcl-2+ or -) (P<0.03) with increased phospho-Bad (Ser-136), as compared with levels in FH. The activation of the Akt/Bad pathway provides further evidence of prosurvival signals in FL, independent of Bcl-2 alone. These data suggest that nodal FL represents a single disease with a final common biochemical pathway.

  7. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  8. Early visual processing is enhanced in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed an early attentional bias in processing unpleasant emotional images in women. Recent neuroimaging data suggests there are significant differences in cortical emotional processing according to menstrual phase. This study examined the impact of menstrual phase on visual emotional processing in women compared to men. ERPs were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men while they completed a passive viewing task of neutral and low- and high- arousing pleasant and unpleasant images. There was a significant effect of menstrual phase in early visual processing, as midluteal women displayed significantly greater P1 amplitude at occipital regions to all visual images compared to men. Both midluteal and early follicular women displayed larger N1 amplitudes than men (although this only reached significance for the midluteal group) to the visual images. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in later N2, P3, or LPP. A condition effect demonstrated greater P3 and LPP amplitude to highly-arousing unpleasant images relative to all other stimuli conditions. These results indicate that women have greater early automatic visual processing compared to men, and suggests that this effect is particularly strong in women in the midluteal phase at the earliest stage of visual attention processing. Our findings highlight the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovarian follicular activity during late gestation and postpartum in guanaco (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Riveros, J L; Schuler, G; Urquieta, B; Hoffmann, B; Bonacic, C

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post-partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre-partum data. During post-partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol-17β concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol-17β concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post-partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Women with dysmenorrhoea are hypersensitive to experimentally induced forearm ischaemia during painful menstruation and during the pain-free follicular phase.

    PubMed

    Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C

    2015-07-01

    Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p < 0.01] and follicular [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 60 (18) mm vs. 40 (14) mm, p < 0.01] phases of the menstrual cycle. These data show that compared with controls, women who experience severe recurrent dysmenorrhoea have deep-tissue hyperalgesia to ischaemic pain in muscles outside of the referred area of menstrual pain both during the painful menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, Md Munir; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern with miR-183

  12. Comparison of low-intensity blood flow-restricted training-induced muscular hypertrophy in eumenorrheic women in the follicular phase and luteal phase and age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Mikako; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Abe, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle hypertrophic response in women during both the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles following short-term, low-intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Eight eumenorrheic women and five men, all previously untrained, performed unilateral low-intensity (30% of 1 repetition maximum) dumbbell curl training with BFR once a day for 6 days. The opposite arm served as an untrained control. This 6-day training programme was conducted during both menstrual cycle phases: the early FP and the mid LP. MRI-measured biceps muscle volume (MV) and isometric elbow flexion strength were measured in both arms before and 2 days after the final training bout. Significantly (P<0.05) greater muscle hypertrophy was observed in the LP (5·7%) than in the FP (3·7%). The absolute and relative changes in serum hormone concentrations between the two phases did not correlate (P>0.05) with the percentage change in MV between the LP and FP. There was no change in MV in the control arm for both cycle phases. Following training, isometric strength increased (P<0.01) in the LP, but not in the FP (P = 0.17). Relative strength (strength per unit MV) was similar pre- and post-training in both phases. The percentage changes in MV and strength were similar between the women (average of LP and FP) and men. Our results indicate that muscle hypertrophy and strength gain are higher in the LP than in the FP following 6 days of BFR training, although the sex difference in the training response is non-existent. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  13. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Burger, C W; Korsen, T; van Kessel, H; van Dop, P A; Caron, F J; Schoemaker, J

    1985-12-01

    To characterize the oscillations of plasma LH in normally cycling and amenorrheic women, three groups of women were studied: I, normal women during the follicular phase of the cycle (n = 9); II, women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD; n = 11); and III, women with non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained at 10-min intervals for 6 h on 2 separate days. A pulse was defined as an increase in LH at least 20% over the preceding lowest value (nadir). Since LHRH release immediately follows the nadir of the LH levels, the nadir interval (NI) was used for analysis. For analysis, the results from 1 day were selected at random from each subject, and from each day, the same number of NIs also were randomly selected. When two NIs from each patient were selected, the median NI was 75 min in group I, 45 min in group II, and 45 min in group III. When three or four NIs were chosen, the median NI was 60 min in group I, 50 min in group II, and 40 min in group III. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. When three NIs were selected, the mean of the corresponding LH amplitudes was 2.8 U/liter in group I, 6.0 U/liter in group II, and 1.5 U/liter in group III. The differences between these groups were statistically significant. Thus, the NI in PCOD patients was shorter than that during the follicular phase of the cycle, but this short NI is not unique for PCOD, since the NI in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea patients was even smaller. The LH amplitude was higher in PCOD and lower in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea compared to that during the follicular phase of the cycle. The decrease in NI in PCOD and/or non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea vs. the NI of the follicular phase could be explained by either a higher frequency of LHRH pulses from the hypothalamus or an increased sensitivity of the pituitary leading to a greater response of the pituitary to LHRH pulses.

  14. High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during luteal-follicular transition.

    PubMed

    De Souza, M J; Miller, B E; Loucks, A B; Luciano, A A; Pescatello, L S; Campbell, C G; Lasley, B L

    1998-12-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to evaluate the characteristics of three consecutive menstrual cycles and to determine the frequency ofluteal phase deficiency (LPD) and anovulation in a sample of sedentary and moderately exercising, regularly menstruating women. For three consecutive menstrual cycles, subjects collected daily urine samples for analysis of FSH, estrone conjugates (E1C), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), and creatinine (Cr). Sedentary (n=11) and exercising (n=24) groups were similar in age (27.0+/-1.3 yr), weight (60.3+/-3.1 kg), gynecological age (13.8+/-1.2 yr), and menstrual cycle length (28.3+/-0.8 days). Menstrual cycles were classified by endocrine data as ovulatory, LPD, or anovulatory. No sedentary women (0%) had inconsistent menstrual cycle classifications from cycle to cycle, but 46% of the exercising women were inconsistent. The sample prevalence of LPD in the exercising women was 48%, and the 3-month sample incidence was 79%. In the sedentary women, 90% of all menstrual cycles were ovulatory (SedOvul; n=28), whereas in the exercising women only 45% were ovulatory (ExOvul; n=30); 43% were LPD (ExLPD; n=28), and 12% were anovulatory (ExAnov; n=8). In ExLPD cycles, the follicular phase was significantly longer (17.9+/-0.7 days), and the luteal phase was significantly shorter (8.2+/-0.5 days) compared to ExOvul (14.8+/-0.9 and 12.9+/-0.3 days) and SedOvul (15.9+/-0.6 and 12.9+/-0.4 days) cycles. Luteal phase PdG excretion was lower (P < 0.001) in ExLPD (2.9+/-0.3 microg/mg Cr) and ExAnov (0.8+/-0.1 microg/mg Cr) cycles compared to SedOvul cycles (5.0+/-0.4 microg/mg Cr). ExOvul cycles also had less (P < 0.01) PdG excretion during the luteal phase (3.7+/-0.3 microg/mg Cr) than the SedOvul cycles. E1C excretion during follicular phase days 2-5 was lower (P=0.05) in ExOvul, ExLPD, and ExAnov cycles compared to SedOvul cycles and remained lower (P < 0.02) in the ExLPD and ExAnov cycles during days 6-12. The elevation in FSH during the

  15. Cortisol and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones in follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive symptoms on these hormones

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ali; Cevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal; Colpan, Leyla; Sarac, Serdar

    2004-01-01

    We investigated abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and cortisol concentrations in women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle, and whether their scores for depressive symptoms were related to levels of these hormones. A total of 176 subjects participated – 46 healthy volunteers, 68 patients with fibromyalgia, and 62 patients with CFS. We examined concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and cortisol. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia or CFS than in healthy controls (P < 0.05); there were no significant differences in other hormone levels between the three groups. Fibromyalgia patients with high BDI scores had significantly lower cortisol levels than controls (P < 0.05), and so did CFS patients, regardless of their BDI scores (P < 0.05). Among patients without depressive symptoms, cortisol levels were lower in CFS than in fibromyalgia (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that in spite of low morning cortisol concentrations, the only abnormalities in hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones among follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia or CFS are those of LH levels in fibromyalgia patients with a low BDI score. Depression may lower cortisol and LH levels, or, alternatively, low morning cortisol may be a biological factor that contributes to depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia. These parameters therefore must be taken into account in future investigations. PMID:15142269

  16. Control of follicle-stimulating hormone by estradiol and the inhibins: critical role of estradiol at the hypothalamus during the luteal-follicular transition.

    PubMed

    Welt, Corrine K; Pagan, Yanira L; Smith, Patricia C; Rado, Kimberly B; Hall, Janet E

    2003-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that estradiol, inhibin A, and inhibin B contribute differentially to FSH negative feedback in specific phases of the menstrual cycle, daily blood samples were obtained across a control cycle and after selective estrogen blockade with tamoxifen. To examine the site of estradiol-negative feedback in control and tamoxifen treatment cycles, early follicular phase GnRH (free alpha-subunit) pulse frequency was assessed in normal women, and FSH levels were examined in GnRH-deficient women in whom hypothalamic output was fixed with GnRH administration. FSH was higher in the early follicular phase in the presence of estrogen receptor blockade (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 13.2 +/- 1.9 IU/liter; P < 0.05) but was not increased in the late follicular phase. In the luteal phase, FSH was elevated (10.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.6 IU/liter; P < 0.01). In normal women, free alpha-subunit pulse frequency increased (7.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.4 pulses per 8 h; P < 0.003), but in GnRH-deficient women, there was no FSH increase (11.1 +/- 1.6 vs. 12.5 +/- 3.6 IU/liter) in the early follicular phase in the presence of estrogen blockade. In conclusion, estradiol exerts a greater role over inhibin in FSH-negative feedback regulation during the luteal phase and the luteal-follicular transition. In contrast, inhibin A and/or B plays a more critical role as the follicular phase progresses. In addition, these studies support a primary if not exclusive hypothalamic site of estrogen-negative feedback in the early follicular phase.

  17. Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Archive Home Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings share Posted on December 6, 2013 | Assessment and Early Restoration Restoration Area Title: Phase III Early on the draft plan for the third phase of Early Restoration, which proposes more than $625 million in

  18. A comparative analysis of prognostic factor models for follicular lymphoma based on a phase III trial of CHOP-rituximab versus CHOP + 131iodine--tositumomab.

    PubMed

    Press, Oliver W; Unger, Joseph M; Rimsza, Lisa M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; LeBlanc, Michael; Czuczman, Myron S; Kaminski, Mark; Braziel, Rita M; Spier, Catherine; Gopal, Ajay K; Maloney, David G; Cheson, Bruce D; Dakhil, Shaker R; Miller, Thomas P; Fisher, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models. We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of 532 patients enrolled on this trial and compared the prognostic value of the FLIPI (follicular lymphoma international prognostic index), FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M (lactate dehydrogenase + β2-microglobulin) models. Outcomes were excellent, but not statistically different between the two study arms [5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 60% with CHOP-R and 66% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.11); 5-year overall survival (OS) of 92% with CHOP-R and 86% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.08); overall response rate of 84% for both arms]. The only factor found to potentially predict the impact of treatment was serum β2M; among patients with normal β2M, CHOP-RIT patients had better PFS compared with CHOP-R patients, whereas among patients with high serum β2M, PFS by arm was similar (interaction P value = 0.02). All three prognostic models (FLIPI, FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M) predicted both PFS and OS well, though the LDH + β2M model is easiest to apply and identified an especially poor risk subset. In an exploratory analysis using the latter model, there was a statistically significant trend suggesting that low-risk patients had superior observed PFS if treated with CHOP-RIT, whereas high-risk patients had a better PFS with CHOP-R. ©2013 AACR.

  19. Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ahn, Kwang W; Flowers, Christopher; DiGilio, Alyssa; Smith, Sonali M; Ahmed, Sairah; Inwards, David; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chen, Andy I; Choe, Hannah; Cohen, Jonathon; Copelan, Edward; Farooq, Umar; Fenske, Timothy S; Freytes, Cesar; Gaballa, Sameh; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Jethava, Yogesh; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Lazarus, Hillard; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Olsson, Richard F; Rezvani, Andrew R; Rizzieri, David; Seo, Sachiko; Shah, Gunjan L; Shah, Nina; Solh, Melham; Sureda, Anna; William, Basem; Cumpston, Aaron; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Link, Brian K; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Follicular fluid accumulates into the antrum of follicle from the early stage of follicle development. Studies on its components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. With this objective, we performed a proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid. First, we hypothesized that proteins in follicular fluid may differ from those in the serum, and also may change during follicle development. Second, we used four different approaches of Immunodepletion and one enrichment method, in order to overcome the masking effect of high-abundance proteins present in the follicular fluid, and to identify those present in lower abundance. Finally, we compared our results with previous studies performed in mono-ovulant (human) and poly-ovulant (porcine and canine) species in an attempt to identify common and/or species-specific proteins. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from ovaries at three different stages of follicle development (early dominant, late dominant and preovulatory). Blood samples were also collected at each time. The proteomic analysis was carried out on crude, depleted and enriched follicular fluid by 2D-PAGE, 1D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results Total of 459 protein spots were visualized by 2D-PAGE of crude mare follicular fluid, with no difference among the three physiological stages. Thirty proteins were observed as differentially expressed between serum and follicular fluid. Enrichment method was found to be the most powerful method for detection and identification of low-abundance proteins from follicular fluid. Actually, we were able to identify 18 proteins in the crude follicular fluid, and as many as 113 in the enriched follicular fluid. Inhibins and a few other proteins involved in reproduction could only be identified after enrichment of follicular fluid, demonstrating the power of the method used. The comparison of proteins found in mare follicular fluid

  1. Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development.

    PubMed

    Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Labas, Valérie; Roche, Stéphane; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Gérard, Nadine

    2011-09-17

    Follicular fluid accumulates into the antrum of follicle from the early stage of follicle development. Studies on its components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. With this objective, we performed a proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid. First, we hypothesized that proteins in follicular fluid may differ from those in the serum, and also may change during follicle development. Second, we used four different approaches of Immunodepletion and one enrichment method, in order to overcome the masking effect of high-abundance proteins present in the follicular fluid, and to identify those present in lower abundance. Finally, we compared our results with previous studies performed in mono-ovulant (human) and poly-ovulant (porcine and canine) species in an attempt to identify common and/or species-specific proteins. Follicular fluid samples were collected from ovaries at three different stages of follicle development (early dominant, late dominant and preovulatory). Blood samples were also collected at each time. The proteomic analysis was carried out on crude, depleted and enriched follicular fluid by 2D-PAGE, 1D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Total of 459 protein spots were visualized by 2D-PAGE of crude mare follicular fluid, with no difference among the three physiological stages. Thirty proteins were observed as differentially expressed between serum and follicular fluid. Enrichment method was found to be the most powerful method for detection and identification of low-abundance proteins from follicular fluid. Actually, we were able to identify 18 proteins in the crude follicular fluid, and as many as 113 in the enriched follicular fluid. Inhibins and a few other proteins involved in reproduction could only be identified after enrichment of follicular fluid, demonstrating the power of the method used. The comparison of proteins found in mare follicular fluid with proteins previously

  2. Oocyte-granulosa-theca cell interactions during preantral follicular development

    PubMed Central

    Orisaka, Makoto; Tajima, Kimihisa; Tsang, Benjamin K; Kotsuji, Fumikazu

    2009-01-01

    The preantral-early antral follicle transition is the penultimate stage of follicular development in terms of gonadotropin dependence and follicle destiny (growth versus atresia). Follicular growth during this period is tightly regulated by oocyte-granulosa-theca cell interactions. Formation of the theca cell layer is a key event that occurs during this transitional stage. Granulosal factor(s) stimulates the recruitment of theca cells from cortical stromal cells, while oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is involved in the differentiation of theca cells during this early stage of follicular development. The preantral to early antral transition is most susceptible to follicular atresia. GDF-9 promotes follicular survival and growth during transition from preantral stage to early antral stage by suppressing granulosa cell apoptosis and follicular atresia. GDF-9 also enhances preantral follicle growth by up-regulating theca cell androgen production. Thecal factor(s) promotes granulosa cell proliferation and suppress granulosa cell apoptosis. Understanding the intraovarian mechanisms in the regulation of follicular growth and atresia during this stage may be of clinical significance in the selection of the best quality germ cells for assisted reproduction. In addition, since certain ovarian dysfunctions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome and gonadotropin poor-responsiveness, are consequences of dysregulated follicle growth at this transitional stage, understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the control of follicular development during the preantral-early antral transition may provide important insight into the pathophysiology and rational treatment of these conditions. PMID:19589134

  3. Phase V of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment. The project will acquire land along Florida million. Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (pdf, 10 MB) Draft Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (Executive Summary) (2 MB) Phase V Fact Sheet (pdf, 2 MB) Gulf

  4. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  5. Phase III of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    information about this phase of Early Restoration, including fact sheets on each project. The final Phase III 44 projects are documented in a final Record of Decision. Information about Phase III of Early Archive Home Phase III of Early Restoration Phase III of Early Restoration Beach habitat would be restored

  6. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  7. Mechanisms underlying hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress reactivity at different phases of the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jennifer L.; Girdler, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association of menstrual cycle phase with stress reactivity as well as the hormonal and neuroendocrine mechanisms contributing to cycle effects. Fifty-seven women underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during the early follicular, late follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Greater increases in cardiac index (CI) and greater decreases in vascular resistance index (VRI) during speech were observed in the luteal phase relative to other phases, while greater increases in epinephrine (EPI) was observed during the late follicular and luteal phases compared to the early follicular phase. Luteal phase estradiol predicted luteal EPI reactivity but not CI or VRI reactivity while luteal phase EPI reactivity predicted luteal phase CI and VRI reactivity. Thus, cycle-related changes in EPI reactivity may be a stronger determinant of cycle effects on hemodynamic reactivity than sex hormones per se. PMID:24397365

  8. Phase IV of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Trustees published the Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments. The plan habitats. Useful Links: Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments (pdf, 4.8 MB ) Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments Executive Summary (pdf, 729 KB

  9. The effect of rivastigmine on the LPS-induced suppression of GnRH/LH secretion during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in ewes.

    PubMed

    Herman, A P; Krawczyńska, A; Bochenek, J; Haziak, K; Romanowicz, K; Misztal, T; Antushevich, H; Herman, A; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of a potent subcutaneously injected acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, rivastigmine (6mg/animal), on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release during inflammation induced by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (400ng/kg) injection in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. The results are expressed as the mean values from -2 to -0.5h before and +1 to +3h after treatment. Rivastigmine decreased the acetylcholinesterase concentration in the blood plasma from 176.9±9.5 to 99.3±15.1μmol/min/ml. Endotoxin suppressed LH (5.4±0.6ng/ml) and GnRH (4.6±0.4pg/ml) release; however, the rivastigmine injection restored the LH concentration (7.8±0.8ng/ml) to the control value (7.8±0.7ng/ml) and stimulated GnRH release (7.6±0.8pg/ml) compared to the control (5.9±0.4pg/ml). Immune stress decreased expression of the GnRH gene and its receptor (GnRH-R) in the median eminence as well as LHβ and GnRH-R in the pituitary. In the case of the GnRH and LHβ genes, the suppressive effect of inflammation was negated by rivastigmine. LPS stimulated cortisol and prolactin release (71.1±14.7 and 217.1±8.0ng/ml) compared to the control group (9.0±5.4 and 21.3±3.5ng/ml). Rivastigmine also showed a moderating effect on cortisol and prolactin secretion (43.1±13.1 and 169.7±29.5ng/ml). The present study shows that LPS-induced decreases in GnRH and LH can be reduced by the AChE inhibitor. This action of the AChE inhibitor could result from the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and the attenuation of the stress response. However, a direct stimulatory effect of ACh on GnRH/LH secretion should also be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ibrutinib as Treatment for Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Follicular Lymphoma: Results From the Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase II DAWN Study.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ajay K; Schuster, Stephen J; Fowler, Nathan H; Trotman, Judith; Hess, Georg; Hou, Jing-Zhou; Yacoub, Abdulraheem; Lill, Michael; Martin, Peter; Vitolo, Umberto; Spencer, Andrew; Radford, John; Jurczak, Wojciech; Morton, James; Caballero, Dolores; Deshpande, Sanjay; Gartenberg, Gary J; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Damle, Rajendra N; Schaffer, Michael; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Vermeulen, Jessica; Cheson, Bruce D; Salles, Gilles

    2018-05-31

    Purpose The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has demonstrated clinical activity in B-cell malignancies. The DAWN study assessed the efficacy and safety of single-agent ibrutinib in chemoimmunotherapy relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. Methods DAWN was an open-label, single-arm, phase II study of ibrutinib in patients with FL with two or more prior lines of therapy. Patients received ibrutinib 560 mg daily until progressive disease/unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (ORR; complete response plus partial response). Exploratory analyses of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood (baseline/cycle 3) and cytokines/chemokines (baseline/cycle 2) were performed for available samples. Results Between March 2013 and May 2016, 110 patients with a median of three prior lines of therapy were enrolled. At median follow-up of 27.7 months, ORR was 20.9% (95% CI, 13.7% to 29.7%, which did not meet the 18% lower-bound threshold for the primary end point). Twelve patients achieved a complete response (11%; 95% CI, 5.8% to 18.3%). Median duration of response was 19.4 months (range, 1 to ≥ 33 months), with a median progression-free survival of 4.6 months and a 30-month overall survival of 61% (95% CI, 0.51% to 0.70%). Lymphoma symptoms resolved in 67%. Seven of 32 patients who experienced initial radiologic progression responded upon continuing therapy (pseudoprogression). The most common adverse events were diarrhea, fatigue, cough, and muscle spasms; 48.2% of patients reported serious adverse events. In patients who experienced a response, regulatory T cells were downregulated at C3D1 ( P = .02), and Th1-promoting (antitumor) cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-12 increased ( P ≤ .035). Conclusion With an ORR of 20.9%, ibrutinib failed to meet its primary efficacy end point in chemoimmunotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory FL, although responses were durable and

  11. [Recovery and light microscopic evaluation of follicular oocytes of swine and relationship between the degeneration rate of oocytes and the estrus phase].

    PubMed

    Schnurrbusch, U; Schmette, C; Elze, K

    1990-10-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from 25 gilts by aspiration of follicular fluid or cutting of follicles from all Graafian follicles of greater than or equal to 3 mm in diameter during diestrus, proestrus or estrus. In 5 gilts the oocytes were collected post ovulation by flushing of oviducts. The recovery rate of follicular oocytes differed between 75.5% during the late diestrus (days 13-17) and 43.5% during the proestrus (days 18-21). During the proestrus and on day 1 of the estrus the recovery of oocytes was more difficult as a result of the higher viscosity of follicular fluid and the mucification of cumulus-oocyte complexes. The degeneration rate of oocytes was high during the diestrus with a peak at the time of regression of corpora lutea. From diestrus to the estrus the degeneration rate decreased. Following degeneration rates were found in the oocytes during the cycle: days 7-12: 38.8%, days 13-17: 50.0%, days 18-21: 29.6%, day 1 of the estrus: 10.8%, day 2 of the estrus ante ovulation: 11.8%, day 2 of the estrus post ovulation: 6.2%. Signs of degeneration were: Loss of cumulus cells (during diestrus and proestrus), damaged zona pellucida, enlargement of perivitelline space, deformation of oocyte, alteration of structure of the ooplasm, diameter of vitellus less than 100 microns. It was concluded that the selection of dominant follicles takes place in pigs during a long time of the cycle, especially during the diestrus. There were not any indications of a 2-wave hypothesis of follicular growth during the cycle in pig.

  12. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News Publications Press Releases Story programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  13. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Pensacola, FL (rescheduled) | NOAA

    Restoration Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  14. Follicular unit transplantation: 2005.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robert M; Rassman, William R

    2005-07-01

    The recognition that the follicular unit is a discrete, anatomic and physiologic entity, and that preserving it through stereomicroscopic dissection is the best way to ensure the naturalness of the restoration, has brought hair transplantation into the twenty-first century. Issues yet to be resolved include determining the maximum density and number of grafts that can be used safely in a single session, deciding whether it is preferable to premake recipient sites or immediately place grafts into sites as they are made, and defining the precise role of follicular unit extraction. The essence of providing the best care for patients rests on proper patient selection, establishing realistic expectations, and using nonsurgical management for young persons who are just starting to thin.

  15. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  16. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization in downregulated patients.

    PubMed

    Lisi, F; Caserta, D; Montanino, M; Berlinghieri, V; Bielli, W; Carfagna, P; Carra, M C; Costantino, A; Lisi, R; Poverini, R; Ciardo, F; Rago, R; Marci, R; Moscarini, M

    2012-09-01

    Follicle development is controlled amongst other factors by pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) that act in synergy in completing follicle maturation. Exogenous gonadotropins, combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, have been successfully used in patients with ovulatory disorders undergoing assisted reproduction. There is some evidence of a beneficial role of androgens or LH administration before FSH stimulation. This study was designed to verify whether the addition of LH in the early follicular phase, in downregulated patients undergoing follicular stimulation for assisted reproduction, would add benefits in terms of general outcomes and pregnancy rates. We compared two groups of patients one of which was treated with recombinant FSH (rFSH) alone and the other with rFSH plus recombinant LH (rLH), in the early follicular phase only. The number of eggs recovered was higher in the group treated with FSH only; however, the number of embryos available at transfer was similar in the two groups and, more importantly, the number of Grades I and II embryos was higher in the group pretreated with LH. Similarly, although biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rates were similar in both groups, a beneficial role of LH priming was demonstrated by the higher implantation rate achieved in these patients.

  17. A phase 1, multicentre, open-label study to evaluate ovarian follicular activity and hormone levels with an extended-regimen combined oral contraceptive with low-dose ethinyl estradiol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Robin; Seidman, Larry; Ricciotti, Nancy; Howard, Brandon; Weiss, Herman

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on ovarian follicular activity of the 91-day extended-regimen combined oral contraceptive (COC), consisting of 84 days of levonorgestrel (LNG)/ethinylestradiol (EE) 150 μg/30 μg tablets plus seven days of EE 10 μg tablets in place of placebo. This was a phase 1, open-label study. Ovarian follicular activity was classified via the Hoogland and Skouby method. Safety and tolerability as well as return to ovulation were assessed. Of the 35 subjects included in the efficacy analysis, luteinized, unruptured follicles, or ovulation were detected in 0 of 35 cycles during the first 28-day interval; 1 of 35 cycles (2.9%) in the second 28-day interval; and 2 of 35 cycles (5.7%) in the final 35-day interval. The ovarian activity rate over the entire 91-day treatment period was 2.9%. There was a low incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. Ovulation returned in most subjects (77.1%, 27/35) within 32 days following the last dose of COC. The 91-day extended-regimen COC with low-dose EE supplementation was found to be effective in suppressing ovarian activity and inhibiting ovulation and was well tolerated. Return to ovulation was rapid, occurring within approximately one month after discontinuation of COC.

  18. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  19. Novel Drugs in Follicular Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Antonella; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma(FL) is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes 15% to 30% of lymphoma diagnoses. The natural history of the disease is characterized by recurrent relapses and progressively shorter remissions with a median survival of 10yrs. The impossibility of achieving a definite cure, have prompted investigations into the possible role of more active and less toxic strategies with innovative therapeutic agents. Recently Casulo et al. demonstrated that approximately 20% of patients with FL relapse within two years after achieving remission with R-CHOP and have a poor prognosis. It is conceivable that this particularly chemoresistant population would benefit from specifically targeting the biologic and genetic factors that likely contribute to their poor prognosis. Evolving strategies for difficult to treat FL patients have recently considered immunomodulatory agents, new monoclonal antibodies as well as drugs targeting selective intracellular pathways. The importance of targeting the microenvironment together with the malignant FL cell has been particularly underscored. We review the most promising approaches, such as combining anti-CD20 antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs (Lenalidomide), mAbs directed against other surface antigens such as CD22 and CD23 (Epratuzumab, Lumiliximab), immunomodulatory antibodies such as PD-1, or inhibitors of key steps in the B-cell receptor pathway signaling such as PI3K inhibitors (Idelalisib, Duvelisib). Another highly attractive approach is the application of the bi-specific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody blinatumomab which targets both CD19 and CD3 antigens. Moreover, we highlight the potential of these therapies, taking into account their toxicity. Of course, we must wait for Phase III trials results to confirm the benefit of these new treatment strategies toward a new era of chemotherapy-free treatment for follicular lymphoma.

  20. Novel Drugs in Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Anastasia, Antonella; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma(FL) is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes 15% to 30% of lymphoma diagnoses. The natural history of the disease is characterized by recurrent relapses and progressively shorter remissions with a median survival of 10yrs. The impossibility of achieving a definite cure, have prompted investigations into the possible role of more active and less toxic strategies with innovative therapeutic agents. Recently Casulo et al. demonstrated that approximately 20% of patients with FL relapse within two years after achieving remission with R-CHOP and have a poor prognosis. It is conceivable that this particularly chemoresistant population would benefit from specifically targeting the biologic and genetic factors that likely contribute to their poor prognosis. Evolving strategies for difficult to treat FL patients have recently considered immunomodulatory agents, new monoclonal antibodies as well as drugs targeting selective intracellular pathways. The importance of targeting the microenvironment together with the malignant FL cell has been particularly underscored. We review the most promising approaches, such as combining anti-CD20 antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs (Lenalidomide), mAbs directed against other surface antigens such as CD22 and CD23 (Epratuzumab, Lumiliximab), immunomodulatory antibodies such as PD-1, or inhibitors of key steps in the B-cell receptor pathway signaling such as PI3K inhibitors (Idelalisib, Duvelisib). Another highly attractive approach is the application of the bi-specific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody blinatumomab which targets both CD19 and CD3 antigens. Moreover, we highlight the potential of these therapies, taking into account their toxicity. Of course, we must wait for Phase III trials results to confirm the benefit of these new treatment strategies toward a new era of chemotherapy-free treatment for follicular lymphoma. PMID:27872741

  1. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients. PMID:27626165

  2. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-10-25

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients.

  3. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post

  4. Early Relapse of Follicular Lymphoma After Rituximab Plus Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Defines Patients at High Risk for Death: An Analysis From the National LymphoCare Study

    PubMed Central

    Casulo, Carla; Byrtek, Michelle; Dawson, Keith L.; Zhou, Xiaolei; Farber, Charles M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Hainsworth, John D.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Cerhan, James R.; Link, Brian K.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.; Friedberg, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Twenty percent of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experience progression of disease (POD) within 2 years of initial chemoimmunotherapy. We analyzed data from the National LymphoCare Study to identify whether prognostic FL factors are associated with early POD and whether patients with early POD are at high risk for death. Patients and Methods In total, 588 patients with stage 2 to 4 FL received first-line rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Two groups were defined: patients with early POD 2 years or less after diagnosis and those without POD within 2 years, the reference group. An independent validation set, 147 patients with FL who received first-line R-CHOP, was analyzed for reproducibility. Results Of 588 patients, 19% (n = 110) had early POD, 71% (n = 420) were in the reference group, 8% (n = 46) were lost to follow-up, and 2% (n = 12) died without POD less than 2 years after diagnosis. Five-year overall survival was lower in the early-POD group than in the reference group (50% v 90%). This trend was maintained after we adjusted for FL International Prognostic Index (hazard ratio, 6.44; 95% CI, 4.33 to 9.58). Results were similar for the validation set (FL International Prognostic Index–adjusted hazard ratio, 19.8). Conclusion In patients with FL who received first-line R-CHOP, POD within 2 years after diagnosis was associated with poor outcomes and should be further validated as a standard end point of chemoimmunotherapy trials of untreated FL. This high-risk FL population warrants further study in directed prospective clinical trials. PMID:26124482

  5. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  6. [Different patterns of follicular development and luteal function].

    PubMed

    Gu, L; Zhang, L; Gu, F

    1995-09-01

    To study the relationship between luteal function and different patterns of follicular development. Different patterns of follicular development as observed under transvaginal B-ultrasound in 85 infertile patients included: (1) Ovulation from normal follicle (ONF). (2) Ovulation from two follicles at the same cycle (O2F). (3) Ovulation from small follicle (OSF). (4) Ovulation from polycystic ovaries (PCO). (5) Luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome (LUFS). (6) Anovulation with follicular atresia. The luteal function of the first 5 types was evaluated by serum and peritoneal fluid estrogen, progesterone levels, endometrial histology, estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) analyaes, and the length of luteal phase. The incidence of luteal phase deficiency (LPD): short luteal phase was 10.42%, retardation of endometrial development was 4.17% in ONF, no LPD in O2F, 21.42% in OSF, 2/3 in PCO, 3/6 in LUFS, respectively. The incidence of LPD was 14.58% in ONF, 56.52% in abnormal follicular development groups (OSF, O2F and LUFS) (P < 0.005). It was found that the retardation of endometrial development was associated either with lowered serum P level or normal serum P but lowered ER and PR concentrations. The latter condition was recognized as "pseudocorpus luteum deficiency". The different patterns of follicular development may exert a great influence over luteal function through the different production of steroid hormones and their receptors.

  7. Beta endorphin in serum and follicular fluid of PCOS- and non-PCOS women.

    PubMed

    Jaschke, Nikolai; Lunger, Fabian; Wildt, Ludwig; Seeber, Beata

    2018-07-01

    To compare the concentrations of beta endorphin in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of PCOS- and non-PCOS women. Secondarily, to investigate associations between beta endorphin and other parameters. Fifty-nine women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) were included in the study. Sixteen were stratified to the PCOS group using the Rotterdam criteria. The remaining 43 women served as controls. Follicular fluid was collected during oocyte retrieval and peripheral blood sampling was performed on the same day. Beta endorphin concentrations in serum and follicular fluid, serum levels of insulin, glucose, LH, estradiol and progesterone were measured. Additionally, testosterone was measured before starting the stimulation protocol. There was no difference in beta endorphin levels between PCOS- and non-PCOS women. The concentration of the peptide was higher in serum than in FF, likely due to collection of FF after ovulation induction and corresponding to the early luteal phase. We found a significant correlation between the number of mature Metaphase II (MII) oocytes retrieved and beta endorphin concentration in FF. In women with biochemical hyperandrogenemia, beta endorphin levels in FF correlated with testosterone levels. Beta Endorphin concentrations in serum and FF do not differ between PCOS- and non PCOS-women undergoing IVF. However, together with sex hormones, beta endorphin might play a key role in oocyte maturation.

  8. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  9. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  10. Basaloid Follicular Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hassie; Hogan, Daniel J.; Miller, Richard; Heaphy, Michael; Spencer, James

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) is a rare, benign neoplasm of the hair follicle, characterized by multiple brown papules involving the face, scalp, and trunk. It is described by multiple clinical forms, and can present as localized or generalized. Diagnosis is made histologically via biopsy, which is important in order to distinguish BFH from basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or other malignant epithelial neoplasms. Correct diagnosis allows for the avoidance of unnecessary surgeries to remove benign lesions. While benign, lesions can be cosmetically unacceptable. Case Report: A 68-year-old man with a two-year history of brown, homogenous papules on his face presented to discuss treatment options. A physical examination revealed hundreds of dark brown, 1- to 3mm verrucous papules distributed throughout the face. Two punch biopsies revealed histologic features consistent with BFH. Discussion: BFHs classically present with multiple 1- to 2mm tan-to-brown-colored papules distributed on the face, scalp, neck, axilla, trunk, and pubic area. Differential diagnoses can include nevus sebaceous, lichen striatus, linear epidermal nevus, and basal cell nevus. BFH arises from a mutation in the patch gene, the same gene thought to cause nevoid BCC syndrome. Histologic examination of BFH lesions is essential to diagnosis. No standard of care exists for BFH; treatment options remain limited. This patient was treated with three rounds of pulsed dye laser (PDL) therapy and showed marked improvement in the treated areas. The authors propose PDL to be a safe, effective, and novel cosmetic treatment for BFH and potentially other adnexal tumors. PMID:29607000

  11. Giant Follicular Cyst of Ovary in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Gedam, Jaya; Bhalerao, Minal; Nadar, Ponambalaganpathi A

    2014-01-01

    Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, most of them due to serious cystadenomas of the ovary, but large follicular cysts are rare. We present a 13-year-old girl who presented with a large abdominal mass which was subsequently diagnosed as juvenile follicular cyst of the ovary. PMID:25177606

  12. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Galveston, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  13. Volunteering for early phase gene transfer research in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y H; Holloway, R G; Frank, S; Beck, C A; Zimmerman, C; Wilson, R; Kieburtz, K

    2006-04-11

    For early phase trials of novel interventions-such as gene transfer for Parkinson disease (PD)--whose focus is primarily on safety and tolerability, it is important that participants have a realistic understanding of the goals of such research. Recently, some have expressed concern that patients with PD may have unrealistic expectations. The authors examined why patients with PD might volunteer for invasive early phase research by interviewing 92 patients with PD and comparing those who would (n = 46) and those who would not (n = 46) participate in a hypothetical phase I gene-transfer study. The two groups' demographic, clinical, functional, and quality of life measures, as well as their understanding of the research protocol, were similar. The groups did not differ on their perception of potential for personal benefit nor on the level of likelihood of benefit they saw as a precondition for volunteering. However, those willing to participate tended to perceive lower probability of risk, were tolerant of greater probability of risk, and were more optimistic about the phase I study's potential benefits to society. They also appeared more decisive and action-oriented than the unwilling group. It is likely that the decision whether to participate in early phase PD gene transfer studies will depend mostly on patients' attitudes regarding risk, optimism about science, and an action orientation, rather than on their clinical, functional, or demographic characteristics.

  14. Luteal phase deficiency: abnormal gonadotropin and progesterone secretion patterns.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Clifton, D K; Cohen, N L; Bremner, W J; Steiner, R A

    1989-10-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is a reproductive disorder associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. This study was undertaken to determine whether LPD might be related to an abnormal pattern of gonadotropin secretion. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the pattern of pulsatile LH secretion in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in normal women (n = 21) and women with LPD (n = 20), which was diagnosed on the basis of two out of phase endometrial biopsies. In addition, we sought to determine whether changes in progesterone (P) pulse patterns could account for the decrease in average serum P levels in women with LPD. To this end, we examined the pulse patterns of P and compared these patterns between normal women and those with LPD. Frequent blood sampling was performed in both groups to determine their respective hormone secretion patterns. In the follicular phase, blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal phase the samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal LH, FSH, and P were assayed in each sample. Pulse detection was performed by an adaptive threshold method of pulse analysis. The LH pulse frequency was significantly higher in the women with LPD than in the normal women in the early follicular phase [P less than 0.05; LPD, 12.8 +/- 1.4 (+/- SE); normal, 8.2 +/- 0.7 pulses/12 h]. LH pulse frequency was similar in the early and late follicular phases in the women with LPD, whereas it was higher in the late follicular phase in normal women. Mean serum FSH levels were not different between groups in both the early and late follicular phases. In the luteal phase the P pulse amplitude and mean serum P level were significantly lower in the LPD group than in the normal women (P less than 0.01). We conclude that 1) a too rapid LH pulse pattern in the early follicular phase may lead to inadequate LH support of the corpus luteum and become manifest as LPD; 2) the mechanism for inadequate P

  15. Long-term safety and outcome of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone (FCM) regimen in previously untreated patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: 12 years follow-up of a phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Magnano, Laura; Montoto, Silvia; González-Barca, Eva; Briones, Javier; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Muntañola, Ana; Salar, Antonio; Besalduch, Joan; Escoda, Lourdes; Moreno, Carol; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Estany, Cristina; Oriol, Albert; Altés, Albert; Pedro, Carmen; Gardella, Santiago; Asensio, Antoni; Vivancos, Pilar; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep María; Colomer, Dolors; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    Fludarabine combinations are very affective in follicular lymphoma (FL) with high rates of complete response and prolonged survival. However, late toxicities could be a concern. The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term impact on survival, relapse and late toxicities of a trial of treatment with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FCM regimen) for untreated patients with advanced stage FL. One hundred and twenty patients enrolled in a phase 2 trial of treatment with FCM regimen between 2000 and 2003 were evaluated. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 52 patients eventually relapsed/progressed with 10 year progression-free survival (PFS) of 46 %. Ten patients showed histological transformation to aggressive lymphoma with a risk of transformation of 2 and 9 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Three patients developed therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) and seven solid neoplasms with an overall risk of 3 and 8 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty-six patients eventually died during the follow-up. Overall survival at 10 years was 83 %. In conclusion, FCM regimen allows excellent long-lasting response in previously untreated patients with FL. The incidence of late events including histological transformation and secondary neoplasia is low but not negligible.

  16. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  17. Uterine and systemic inflammation influences ovarian follicular function in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Sá Filho, Ocilon G.; Absalon-Medina, Victor A.; Schneider, Augusto; Butler, W. R.; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of uterine and systemic inflammatory responses to uterine bacterial contamination at calving in dairy cows on the growth and ovulatory outcomes of the first dominant follicle postpartum. Ovulatory capability of the first dominant follicle postpartum was predicted in 53 multiparous cows by using a combination of follicle growth characteristics and circulating estradiol concentrations. Endotoxin levels were assayed in follicular fluid samples that were aspirated the day after ovulatory outcome prediction. Plasma levels of haptoglobin, a proinflammatory acute phase protein, and paraoxonase, a negative acute phase protein were determined. Uterine bacteria and inflammation were evaluated in three uterine fluid samples from each cow collected on the day of calving, the day after follicle aspiration, and at 35 days postpartum. Cows that had a strong initial uterine inflammatory response (robust recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of ≥ 35% and cows with uterine pH < 8.5 on the day of calving) were more likely to have an ovulatory first dominant follicle. Follicular fluid endotoxin levels were higher in non-ovulatory cows compared with ovulatory cows. Endotoxin levels in circulation were not different between ovulatory groups but were higher prepartum than on day 7 and 14 postpartum. Systemic inflammation characterized by elevated haptoglobin concentrations was higher in non-ovulatory cows despite similar bacterial contamination and circulating endotoxin levels. Paraoxonase activity in follicular fluid was significantly associated with the paraoxonase activity in plasma, however, plasma paraoxonase concentrations were not different between non-ovulatory and ovulatory cows. Cows with a higher uterine bacterial load on the day of calving had slower ovarian follicle growth. In summary, a robust uterine inflammatory response on the day of calving was positively associated with ovarian function while elevated

  18. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  19. Frequency modulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal-follicular transition: evidence for FSH control of inhibin B in normal women.

    PubMed

    Welt, C K; Martin, K A; Taylor, A E; Lambert-Messerlian, G M; Crowley, W F; Smith, J A; Schoenfeld, D A; Hall, J E

    1997-08-01

    To isolate the impact of GnRH pulse frequency on FSH secretion and to examine the effect of differing levels of FSH on inhibin B secretion during the luteal-follicular transition, exogenous GnRH was administered to GnRH-deficient women using one of two regimens, and the results were compared to those in normal women. In the GnRH-deficient women, the GnRH pulse frequency was increased from every 4 h in the late luteal phase to every 90 min on the day of menses to mimic normal cycling women (physiological frequency transition; n = 8 studies) or the GnRH pulse frequency was kept constant at a late luteal phase frequency of every 4 h through the first 6 days of the subsequent early follicular phase of cycle 2 (slow frequency transition; n = 6 studies). The differential rise in FSH secretion induced in these studies allowed us to examine the subsequent contribution of varying levels of FSH to inhibin B secretion. A physiological regimen of GnRH during the luteal-follicular transition resulted in a rise in FSH and inhibin B levels that did not differ from that in normal cycling women and a normal follicular phase length. On the other hand, maintaining a luteal frequency of GnRH for 6 days into the subsequent early follicular phase produced FSH levels significantly lower than those in the physiological transition (P < 0.05), with the greatest difference seen on the day after menses (9.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.4 IU/L for the slow and physiological transition groups, respectively; P < 0.005), but no difference in LH. This slower rise of FSH secretion in the slow frequency group was associated with significantly lower inhibin B levels (43.3 +/- 21.5 vs. 140.0 +/- 24.4 pg/mL, mean days 1, 3, and 5; P < 0.02), a later doubling of estradiol from baseline (day 9.6 +/- 0.9 vs. day 5.6 +/- 0.1; P < 0.02), and a longer follicular phase length (16.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.9 days; P < 0.05) compared with those in the physiological transition group. In conclusion, during the luteal-follicular

  20. Follicular dysplasia in five Weimaraners.

    PubMed

    Laffort-Dassot, Catherine; Beco, Luc; Carlotti, Didier Noel

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and histopathological features and results of light and electron scanning microscopy assessments of follicular dysplasia in five Weimar Pointers. The data were compared with those obtained in three normal Weimaraners. In our study, this dermatosis affected young adults that showed progressive alopecia of the trunk (head and limbs were spared) associated with recurrent folliculitis/furunculosis. Exclusion of other dermatoses and the presence of histopathological lesions and hair shafts abnormalities seen in light and/or scanning electron microscopy similar to colour dilution alopecia led to the diagnosis of follicular dysplasia. The lesions we observed are the same as those described previously in colour dilution alopecia, but they were less pronounced in all our samples.

  1. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    .12 Gy(-1) for protons), which suggests that the higher level of survival of gamma-irradiated cells could be attributed to the persistence of nonlethally irradiated thyrocytes and/or the capacity to repair damage more effectively than cells exposed to equal physical doses of protons. The final assessment in this study was radiation-induced cell cycle phase redistribution. Gamma rays and protons produced a similar dose-dependent redistribution toward a predominantly G(2)-phase population. From our cumulative results, it seems likely that a majority of the proton-irradiated cells would not continue to divide. In conclusion, these findings suggest that there are quantitative and qualitative differences in the biological effects of proton beams and gamma rays. These differences could be due to structured energy deposition from the tracks of primary protons and the associated high-LET secondary particles produced in the targets. The results suggest that a simple dose-equivalent approach to dosimetry may be inadequate to compare the biological responses of cells to photons and protons.

  2. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, p<0.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception. (Spearman r=−0.075, p=0.329). Dispositional optimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (p<0.0001) were independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  3. The Expression Pattern of microRNAs in Granulosa Cells of Subordinate and Dominant Follicles during the Early Luteal Phase of the Bovine Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, MD Munir; Rings, Franca; Hoelker, Michael; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF) and dominant follicle (DF) during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291–318) were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. PMID:25192015

  4. Advances in the management of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Till M; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Antibody-based therapy has revolutionized treatment strategies in follicular lymphoma. This review focuses on current standards and recent innovations in the management of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of action of antibodies led to the development of next generation CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other molecules and bispecific antibodies. With obinutuzumab, a promising next generation of CD20 antibodies has entered phase III of clinical trials. The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab combines targeted therapy with immunologic activation of T cells exerting cytotoxic activity on the target cells. Apart from antibodies, small molecules targeting key pathways in lymphoma have shown promising activity in vitro and are currently in clinical development. A wealth of new substances has entered various stages of clinical trials and has yet to show superiority over rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. Intelligent therapeutic regimens containing these drugs have to be developed. Large randomized trials comparing promising treatment options are urgently needed.

  5. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  6. Transformation of follicular lymphoma - Why does it happen and can it be prevented?

    PubMed

    Link, Brian K

    2018-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma is a clinical disease with a multitude of presentations and behaviors. Although infrequent, transformation of follicular lymphoma to a more aggressive behaving subtype - prototypically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - confers a substantially adverse prognosis. There is no consensus for optimal management after transformation is recognized. Historically considered a distinct clinical event, this review highlights the multiple subclinical transformational events that either variably or cumulatively result in clinical recognition of transformed follicular lymphoma. Known and suspected events include genetic and epigenetic perturbations, metabolomic changes, and alterations in the microenvironment. This diverse spectrum of pathways leads to heterogeneous clinical presentations and outcomes of transformed follicular lymphoma. Current options for prevention of transformation are limited to known strategies of managing follicular lymphoma before the transformation is recognized. Although most retrospectively analyzed studies suggest an association of lower transformation rates with early systemic therapy, specific components of therapy such as anti-CD20 antibodies, anthracyclines, or purine analogues are less strongly associated with "preventative' value. Thus, the goal of preventing transformation is of limited value among all factors that go into decisions on early management of follicular lymphoma. Future opportunities to prevent clinical evidence of transformation will benefit from early detection of markers of subclinical transformation and development of therapies to specifically target the biology implied by those markers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Bimal

    Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24 \\underline{} Abstract\\underline{} It is very important and interesting to understand the solar eruptions because it produces the geoeffectiveness in our Earth environment. In the rise phase of the solar cycle, geoeffective events are less frequent, thus this provide us better opportunity to study these events including the detection of their source regions. Keeping this in mind, we have analysed the data of rise phase of current solar cycle 24 ( 2009-2012). During above time period, we have selected 59 geoeffective events having Disturbance Storm Time (Dst) index < -50 nT. Based on the Dst index, we divided the events into two categories i.e. moderate (< -50 nT > -100 nT ) and intense ( <-100 nT). To locate the solar source regions of geoeffective and SEPs associated events, we have used available images, movies and Solar Geophysical data (SGD) list: for example movies from SOHO/EIT, images and movies from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). In this study, we will discuss and compare the different properties of associated CMEs, flares and their relation with geoeffectiveness.

  8. Gene expression profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, L; Alter, T; Aho, T; Huehn, S

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is an aquatic bacterium capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis. In the environment or the food chain, V. parahaemolyticus cells are usually forced into the stationary phase, the common phase for bacterial survival in the environment. So far, little is known about whole genomic expression of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase compared with the exponential growth phase. We performed whole transcriptomic profiling of V. parahaemolyticus cells in both phases (exponential and early stationary phase). Our data showed in total that 172 genes were induced in early stationary phase, while 61 genes were repressed in early stationary phase compared with the exponential phase. Three functional categories showed stable gene expression in the early stationary phase. Eleven functional categories showed that up-regulation of genes was dominant over down-regulation in the early stationary phase. Although genes related to endogenous metabolism were repressed in the early stationary phase, massive regulation of gene expression occurred in the early stationary phase, indicating the expressed gene set of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase impacts environmental survival. Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is one of the main bacterial causes of foodborne intestinal infections. This bacterium usually is forced into stationary phase in the environment, which includes, e.g. seafood. When bacteria are in stationary phase, physiological changes can lead to a resistance to many stresses, including physical and chemical challenges during food processing. To the best of our knowledge, highlighting the whole genome expression changes in the early stationary phase compared with exponential phase, as well as the investigation of physiological changes of V. parahaemolyticus such as the survival mechanism in the stationary phase has been the very first study in this field. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  10. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  12. Melatonin in human preovulatory follicular fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Seibel, Machelle M.; Lynch, Harry J.; Deng, Mei-Hua; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, has antigonadotrophic activity in many mammals and may also be involved in human reproduction. Melatonin suppresses steroidogenesis by ovarian granulosa and luteal cells in vitro. To determine if melatonin is present in the human ovary, preovulatory follicular fluids (n = 32) from 15 women were assayed for melatonin by RIA after solvent extraction. The fluids were obtained by laparoscopy or sonographically controlled follicular puncture from infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. All patients had received clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin, and hCG to stimulate follicle formation. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture 30 rain or less after follicular aspiration. All of the follicular fluids contained melatonim, in concentrations substantially higher than those in the corresponding serum. A positive correlation was found between follicular fluid and serum melatonin levels in each woman; these observations indicate that preovulatory follicles contain substantial amounts of melatonin that may affect ovarian steroidogenesis.

  13. Rituximab With or Without Yttrium Y-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-05

    Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma

  14. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Corpus Christi, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  15. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Lake Charles, LA | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 5:30pm Public

  16. Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-04

    Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  17. Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

  18. Early Intervention Services for Early-Phase Psychosis - Centre for integrative psychiatry in Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.

  19. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  20. Preconception folic acid use modulates estradiol and follicular responses to ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Twigt, John M; Hammiche, Fatima; Sinclair, Kevin D; Beckers, Nicole G; Visser, Jenny A; Lindemans, Jan; de Jong, Frank H; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P

    2011-02-01

    Folate is a methyl donor. Availability of folate affects DNA methylation profiles and thereby gene expression profiles. We investigated the effects of low-dose folic acid use (0.4 mg/d) on the ovarian response to mild and conventional ovarian stimulation in women. In a randomized trial among subfertile women, 24 and 26 subjects received conventional and mild ovarian stimulation, respectively. Blood samples were taken during the early follicular phase of the cycle prior to treatment and on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration for determination of serum total homocysteine, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), estradiol, and folate. Folic acid use was validated by questionnaire and serum folate levels. Preovulatory follicles were visualized, counted, and diameters recorded using transvaginal ultrasound. The relation between folic acid use and ovarian response was assessed using linear regression analysis. Folic acid use modified the ovarian response to ovarian stimulation treatment. The estradiol response was higher in nonfolic acid users receiving conventional treatment [β(interaction) = 0.52 (0.07-0.97); P = 0.03], and this effect was independent of serum AMH levels and the preovulatory follicle count. In the conventional treatment, the mean follicle number was also greater in nonusers compared with the users group (14.1 vs. 8.9, P = 0.03). Low-dose folic acid use attenuates follicular and endocrine responses to conventional stimulation, independent of AMH and follicle count. The nature of this observation suggests that the effect of folic acid is most prominent during early follicle development, affecting immature follicles. Deleterious effects of folate deficiency, like DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress, can help to explain our observations.

  1. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Luteal activity and effect of dietary energy restriction on follicular development in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Comin, A; Peric, T; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Marchi, V; Veronesi, M C; Prandi, A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the presence of anomalies in the ovarian cycle activity during postpartum and to verify whether 72-hr dietary fasting during the dominance phase, the phase before ovulation, might modify the ovarian follicle population. The presence of anomalies in ovarian cycle activity has been evaluated in 30 Italian Friesian cows starting from 20 days postpartum until 211 days of lactation. Long oestrus and brief dioestrus or scarce luteal activity have been the main anomalies found through measuring progesterone concentrations in the whey. Until 100 days of lactation, the BCS values of the problematic animals have been significantly lower than those in animals with normal ovarian activity. After 100 days of lactation, the ovarian anomalies continued to appear despite the fact that all the animals have reached comparable BCS values. Starting from the results of this trial, the effect of 72-hr dietary fasting on dominant follicles has been studied in six cows. Ultrasonography revealed that the diameter of the follicles at 71 days postpartum has been significantly lower than at 181 days. A 72-hr dietary restriction at 101 and 211 days postpartum did not affect the size of the dominant follicle. However, at 101 days postpartum, half of the animals presented follicular cysts. The effect of fasting differed if the animal has been in early postpartum or 211 days of lactation. Further researches are necessary to understand how different metabolic conditions can modify the follicular population but on the other hand the study shows the utility for farmers and field veterinarians of monitoring the resumption of the ovarian cycle postpartum through the whey progesterone concentrations. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  4. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  5. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  6. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  7. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  8. A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma Identified by 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xiaoping; Xu, Junyan; Huang, Dan

    2018-05-31

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm, which is not lymphoma, but originates from a type of immune cells called follicular dendritic cells. We presented a 37-year-old woman who has suffered from obstructive jaundice, weight loss and right upper abdominal pain for 2 months. The contrast CT revealed masses located in the region of pancreatic head and lots of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, both of which were enhanced on the artery phase of CT images. Meanwhile, Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT revealed high activity in the corresponding lesions. After biopsy, the masses were pathologically confirmed as retroperitoneal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.

  9. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Shulha, Hennady P.; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M.; Scott, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (<5 years) and 86 patients not experiencing transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P < .001). We also show that composite histology at the time of transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell–like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell–like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL. PMID:26307535

  10. Simple uncertainty propagation for early design phase aircraft sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Annelise

    Many designers and systems analysts are aware of the uncertainty inherent in their aircraft sizing studies; however, few incorporate methods to address and quantify this uncertainty. Many aircraft design studies use semi-empirical predictors based on a historical database and contain uncertainty -- a portion of which can be measured and quantified. In cases where historical information is not available, surrogate models built from higher-fidelity analyses often provide predictors for design studies where the computational cost of directly using the high-fidelity analyses is prohibitive. These surrogate models contain uncertainty, some of which is quantifiable. However, rather than quantifying this uncertainty, many designers merely include a safety factor or design margin in the constraints to account for the variability between the predicted and actual results. This can become problematic if a designer does not estimate the amount of variability correctly, which then can result in either an "over-designed" or "under-designed" aircraft. "Under-designed" and some "over-designed" aircraft will likely require design changes late in the process and will ultimately require more time and money to create; other "over-designed" aircraft concepts may not require design changes, but could end up being more costly than necessary. Including and propagating uncertainty early in the design phase so designers can quantify some of the errors in the predictors could help mitigate the extent of this additional cost. The method proposed here seeks to provide a systematic approach for characterizing a portion of the uncertainties that designers are aware of and propagating it throughout the design process in a procedure that is easy to understand and implement. Using Monte Carlo simulations that sample from quantified distributions will allow a systems analyst to use a carpet plot-like approach to make statements like: "The aircraft is 'P'% likely to weigh 'X' lbs or less, given the

  11. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  12. Melatonin in human preovulatory follicular fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Seibel, Machelle M.; Lynch, Harry J.; Deng, Mei-Hua; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, has antigonadotrophic activity in many mammals and may also be involved in human reproduction. Melatonin suppresses steroidogenesis by ovarian granulosa and luteal cells in vitro. To determine if melatonin is present in the human ovary, preovulatory follicular fluids (n = 32) from 15 women were assayed for melatonin by RIA after solvent extraction. The fluids were obtained by laparoscopy or sonographically controlled follicular puncture from infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. All patients had received clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin, and hCG to stimulate follicle formation. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture 30 min or less after follicular aspiration. All of the follicular fluids contained melatonin, in concentrations (35.6 plus or minus 4.8 (plus or minus SEM) pg/mL) substantially higher than those in the corresponding serum (10.0 plus or minus 1.4 pg/mL). A positive correlation was found between follicular fluid and serum melatonin levels in each woman (r = 0.770; P less than 0.001). These observations indicate that preovulatory follicles contain substantial amounts of melatonin that may affect ovarian steroidogenesis.

  13. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    SciT

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changesmore » and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.« less

  14. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: the impact of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n = 46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50 mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n = 23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH), salivary cortisol, and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  15. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  16. Frontline strategy for follicular lymphoma: are we ready to abandon chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Fowler, Nathan

    2016-12-02

    Chemotherapy combinations have been the backbone of therapy for follicular lymphoma, and are associated with high initial response rates. Unfortunately, toxicity and secondary malignancies remain concerns, and most advanced-stage patients still relapse within 5 years, regardless of the regimen. Advances in the understanding of lymphoma biology have resulted in a new generation of noncytotoxic therapeutics with significant activity in follicular lymphoma. Recent studies exploring biological and targeted combinations in the frontline have shown promise, with response rates similar to chemotherapy. However, these regimens are also associated with significant cost as well as a unique toxicity profile. Large randomized studies are underway to compare noncytotoxic regimens with chemotherapy in the frontline, and several new combinations are being tested in the phase 2 setting. Ongoing work to identify predictive biomarkers and investment in mechanistic studies will ultimately lead to the personalization of therapy in the frontline setting for follicular lymphoma. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  17. Ovarian follicular development and the follicular fluid hormones and growth factors in normal women of advanced reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Battaglia, D E; Miller, P B; Branigan, E F; Giudice, L C; Soules, M R

    1996-05-01

    Reproductive aging in women (a physiological decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis) is an infrequently investigated and poorly understood biological phenomenon. Although menstrual irregularity and anovulation are known to precede the menopause, normal women in their fifth decade experience a profound decrease in fertility while still experiencing regular menstrual cycles. To further our understanding of the physiological changes associated with reproductive aging, this study examined the spontaneous development and function of ovarian follicles in normal women, aged 40-45 yr. The subjects were women (n = 21), aged 40-45 yr, who had regular 25- to 35-day ovulatory menstrual cycles, were not infertile, had no medical problems, and met specific criteria for weight, diet, and exercise. The controls were normal women (n = 20), age 20-25 yr, who met the same criteria. The subjects were monitored with daily hormone measurements [LH, FSH, estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and inhibin] and pelvic sonograms from day 1 of their study cycle until the dominant ovarian follicle reached a mean diameter of 15 mm and/or a serum E level of 550 pmol/L or higher was attained. At that time, 10,000 U hCG were given, and a transvaginal sonographic follicle aspiration was performed 32 h later. The follicular fluid (FF) was collected, stored frozen at -70 C, and later analyzed for E, P, testosterone (T), androstenedione, inhibin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. The number of cycle days to aspiration was lower (11.6 vs. 15.6 days; P < 0.001) and the early follicular phase mean FSH and mean E levels were higher (9.3 vs. 6.6 mIU/mL and 305 vs. 160 pmol/L; P < 0.01) in the older (O) group compared to the younger group. There was a strong trend toward higher FF mean E (2280 vs. 1931 nmol/L) and lower FF mean T (978 vs. 2361 pmol/L) levels in group O. The E/T ratio was significantly higher (5253 vs. 2408; P < 0.03) in group O. In group O, the mean FF

  18. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS) Phase 1: A Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS), a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation Phase 1--Development project, was developed by the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University as an online instructional system. EC-TIIS' ultimate goal was to improve technology services…

  19. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-31

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  20. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    PubMed

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  1. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  2. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  3. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  4. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of ovarian follicular dynamics in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Pratap, N; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Hago, B E

    2012-09-15

    Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography, for a period of 60 to 90 days, and its correlation with plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) were studied in seventeen, multiparous, non-lactating, 12 to 20-year-old dromedary camels. The average number of follicles recruited (12.77 ± 0.93) in each wave between animals varied (P < 0.001). The number of follicles recruited during different follicular waves was highly repeatable (0.95) within individual animals. The growth and mature phase periods of the dominant follicle (DF) were 6.10 ± 0.15 and 10.20 ± 0.47 days, respectively with a linear growth rate of 1.17 ± 0.02 mm/day between Day 0 and 10 of the follicular wave. There was an inverse relationship between the diameter of the largest DF and number of follicles (r = -0.95, P < 0.001). The DF development did not regularly alternate between the ovaries and the incidence of codominance was 45%. The mean maximum diameter of DF during its mature phase was 27.30 ± 0.78 mm and oversized follicle was 38.43 ± 1.41 mm. In 73.3% waves, the DF continued its growth for a period of 10.64 ± 1.53 days even after losing its dominance and developed into oversized follicle. The duration of the regression phase of DF and oversized follicle were 24.71 ± 3.79 and 18.50 ± 2.23 days. The mean duration of a complete follicular wave was 47.11 ± 2.94 days with an interwave interval (IWI) of 16.36 ± 0.37 days. The IWI within an individual was repeatable (0.88) and between the animals was variable (P < 0.001). Plasma E2 concentration profiles showed a wave like pattern. The peak plasma E2 concentrations were attained approximately 12 days after beginning of the growth phase, when the largest DF grew to a diameter of 18.7 mm. Plasma concentration of P4 was below 1.0 ng/mL in 85% of waves and above 1.0 ng/mL in 15% of the waves for a period of 3 to 6 days in the absence of spontaneous ovulation. It is concluded that ovarian follicular development

  6. Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase

    SciT

    Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao; Kohri, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating T{sub r} < 10{sup 9}GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease , with three Specific Aims: #1 Develop and optimize an x-ray PCCT to explore the

  8. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Jesam, Cristián; Salvatierra, Ana María; Schwartz, Jill L; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can prevent or delay follicular rupture. COX-2 inhibitors, such as meloxicam, may offer advantages over emergency contraception with levonorgestrel, such as extending the therapeutic window for up to 24 h. We assessed the effect of meloxicam administered in the late follicular phase upon ovulation in women. This was a single center, double blind, crossover study designed to assess the effects in 27 eligible women (18-40 years old, surgically sterilized with regular menstrual cycles) of meloxicam, 15 or 30 mg/day, administered orally for five consecutive days during the late follicular phase, starting when the leading follicle reached 18 mm diameter. Volunteers underwent two treatment cycles separated by one resting cycle, with randomization to dose sequence. Main outcomes were follicular rupture; serum LH, progesterone and estradiol (E2) levels; and incidence of adverse events. Twenty-two volunteers completed the study. There were no differences between meloxicam doses in menstrual cycle length. Dysfunctional ovulation was observed in 11/22 (50%) cycles treated with 15 mg/day and 20/22 (90.9%) cycles with 30 mg/day (P = 0.0068). All women had normal luteal phase progesterone levels; mean maximal values +/- SEM were 42 +/- 4.1 and 46.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l for 15 and 30 mg/day groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events, and no changes in LH and E2 levels or in cycle length. Meloxicam 30 mg given for five consecutive days in the late follicular phase is safe, effective and may be an alternative form of emergency contraception.

  9. [Follicular thyroid tumor as a diagnostic and therapeutic problem].

    PubMed

    Król, Robert; Heitzman, Marek; Pawlicki, Jacek; Ziaja, Jacek; Cierpka, Lech

    2004-01-01

    Although the appearance of follicular thyroid tumors in the population is high, only a small part of them are malignant. Follicular tumors are built of follicular epithelial cells and are encapsulated. Cell atypia differentiates follicular adenoma from cancer. Follicular cancer is characterized by vascular invasion and causes metastases through blood vessels, mainly to lungs and bones. In the diagnosis of follicular thyroid neoplasm, pathological examination of postoperative material plays a leading role. In diagnosis before surgical treatment, physical examination, ultrasound (USG), and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are of great importance. The choice of treatment in patients in which follicular neoplasm has been diagnosed by FNAB awakes controversies. In practice it is impossible to determine reliably before surgery whether the lesion is malignant or not. Because of the rare incidence of thyroid cancer in the general population, more and more authors tend to decide on partial resection of the thyroid gland and possible radicalization if cancer is diagnosed on paraffin specimen examination.

  10. Ofatumumab and Bendamustine Hydrochloride With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Untreated Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-17

    Ann Arbor Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma

  11. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation: reviewing new options.

    PubMed

    Yding Andersen, C; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-05-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using the GnRHa trigger suggest an association between the reproductive outcome after IVF treatment and the mid-luteal-phase serum progesterone concentration. It appears that a minimum mid-luteal progesterone threshold of approximately 80-100 nmol/l exists, which, when surpassed, results in reduced early pregnancy loss and an increased live birth rate. Further, the trade off between the HCG bolus and the subsequent risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome has resulted in a trend to reduce the HCG bolus from 10,000 IU to 6500-5000 IU, which augments the HCG/LH deficiency during the early/mid-luteal phase. The mid-luteal HCG/LH shortage results in an altered progesterone profile, showing the highest concentration during the early luteal phase, contrasting with the mid-luteal peak seen in the natural menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  13. Microorganisms within Human Follicular Fluid: Effects on IVF

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Elise S.; Allan, John A.; Waterhouse, Mary A.; Ross, Tara; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Knox, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study reported microorganisms in human follicular fluid. The objective of this study was to test human follicular fluid for the presence of microorganisms and to correlate these findings with the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. In this study, 263 paired follicular fluids and vaginal swabs were collected from women undergoing IVF cycles, with various causes for infertility, and were cultured to detect microorganisms. The cause of infertility and the IVF outcomes for each woman were correlated with the microorganisms detected within follicular fluid collected at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval. Microorganisms isolated from follicular fluids were classified as: (1) ‘colonizers’ if microorganisms were detected within the follicular fluid, but not within the vaginal swab (at the time of oocyte retrieval); or (2) ‘contaminants’ if microorganisms detected in the vagina at the time of oocyte retrieval were also detected within the follicular fluid. The presence of Lactobacillus spp. in ovarian follicular fluids was associated with embryo maturation and transfer. This study revealed microorganisms in follicular fluid itself and that the presence of particular microorganisms has an adverse affect on IVF outcomes as seen by an overall decrease in embryo transfer rates and pregnancy rates in both fertile and infertile women, and live birth rates in women with idiopathic infertility. Follicular fluid microorganisms are a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF in both infertile women and in fertile women with infertile male partners. PMID:23554970

  14. Immunotherapy with Rituximab in Follicular Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    SAGUNA, Carmen; MUT, Ileana Delia; LUPU, Anca Roxana; TEVET, Mihaela; BUMBEA, Horia; DRAGAN, Cornel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory. The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. Material and method: The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, Bucharest Results and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab. PMID:22205891

  15. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  16. Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

  17. Xenotransplantation in immunodeficient mice to study ovarian follicular development in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Bols, P E J; Aerts, J M J; Langbeen, A; Goovaerts, I G F; Leroy, J L M R

    2010-04-01

    Nowadays, in vitro study of follicular dynamics of primordial and primary follicular stages is limited because in vitro culture systems for these follicles are lacking, both in domestic animal species and in human. Therefore, additional insights might be generated by grafting ovarian tissue into immunodeficient mice to study activation and maturation of early follicular stages. A considerable amount of data has already been gathered in laboratory animals and through clinical application of human assisted reproduction technologies where live births were reported recently after the use of (cryopreserved) ovarian grafts. However, given that human preantral follicles are difficult to obtain and that there are many similarities between the bovine and human species with regard to ovarian physiology, the bovine model offers exciting additional prospects and is therefore discussed in more detail. This review will focus on recent developments related to preantral follicle and (repeated) ovarian tissue retrieval and xenotransplantation of (bovine) ovarian tissue strips to immunodeficient mice as a model to study preantral follicular dynamics. Different grafting strategies will be discussed as well as the consequences of this procedure on the viability and dynamic behavior of the grafted tissue and follicles. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  19. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  20. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  1. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  2. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Subtitle... Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education and...

  3. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Port Arthur, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  4. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Panama City, FL | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  5. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…

  7. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  8. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  9. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  10. The mare model for follicular maturation and reproductive aging in the woman.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, E M

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive aging and assisted reproduction are becoming progressively more relevant in human medicine. Research with human subjects is limited in many aspects, and consequently animal models may have considerable utility. Such models have provided insight into follicular function, oocyte maturation, and reproductive aging. However, models are often selected based on factors other than physiological or functional similarities. Although the mare has received limited attention as a model for reproduction in women, comparisons between these species indicate that the mare has many attributes of a good model. As the mare ages, cyclic and hormonal changes parallel those of older women. The initial sign of reproductive aging in both species is a shortening of the reproductive cycle with elevated concentrations of FSH. Subsequently, cycles become longer with intermittent ovulations and elevated concentrations of FSH and LH. Reproduction ceases with failure of follicular growth and elevated gonadotropins, apparently because of ovarian failure. In the older woman and mare, oocytes have been maintained in meiotic arrest for decades -- approximately four to five for the woman and two to three for the mare; in both species, reduced oocyte quality is the end factor identified in age-associated infertility. After induction of oocyte maturation in vivo, the timeline to ovulation is the same for the mare and woman, suggesting a comparable sequence of events. The mare's anatomy, long follicular phase and single dominant follicle provide a foundation for studies in oocyte and follicular development. The aim of this review is to evaluate the mare as an animal model to study age-associated changes in reproduction and to improve our understanding of oocyte and follicular maturation in vivo.

  11. [Explore microcosmic connection between autophagy mechanism and follicular development based on "kidney governing reproduction" theory].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun; Wu, Ke-Ming; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2018-03-01

    In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi. Autophagy almost exists in different cells stages and all various of mammalian cells. Many studies have found that autophagy not only participates in the formation of follicles, but also in every phase of the follicles development, and is involved in the occurrence and development of ovarian diseases. Recently, more and more scholars believe that autophagy is a new field to explore the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and TCM. Kidney-nourishing TCM could promote follicular growth and improve variety clinical symptoms by inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and reducing follicular atresia. Meanwhile, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is closely related to autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. In order to provide some theoretical foundation for kidney-nourishing therapy's promoting effect on follicular growth and improving effect on ovarian function, also to further explore the molecular mechanism of kidney-nourishing medicine in promoting follicular development, this paper would explain the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and follicular development based on the theory of "kidney governing reproduction". All of these would be of great significance to prevent and intervene the diseases of reproductive system timely and effectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  13. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ..., choosing a study population, using a control group and blinding, dose selection, treatment plans...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

  15. Early Risk Reduction Phase 1 FLIR/Laser Designator Window. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    Sandwich-Type FLIR Windows," Air Force AFWAL-TR-83- 4122, Nov 1983. 4-1 Hughes Danbury Optical Systems Final Report, "ATA Window Technology Program," PRBll...Risk Reduction -- Phase I, Optical Properties Measurement Techniques of Three Wide Band Window Materials," 22 August 1991. xii I i 86PR0869 30... Optical Systems, Lexington, MA, 02173, 1 Feb 1991. 5-7 McDonnell Aircraft Company Technical Memorandum TM 256.91.0056.01, "Early Risk Reduction -- Phase

  16. Perspectives and Open Problems in the Early Phases of Left-Right Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Embryonic left-right (LR) patterning is a fascinating aspect of embryogenesis. The field currently faces important questions about the origin of LR asymmetry, the mechanisms by which consistent asymmetry is imposed on the scale of the whole embryo, and the degree of conservation of early phases of LR patterning among model systems. Recent progress on planar cell polarity and cellular asymmetry in a variety of tissues and species provides a new perspective on the early phases of LR patterning. Despite the huge diversity in body-plans over which consistent LR asymmetry is imposed, and the apparent divergence in molecular pathways that underlie laterality, the data reveal conservation of physiological modules among phyla and a basic scheme of cellular chirality amplified by a planar cell polarity-like pathway over large cell fields. PMID:19084609

  17. Inside information: Financial conflicts of interest for research subjects in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Ratain, Mark J; Epstein, Richard A; Siegler, Mark

    2004-05-05

    In recent years, several research subjects have told us that they had bought or intended to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they were enrolled. This situation has led us to ask what, if any, are physician-investigators' scientific, ethical, and legal responsibilities concerning research subjects who choose to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they are participating. Although the scope of this problem is unknown and is likely to be small, this commentary examines the scientific, ethical, and legal concerns raised by such activities on the part of research subjects enrolled in early phase clinical trials. In addition, this commentary also outlines the basis for our opinion that research subjects involved in an early phase clinical trial should avoid the financial conflicts of interest created by trading stock in the company sponsoring the clinical trial.

  18. Ultra-Early Phase pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, I summarize the critical issues that should be successfully and consistently answered by a new concept of neurodegeneration. For reevaluating old concepts and reconstructing a new concept of neurodegeneration that will replace the old ones, non-biased comprehensive approaches including proteome combined with systems biology analyses will be a powerful tool. I introduce our recent efforts in this orientation that have reached to the stage of non-clinical proof of concept applicable to clinical trials.

  19. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  20. Impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Chaofeng; Zhu, Xiao; Han, Yajuan

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion. The normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups included 16, 8, and 19 subjects, respectively. Subjects underwent continuous glucose monitoring for 3 days, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) levels were measured at 30-min increments for 2 h after glucose intake. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The area under the curve (AUC) of total GIP (120-min GIP-AUC) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC of the NGT group was significantly larger than those of the T2DM and IGT groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. Mean amplitudes of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) went in the order of NGT < IGT < T2DM (P < 0.01, IGT vs. NGT; P < 0.001, T2DM vs. IGT). The 120-min GIP-AUC was negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.464), but uncorrelated with ΔI30/ΔG30. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC was positively correlated with ΔI30/ΔG30 (r = 0.580), but negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.606). Incretin may ameliorate glucose excursions, and GLP-1 may exert them by promoting early-phase insulin secretion. No correlation was observed between GIP secretion and early-phase insulin secretion.

  1. Effects of temperature on early-phase transmission of Yersina pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Bearden, Scott W; Vetter, Sara M; Holmes, Jennifer; Montenieri, John A; Graham, Christine B; Woods, Michael E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2011-03-01

    Sharp declines in human and animal cases of plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Yersin), have been observed when outbreaks coincide with hot weather. Failure of biofilm production, or blockage, to occur in the flea, as temperatures reach 30 degrees C has been suggested as an explanation for these declines. Recent work demonstrating efficient flea transmission during the first few days after fleas have taken an infectious blood meal, in the absence of blockage (e.g., early-phase transmission), however, has called this hypothesis into question. To explore the potential effects of temperature on early-phase transmission, we infected colony-reared Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) fleas with a wild-type strain of plague bacteria using an artificial feeding system, and held groups of fleas at 10, 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Naive Swiss Webster mice were exposed to fleas from each of these temperatures on days 1-4 postinfection, and monitored for signs of infection for 21 d. Temperature did not significantly influence the rates of transmission observed for fleas held at 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Estimated per flea transmission efficiencies for these higher temperatures ranged from 2.32 to 4.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-8.74). In contrast, no transmission was observed in mice challenged by fleas held at 10 degrees C (per flea transmission efficiency estimates, 0-1.68%). These results suggest that declines in human and animal cases during hot weather are not related to changes in the abilities of X. cheopis fleas to transmit Y. pestis infections during the early-phase period. By contrast, transmission may be delayed or inhibited at low temperatures, indicating that epizootic spread of Y. pestis by X. cheopis via early-phase transmission is unlikely during colder periods of the year.

  2. The Role of Early-Phase Transmission in the Spread of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    EISEN, REBECCA J.; DENNIS, DAVID T.; GAGE, KENNETH L.

    2015-01-01

    Early-phase transmission (EPT) of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas is a well-documented, replicable phenomenon with poorly defined mechanisms. We review evidence demonstrating EPT and current knowledge on its biological and biomechanical processes. We discuss the importance of EPT in the epizootic spread of Y. pestis and its role in the maintenance of plague bacteria in nature. We further address the role of EPT in the epidemiology of plague. PMID:26336267

  3. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  4. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (P<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. Out of these 57 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Through classification of physiological functions from Conserved Domain Database analysis, among the identified proteins, 21, 13, and 6 proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding process, respectively. Interestingly, eight proteins, which are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including catalase A, thioredoxin reductase, and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, were also identified. The expression levels of the genes were further confirmed using Northern blot and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses. This study represents the first proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accumulation of unsaturated lipids in monocytes during early phase pyrogen tolerance.

    PubMed

    Szewczenko-Pawlikowski, M; Kozak, W

    2000-04-12

    This paper presents data that inspired a new explanation for the mechanism of early phase endotoxin tolerance. Rabbits injected intravenously with LPS from Salmonella abortus developed a two-phase fever (6 h) and monophasic hyperlipidemia of very low density lipoproteins (two consecutive days). If during these days rabbits were injected with the same dose of LPS at 24-h intervals, the second phase of fever disappeared, i.e. early phase pyrogenic tolerance was obtained. This was correlated with a decrease of lipoprotein hyperlipidemia (measured 1.5 h after LPS injection) and an accumulation of lipids rich in double bonds in monocytes (measured 3.5 h after LPS injection). Results showed that the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains (AC) in monocytes (AC/DB, DB=double bonds) is negatively correlated (r=-0.72) with fever response (fever index). The authors maintain that a gradual increase in monocyte membrane fluidity is an adaptation to repeated exposure of monocytes to lipid A and is responsible for the progressive desensitization of monocytes to endotoxin. It is suggested that disorders of this mechanism lead to an accumulation of abnormal quantities of saturated lipids and cholesterol within macrophages, which, as foam cells, are the starting point for atherosclerosis pathology.

  6. Hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation in early brain development measured using fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hama; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Inoue, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-01-01

    A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). This phase difference was referred to as hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation (hPod) in the cerebral tissue of sleeping neonates and infants. We examined hPod in term, late preterm, and early preterm infants with no evidence of clinical issues and found that all groups of infants showed developmental changes in the values of hPod from an in-phase to an antiphase pattern. Comparison of hPod among the groups revealed that developmental changes in hPod in early preterm infants precede those in late preterm and term infants at term equivalent age but then, progress at a slower pace. This study suggests that hPod measured using fNIRS is sensitive to the developmental stage of the integration of circular, neurovascular, and metabolic functions in the brains of neonates and infants. PMID:28196885

  7. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: The ovarian follicular reserve in cattle: What regulates its formation and size?1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, J. E.; Yang, M. Y.; Allen, J. J.; Herrick, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The ovarian follicular reserve has been linked to fertility in cattle. Young adult cattle with low vs. high numbers of antral follicles ≥ 3 mm in diameter in follicular waves also have fewer preantral follicles and decreased fertility. This underscores the importance of understanding the factors that regulate early follicular development and establish the ovarian follicular reserve, but little is known about how the follicular reserve is first established. In ruminants and humans, follicles form during fetal life, but there is a gap (about 50 d in cattle) between the appearance of the first primordial follicles and the first growing, primary follicles. In this review we present evidence that in cattle, fetal ovarian steroids (i.e., estradiol and progesterone) are negative regulators of both follicle formation and of the acquisition by newly formed follicles of the capacity to activate (i.e., initiate growth). The results indicate that capacity to activate is linked to the completion of meiotic prophase I by the oocyte. The inhibitory effects of estradiol on follicle activation were found to be reversible and correlated with inhibition of the progression of meiotic prophase I. Fetal bovine ovaries produce steroid hormones and production varies considerably during gestation and in a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that they inhibit follicle formation and capacity of newly formed follicles to activate in vivo. However, little was known about how steroid production is regulated. In our studies, both LH and FSH stimulated progesterone and estradiol production by ovarian pieces in vitro. The addition of testosterone to the culture medium enhanced estradiol production, especially when FSH was also present, but inhibited progesterone production, even in the presence of gonadotropins. Evidence is also presented for effects of maternal nutrition and health and for potential effects of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the size of the ovarian follicular

  8. T follicular helper and T follicular regulatory cells have different TCR specificity

    PubMed Central

    Maceiras, Ana Raquel; Almeida, Silvia Cristina Paiva; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Encarnita; Chaara, Wahiba; Jebbawi, Fadi; Six, Adrien; Hori, Shohei; Klatzmann, David; Faro, Jose; Graca, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Immunization leads to the formation of germinal centres (GCs) that contain both T follicular helper (Tfh) and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells. Whether T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity defines the differential functions of Tfh and Tfr cells is unclear. Here we show that antigen-specific T cells after immunization are preferentially recruited to the GC to become Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells. Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells, also proliferate efficiently on restimulation with the same immunizing antigen in vitro. Ex vivo TCR repertoire analysis shows that immunization induces oligoclonal expansion of Tfh cells. By contrast, the Tfr pool has a TCR repertoire that more closely resembles that of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Our data thus indicate that the GC Tfh and Tfr pools are generated from distinct TCR repertoires, with Tfh cells expressing antigen-responsive TCRs to promote antibody responses, and Tfr cells expressing potentially autoreactive TCRs to suppress autoimmunity. PMID:28429709

  9. Is AMH a regulator of follicular atresia?

    PubMed

    Seifer, David B; Merhi, Zaher

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the hypothesis that AMH is an intraovarian regulator that inhibits follicular atresia within the human ovary. Several indirect lines of evidence derived from clinical and basic science studies in a variety of different patient populations and model systems collectively support this hypothesis. Evidence presented herein include 1) timing of onset of menopause in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, 2) site of cellular origin and timing of AMH production, 3) AMH's influence on other critical growth factors and enzymes involved in folliculogenesis, and 4) AMH's inhibition of granulosa apoptosis. If this hypothesis is true, it may provide insight for treatment strategies for prevention and treatment of premature ovarian insufficiency, slowing natural ovarian aging, and/or delaying eventual ovarian failure. Such findings may lead to the development of 1) AMH agonists for retarding the onset of menopause and/or as a chemoprotectant prior to cancer therapy and 2) AMH antagonists for the treatment of PCOS.

  10. Assessment of Correlation Between Early and Late Efficacy Endpoints to Identify Potential Surrogacy Relationships in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: a Literature-Based Meta-analysis of 108 Phase II and Phase III Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Lu, Dan; Chu, Yu-Waye; Chai, Akiko; Green, Michelle; Zhang, Nancy; Jin, Jin Yan

    2017-05-01

    Correlations between early and late efficacy endpoints were assessed to identify potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) with clinical trial-level data in three non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). One hundred and eight phase II-III trials (129 trial arms) in DLBCL, FL, and MCL were identified and included in the database. Correlations between efficacy endpoints were analyzed using weighted linear regression and Pearson's coefficient of determination (R 2 ). In newly diagnosed DLBCL, 6-month PFS was strongly correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.96). Six-month PFS was strongly correlated with 3-year PFS (R 2  = 0.89, 95% CI 0.62-0.96) in FL and was moderately correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.69, 95% CI 0.40-0.91) in MCL trials. Linear regression determined that a 10% increase in 6-month PFS would yield a 13% ± 1.2% increase in 2-year OS in DLBCL, a 23% ± 1.1% increase in 3-year PFS in FL, or a 6.7% ± 1.0% increase in 2-year OS in MCL. Both 6-month PFS and complete response (CR) rate were moderately correlated with median PFS in FL trials with R 2  = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.98) and R 2  = 0.69 (95% CI 0.22-0.89), respectively. Six-month PFS is a potential surrogate endpoint for 2-year OS in newly diagnosed DLBCL and MCL and for 3-year PFS in FL. Both 6-month PFS and CR rate are potential surrogate endpoints for median PFS in FL patients. Confirmation and validation of these correlations may facilitate early interpretation of NHL trials.

  11. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    SciT

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Mycobacteriology, Leprosy Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-2-1 Aoba-cho, Higashimurayama, Tokyo 189-0002; Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omorinishi, Ota, Tokyo 143-8540

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tgmore » can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.« less

  12. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  13. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of episodic memory impairment in early phase psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Tom A.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Yung, Matthew G.; Liffick, Emily; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F.; Radnovich, Alexander J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that episodic memory (EM) is often preferentially disrupted in schizophrenia. The neural substrates that mediate EM impairment in this illness are not fully understood. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have employed EM probe tasks to elucidate the neural underpinnings of impairment, though results have been inconsistent. The majority of EM imaging studies have been conducted in chronic forms of schizophrenia with relatively few studies in early phase patients. Early phase schizophrenia studies are important because they may provide information regarding when EM deficits occur and address potential confounds more frequently observed in chronic populations. In this study, we assessed brain activation during the performance of visual scene encoding and recognition fMRI tasks in patients with earlyphase psychosis (n=35) and age, sex, and race matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Patients demonstrated significantly lower activation than controls in the right hippocampus and left fusiform gyrus during scene encoding and lower activation in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and left middle temporal cortex during recognition of target scenes. Symptom levels were not related to the imaging findings, though better cognitive performance in patients was associated with greater right hippocampal activation during encoding. These results provide evidence of altered function in neuroanatomical circuitry subserving EM early in the course of psychotic illness, which may have implications for pathophysiological models of this illness. PMID:25749917

  14. TERT, HRAS, and EIF1AX Mutations in a Patient with Follicular Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Topf, Michael C; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Tuluc, Madalina; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2018-06-01

    Molecular markers are increasingly used as diagnostic tools in the management of thyroid nodules. There is a paucity of studies evaluating the prevalence of molecular markers in benign lesions. A 68-year-old woman with hypothyroidism presented with a right thyroid nodule, which was atypia of undetermined significance on cytology. The fine-needle aspirate of the nodule was examined with next-generation sequencing and found to harbor a C228T mutation in the TERT gene, a Q61R mutation in the HRAS gene, and an A113_splice mutation in the EIF1AX gene. Right thyroid lobectomy was performed, with final pathology showing follicular adenoma. All three mutations detected in the original fine-needle aspirate specimen were detected in the final surgical specimen as well. A rare case of TERT, HRAS, and EIF1AX mutations is reported in a patient with follicular adenoma. TERT promoter mutations may be an early genetic event in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Muscle contributions to knee extension in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Kubota, Ryo; Chujo, Yuta; Hirooka, Eiko; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Hase, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom. We analyzed each muscle contribution to knee angular acceleration in the 5%-15% and 15%-25% periods of the stance phase (% SP) using an induced acceleration analysis. We compared accelerations by individual muscles between the two groups using an analysis of covariance for controlling gait speed. Patients with knee OA had a significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles and higher knee acceleration by hip adductors than those in controls in 5-15% SP. In addition, knee OA resulted in significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles in 15-25% SP. These results indicate that patients with knee OA have decreased dependency on the vasti muscles to control knee movements during early stance phase. Hip adductor muscles, which mainly control mediolateral motion, partly compensate for the weak knee extension by the vasti muscles in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of follicular characteristics at ovulation on early embryo survival

    Reproductive failure in livestock can result from failure to fertilize the oocyte or embryonic loss during gestation. Although fertilization failure occurs, embryonic mortality represents a greater contribution to reproductive failure. Reproductive success varies between species and production goal...

  17. Evaluation of the ultrasound image attributes of developing ovarian follicles in the four follicular waves of the interovulatory interval in ewes

    PubMed Central

    Toosi, B.M.; Seekallu, S.V.; Pierson, R.A.; Rawlings, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted quantitative echotextural analysis was applied to ultrasound images of antral follicles in the follicular waves of an interovulatory interval in sheep. The ewe has three or four waves per cycle. Seven healthy, cyclic Western White Face ewes (Ovis aris) underwent daily, transrectal, ovarian ultrasonography for an interovulatory interval. Follicles in the third wave of the ovulatory interval had a longer static phase than that of those in Waves 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). The numeric pixel value for the wall of anovulatory follicles emerging in the third wave of the cycle was significantly higher than that for Waves 1 and 2 at the time of emergence (156.7 ± 8.09, 101.6 ± 3.72, and 116.5 ± 13.93, respectively), and it decreased as follicles in Wave 3 reached maximum follicular diameter (P < 0.05). The numeric pixel value of the antrum in the ovulatory follicles decreased as follicular diameter increased to ≥5 mm in diameter (P < 0.05). The pixel heterogeneity of the follicular antrum in Wave 1 increased from the end of the growth phase to the end of the regression phase for follicles in that wave (P < 0.05). The total area for the wall and antrum of the follicles studied were correlated with follicular diameter in all follicular waves (r = 0.938, P < 0.01 and r = 0.941, P < 0.01 for the wall and antrum, respectively). Changes in image attributes of the follicular wall and antrum indicate potential morphologic and functional differences among antral follicles emerging at different stages of the interovulatory interval in cyclic ewes. PMID:19665782

  18. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  19. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  20. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Christian; Losa, Gabriele A.

    2001-01-01

    Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187) for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD) values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD) than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD) occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process. PMID:11790854

  1. An integrated view on the luteal phase: diagnosis and treatment in subfertility.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Barbara; Ludwig, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The term 'luteal phase deficiency' was first coined more than 60 years ago, and, since then, it has been suggested as a clinical entity per se and an aetiological factor for subfertility, implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. Despite the existing recommendations for rational work-up in subfertility, luteal phase evaluation and progesterone therapy alone is still common in daily practice. This review comprises results from a Pubmed literature search with the terms 'luteal phase' and 'subfertility', focussing on clinical situations not primarily related to assisted reproduction techniques. Additional data from the experimental studies published in the past 10 years on follicular maturation, oocyte developmental competence and the ovulatory cascade are integrated into the clinical continuum of dysfunctional ovulation, menstrual cycle irregularity and impaired corpus luteum function. As reliable diagnostic tools for adequate luteal function are missing, the presence of clinical symptoms such as cycle irregularity or premenstrual spotting is indicative and should initiate early follicular phase diagnostic work-up. New evidence on the interdependence of oocyte and follicular maturation and resulting developmental competence of the embryo further support the use of ovarian stimulation as the first-line therapeutic option in different subsets of patients with subfertility including luteal phase deficiency. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  3. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    PubMed

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; P<.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception (Spearman r, -0.075; P = .329). Dispositional optimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (P<.0001) were found to be independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have

  5. Temporal regulation of expression of immediate early and second phase transcripts by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Timothy E; Markou, Thomais; Fuller, Stephen J; Giraldo, Alejandro; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Alsafi, Ali; Ekere, Collins; Kemp, Timothy J; Dennis, Jayne L; Game, Laurence; Sugden, Peter H; Clerk, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with phenotypic/physiological changes developing from approximately 12 h. Hypertrophy is associated with changes in mRNA/protein expression, presumably consequent to protein kinase signaling, but the connections between early, transient signaling events and developed hypertrophy are unknown. Results Using microarrays, we defined the early transcriptional responses of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to endothelin-1 over 4 h, differentiating between immediate early gene (IEG) and second phase RNAs with cycloheximide. IEGs exhibited differential temporal and transient regulation, with expression of second phase RNAs within 1 h. Of transcripts upregulated at 30 minutes encoding established proteins, 28 were inhibited >50% by U0126 (which inhibits ERK1/2/5 signaling), with 9 inhibited 25-50%. Expression of only four transcripts was not inhibited. At 1 h, most RNAs (approximately 67%) were equally changed in total and polysomal RNA with approximately 17% of transcripts increased to a greater extent in polysomes. Thus, changes in expression of most protein-coding RNAs should be reflected in protein synthesis. However, approximately 16% of transcripts were essentially excluded from the polysomes, including some protein-coding mRNAs, presumably inefficiently translated. Conclusion The phasic, temporal regulation of early transcriptional responses induced by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes indicates that, even in terminally differentiated cells, signals are propagated beyond the primary signaling pathways through transcriptional networks leading to phenotypic changes (that is, hypertrophy). Furthermore, ERK1/2 signaling plays a major role in

  6. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  8. Extinct radioactivities - A three-phase mixing model. [for early solar system abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of models is advanced for interpreting the relationship of radioactive abundances in the early solar system to their average concentration in the interstellar medium. The model assumes that fresh radioactivities are ejected from supernovae into the hot interstellar medium, and that the time scales for changes of phase into molecular clouds determine how much survives for formation therein of the solar system. A more realistic and physically motivated understanding of the low observed concentrations of I-129, Pu-244, and Pd-107 may result.

  9. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

    PubMed

    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P < 0.05) after detection of estrus than three-wave cows. Detected day and maximum diameter of first anovulatory follicle were not affected (P > 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P < 0.05) in three-wave cycles. Onset of regression of the first dominant follicle was earlier (P < 0.01) in cycles with three waves than in those with two waves. In two-wave cycles, ovulatory follicles were detected earlier (P < 0.01) and had lower (P < 0.01) growth rate than in three-wave cycles. Development (i.e., maximum diameter and volume) and functionality (minimum and maximum progesterone concentration) of CL were similar (P > 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of

  10. Primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix uteri: a review.

    PubMed

    Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Karadogan, Ihsan; Aksu, Gamze; Aralasmak, Ayse; Erdogan, Gulgun

    2007-09-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease, of which a subgroup of follicular lymphoma constitutes only 8.5%. There is not an established treatment protocol neither for primary cervical lymphoma nor for its follicular subgroup. We presented a case with Ann Arbor stage IEA (Extra-nodal involvement and absence of weight loss, fever, night sweat) primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiotherapy. Upon relapse with a nodal neck mass, she was treated with rituximab alone. She remained well for 23 months after rituximab. In the 39 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of disease. In the light of our case, we reviewed the reported cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix while discussing their treatment protocols and the cases of primary cervix lymphoma treated with rituximab.

  11. Rituximab Retreatment for Low-Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial of patients with low–tumor burden follicular lymphoma that compared maintenance therapy with rituximab versus retreatment with rituximab only when there was evidence of disease progression.

  12. Follicular penetration of topically applied caffeine via a shampoo formulation.

    PubMed

    Otberg, N; Teichmann, A; Rasuljev, U; Sinkgraven, R; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2007-01-01

    Follicular drug delivery is the prerequisite for an effective treatment of androgenetic alopecia or other reasons of premature hair loss. The follicular penetration of caffeine, applied topically in a shampoo formulation for 2 min, was measured with highly sensitive surface ionization in combination with mass spectroscopy, a selective method for the detection of very small quantities of transcutaneously absorbed substances in the blood. An experimental protocol, developed to selectively block the follicular pathway within the test area, was used. Based on this principle, a clear distinction between interfollicular and follicular penetration of topically applied caffeine was feasible. After 2 min, caffeine penetrated via the hair follicles and stratum corneum. It was found that the penetration via hair follicles was faster and higher compared with the interfollicular route and that hair follicles are the only pathway for fast caffeine absorption during the first 20 min after application. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  14. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  15. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    SciT

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology andmore » the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy.« less

  16. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  17. Worldwide isotope ratios of the Fukushima release and early-phase external dose reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaisan, Kittisak; Smith, Jim T.; Bossew, Peter; Kirchner, Gerald; Laptev, Gennady V.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radionuclides (RNs) in air made worldwide following the Fukushima accident are quantitatively compared with air and soil measurements made in Japan. Isotopic ratios RN:137Cs of 131I, 132Te, 134,136Cs, are correlated with distance from release. It is shown, for the first time, that both within Japan and globally, ratios RN:137Cs in air were relatively constant for primarily particle associated radionuclides (134,136Cs; 132Te) but that 131I shows much lower local (<80 km) isotope ratios in soils relative to 137Cs. Derived isotope ratios are used to reconstruct external dose rate during the early phase post-accident. Model “blind” tests show more than 95% of predictions within a factor of two of measurements from 15 sites to the north, northwest and west of the power station. It is demonstrated that generic isotope ratios provide a sound basis for reconstruction of early-phase external dose rates in these most contaminated areas. PMID:24018776

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of kidneys in patients with early phase of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Kocakoc, Ercan; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an MR technique used to show molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as a quantitative parameter calculated from the DW MR images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of DW MR imaging in early phase of obstruction due to urolithiasis. Twenty-six patients with acute dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system detected by intravenous urography were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5 T whole-body superconducting MR scanner. DW imaging can be performed using single-shot spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences with the following diffusion gradient b values: 100, 600, 1000 s/mm(2). Circular region of interest (ROI) was placed in the renal parenchyma for the measurement of ADC values in the normal and obstructed kidney. For statistical analyses, Paired t test were used. In spite of obstructed kidneys had the lower ADC values compared to normal kidneys, these alterations were statistically insignificant. We did not observe significantly different ADC values of early phase of obstructed kidneys compared to normal kidneys.

  19. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  20. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  1. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  2. Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanbao; Kwon, Keehwan; Tsitrin, Tamara; Sikorski, Patricia; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins. PMID:28129394

  3. A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Som D; Coombes, Megan E; Levine, Mitch; Cosby, Jarold; Kowaleski, Brenda; Arnold, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical reasoning, tools used and challenges faced by the researchers who assign causality to SAE's. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists and trial coordinators at six Canadian academic cancer centres. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Individual interview content analysis was followed by thematic analysis across the interview set. Our study found that causality assessment tends to be a rather complex process, often without complete clinical and investigational data at hand. Researchers described using a common processing strategy whereby they gather pertinent information, eliminate alternative explanations, and consider whether or not the study drug resulted in the SAE. Many of the interviewed participants voiced concern that causality assessments are often conducted quickly and tend to be highly subjective. Many participants were unable to identify any useful tools to help in assigning causality and welcomed more objectivity in the overall process. Attributing causality to SAE's is a complex process. Clinical trial researchers apply a logical system of reasoning, but feel that the current method of assigning causality could be improved. Based on these findings, future research involving the development of a new causality assessment tool specifically for use in early phase oncology clinical trials may be useful.

  4. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    SciT

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in themore » analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.« less

  5. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in rat granulosa cells during ovarian follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Kim, J M; Liston, P; Li, M; Miyazaki, T; Mackenzie, A E; Korneluk, R G; Tsang, B K

    1998-03-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) constitute a family of highly conserved apoptosis suppressor proteins that was originally identified in baculoviruses. Although IAP homologs have been recently identified and demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in mammalian cells, their expression and role during follicular development and atresia are unknown. The present study was conducted to address these questions. Using established in vivo models for the induction of follicular development and atresia in immature rats, it was possible to compare the immunolocalization of X-link inhibitor of apoptosis protein (Xiap) and human inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (Hiap-2), two members of the IAP family, at defined stages of follicular maturation and to relate the differences observed with those of follicular cell proliferation and apoptosis [as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling (TUNEL), respectively]. In addition, granulosa cell DNA and proteins were assessed for apoptotic fragmentation by 3'-end labeling/agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA ladder) and Hiap-2 and Xiap protein content by Western blot analysis, respectively. Hiap-2 and Xiap expression in both granulosa and theca cells increased with follicular maturation, reaching maximal levels at the antral stage of development. The immunoreactivity for PCNA, Xiap, and Hiap-2 decreased markedly in atretic (TUNEL-positive) follicles at the small to medium sized antral stage of development, suggesting follicular atresia may be associated with decreased granulosa cell IAP protein content and decreased proliferation. Atresia was also associated with a change in the intracellular distribution of IAPs in granulosa cells. Biochemical analysis of DNA fragmentation (DNA ladder) in granulosa cells from preantral and early antral follicles indicates extensive apoptosis that was associated with minimal IAP protein

  7. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001). There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63-25.97, p < 0.001), burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97-41.89, p < 0.001), pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54-40.75, p = 0.001), dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22-37.01, p = 0.03) or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21-5.55, p = 0.01) during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic

  8. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  9. CD30 expression in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gardner, L J; Polski, J M; Evans, H L; Perkins, S L; Dunphy, C H

    2001-08-01

    CD30(+) anaplastic large cell lymphomas were originally described as being of T-cell, null cell, and B-cell origin. CD30, however, is not a specific marker of anaplastic large cell lymphoma and has been found to be expressed in reactive as well as neoplastic populations as a probable activation marker. In addition, CD30(+) cells have also been described in both diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas (FLs), resembling the pattern seen in reactive tonsils and lymph nodes. We report an index case of FL with CD30 expression, which on initial touch preparations and flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed a prominent population of CD30(+) cells with marked cellular pleomorphism (anaplasia) in a background of typical FL. Immunohistochemistry of the paraffin section for CD30 in our index case confirmed unequivocal CD30(+) pleomorphic cells in the malignant nodules in occasional clusters. This case prompted a study of additional cases of FL for pattern of immunoreactivity with CD30 on paraffin sections. Twenty-two additional cases of FL (grades 1-3) were retrieved for CD30 immunoperoxidase staining as in the index case. This study demonstrated 32% of the additional cases of FL had definitive CD30(+), large, pleomorphic malignant cells by paraffin immunohistochemistry. In 2 cases (9%), the pattern of immunoreactivity with CD30 showed clustering and variable staining of large cells, as our index case. This study underscores the morphologic and immunophenotypic spectrum of FL that includes CD30 staining and cellular pleomorphism.

  10. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambinder, Alexander J.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Malik, Neha; Maggioncalda, Alison; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment. PMID:23028387

  11. Treatment of localized-stage follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sorigue, Marc; Tuset, Victòria; Sancho, Juan-Manuel

    2018-05-12

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma and it most frequently presents in an advanced-stage. Therapeutic considerations for advanced-stage are different from those of localized-stage FL, in which radiotherapy (RT) is generally recommended. However, the available evidence suffers from shortcomings that are relatively specific to this clinical entity due to its rarity and long survival with all available treatment modalities, including that most of the existing evidence originated at a time when diagnostic classifications, staging procedures and radiotherapeutic standards were different from those available today and when anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies were not available. Available treatment modalities include observation, systemic therapy only, RT only and RT in combination with systemic therapy. We review the evidence available with each of them and the data from present day clinical practice studies as well as briefly discuss what diagnostic and therapeutic developments may take place in the next few years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: a forgotten early phase of human evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    The field of paleoanthropology arose out of a strange and unacknowledged early phase of development prior to about the 1930s. It is often assumed that a key pillar of the discipline, the unity of humankind--the notion that humans are clearly separated phylogenetically (genealogically) from other non-human primates--was widely accepted from the inception of paleoanthropology around 1860. However, a final consensus on this fundamental question only appeared later on in the 20th century. This paper will focus on two key areas of disagreement, which reveal the unsettled state of this question during this early period: the question of uncertainty with respect to the number, identity and boundary of primate species (including humans) which prevailed in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries; and the matter of uncertainty with respect to the nature of the phylogenetic relationships among the various human populations and the other primate species which prevailed between 1864 and 1931. Consideration of these matters reveals that the modern research structure that paleoanthropologists take for granted today is much more recent than believed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    PubMed

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (p<0.0002) after treatment in group B patients, and this effect was higher (p=0.05) compared to group A patients. Furthermore, at the end of SLIT induction TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IFN-gamma production were reduced in group B patients (p<0.05, p=0.062 and p=0.060, respectively). The rapid induction scheme of sublingual immunotherapy induces an early immune suppression more effectively than the slower one. The rapid induction scheme should be the preferential way to start sublingual immunotherapy, particularly when monomeric allergoids are utilized.

  14. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A.; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S. Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAPs) received for slow-accruing Phase 1 and 2 trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for Phase 1 trials and 66 for Phase 2 trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (Phase 1: 48%), design/protocol concerns (Phase 1: 42%, Phase 2: 33%), and eligibility criteria (Phase 1: 41%, Phase 2: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (Phase 1: 43%, Phase 2: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (Phase 1: 55%, Phase 2: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (Phase 1=48; Phase 2=46). Of these, 67% of Phase 1 and 70% of Phase 2 trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial lifecycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. PMID:27401246

  15. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    PubMed

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed Central

    Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Menon, David K.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1–6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD. PMID:26439113

  17. Study design and early result of a phase I study of SABR for early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tosol; Wee, Chan Woo; Choi, Noorie; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2018-05-14

    Avoidance of organs at risk has become possible with advances in image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early stage glottic cancer. This report presents the preliminary result of the first and second dose level. Fraction size was increased from 3.5 gray (Gy) (total dose 59.5 Gy) to 9 Gy (total dose 45 Gy). Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as grade 3 or higher treatment-related toxicities. Voice outcome was assessed with electroglottography, and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI). Seven patients received 59.5 Gy at 3.5 Gy per fraction as the first dose level, and five patients received 55 Gy at 5 Gy per fraction as the second dose level. None of the patients developed grade 3+ toxicity throughout a median follow-up of 17.5 months (range, 1.7-30.6 months). One patient in the second dose level recurred in the primary site at 4 months after radiotherapy (RT) and received total laryngectomy. The rest of participants were disease-free at locoregional and distant sites. Jitter, shimmer, mean phonation time, and noise-to-harmony ratio did not change significantly at 6 months after RT. HNCI scores between pretreatment and posttreatment were not significantly different (P = 0.221). This study revealed acceptable toxicity, voice outcome, and QoL in patients treated with hypofractionated VMAT of 3.5 Gy and 5 Gy per fraction. This phase I study is currently ongoing with a dose of 55 Gy in 11 fractions and 45 Gy in five fractions. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  19. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  20. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  1. [Efficacy of acupuncture-moxibustion periodic therapy on follicular maldevelopment differentiated as spleen and kidney yang deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuxuan; Pan, Chang; Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie

    2017-01-12

    To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion periodic therapy on folli-cular maldevelopment differentiated as spleen and kidney yang deficiency. Sixty patients of follicular maldevelopment differentiated as spleen and kidney yang deficiency were randomized as an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. The conventional acupuncture-moxibustion therapy was used in the control group and the acupuncture-moxibustion periodic therapy was applied to the observation group. In the control group, the acupoints were selected in terms of spleen and kidney yang deficiency, such as Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3), Xuehai (SP 10) and Zigong (EX-CA 1). In the observation group, the acupoints were selected in terms of the physiological characteristics of follicular phase, ovulatory phase, luteal phase and menstrual phase. The main acupoints were Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3) and Xuehai (SP 10). The acupoints for benefiting kidney yin were added in the follicular phase, such as Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dahe (KI 12), etc. The acupoints for regulating qi and activating blood circulation were added in the ovulatory phase, such as Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3), etc. The moxibustion was added for tonifying kidney yang in the luteal phase, such as Qihai (CV 6) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The treatment was discontinued during the menstrual phase in the two groups. In the rest phases, acupuncture and moxibustion were given once every two days, 30 min each time. The overall efficacy, basal body temperature (BBT), follicular development, the average endometrial thickness and morphology as well as TCM syndrome score of spleen and kidney yang deficiency were observed in the patients after 3-month menstrual periods. The adverse reactions were recorded in the two groups. In the observation group, one case gave up the treatment due to the personal reason and another one stopped the treatment due to

  2. Investigation of follicular and non-follicular pathways for polyarginine and oleic acid modified nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Patrick; Singh, Mandip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study was to investigate the percutaneous permeation pathways of cell penetrating peptide modified lipid nanoparticles and oleic acid modified polymeric nanoparticles. Methods Confocal microscopy was performed on skin cultures (EpiDermFT™) for modified and un-modified nanoparticles. Differential stripping was performed following in vitro skin permeation of Ibuprofen (Ibu) encapsulated nanoparticles to estimate Ibu levels in different skin layers and receiver compartment. The hair follicles (HF) were blocked and in vitro skin permeation of nanoparticles was then compared with unblocked HF. The surface modified nanoparticles were investigated for response on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Results Surface modified nanoparticles showed a significant higher (p < 0.05) in fluorescence in EpiDermFT™ cultures compared to controls. The HF play less than 5% role in total nanoparticle permeation into the skin. The Ibu levels were significantly high (p<0.05) for surface modified nanoparticles compared to controls. The Ibu levels in skin and receiver compartment were not significantly different when HF were open or closed. Modified nanoparticles showed significant improvement in treatment of ACD compared to solution. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that increased skin permeation of surface modified nanoparticles is not only dependent on a follicular pathway but also occur through non-follicular pathway(s). PMID:23187866

  3. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  4. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  5. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  6. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  7. Temperature-Enhanced Follicular Penetration of Thermoresponsive Nanogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sora; Nagel, Gregor; Giulbudagian, Michael; Calderón, Marcelo; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Hair follicles can serve as an effective reservoir for dermal drug delivery upon the topical application of particulate substances. Here, the follicular penetration of an indodicarbocyanine-labelled thermoresponsive nanogel (189 nm) having a cloud point temperature of 34°C and linked via an acid-labile linker to the model drug indocarbocyanine was investigated. In total, 227 hair follicles of porcine ear skin were examined after topical application of the thermoresponsive nanogels at room temperature (21°C), physiological skin surface temperature (32°C) and core body temperature (37°C) for the follicular penetration depths of indodicarbocyanine and indocarbocyanine using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed a significantly increased mean follicular penetration of the carrier to a depth of 298.8±85.8 μm after incubation at 37°C compared to samples incubated at 21°C and 32°C with mean follicular penetration depths of 202.7±81.7 μm and 219.4±52.9 μm, respectively (p<0.001). Possibly structural changes in the thermoresponsive nanogel induced by the increased incubation temperature led to an enhancement of follicular penetration. Therefore, thermoresponsive nanogels may be suitable for the temperature-enhanced penetration into the hair follicles under physiological conditions.

  8. Serum Uromodulin Levels in Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Sporek, Mateusz; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Gil, Krzysztof; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Walocha, Jerzy; Kucharz, Jakub; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Trąbka, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek

    2017-06-14

    In health, uromodulin is the main protein of urine. Serum uromodulin concentrations (sUMOD) have been shown to correlate with kidney function. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the main complications of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). No reports exist on sUMOD in patients with AP, including the diagnostic usefulness for early prediction of AP severity. We measured sUMOD during first 72 h of AP. Sixty-six adult patients with AP were recruited at the surgical ward of the District Hospital in Sucha Beskidzka, Poland. AP was diagnosed according to the Revised Atlanta Classification. Blood samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h of AP, and sUMOD concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent test. sUMOD decreased non-significantly during the study. Patients with severe AP had non-significantly lower sUMOD concentrations than those with mild disease. Significant positive correlation was observed between sUMOD and estimated glomerular filtration rate on each day of the study and negative correlations were shown between sUMOD and age, serum creatinine, cystatin C and urea. Patients with AKI tended to have lower sUMOD. Although sUMOD correlated significantly with kidney function in the early phase of AP, measuring sUMOD did not allow to reliably predict AP severity or development of AKI.

  9. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Simsek, Nilufer Genc; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancreatitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and interleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435+/-432 U/L vs. 27,426+/-118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970+/-323 pg/mL vs. 330+/-368 pg/mL, respectively). In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions.

  10. Carbachol improves secretion in the early phase after rabbit submandibular gland transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Ding, C; Ding, Q W; Fu, F Y; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the changes in the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway with submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation and whether carbachol improves secretion in transplanted SMGs. SMG autotransplantation was performed in a rabbit model. Carbachol (1 microM) was infused into the transplanted glands from postoperative day 1-7. The expression of the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by RT-PCR, immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. The content of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salivary flow of the transplanted SMGs was decreased after transplantation. As well, the expressions of M1 and M3 receptors and their downstream signaling molecules, IP(3), p-ERK1/2 and AQP5, were all reduced. Atrophy of acinar cells was shown in transplanted glands. However, all these alterations were reversed after carbachol treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, carbachol directly increased the mRNA expression of AQP5 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured neonatal rabbit SMG cells. A lack of acetylcholine and downregulation of the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway is involved in the early hypofunction of transplanted SMGs. Carbachol treatment could be a new therapeutic strategy to improve secretion and prevent the obstruction of Wharton's duct in the early phase after SMG transplantation.

  11. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  12. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  13. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  14. Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Neeta; Gupta, Ruchika; Jain, Shyama

    2004-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in association with hyperthyroidism is rare. The malignant lesion may remain occult for a long time. Certain clinical and cytologic features may be helpful in raising the alarm. An elderly male with a history of occupational exposure to X rays, long-standing toxic multinodular goiter and clinical hyperthyroidism presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the neck. Cytologic smears showed a prominent microfollicular pattern, scanty colloid, anisonucleosis and nuclear overlapping. The noteworthy feature was the presence of marginal vacuoles. The cytologic diagnosis of follicular neoplasm with highly suggestive malignancy was made. Subsequently, multiple pulmonary nodules provided radiologic evidence of possible metastatic spread. This case report demonstrates the rare association of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism and analyzes certain high-risk clinical and cytologic features to be considered in the follow-up of long-standing hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter.

  15. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules. PMID:20847957

  16. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  17. Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Asselin, E; Xiao, C W; Wang, Y F; Tsang, B K

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of follicular development and atresia is a complex process and involves interactions between endocrine factors (gonadotropins) and intraovarian regulators (sex steroids, growth factors and cytokines) in the control of follicular cell fate (i.e. proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death). Granulosa and theca cells are key players in this fascinating process. As atresia is the fate of most follicles, understanding of how these physiological regulators participate in determining the destiny of the follicle (to degenerate or to ovulate) at cellular and subcellular levels is fundamental. This short review summarizes the role of intraovarian modulators of programmed cell death in the induction of atresia during follicular development. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Nevoid follicular mucinosis: a new type of hair follicle nevus.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Gianluca; Boldrini, Maria P; Brena, Michela; Pezzani, Lidia; Marchesi, Lorenzo; Rongioletti, Franco

    2013-09-01

    Follicular mucinosis represents a term for a histopathologic reaction pattern in follicular epithelium. It is a characteristic of alopecia mucinosa. However, it may also occur in a variety of unrelated conditions. Epidermal nevi are considered to be hamartomatous disorders and they can show a predominant component of non-organoid (keratinocytes) and/or organoid nevi. All the cases of epidermal nevi described with mucin deposits until now are reported as mucinous nevus or mucinous eccrine nevus; in the first type of disorder, diffuse mucin deposition is only seen in the papillary dermis, and in the second type, the mucin is found around the proliferation of eccrine structures. We believe this is the first reported case of epidermal nevus along Blaschko's lines exhibiting typical microscopic findings of mucinosis exclusively distributed inside the follicular epithelia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric follicular lymphomas and duodenal follicular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Yuda, Sayako; Toyoda, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Makita, Shinichi; Fukuhara, Suguru; Munakata, Wataru; Maruyama, Dai; Kobayashi, Yukio; Saito, Yutaka; Tobinai, Kensei

    2017-07-01

    We compared the incidence, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) findings, and histopathologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal follicular lymphomas (FL). Of 626 FL cases, primary gastric FL and secondary gastric involvement of FL were observed in 1% and 5% of the cases, respectively, which were lower incidences than duodenal FL (10% and 9%, respectively). Gastric FL usually appeared as submucosal tumors (primary, 71%; secondary, 79%), whereas duodenal FL, as granular lesions (primary, 92%: secondary, 87%). In the granular duodenal lesions, the neoplastic follicles were located sparsely on the muscularis mucosa and could be found between villi, whereas in the stomach, similar lesions were hidden within the lamina propria, and only larger lesions such as submucosal tumors could be detected on the mucosal surface. The differences in the incidences and EGD findings were considered to be associated with structural differences of the lamina propria. Typical FL features: grades 1-2 histology, follicularity, and CD10 + and/or BCL6 + and BCL2 + were usually observed in all primary and secondary gastric and duodenal FL. Gastroduodenal and bone marrow involvement were found in 12% and 33% of the cases, respectively, and there was no significant correlation between them (P=.095). Twenty-nine cases (5%) were up-staged by gastroduodenal-positive results. In conclusion, the histopathology of gastric FL was similar to that of duodenal and nodal FL; the differences in the incidence and EGD findings between gastric and duodenal FL were considered to be associated with structural difference of the lamina propria, and EGD was useful as a staging procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Free Trehalose Accumulation in Dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis Cells and Its Breakdown in Early Resuscitation Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shleeva, Margarita O.; Trutneva, Kseniya A.; Demina, Galina R.; Zinin, Alexander I.; Sorokoumova, Galina M.; Laptinskaya, Polina K.; Shumkova, Ekaterina S.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2017-01-01

    Under gradual acidification of growth medium resulting in the formation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis, a significant accumulation of free trehalose in dormant cells was observed. According to 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy up to 64% of total organic substances in the dormant cell extract was represented by trehalose whilst the trehalose content in an extract of active cells taken from early stationary phase was not more than 15%. Trehalose biosynthesis during transition to the dormant state is provided by activation of genes involved in the OtsA-OtsB and TreY-TreZ pathways (according to RT-PCR). Varying the concentration of free trehalose in dormant cells by expression of MSMEG_4535 coding for trehalase we found that cell viability depends on trehalose level: cells with a high amount of trehalose survive much better than cells with a low amount. Upon resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis, a decrease of free trehalose and an increase in glucose concentration occurred in the early period of resuscitation (after 2 h). Evidently, breakdown of trehalose by trehalase takes place at this time as a transient increase in trehalase activity was observed between 1 and 3 h of resuscitation. Activation of trehalase was not due to de novo biosynthesis but because of self-activation of the enzyme from the inactive state in dormant cells. Because, even a low concentration of ATP (2 mM) prevents self-activation of trehalase in vitro and after activation the enzyme is still sensitive to ATP we suggest that the transient character of trehalase activation in cells is due to variation in intracellular ATP concentration found in the early resuscitation period. The negative influence of the trehalase inhibitor validamycin A on the resuscitation of dormant cells proves the importance of trehalase for resuscitation. These experiments demonstrate the significance of free trehalose accumulation for the maintenance of dormant mycobacterial viability and the involvement of trehalose

  1. Pegfilgrastim and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Untreated, Relapsed, or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Genc Simsek, Nilufer; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Subjects and method. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancratitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activites were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and inleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Results. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435±432 U/L vs. 27,426±118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970±323 pg/mL vs. 330±368 pg/mL, respectively). Conclusion. In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions. PMID:19088933

  3. Differential Contributions of Ventral and Dorsal Striatum to Early and Late Phases of Cognitive Set Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Sleezer, Brianna J.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Flexible decision-making, a defining feature of human cognition, is typically thought of as a canonical pFC function. Recent work suggests that the striatum may participate as well; however, its role in this process is not well understood. We recorded activity of neurons in both the ventral (VS) and dorsal (DS) striatum while rhesus macaques performed a version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of flexibility. Our version of the task involved a trial-and-error phase before monkeys could identify the correct rule on each block. We observed changes in firing rate in both regions when monkeys switched rules. Specifically, VS neurons demonstrated switch-related activity early in the trial-and-error period when the rule needed to be updated, and a portion of these neurons signaled information about the switch context (i.e., whether the switch was intradimensional or extradimensional). Neurons in both VS and DS demonstrated switch-related activity at the end of the trial-and-error period, immediately before the rule was fully established and maintained, but these signals did not carry any information about switch context. We also observed associative learning signals (i.e., specific responses to options associated with rewards in the presentation period before choice) that followed the same pattern as switch signals (early in VS, later in DS). Taken together, these results endorse the idea that the striatum participates directly in cognitive set reconfiguration and suggest that single neurons in the striatum may contribute to a functional handoff from the VS to the DS during reconfiguration processes. PMID:27417204

  4. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Evaluation of measles-rubella vaccination for mothers in early puerperal phase.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Michi; Kato, Tatsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2016-02-24

    The postpartum period is an ideal opportunity to vaccinate mothers with inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases including measles and rubella. A prospective study of measles-rubella (MR) vaccination in the early puerperal phase was conducted in 171 mothers, who had insufficient antibody titers when screened for immunity to measles (≤ 1:4 on the neutralization test [NT]) or rubella (≤ 1:16 on the hemagglutination inhibition [HI] test) during pregnancy. To evaluate the efficacy of MR vaccination in the postpartum period, we determined their post-vaccination antibody titers and immune responses to vaccination, and investigated the association between these and their prolactin (PRL) levels and Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. We also examined the passage of viral RNA and antigen into breast milk. Of the 169 participants who completed the study schedule, 117 and 101 had low antibody titers against measles and rubella, respectively. In the measles-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 87% on the NT assay, and the NT geometric mean antibody titer was 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-13.0). In the rubella-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 88% on the HI test assay, and the HI geometric mean antibody titer was 64.0 (95% CI, 53.9-76.0). There was no association between the post-vaccination antibody titers and the PRL levels or Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. In the rubella-seronegative group, subjects with higher Th1/Th2 ratios showed higher rates of responsiveness than those with lower ratios (P=0.045). Although measles virus RNA was isolated from the breast milk of two vaccinated mothers, breastfeeding was not associated with clinical disease in any infants. MR vaccination in the early puerperal phase is considered an effective way to prevent the diseases, regardless of the mother's immunological status and hormonal milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of economic evaluation to decision making in early phases of product development: a methodological and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Economic evaluation as an integral part of health technology assessment is today mostly applied to established technologies. Evaluating healthcare innovations in their early states of development has recently attracted attention. Although it offers several benefits, it also holds methodological challenges. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible contributions of economic evaluation to industry's decision making early in product development and to confront the results with the actual use of early data in economic assessments. We conducted a literature research to detect methodological contributions as well as economic evaluations that used data from early phases of product development. Economic analysis can be beneficially used in early phases of product development for various purposes including early market assessment, R&D portfolio management, and first estimations of pricing and reimbursement scenarios. Analytical tools available for these purposes have been identified. Numerous empirical works were detected, but most do not disclose any concrete decision context and could not be directly matched with the suggested applications. Industry can benefit from starting economic evaluation early in product development in several ways. Empirical evidence suggests that there is still potential left unused.

  7. An efficient early phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, and validation of an efficient crossover procedure for sensitivity in detecting medication efficacy for smoking cessation. First-line FDA-approved medications of nicotine patch, varenicline, and bupropion were tested as model drugs, in three separate placebo-controlled studies. We also tested specificity of our procedure in identifying a drug that lacks efficacy, using modafinil. This crossover procedure showed sensitivity (increased days of abstinence) during week-long "practice" quit attempts with each of the active cessation medications (positive controls) versus placebo, but not with modafinil (negative control) versus placebo, as hypothesized. Sensitivity to medication efficacy signal was observed only in smokers high in intrinsic quit motivation (i.e., already preparing to quit soon) and not smokers low in intrinsic quit motivation, even if monetarily reinforced for abstinence (i.e., given extrinsic motivation). A crossover procedure requiring less time and fewer subjects than formal trials may provide an efficient strategy for a go/no-go decision whether to advance to subsequent phase 2 randomized clinical trials with a novel drug. Future research is needed to replicate our results and evaluate this procedure with novel compounds, identify factors that may limit its utility, and evaluate its applicability to testing efficacy of compounds for treating other forms of addiction.

  8. Unimpaired endogenous pain inhibition in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumowski, N; Hegelmaier, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Maier, C; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Enax-Krumova, E

    2017-05-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by distal generalisation of pain beyond the initial trauma. This might be the result of impaired endogenous pain inhibition. We compared Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) between patients with CRPS (n = 24; pain: 4.5 ± 2.2, NRS 0-10; disease duration <1 year), neuralgia (n = 17; pain: 5.5 ± 1.1) and healthy subjects (n = 23) and its correlation with loss and gain of function as assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). CPM was assessed with heat as test stimulus (TS) and cold water as conditioning stimulus (CS). The early CPM-effect was calculated as difference between heat pain during and before conditioning, the late CPM-effect, 5 minutes after and before conditioning, respectively. Heat pain decreased comparably after CS in all groups, resulting in a significant CPM-effect (healthy: -12.5 ± 12.4, NRS 0-100; CRPS: -14.7 ± 15.7; neuralgia: -7.9 ± 9.8; p < 0.001). When compared to healthy subjects, heat pain declined significantly steeper in CRPS patients (healthy: -2.0 ± 5.5, NRS 0-100/10 s; CRPS: -6.3 ± 8.1; p < 0.05). Only CRPS patients demonstrated a late CPM effect (-6.0 ± 9.0, p < 0.005). Neither spontaneous pain nor any QST parameter correlated with CPM, with the exception of a decreased cold pain threshold, which correlated with an enhanced CPM in CRPS patients only (r = -0.456, p < 0.05). An impairment of endogenous pain inhibition does not explain the extent of pain in the early stage of CRPS or in neuralgia. The unexpectedly high CPM in CRPS patients might result from activation of the intact descending pathways in response to central sensitization, as cold hyperalgesia correlated with the CPM-effect. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is not impaired in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and neuralgia. Only in CRPS higher CPM was associated with lower cold pain thresholds. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  9. Melanins as biomarkers of ovarian follicular atresia in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: biochemical and histochemical characterization, seasonal variation and hormone effects.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2015-06-01

    Follicular atresia is a common feature of the vertebrate ovary that occurs at different stages of folliculogenesis and ovarian regression. It has physiological significance to maintain homeostasis and control fecundity, and ensure removal of post-ovulatory follicular remnants for preparing the ovary for the next cycle. Pigments appear late in the atretic process as indigestible waste formed out of the degradation of the oocytes, follicle wall and granulocytes. In the present study, pigment accumulation was demonstrated by Schmorl's and Perls' staining methods in the atretic ovarian follicles of Heteropneustes fossilis during follicular development and regression. Melanins were characterized spectrophotometrically for the first time in fish ovary. The predominant form is eumelanin, followed by pheomelanin and alkali-soluble melanin. Melanins showed significant seasonal variations with levels low in gonad resting phase, increasing to the peak in the post-spawning phase. The concentration of melanins increased time-dependently in post-ovulated ovary after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. In the spawning phase, in vitro incubation of ovary slices with estradiol-17β or dexamethasone for 8 or 16 h decreased both eumelanin and pheomelanin levels time-dependently. The alkali-soluble melanin showed a significant decrease only in the dexamethasone group at 16 h. The results show that melanin assay can be used as a biomarker of follicular atresia in fish ovary, natural or induced by environmental toxicants.

  10. Media Messages and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the Early Phase of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Erika Franklin; Baum, Laura M; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013. We find that higher volumes of insurance advertising and local news coverage are associated with participants' perceptions of being informed about the law. Volumes of insurance advertising and of local news coverage are also associated with participants' favorability toward the law, but the relationship varies with partisanship, supporting the growing body of research describing partisan perceptual bias. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  11. Beam-induced pressure gradients in the early phase of proton-heated solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamres, David H.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1986-01-01

    The pressure gradient induced in a coronal loop by proton beam momentum deposition is calculated and compared with the thermal pressure gradient arising from nonuniform deposition of beam energy; it is assumed that the transfer of momentum and energy from beam to target occurs via the Coulomb interaciton. Results are presented for both a low mean energy and a high mean energy proton beam injected at the loop apex and characterized by a power-law energy spectrum. The present treatment takes account of the breakdown of the cold target approximation for the low-energy proton beam in the corona, where the thermal speed of target electrons exceeds the beam speed. It is found that proton beam momentum deposition plays a potentially significant role in flare dynamics only in the low mean energy case and only in the corona, where it may dominate the acceleration of target material for as long as several tens of seconds. This conclusion suggest that the presence of low-energy nonthermal protons may be inferred from velocity-sensitive coronal observations in the early impulsive phase.

  12. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciT

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereasmore » the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.« less

  13. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    PubMed

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N.; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:28767339

  15. Relationship between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Intrinsic Corticostriatal Connectivity in Patients with Early Phase Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Deepak K; Robinson, Delbert G; Fales, Christina; Lencz, Todd; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to 2 years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry. We included 83 patients with early phase schizophrenia and minimal exposure to antipsychotic drugs (<2 years), who underwent resting state scanning while entering 12 weeks of prospective treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Functional connectivity maps of the striatum were generated and examined in relation to DUP as a covariate. Mediation analyses were performed on a composite measure of corticostriatal connectivity derived from the significant results of our DUP analysis. We found that longer DUP correlated with worse response to treatment as well as overall decreased functional connectivity between striatal nodes and specific regions within frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, the relationship between DUP and treatment response was significantly mediated by corticostriatal connectivity. Our results indicate that variation in corticostriatal circuitry may play a role in the relationship between longer DUP and worsened response to treatment. Future prospective studies are necessary to further characterize potential causal links between DUP, striatal circuitry and clinical outcomes.

  16. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  17. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range. PMID:26138760

  18. The early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution in low-z "young" galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in their nucleus, and the evolution of SMBHs is closely related with that of their host galaxies (the SMBH-galaxy coevolution). This is suggested by the correlation in the mass of SMBHs and their host galaxies, that has been observed in low redshifts. However, the physics of the coevolution is totally unclear, that prevents us from complete understandings of the galaxy evolution. One possible strategy to tackle this issue is measuring the mass ratio between SMBHs and their host galaxies (M_BH/M_host) at high redshifs, since different scenarios predict different evolution of the ratio ofMBH/Mhost. However it is extremely challenging to measure the mass of the host of high-z quasars, given the faint surface brightness of the host at close to the glaring quasar nucleus. Here we propose a brand-new approach to assess the early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution, by focusing on low-z AGN-hosting "young" galaxies. Specifically, we focus on some very metal-poor galaxies with broadline Balmer lines at z ~ 0.1 - 0.3. By examining the SMBH scaling relations in some low-z metal-poor AGNs through high-resolution IRCS imaging observations, we will discriminate various scenarios for the SMBH-galaxy coevolution.

  19. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Webcam delivery of the Lidcombe program for early stuttering: a phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe Program service delivery model. Participants were 3 preschool children who stuttered and their parents, all of whom received assessment and treatment using webcam in their homes with no clinic attendance. At 6 months post-Stage 1 completion, all children were stuttering below 1.0% syllables stuttered. The webcam intervention was acceptable to the parents and appeared to be practical and viable, with only occasional audiovisual problems. At present, there is no reason to doubt that a webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program will be shown with clinical trials to have comparable efficacy with the clinic version. Webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program intervention is potentially efficacious, is practical and viable, and requires further exploration with comparative clinical trials and a qualitative study of parent and caregiver experiences.

  1. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Biomarkers for identifying the early phases of osteoarthritis secondary to medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Rafiqul; Ji, Joong Ryong; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Nam Soo

    2011-09-01

    The levels of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in synovial fluid (SF) and serum in cases of canine osteoarthritis (OA) were measured. OA was induced by a surgically-created medial patellar luxation in the left stifle of 24 dogs. SF and blood samples were collected at 1.5- and 3-month intervals, respectively. Every 3 months, one dog was euthanatized to collect tissue samples from both stifles. TRAP levels in SF and serum were measured using a spectrophotometer, and TRAP-positive cells in joint tissues were identified by enzyme histochemistry. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in SF and serum were detected by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. TRAP in SF from the stifles and serum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 3 months. TIMP-2 in SF and serum was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-2 in SF was significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the progression of OA. Histochemistry revealed an increased number of TRAP-positive cells in tissues from OA-affected joints. Assays measuring TRAP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 in SF and serum, and methods that detect increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells in the joint tissues can play an important role in identifying the early phases of degenerative changes in canine joint components.

  3. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Optimizing the early phase development of new analgesics by human pain biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Hoeck, Hans Christian

    2011-11-01

    Human pain biomarkers are based on standardized acute activation of pain pathways/mechanisms and quantitative assessment of the evoked responses. This approach can be applied to healthy volunteers, to pain patients, and before and after pharmacological interventions to help understanding and profile the mode of action (proof-of-concept) of new and existing analgesic compounds. Standardized stimuli of different modalities can be applied to different tissues (multimodal and multi-tissue) for profiling analgesic compounds with respect to modulation of pain transduction, transmission, specific mechanisms and processing. This approach substantiates which specific compounds may work in particular clinical pain conditions. Human pain biomarkers can be translational and may bridge animal findings in clinical pain conditions, which in turn can provide new possibilities for designing more successful clinical trials. Biomarker based proof-of-concept drug studies in either volunteers or selected patient populations provide inexpensive, fast and reliable mechanism-based information about dose-efficacy relationships. This is important information in the early drug development phase and for designing large expensive clinical trials.

  5. Masks as Self-Study. Challenging and Sustaining Teachers' Personal and Professional Personae in Early-Mid Career Life Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on previous research identifying how teachers' capacities to sustain their effectiveness in different phases of their professional lives are affected positively and/or negatively by their sense of identity, this paper illuminates three early-mid career teachers' self-study inquiries, centring on mask work. The creative development of…

  6. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... and Gene Therapy Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' that... sponsors of Investigational New Drug Applications for cellular therapy (CT) and gene therapy (GT) products...

  7. 77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... amended by section 1832(b) of Division B of Pub. L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of...

  8. 77 FR 7174 - Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-FHC-2012-N030; FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability and request...

  9. Abnormal patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K; Bremner, W J

    1984-05-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is usually a problem of inadequate progesterone production associated with inadequate ovarian follicular development. The hypothesis that luteal phase deficiency results from an abnormal secretion pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) was tested in these women. To this end, the early follicular LH secretion pattern in four women with luteal phase deficiency was characterized and compared with patterns in normal women. Blood samples were obtained through indwelling catheters every ten minutes for eight hours (10 AM to 6 PM), and plasma levels of LH and FSH were measured. Luteinizing hormone and FSH secretion profiles were analyzed for pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean plasma level. A significantly greater LH pulse frequency in women with luteal phase deficiency was observed when compared with the frequency in normal controls (luteal phase deficiency, 10.5 pulses/eight hours; normal, 5.2 pulses/eight hours; P less than or equal to .05). The mean FSH concentration was less in the women with luteal phase deficiency, but the level was not significant. These data suggest that the abnormal LH secretion pattern observed in women with luteal phase deficiency is responsible for their inadequate luteal phase progesterone secretion and their infertility.

  10. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Chu, Min; Bao, Pengjia; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Yan, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF) of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1) was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development. PMID:26954118

  12. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-19

    lymphomas, has a median age range of 7.5-11.7, and has a male- female ratio of 4:1. This entity occurs most frequently in the tonsils and head and... neck lymph nodes. The pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma in adults is based upon immunoglobulin gene rearrangements with BCL2, BCL6, and MYC

  13. Examination of a modified cell cycle synchronization method and bovine nuclear transfer using synchronized early G1 phase fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Manami; Ideta, Atsushi; Sawada, Tokihiko; Aoyagi, Yoshito

    2004-08-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has a low success rate, due to a high incidence of fetal loss and increased perinatal morbidity/mortality. One factor that may affect the successful development of nuclear transfer embryos is the cell cycle stage of the donor cell. In order to establish a cell cycle synchronization method that can consistently produce cloned embryos and offspring, we examined the effects of different combinations of three cell treatments on the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells using bovine fetal fibroblasts. In the first experiment, we examined the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells by a combination of treatment with a metaphase arrestant (1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol), shaking the plate and selecting cells with a diameter of 20 microns. As a result, 99% of mitotic phase cells were recovered by repeating the combined treatment of metaphase arrestant and shaking, and collection of cells with a specific diameter. In the second experiment, nuclear transfer was carried out using early G1 phase cells by choosing pairs of bridged cells derived from mitotic phase cells recovered by the combined treatment of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol and shaking, and collection of cells with a diameter of 20 microns. The reconstructed embryos were transferred to recipient heifers to determine post-implantation development. Development of embryos reconstructed from early G1 phase cells from the >/=6 cells stage on Day 3 to the morula-blastocyst stage on Day 6 was 100%. Ten blastocysts constructed from two cell lines were transferred into 10 recipient heifers. Nine of the 10 recipients delivered single live calves. In conclusion, mitotic phase bovine fibroblast cells were easily recovered by the combined treatments of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol, shaking, and selecting cells of the appropriate diameter. Furthermore, nuclear transfer using cells in the early G1 phase as donor cells gave a high rate of offspring production.

  14. White matter changes in early phase schizophrenia and cannabis use: an update and systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Cookey, Jacob; Bernier, Denise; Tibbo, Philip G

    2014-07-01

    The impact of cannabis use on the brain tissue is still unclear, both in the healthy developing brain and in people with schizophrenia. The focus of this review is on white matter, the primary connective infrastructure of the brain. We systematically reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of early phase schizophrenia (illness effect), of cannabis use in otherwise healthy brains (drug effect), and of early phase schizophrenia with cannabis use (combined effects). Studies had to include a healthy, non-cannabis using, control group as well as report on fractional anisotropy as it is the most commonly used DTI index. We excluded cohorts with heavy alcohol or illicit drug use and studies with a sample size of less than 20 in the clinical group. We retained 17 studies of early phase schizophrenia, which together indicate deficits in white matter integrity observed in all fiber tract families, but most frequently in association, callosal and projection fibers. In otherwise healthy cannabis users (2 studies), deficits in white matter tracts were reported mainly in callosal fibers, but also in projection and limbic fibers. In cannabis users with early phase schizophrenia (1 study), deficits in white matter integrity were also observed in all fiber tract families, except for limbic fibers. The current literature points to several families of white matter tracts being differentially affected in early phase schizophrenia. Further work is required to reveal the impact of cannabis use in otherwise healthy people as well as those with schizophrenia. Paucity of available studies as well as restricting analysis to FA values represent the main limitations of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early phase schizophrenia: the impact of early adolescent cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A disturbance in connectivity between different brain regions, rather than abnormalities within the separate regions themselves, could be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. White matter, which comprises axons and their myelin sheaths, provides the physical foundation for functional connectivity in the brain. Myelin sheaths are located around the axons and provide insulation through the lipid membranes of oligodendrocytes. Empirical data suggests oligodendroglial dysfunction in schizophrenia, based on findings of abnormal myelin maintenance and repair in regions of deep white matter. The aim of this in vivo neuroimaging project is to assess the impact of early adolescent onset of regular cannabis use on brain white matter tissue integrity, and to differentiate this impact from the white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. The ultimate goal is to determine the liability of early adolescent use of cannabis on brain white matter, in a vulnerable brain. Methods/Design Young adults with schizophrenia at the early stage of the illness (less than 5 years since diagnosis) will be the focus of this project. Four magnetic resonance imaging measurements will be used to assess different cellular aspects of white matter: a) diffusion tensor imaging, b) localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a focus on the neurochemical N-acetylaspartate, c) the transverse relaxation time constants of regional tissue water, d) and of N-acetylaspartate. These four neuroimaging indices will be assessed within the same brain region of interest, that is, a large white matter fibre bundle located in the frontal region, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Discussion We will expand our knowledge regarding current theoretical models of schizophrenia with a more comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging approach to studying the underlying cellular abnormalities of white matter, while taking into

  16. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early phase schizophrenia: the impact of early adolescent cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Denise; Cookey, Jacob; McAllindon, David; Bartha, Robert; Hanstock, Christopher C; Newman, Aaron J; Stewart, Sherry H; Tibbo, Philip G

    2013-10-17

    A disturbance in connectivity between different brain regions, rather than abnormalities within the separate regions themselves, could be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. White matter, which comprises axons and their myelin sheaths, provides the physical foundation for functional connectivity in the brain. Myelin sheaths are located around the axons and provide insulation through the lipid membranes of oligodendrocytes. Empirical data suggests oligodendroglial dysfunction in schizophrenia, based on findings of abnormal myelin maintenance and repair in regions of deep white matter. The aim of this in vivo neuroimaging project is to assess the impact of early adolescent onset of regular cannabis use on brain white matter tissue integrity, and to differentiate this impact from the white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. The ultimate goal is to determine the liability of early adolescent use of cannabis on brain white matter, in a vulnerable brain. Young adults with schizophrenia at the early stage of the illness (less than 5 years since diagnosis) will be the focus of this project. Four magnetic resonance imaging measurements will be used to assess different cellular aspects of white matter: a) diffusion tensor imaging, b) localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a focus on the neurochemical N-acetylaspartate, c) the transverse relaxation time constants of regional tissue water, d) and of N-acetylaspartate. These four neuroimaging indices will be assessed within the same brain region of interest, that is, a large white matter fibre bundle located in the frontal region, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. We will expand our knowledge regarding current theoretical models of schizophrenia with a more comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging approach to studying the underlying cellular abnormalities of white matter, while taking into consideration the important confounding

  17. [DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT STRATEGY IN FOLLICULAR TUMOR OF THYROID GLAND].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, M V; Zubarovskiĭ, I N; Osipenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on the treatment results of 44 patients with follicular tunor of thyroid gland. A staged morphological assessment of thyroid nodes was performed for all patients: in case of preoperative fine-needle biopsy, urgent intraoperative study and according to results of final histological research. The urgent histological study of surgical material was conducted for 44 patients with diagnosis "follicular tumor" according to fine-needle biopsy. The data of final histological study were matched with findings of intraoperative research. A micro-follicular adenoma was detected in 22 patients (50%) and 6 (13,6%) patients had this diagnosis combined with autoimmune thyroiditis. The general part of patients didn't changed in final study, but the rate of diagnosis "micro-follicular adenoma against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis" increased. Papillary carcinoma was revealed in 5 (11,4%) patients and follicular cancer had 4 (9,1%) patients detected in intraoperative study and 3 (6,8%) more patients according to data of final research. The histopathologic feature of colloid goiter was observed in 7 (15,9%) cases and a part of such patients reduced to 6,8% during final study. One of the patients (2,3%) had final diagnosis "oncocytoma". In case of thyroid nodules detection the needle biopsy should be carried out regardless to the size of nodule. The authors recommended performing the surgery with the urgent histological study in case of undetermined histological report. The following surgical strategy was specified by the results of the urgent histological report.

  18. Artificial neural network model to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Savala, Rajiv; Dey, Pranab; Gupta, Nalini

    2018-03-01

    To distinguish follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of thyroid in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a challenging problem. In this article, we attempted to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model from the cytological and morphometric features of the FNAC smears of thyroid to distinguish FA from FC. The cytological features and morphometric analysis were done on the FNAC smears of histology proven cases of FA (26) and FC (31). The cytological features were analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers (RS and PD). These data were used to make an ANN model to differentiate FA versus FC on FNAC material. The performance of this ANN model was assessed by analysing the confusion matrix and receiving operator curve. There were 39 cases in training set, 9 cases each in validation and test sets. In the test group, ANN model successfully distinguished all cases (9/9) of FA and FC. The area under receiver operating curve was 1. The present ANN model is efficient to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on cytology smears without any error. In future, this ANN model will be able to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on thyroid aspirate. This study has immense potential in future. This is an open ended ANN model and more parameters and more cases can be included to make the model much stronger. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Processing emotions: Effects of menstrual cycle phase and premenstrual symptoms on the startle reflex, facial EMG and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Diana; Grage, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Strobel, Alexander

    2018-10-01

    Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Notably, this effect was only present when premenstrual symptoms and sequence of lab sessions were included as co-variates. At rest, participants showed a tendency towards higher HR and reduced high frequency (HF) power during the luteal phase indicating reduced parasympathetic tone. HF power was also negatively associated with startle magnitudes. HR changes in response to emotional images differed between the two cycle phases. Initial HR deceleration was more marked during the follicular phase particularly when viewing negative pictures. However, cycle phase did not significantly impact corrugator and zygomaticus activity in response to emotional pictures. Among the three gonadal steroids, correlation patterns were most consistent for testosterone. During the follicular phase, testosterone was associated with zygomaticus activity while viewing neutral or positive pictures and with less pronounced HR deceleration in response to negative images. During the luteal phase, testosterone was negatively associated with fear potentiated startle. The findings underscore the importance of considering menstrual cycle phase when investigating physiological indicators of emotion. However, the modulating effect of premenstrual symptoms also emphasizes potential inter-individual differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  1. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles. PMID:25473283

  2. Proteomic analysis of human follicular fluid associated with successful in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaofang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Peng; Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Jiahui; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Wenting; Liu, Juan; Li, Ning; Liu, Fujun

    2017-07-27

    Human follicular fluid (HFF) provides a key environment for follicle development and oocyte maturation, and contributes to oocyte quality and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. To better understand folliculogenesis in the ovary, a proteomic strategy based on dual reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of HFF from women undergoing successful IVF. A total of 219 unique high-confidence (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.01) HFF proteins were identified by searching the reviewed Swiss-Prot human database (20,183 sequences), and MS data were further verified by western blot. PANTHER showed HFF proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, growth factor and hormone, immunity, and transportation, KEGG indicated their pathway, and STRING demonstrated their interaction networks. In comparison, 32% and 50% of proteins have not been reported in previous human follicular fluid and plasma. Our HFF proteome research provided a new complementary high-confidence dataset of folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation environment. Those proteins associated with innate immunity, complement cascade, blood coagulation, and angiogenesis might serve as the biomarkers of female infertility and IVF outcome, and their pathways facilitated a complete exhibition of reproductive process.

  3. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.

  5. Early-phase dental students' motivations and expectations concerning the study and profession of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, R; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Yengopal, V

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the career choice and aspirations of early phase dental students in the four dental schools in South Africa, namely the University of the Western Cape (UWC), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), University of Limpopo (Medunsa) and University of Pretoria (UP). Willing participants completed a self-administered questionnaire (n=184). Motivations for entering a dentistry programme were similar across race and university, with wanting a secure job most often stated as an important factor. For a third of respondents, dentistry was not a first choice. Amongst the White students, it was a first choice for 82% compared with 59% amongst Black Africans. Expected income five-years after graduation also differed significantly across race and university, with White and UP students expecting to earn considerably higher than the others. About 36% of students were concerned about the levels of personal debt related to studying, with the White and Asian students less concerned. Those who expected lower levels of income from the profession were more concerned about personal debts. Most students planned to enter general dental practice (GDP) after community service, almost all White and Wits students expressed this intention, compared with only 35% of Black Africans and 39% of Medunsa students. Orthodontics and Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery were the most popular specialities of choice. The professional attribute "Has a friendly manner and good relationship with patients" was ranked high most often. In conclusion, career advice may not need to be tailored differently for the different racial groups. There is however a need for further investigations on how to address the concerns of financial security which may be realised by the practice of dentistry, and in particular the racial disparities observed in expectations of the profession. This study further highlights the need for government financial assistance for students from under-represented groups.

  6. Factors associated with reduced early survival in the Oxford phase III medial unicompartment knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Bart M; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Bots, Peter C Kaijser; Burger, Bart J; van Raay, Jos J A M; Tulp, Niek J A; Verheyen, Cees C P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative patellofemoral osteoarthritis, BMI and age for implant survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed in patients meeting strict admission criteria. The data and radiographs of 437 unilateral Oxford phase III procedures (Biomet, Bridgend, UK) were analysed. All procedures were carried out or supervised by 13 specialised knee surgeons in three different hospitals. The study group comprised 437 patients with a median follow of 2.6 years (0.1-7.9). The cumulative standard case survival rate at 5 years, when there were still 101 patients at risk, was 84.7% (CI-95%: 80.1-89.3%). Young age (<60 years) was associated with a 2.2-fold increased adjusted risk of revision (CI: 1.08-4.43; p=0.03). The preoperative presence of radiological features of patellofemoral osteoarthritis was associated with a 0.3-fold reduced adjusted risk of revision (CI: 0.11-0.89; p=0.03). BMI>30 kg/m(2), gender, the surgeon performing the operation (either as an individual or categorised by annual surgical UKA caseload, i.e., more or less than 10 UKAs) and the hospital in which surgery took place did not predict implant survival of UKA. We conclude that young patients (<60 years) experience an increased early risk of revision for UKA when compared to older patients (>60 years). Obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and preoperative patellofemoral osteoarthritis are not associated with a decreased implant survival and therefore should not be considered risk factors in this context.

  7. Pattern of CD14+ follicular dendritic cells and PD1+ T cells independently predicts time to transformation in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Smeltzer, Jacob P; Jones, Jason M; Ziesmer, Steven C; Grote, Deanna M; Xiu, Bing; Ristow, Kay M; Yang, Zhi Zhang; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Feldman, Andrew L; Cerhan, James R; Novak, Anne J; Ansell, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Transformation of follicular lymphoma is a critical event associated with a poor prognosis. The role of the tumor microenvironment in previous transformation studies has yielded conflicting results. To define cell subtypes associated with transformation, we examined tissue specimens at diagnosis from patients with follicular lymphoma that later transformed and, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), stained for CD68, CD11c, CD21, CXCL13, FOXP3, PD1, and CD14. Cell content and the pattern of expression were evaluated. Those identified as significantly associated with time to transformation (TTT) and overall survival (OS) were further characterized by flow cytometry and multicolor IHC. Of note, 58 patients were analyzed with median TTT of 4.7 years. The pattern of PD1(+) and CD14(+) cells rather than the quantity of cells was predictive of clinical outcomes. On multivariate analysis, including the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index score, CD14(+) cells localized in the follicle were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 3.0; P = 0.004). PD1(+) cells with diffuse staining were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 1.9; P = 0.045) and inferior OS (HR, 2.5; P = 0.012). Multicolor IHC and flow cytometry identified CD14(+) cells as follicular dendritic cells (FDC), whereas PD1(+) cells represented two separate populations, TFH and exhausted T cells. These results identify the presence of PD1(+) T cells and CD14(+) FDC as independent predictors of transformation in follicular lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2862-72. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, P.; Bolton, P.; Hirata, A.; Thurston, G.; McDonald, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626051

  9. Early-time solution of the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the build-up phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    goes away. Nonetheless, no analogue of the kinematic wave or the Boussinesq separable solution exists in this case. The late time state of the build-up phase under constant recharge rate is very simply the steady state solution. Our aim is to construct the early time asymptotic solution of this problem. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turn out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by re-summation techniques which are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  10. Sustained attention is favored by progesterone during early luteal phase and visuo-spatial memory by estrogens during ovulatory phase in young women.

    PubMed

    Solís-Ortiz, S; Corsi-Cabrera, M

    2008-08-01

    Studies examining the influence of the menstrual cycle on cognitive function have been highly contradictory. The maintenance of attention is key to successful information processing, however how it co-vary with other cognitive functions and mood in function of phases of the menstrual cycle is not well know. Therefore, neuropsychological performance of nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles was assessed during ovulation (OVU), early luteal (EL), late luteal (LL) and menstrual (MEN) phases. Neuropsychological test scores of sustained attention, executive functions, manual coordination, visuo-spatial memory, verbal fluency, spatial ability, anxiety and depression were obtained and submitted to a principal components analysis (PCA). Five eigenvectors that accounted the 68.31% of the total variance were identified. Performance of the sustained attention was grouped in an independent eigenvector (component 1), and the scores on verbal fluency and visuo-spatial memory were grouped together in an eigenvector (component 5), which explained 17.69% and 12.03% of the total variance, respectively. The component 1 (p<0.034) and the component 5 (p<0.003) showed significant variations during the menstrual cycle. Sustained attention showed an increase in the EL phase, when the progesterone is high. Visuo-spatial memory was increased, while that verbal fluency was decreased during the OVU phase, when the estrogens levels are high. These results indicate that sustained attention is favored by early luteal phase progesterone and do not covaried with any other neuropsychological variables studied. The influence of the estrogens on visuo-spatial memory was corroborated, and covaried inversely with verbal fluency.

  11. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  12. Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Becky; Schettler, Pamela J; Larson, Erika R; Carroll, Dedric; Sharenko, Margaret; Nettles, James; Edwards, Sherry A; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2018-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a prevalent and debilitating symptom experienced by cancer survivors, yet treatment options for CRF are limited. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of weekly Swedish massage therapy (SMT) versus an active control condition (light touch [LT]) and waitlist control (WLC) on persistent CRF in breast cancer survivors. This early phase, randomized, single-masked, 6-week investigation of SMT, LT, and WLC enrolled 66 female stage 0-III breast cancer survivors (age range, 32-72 years) who had received surgery plus radiation and/or chemotherapy/chemoprevention with CRF (Brief Fatigue Inventory > 25). The primary outcome was the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), with the National Institutes of Health PROMIS Fatigue scale secondary. Mean baseline MFI scores for 57 evaluable subjects were 62.95 for SMT, 55.00 for LT, and 60.41 for WLC. SMT resulted in a mean (standard deviation) 6-week reduction in MFI total scores of -16.50 (6.37) (n = 20) versus -8.06 (6.50) for LT (n = 20) and an increase of 5.88 (6.48) points for WLC (n = 17) (treatment-by-time P < .0001). The mean baseline PROMIS Fatigue scores were SMT, 22.25; LT, 22.05; and WLC, 23.24. The mean (standard deviation) reduction in PROMIS Fatigue scores was -5.49 (2.53) points for SMT versus -3.24 (2.57) points for LT and -0.06 (1.88) points for WLC (treatment-by-time P = .0008). Higher credibility, expectancy, and preference for SMT than for LT did not account for these results. SMT produced clinically significant relief of CRF. This finding suggests that 6 weeks of a safe, widely accepted manual intervention causes a significant reduction in fatigue, a debilitating sequela for cancer survivors. Cancer 2018;124:546-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Conclusions Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery. PMID:25050061

  14. Early coordinated rehabilitation in acute phase after hip fracture - a model for increased patient participation.

    PubMed

    Asplin, Gillian; Carlsson, Gunnel; Zidén, Lena; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2017-10-17

    Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p < 0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p < 0.05) and dressing (p < 0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to

  15. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in early breast cancer (TEAM): a randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Rea, Daniel; Seynaeve, Caroline; Putter, Hein; Hasenburg, Annette; Vannetzel, Jean-Michel; Paridaens, Robert; Markopoulos, Christos; Hozumi, Yasuo; Hille, Elysee T M; Kieback, Dirk G; Asmar, Lina; Smeets, Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Hadji, Peyman; Bartlett, John M S; Jones, Stephen E

    2011-01-22

    Aromatase inhibitors improved disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen when given as an initial adjuvant treatment or after 2-3 years of tamoxifen to postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. We therefore compared the long-term effects of exemestane monotherapy with sequential treatment (tamoxifen followed by exemestane). The Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) phase 3 trial was conducted in hospitals in nine countries. Postmenopausal women (median age 64 years, range 35-96) with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to open-label exemestane (25 mg once a day, orally) alone or following tamoxifen (20 mg once a day, orally) for 5 years. Randomisation was by use of a computer-generated random permuted block method. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. Main analyses were by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00279448, NCT00032136, and NCT00036270; NTR 267; Ethics Commission Trial27/2001; and UMIN, C000000057. 9779 patients were assigned to sequential treatment (n=4875) or exemestane alone (n=4904), and 4868 and 4898 were analysed by intention to treat, respectively. 4154 (85%) patients in the sequential group and 4186 (86%) in the exemestane alone group were disease free at 5 years (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·88-1·08; p=0·60). In the safety analysis, sequential treatment was associated with a higher incidence of gynaecological symptoms (942 [20%] of 4814 vs 523 [11%] of 4852), venous thrombosis (99 [2%] vs 47 [1%]), and endometrial abnormalities (191 [4%] vs 19 [<1%]) than was exemestane alone. Musculoskeletal adverse events (2448 [50%] vs 2133 [44%]), hypertension (303 [6%] vs 219 [5%]), and hyperlipidaemia (230 [5%] vs 136 [3%]) were reported more frequently with exemestane alone. Treatment regimens of exemestane alone or after tamoxifen might be judged to be appropriate options for postmenopausal women with

  16. Early stages of styrene-isoprene copolymerization in gas phase clusters probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Hatem; Germanenko, Igor N; El-Shall, M Samy

    2006-04-06

    We present direct evidence for the formation of the covalent bonded styrene (isoprene)(2) oligomer and the isoprene dimer ions following resonance ionization of the gas phase styrene-isoprene binary clusters. The application of resonance ionization to study polymerization reactions in clusters provides new information on the structure and mechanism of formation of the early stages of polymerization and holds considerable promise for the discovery of new initiation mechanisms and for the development of novel materials with unique properties.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  18. Follicular lymphoma: 2014 update on diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Arnold

    2014-04-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphoadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly, and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, nightsweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age >60 years, hemoglobin <12 g/dL, serum LDH > normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and  ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease. With the use of more modern therapies, outcomes have improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Experimental therapies as well as stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered for recurrent disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Cranial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; González-Schaffinni, M A; Farías-García, R; Rey-Laborde, R

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid follicular carcinoma is able to produce metastatic lesions before the vanishing of the primary lesion. We present a case of a woman with a lytic, solitary, asymptomatic parietal bone lesion of 2 years of evolution. Autopsy revealed a thyroid gland with two small cystic areas and renal metastasis. Thyroid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of lytic bone lesions with long evolution in patients 60 years of age or older.

  20. The practical application of adaptive study design in early phase clinical trials: a retrospective analysis of time savings.

    PubMed

    Lorch, U; Berelowitz, K; Ozen, C; Naseem, A; Akuffo, E; Taubel, J

    2012-05-01

    The interest in adaptive study design is evident from the growing amount of clinical research employing this model in the mid to later stages of medicines development. Little has been published on the practical application and merits of adaptive study design in early phase clinical research. This paper describes a retrospective analysis performed on a sample of 29 industry lead adaptive early phase studies commencing between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010 in a clinical trials unit in London, England. All studies containing at least one adaptive feature in the original protocol were included in the analysis. The scope of the analysis was to assess whether the use of adaptive study designs provided tangible benefits over the use of conventional study designs using time savings as the main measure. We conclude that the use of adaptive study design saves time in early phase research programs. This is achieved by abolishing the need for substantial amendments or by mitigating their impact on timelines and by using adaptive scheduling efficiencies.

  1. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential role of afferent and efferent renal nerves in the maintenance of early- and late-phase Dahl S hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Jason D.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data suggest that renal denervation (RDNX) may be an effective treatment for human hypertension; however, it is unclear whether this therapeutic effect is due to ablation of afferent or efferent renal nerves. We have previously shown that RDNX lowers arterial pressure in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats to a similar degree observed in clinical trials. In addition, we have recently developed a method for selective ablation of afferent renal nerves (renal-CAP). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of RDNX in the Dahl S rat is due to ablation of afferent renal nerves by comparing the effect of complete RDNX to renal-CAP during two phases of hypertension in the Dahl S rat. In the early phase, rats underwent treatment after 3 wk of high-NaCl feeding when mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ∼140 mmHg. In the late phase, rats underwent treatment after 9 wk of high NaCl feeding, when MAP was ∼170 mmHg. RDNX reduced MAP ∼10 mmHg compared with sham surgery in both the early and late phase, whereas renal-CAP had no antihypertensive effect. These results suggest that, in the Dahl S rat, the antihypertensive effect of RDNX is not dependent on pretreatment arterial pressure, nor is it due to ablation of afferent renal nerves. PMID:26661098

  4. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    discussed by the study participants to date have set the agenda for additional work that will continue for at least another year, culminating in a final report that should be useful to current and new nations and partnerships in planning human missions beyond LEO. In addition, over the past two years, NASA has made progress in integrating planetary protection considerations into mission designs along with other important human, environmental and science needs. Details about planetary protection have also been incorporated into the latest Addendum of the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human missions to Mars. Other ongoing studies of Mars human mission architecture, technologies and operations have likewise been integrating PP requirements and guidelines into cross-cutting measures of various types. An important objective of all these studies is to proactively gather and communicate PP information to the broad community of planners, engineers and assorted partners who are facing the challenges of future human exploration missions. By analyzing ways to integrate PP provisions effectively into early mission phases in synergism with other needs, these projects and studies will help ensure that all institutions and organizations avoid releasing harmful contamination on bodies with biological potential, thereby ensuring protection of the Earth and astronauts throughout their missions and safeguarding the integrity of science exploration—all in compliance with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

  5. Phytochrome-mediated germination and early development in spores of Dryopteris filix-mas L.: phase-specific and non phase-specific inhibition by staurosporine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, C. J.; Scheuerlein, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The alkaloid staurosporine, currently known as the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC, was tested for its ability to inhibit phytochrome-mediated spore germination in Dryopteris filix-mas L., evaluated by the induction of chlorophyll synthesis. Approximately half-maximal inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 10(-5) M. This effect of staurosporine was phase-specific and was found during the same period in which the presence of extracellular calcium is necessary for realization of the light signal. Furthermore, the ability of staurosporine to prevent progression of a germinated spore into early gametophyte development, evaluated by the accumulation of chlorophyll, was examined. Again, staurosporine (10(-5) M) significantly diminished chlorophyll accumulation, determined quantitatively in vivo by single-cell measurements, in a non-phase specific way. The fact that the phase-specific inhibitory effect of staurosporine in preventing germination was coincident with the phase-specific requirement of Ca2+ suggests that both Ca2+ and staurosporine affect the same step in the signal-transduction chain. A phosphorylation event catalysed by PKC or any Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase is proposed as the target of staurosporine and Ca2+.

  6. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  7. [The correlation between serum uric acid level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Zheng, F P; Li, H

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid (SUA) level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR). Totally 367 community NGR residents confirmed by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test were enrolled. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the early-phase insulin secretion index after a glucose load (ΔI30/ΔG30) were used to estimate the insulin sensitivity and the early-phase insulin secretion, respectively. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the SUA level quartiles. Differences in early-phase insulin levels, ΔI30/ΔG30, and HOMA-IR were compared among the 4 groups. Age, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin (FINS), 30 minutes postprandial insulin(30 minINS), 2 hours postprandial insulin(2hINS), HOMA-IR and TG levels increased across the rising categories of SUA levels, while the HDL-C was decreased across the SUA groups (P<0.01). The SUA level was positively correlated with age(r=0.157, P<0.01), BMI(r=0.262, P<0.01), waist circumference(r=0.372, P<0.01), systolic blood pressure(r=0.200, P<0.01), diastolic blood pressure(r=0.254, P<0.01), 30 minutes postprandial plasma glucose(r=0.118, P=0.023), FINS(r=0.249, P<0.01), 30minINS(r=0.189, P<0.01), 2hINS(r=0.206, P<0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c, r=0.106, P=0.042), HOMA-IR(r=0.244, P<0.01), TG(r=0.350, P<0.01), ΔI30/ΔG30(r=0.144, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with HDL-C level(r=-0.321, P<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that SUA(β=0.292, P<0.01) and HOMA-IR(β=29.821, P<0.01) were positively associated with ΔI30/ΔG30. SUA level is closely related with the early-phase insulin secretion in NGR subjects.

  8. Follicular morphological characteristics may be associated with invasion in follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features.

    PubMed

    Can, Nuray; Celik, Mehmet; Sezer, Yavuz Atakan; Ozyilmaz, Filiz; Ayturk, Semra; Tastekin, Ebru; Sut, Necdet; Gurkan, Hakan; Ustun, Funda; Bulbul, Buket Yilmaz; Guldiken, Sibel; Puyan, Fulya Oz

    2017-08-20

    The newly proposed nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), the noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), could improve the consistency and accuracy of diagnosing this entity. Diagnosis of NIFTP requires evaluation of the complete tumor border or capsule. The presence of tumor invasion in follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features has been recently discussed by many authors. In this study, we examined the predictive value and association of follicular morphological characteristics with the tumor invasion. In addition, we analyzed the association between tumor encapsulation and molecular profile in EFVPTC/NIFTP cases. A total of 106 cases of FVPTC were included in the study. The tumors were grouped based on the presence of tumor capsule and characteristics of tumor border, as 1) completely encapsulated tumors without invasion, 2) encapsulated tumors with invasion, 3) infiltrative tumors without a capsule. Clinicopathological features, histomorphological features [nuclear criteria, minor diagnostic features, follicles oriented perpendicular to tumor border/capsule (FOPBC)] and molecular alterations in BRAF, NRAS, and KRAS genes were evaluated. FOPBC were significantly more frequently seen in encapsulated tumors with invasion (p = 0.008). The nuclear features were not associated with the presence of encapsulation and characteristics of tumor border. BRAF mutation was more frequent in infiltrative tumors, while NRAS mutation was more frequent in encapsulated tumors, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.917). In conclusion, FOPBC histomorphological feature may be associated with tumor invasion in EFVPTC/NIFTP. Additionally, BRAF/KRAS/NRAS mutation analysis may prevent inadequate treatment in these patients.

  9. Nonspecific iodine accumulation in surgical suture material mimicking follicular thyroid cancer bone metastasis in (131)I scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Winkens, Thomas; Nietzsche, Sandor; Gottschaldt, Michael; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2014-02-01

    A 23-year-old man with follicular thyroid carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases showed a clear I focus on the skull after radioiodine therapy; therefore, an osseous metastasis was suspected. I and MRI fusion suggested the I focus to be adjacent to an epicranial suture from an early childhood trepanation for epidural hematoma. Radio-guided surgery found dark brown material to be the source of the radiation and successfully removed the material. Subsequent electron microscopy revealed a thread within the dark brown material, suggesting suture material as the cause of I accumulation.

  10. Pembrolizumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma or Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-24

    Composite Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma

  11. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (<96 h) was used to globally probe the serum metabolome to uncover early prognostic biomarkers of DHF. We identified 20 metabolites that are differentially enriched (p<0.05, fold change >1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved

  12. A new Bayesian Inference-based Phase Associator for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Thomas; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    State of the art network-based Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide warnings for large magnitude 7+ earthquakes. Although regions in the direct vicinity of the epicenter will not receive warnings prior to damaging shaking, real-time event characterization is available before the destructive S-wave arrival across much of the strongly affected region. In contrast, in the case of the more frequent medium size events, such as the devastating 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake, providing timely warning to the smaller damage zone is more difficult. For such events the "blind zone" of current systems (e.g. the CISN ShakeAlert system in California) is similar in size to the area over which severe damage occurs. We propose a faster and more robust Bayesian inference-based event associator, that in contrast to the current standard associators (e.g. Earthworm Binder), is tailored to EEW and exploits information other than only phase arrival times. In particular, the associator potentially allows for reliable automated event association with as little as two observations, which, compared to the ShakeAlert system, would speed up the real-time characterizations by about ten seconds and thus reduce the blind zone area by up to 80%. We compile an extensive data set of regional and teleseismic earthquake and noise waveforms spanning a wide range of earthquake magnitudes and tectonic regimes. We pass these waveforms through a causal real-time filterbank with passband filters between 0.1 and 50Hz, and, updating every second from the event detection, extract the maximum amplitudes in each frequency band. Using this dataset, we define distributions of amplitude maxima in each passband as a function of epicentral distance and magnitude. For the real-time data, we pass incoming broadband and strong motion waveforms through the same filterbank and extract an evolving set of maximum amplitudes in each passband. We use the maximum amplitude distributions to check

  13. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    SciT

    Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigatemore » the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.« less

  14. Phase II Validation of a New Panel of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    While all cancer patients could potentially benefit from earlier detection and prevention, the development of new screening technologies and chemoprevention for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in this regard. EOC is characterized by few early symptoms, presentation at an advanced stage, and poor survival. Presently there is no commercially available test that is diagnostic for either early or advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. The most commonly used marker, CA125, identifies a group of cell surface glycoproteins, which have uncertain biological behavior and very limited clinical utility for the detection of early stage disease. In recent years, several approaches have been used in order to develop a test for early detection, including the analysis of serum samples by SELDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF to find proteins or protein fragments of unknown identity that detect the presence/absence of cancer. Unfortunately, at the present time, none of these techniques have been shown to be adequate. Therefore, the development of a test that can detect early stages of the disease could dramatically improve treatment success and long-term survival. We have developed a new blood test based on a different approach: 1) we used known proteins related to cancer biology, 2) we characterized these proteins with several different screening steps using samples obtained from both healthy and cancer patient populations, and 3) validated the results with different techniques. Using split point analysis with four markers, 96 out of 100 EOC patients (96%) were correctly diagnosed with ovarian cancer (including 23 of 24 patients with Stage I/II EOC). In the healthy group, 6 out of 106 individuals were diagnosed incorrectly (5.6%). Working in collaboration with the Early Detection Network (EDRN/NCI/NIH), we performed Phase I discovery study confirming the potential application of this test for early detection of ovarian cancer (Preliminary results). The main objective of this pr

  15. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Gordon Setters with Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy and Black Hair Follicular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bohnhorst, J Øvrebø; Hanssen, I; Moen, T

    2001-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were demonstrated in 3 out of 10 Gordon setters with symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and in 5 out of 13 Gordon setters with black hair follicular dysplasia. Two dogs showed both symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia, and one of these was ANA positive. The results suggest that symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia in the Gordon setter might be autoimmune diseases that are pathogenetically related, which might indicate a common genetic predisposition. PMID:11887392

  16. Growth hormone regulation of follicular growth.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis-consisting of growth hormone (GH), the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2), GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6, and the cell-surface receptors for GH and the IGFs-has major effects on growth, lactation and reproduction. The primary target tissues for GH are involved in growth and metabolism. The functionality of the somatotropic axis depends in part on the expression of liver GH receptor (GHR), which determines the amount of IGF1 released from the liver in response to GH. The IGF1 acts as a pleiotropic growth factor and also serves as the endocrine negative feedback signal controlling pituitary GH secretion. Growth hormone and IGF1 undergo dynamic changes throughout the life cycle, particularly when animals are either growing, early post partum or lactating. Cells within the reproductive tract can respond directly to GH but to a lesser degree than the primary target tissues. The major impact that GH has on reproduction, therefore, may be secondary to its systemic effects on metabolism (including insulin sensitivity) or secondary to the capacity for GH to control IGF1 secretion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and IGFBP are also synthesised within the ovary and this local synthesis is a component of the collective IGF1 action on the follicle. Future studies of GH should focus on its direct effects on the follicle as well as its indirect effects mediated by shifts in nutrient metabolism, insulin sensitivity, IGF1 and IGFBP.

  17. Uterine blood flow responses to ICI 182 780 in ovariectomized oestradiol-17beta-treated, intact follicular and pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Magness, Ronald R; Phernetton, Terrance M; Gibson, Tiffini C; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2005-05-15

    Oestrogen dramatically increases uterine blood flow (UBF) in ovariectomized (Ovx) ewes. Both the follicular phase and pregnancy are normal physiological states with elevated levels of circulating oestrogen. ICI 182 780 is a pure steroidal oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist that blocks oestrogenic actions in oestrogen-responsive tissue. We hypothesized that an ER-mediated mechanism is responsible for in vivo rises in UBF in physiological states of high oestrogen. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of an ER antagonist on exogenous and endogenous oestradiol-17beta (E2beta)-mediated elevations in UBF. Sheep were surgically instrumented with bilateral uterine artery blood flow transducers, and uterine and femoral artery catheters. Ovx animals (n = 8) were infused with vehicle (35% ethanol) or ICI 182 780 (0.1-3.0 microg min(-1)) into one uterine artery for 10 min before and 50 min after E2beta was given (1 microg kg(-1) I.V. bolus) and UBF was recorded for an additional hour. Intact, cycling sheep were synchronized to the follicular phase using progesterone, prostaglandin F2alpha(PGF2alpha) and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). When peri-ovulatory rises in UBF reached near peak levels, ICI 182 780 (1 or 2 microg (ml uterine blood flow)-1) was infused unilaterally (n = 4 sheep). Ewes in the last stages of pregnancy (late pregnant ewes) were also given ICI 182 780 (0.23-2.0 microg (ml uterine blood flow)-1; 60 min infusion) into one uterine artery (n = 8 sheep). In Ovx sheep, local infusion of ICI 182 780 did not alter systemic cardiovascular parameters, such as mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate; however, it maximally decreased ipsilateral, but not contralateral, UBF vasodilatory responses to exogenous E2beta by approximately 55-60% (P < 0.01). In two models of elevated endogenous E2beta, local ICI 182 780 infusion inhibited the elevated UBF seen in follicular phase and late pregnant ewes in a time-dependent manner by approximately 60% and

  18. Uterine blood flow responses to ICI 182 780 in ovariectomized oestradiol-17β-treated, intact follicular and pregnant sheep

    PubMed Central

    Magness, Ronald R; Phernetton, Terrance M; Gibson, Tiffini C; Chen, Dong-bao

    2005-01-01

    Oestrogen dramatically increases uterine blood flow (UBF) in ovariectomized (Ovx) ewes. Both the follicular phase and pregnancy are normal physiological states with elevated levels of circulating oestrogen. ICI 182 780 is a pure steroidal oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist that blocks oestrogenic actions in oestrogen-responsive tissue. We hypothesized that an ER-mediated mechanism is responsible for in vivo rises in UBF in physiological states of high oestrogen. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of an ER antagonist on exogenous and endogenous oestradiol-17β (E2β)-mediated elevations in UBF. Sheep were surgically instrumented with bilateral uterine artery blood flow transducers, and uterine and femoral artery catheters. Ovx animals (n = 8) were infused with vehicle (35% ethanol) or ICI 182 780 (0.1–3.0 μg min−1) into one uterine artery for 10 min before and 50 min after E2β was given (1 μg kg−1i.v. bolus) and UBF was recorded for an additional hour. Intact, cycling sheep were synchronized to the follicular phase using progesterone, prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). When peri-ovulatory rises in UBF reached near peak levels, ICI 182 780 (1 or 2 μg (ml uterine blood flow)−1) was infused unilaterally (n = 4 sheep). Ewes in the last stages of pregnancy (late pregnant ewes) were also given ICI 182 780 (0.23–2.0 μg (ml uterine blood flow)−1; 60 min infusion) into one uterine artery (n = 8 sheep). In Ovx sheep, local infusion of ICI 182 780 did not alter systemic cardiovascular parameters, such as mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate; however, it maximally decreased ipsilateral, but not contralateral, UBF vasodilatory responses to exogenous E2β by ∼55–60% (P < 0.01). In two models of elevated endogenous E2β, local ICI 182 780 infusion inhibited the elevated UBF seen in follicular phase and late pregnant ewes in a time-dependent manner by ∼60% and 37%, respectively; ipsilateral

  19. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  1. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  2. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  3. Maintenance phase in psoralen-ultraviolet A phototherapy of early-stage mycosis fungoides. A critically appraised topic.

    PubMed

    Grandi, V; Delfino, C; Pileri, A; Pimpinelli, N

    2017-08-01

    A 65-year-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides (MF) stage IB achieved complete remission (CR) after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. The U.S. Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium (USCLC) guidelines suggest that the patient should be kept in the maintenance phase, defined as a 'period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL [ultraviolet light] while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy' by slowly tapering the number of psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) applications over time up to clinical relapse. The USCLC guidelines also suggest a standardized schedule for the maintenance phase. Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow-up. The aim of this critically appraised topic (CAT) was to determine if a maintenance phase gives a significant benefit in terms of relapse rate (RR) and RFI in patients affected by early-stage MF who had achieved CR under PUVA phototherapy. Embase, PubMed and TRIP databases were searched for 'mycosis fungoides' AND [('photochemotherapy' OR 'puva') OR 'psoralen'] in June 2016. Three articles matched our inclusion criteria and are discussed in this CAT. In this field of research the literature is poor and the reported level of evidence is low. Only one of the studies was conducted prospectively, and none were randomized. No significant difference in terms of reduction in relapse rate or increase in RFI in patients who underwent a PUVA maintenance phase emerged when compared with those who went for simple follow-up. Further randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required in order to evaluate maintenance phase vs. no treatment before it can be favoured as the standard protocol of treatment in early-stage MF. At the time of writing this paper, we report an ongoing Austrian multicentre RCT (Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01686594) that will hopefully give useful results in this topic. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (<8 Hz) brain oscillations. Further, we found that music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Cognitive effects of bilateral high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in early phase psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Francis, Michael M; Hummer, Tom A; Vohs, Jenifer L; Yung, Matthew G; Visco, Andrew C; Mehdiyoun, Nikki F; Kulig, Teresa C; Um, Miji; Yang, Ziyi; Motamed, Mehrdad; Liffick, Emily; Zhang, Ying; Breier, Alan

    2018-05-31

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core facet of schizophrenia that is present early in the course of the illness and contributes to diminished functioning and outcomes. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively new neuropsychiatric intervention. Initially used in treatment resistant depression, investigators are now studying rTMS for other psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. In this study we examined the effect of high frequency rTMS on cognitive function in a group of individuals with early phase psychosis. Twenty subjects were randomized (1:1) in double-blind fashion to rTMS or sham condition. Over two weeks subjects underwent ten sessions of high frequency, bilateral, sequential rTMS targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Prior to beginning and following completion of study treatment, subjects completed a cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects receiving rTMS, compared to sham treatment, displayed improvement on a standardized cognitive battery both immediately following the course of study treatment and at follow-up two weeks later. Imaging results revealed that left frontal cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with treatment response. The study treatment was found to be safe and well tolerated. These results suggest that rTMS may hold promise for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in the early phase of psychosis, and that MRI may provide biomarkers predicting response to the treatment.

  6. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  7. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Follicular T helper cells and IL-21 in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lifelong diseases with increased mortality and chronic pains. They are both characterized by immunological imbalances causing the immune system attack and destroy the bodies own tissues (called autoimmune disease). The best treatment, we are currently able to offer these patients, cause significant side-effects and can not prevent significant loss of quality of life. At the heart of the disease mechanisms in RA and SLE are subsets of immune cells called T and B cells. These cell types produce proteins (called antibodies), which under normal circumstances protect the body against disease. In RA and SLE these cells produce antibodies that are directed at the bodies own tissues (called autoantibodies), causing inflammation and tissue damage. The cause of this loss of tolerance is still unknown. Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is thought to exert key functions in controlling and directing the T and B cell responses leading to formation of antibodies and autoantibodies alike. IL-21 is a signaling molecule secreted by a subpopulation of T cells called follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. IFNα is another signaling molecule of key importance in autoimmune disease. Stratification of SLE patients by their responsiveness to IFNα has proven a crucial tool in stratifying patients in terms of disease development and treatment response. The aim of this PhD study is to investigate the role of IL-21 and IFNα, and their effects on Tfh cells and B cells and the formation of autoantibodies in RA and SLE. The first part of this study addresses whether plasma levels of IL-21 influence disease activity in rheumatic disease. We further investigate the distribution of IL-21-producing Tfh cells in these patients. We find that IL-21 plasma levels correlate to disease activity and radiological progression in RA, and that the IL-21-producing Tfh cell are increased in the blood and synovial fluid of these patients. These findings

  9. A new insight into the phase transition in the early Universe with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Bian, Ligong; Jiang, Yun

    2018-05-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition in the alignment limit of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of Type I and Type II. The effective potential is evaluated at one-loop, where the thermal potential includes Daisy corrections and is reliably approximated by means of a sum of Bessel functions. Both 1-stage and 2-stage electroweak phase transitions are shown to be possible, depending on the pattern of the vacuum development as the Universe cools down. For the 1-stage case focused on in this paper, we analyze the properties of phase transition and discover that the field value of the electroweak symmetry breaking vacuum at the critical temperature at which the first order phase transition occurs is largely correlated with the vacuum depth of the 1-loop potential at zero temperature. We demonstrate that a strong first order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) in the 2HDM is achievable and establish benchmark scenarios leading to different testable signatures at colliders. In addition, we verify that an enhanced triple Higgs coupling (including loop corrections) is a typical feature of the SFOPT driven by the additional doublet. As a result, SFOEWPT might be able to be probed at the LHC and future lepton colliders through Higgs pair production.

  10. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  11. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dumnicka, Paulina; Maduzia, Dawid; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1) we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2) we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients. PMID:28208708

  12. Maternal sympathetic stress impairs follicular development and puberty of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Barra, Rafael; Cruz, Gonzalo; Mayerhofer, Artur; Paredes, Alfonso; Lara, Hernán E

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cold stress applied to adult rats activates ovarian sympathetic innervation and develops polycystic ovary (PCO) phenotype. The PCO syndrome in humans originates during early development and is expressed before or during puberty, which suggests that the condition derived from in utero exposure to neural- or metabolic-derived insults. We studied the effects of maternal sympathetic stress on the ovarian follicular development and on the onset of puberty of female offspring. Timed pregnant rats were exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C, 3 h/daily from 1000 to 1300 h) during the entire pregnancy. Neonatal rats exposed to sympathetic stress during gestation had a lower number of primary, primordial, and secondary follicles in the ovary and a lower recruitment of primary and secondary follicles derived from the primordial follicular pool. The expression of the FSH receptor and response of the neonatal ovary to FSH were reduced. A decrease in nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA was found without change in the low-affinity NGF receptor. The FSH-induced development of secondary follicles was decreased. At puberty, estradiol plasma levels decreased without changes in LH plasma levels. Puberty onset (as shown by the vaginal opening) was delayed. Ovarian norepinephrine (NE) was reduced; there was no change in its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, in stressed rats and no change in NE turnover. The changes in ovarian NE in prepubertal rats stressed during gestation could represent a lower development of sympathetic nerves as a compensatory response to the chronically increased NE levels during gestation and hence participate in delaying reproductive performance in the rat. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Methylene blue prevents surgery-induced peritoneal adhesions but impairs the early phase of anastomotic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Soykan; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Kuru, Bekir; Karaca, Sefa; Ustun, Huseyin; Alagol, Haluk; Renda, Nurten; Oz, Murat

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Adhesion formation continues to be an important problem in gastrointestinal surgery. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has been reported to be an effective agent for preventing peritoneal adhesions. However, its effects on the wound healing process are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MB on the early and late phases of anastomotic wound healing and on adhesion formation. Methods We randomly categorized 92 rats into 2 groups in bursting pressure measurements and 50 rats into 3 groups in the adhesion model. We divided the animals into saline-treated (n = 46) or MB-treated (n = 46) groups. Bursting pressures of the anastomoses were measured on postoperative days 3 and 7. In biochemical studies, tissue hydroxyproline levels, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity were measured on postoperative days 3 and 7. In the adhesion model, we randomly categorized rats into sham (n = 10), saline-treated (n = 20) and MB-treated (n = 20) groups, and the formation of intraperitoneal adhesions was scored on postoperative day 14. We compared the measurement of bursting pressure and biochemical measurements of tissue hydroxyproline levels, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity. Histopathological findings of specimens were presented. Results During the early phase of wound healing (postoperative day 3), bursting pressures, tissue hydroxyproline, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity in the MB-treated group were significantly lower than those of the saline-treated group. On postoperative day 7, there was no significant difference in these parameters between MB and saline-treated groups. In the adhesion model, MB caused a significant reduction in the formation of peritoneal adhesions. Conclusion MB prevents peritoneal adhesions but causes a significant impairment of anastomotic bursting pressure during the early phase of the wound healing process by its transient

  14. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    PubMed

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  15. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    PubMed

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control groups during the period between 0 and 72 h after PGF2α administration. No significant difference was detected in the growth of dominant follicles, maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicles and the changes in oestradiol and progesterone during the follicular phase between treatment and control groups. This study showed the clear daily fluctuations and stimulatory changes in the blood glucose concentrations at 24-h intervals during the short-term treatment of propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  16. Refractoriness to immunochemotherapy in follicular lymphoma: Predictive factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Sorigue, Marc; Mercadal, Santiago; Alonso, Sara; Fernández-Álvarez, Ruben; García, Olga; Moreno, Miriam; Pomares, Helena; Alcoceba, Miguel; González-García, Esther; Motlló, Cristina; González-Barca, Eva; Martin, Alejandro; Sureda, Anna; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep-María; Sancho, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma is characterized by a good response to immunochemotherapy (ICT). However, a small percentage of patients responds poorly to treatment and seems to have a worse outcome. This study attempted to identify the predictive factors and outcome of refractoriness to first-line ICT. All patients diagnosed with stage II to IV follicular lymphoma between 2002 and 2014 and treated with first-line ICT in 4 Spanish institutions were analyzed. Those with no response or progression or relapse within 6 months of first-line response assessment were considered ICT refractory. Three hundred forty-three patients were included (median age 58 years, 48% male), of whom 53 (15%) were ICT refractory. On multivariate analysis, high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) score, B symptoms, and elevated β2-microglobulin were correlated with refractoriness, and refractoriness, high-risk FLIPI score, and β2-microglobulin were correlated with overall survival (OS). Compared with ICT-sensitive, ICT-refractory patients had a higher incidence of histological transformation (5-year cumulative incidence 25% [14%-39%] vs. 6% [3%-10%], P < .001), a higher rate of refractoriness to second-line therapy (16/33 [48%] vs. 13/57 [23%], P = .01), and a lower OS (5-year OS probability 38% [95% CI 23%-53%] vs. 87% [82%-92%%], P < .001). In conclusion, refractoriness to ICT was seen in 15% of patients and was predicted by high-FLIPI scores, B symptoms, and elevated serum β2-micrglobulin. Immunochemotherapy-refractory patients had a worse prognosis than ICT-sensitive patients, and current treatment options for this subgroup are not satisfactory. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  18. Decision making and distress among individuals diagnosed with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Poe, Jennifer K; Hayslip, John W; Studts, Jamie L

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent lymphoma that generally responds well to treatment. However, individuals with FL commonly face multiple complex treatment decision-making (TDM) experiences because it frequently follows a relapsing and remitting course. This study explored TDM and distress among individuals with FL (N = 32). Results indicated that most participants reported little decisional conflict or regret and wanted to be actively involved in TDM. However, more than 25% of participants reported clinically-relevant cancer-specific distress, and 60% indicated moderate or higher anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to clarify the cause and course of the psychological distress revealed in this study.

  19. [The role of apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicular atresia].

    PubMed

    Grotowski, W; Lecybył, R; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Trzeciak, W H

    1997-07-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in the process of morphogenesis and embryogenesis. Its increase or inhibition is an etiopathological factor in many different diseases. It has recently been shown that apoptosis of granulosa cells is one of the main mechanisms responsible for follicular atresia. There are many other factors influencing the process of granulosa cells apoptosis, among them the most important are: RnGH, FSH, LH, sex hormones (estrogens and androgens), growth factors and their receptors (EGF/TGF-alpha, FGF, IGF-1) and cytokines (e.g. TNF-alpha). The article presents data concerning the regulatory mechanisms of granulosa cells apoptosis in the ovary.

  20. HIV and T follicular helper cells: a dangerous relationship

    PubMed Central

    Vinuesa, Carola G.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection leads to progressive destruction of infected CD4 T cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and loss of memory B cells. Germinal centers, which are key to memory B cell formation and protective antibody responses, are major HIV reservoirs in which the virus replicates within T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In this issue of the JCI, the Koup and Streeck groups report that chronic SIV/HIV infection promotes TFH cell accumulation, which may drive B cell dysregulation. Their discoveries suggest that HIV harnesses TFH cells to evade the antibody response. PMID:22922252

  1. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss. PMID:23487317

  2. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    PubMed

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  3. Extension of quality-by-design concept to the early development phase of pharmaceutical R&D processes.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Ildikó; Pallagi, Edina; Paál, Tamás L

    2018-03-27

    Here, we propose the extension of the quality-by-design (QbD) concept to also fit the early development phases of pharmaceuticals by adding elements that are currently widely applied, but not yet included in the QbD model in a structured way. These are the introduction of a 'zero' preformulation phase (i.e., selection of drug substance, possible dosage forms and administration routes based on the evaluated therapeutic need); building in stakeholders' (industry, patient, and regulatory) requirements into the quality target product profile (QTTP); and the use of modern quality management tools during the composition and process design phase [collecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) and selection of CPPs) for (still laboratory-scale) design space (DS) development. Moreover, during industrial scale-up, CQAs (as well as critical process parameters; CPPs) can be changed; however, we recommend that the existing QbD elements are reconsidered and updated after this phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  5. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2006-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system. From 20 volunteers (age 20-36 years) with normal cycles and no use of oral contraceptives, samples were taken every day during their cycle. Volunteers received three vaginal ultrasound examinations (days 10 and 13, and 1 or 2 days after ovulation) to measure follicular and corpus luteum development. Hormone levels were measured using the corresponding ARCHITECT assay and were synchronized to the LH peak. Median, and 5th and 95th percentile values were determined for each day of the cycle, as well as for early follicular (days -15 to -6), late follicular (days -5 to -1), LH peak (day 0), early luteal (+1 to +4), mid-luteal (days +5 to +9), and late luteal (days +10 to +14) phases of the cycle. Based on our data, we were able to establish detailed reference values for LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone, which should aid in the interpretation of results for these reproductive hormones in a variety of circumstances.

  6. Entropy production during an isothermal phase transition in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    The analytical model of Lodenquai and Dixit (1983) and of Bonometto and Matarrese (1983) of an isothermal era in the early universe is extended here to arbitrary temperatures. It is found that a sufficiently large supercooling gives rise to a large entropy production which may significantly dilute the primordial monopole or baryon to entropy ratio. Whether such large supercooling can be achieved depends on the characteristics of the nucleation process.

  7. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  8. Regenerative hair waves in aging mice and extra-follicular modulators follistatin, dkk1, and sfrp4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Murray, Philip J; Jiang, Ting Xin; Plikus, Maksim V; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lee, Oscar K; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Hair cycling is modulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to hair follicles. Cycling defects lead to conditions such as aging-associated alopecia. Recently, we demonstrated that mouse skin exhibits regenerative hair waves, reflecting a coordinated regenerative behavior in follicle populations. Here, we use this model to explore the regenerative behavior of aging mouse skin. Old mice (>18 months) tracked over several months show that with progressing age, hair waves slow down, wave propagation becomes restricted, and hair cycle domains fragment into smaller domains. Transplanting aged donor mouse skin to a young host can restore donor cycling within a 3 mm range of the interface, suggesting that changes are due to extracellular factors. Therefore, hair stem cells in aged skin can be reactivated. Molecular studies show that extra-follicular modulators Bmp2, Dkk1, and Sfrp4 increase in early anagen. Further, we identify follistatin as an extra-follicular modulator, which is highly expressed in late telogen and early anagen. Indeed, follistatin induces hair wave propagation and its level decreases in aging mice. We present an excitable medium model to simulate the cycling behavior in aging mice and illustrate how the interorgan macroenvironment can regulate the aging process by integrating both "activator" and "inhibitor" signals.

  9. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    medical imaging, and eight (8) papers published in leading international conferences. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alzheimer disease, Amyloid plaque, X-ray phase...11 4 Introduction A. Overall: As the elderly population increases, dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a major...with an emphasis on improving the performance of G1 and G2, and the development of algorithmic solutions to deal with the issue caused by the

  10. The effect of follicular wave on fertility characteristics in beef cattle

    Adequate fertility of beef cattle in the US is a major economic concern. The use of luminogenic substrates to ascertain steroid metabolism in beef females bred to the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave versus the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave in this study further provi...

  11. Proteomics analysis identified peroxiredoxin 2 involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Kentaro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Suzuki, Yuka; Inoue, Chisa; Ichihara, Gaku; Kurimoto, Syota; Oikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of myocardial proteins involved in early-phase cardiac impairment, using proteomics analysis. Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, we compared differences in the expression of proteins in the whole left ventricles between control hamsters, dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2), and hypertrophy cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio14.6) at 6 weeks of age (n = 6, each group). Proteomic analysis identified 10 protein spots with significant alterations, with 7 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated proteins in the left ventricles of both TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters, compared with control hamsters. Of the total alterations, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) showed significant upregulation in the left ventricles of TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters. Our data suggest that PRDX2, a redox regulating molecule, is involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

  12. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  13. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-06

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%-15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP.

  14. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Wilder, Aryn P; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2006-10-17

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.

  15. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, nucleotide phosophate, and organic and inorganic phosphate levels during the early phases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Y; Gerson, J R; Bessman, A N

    1977-05-01

    The relation between serum and red blood cell (RBC) inorganic phosphate levels, RBC 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels, RBC nucleotide phosphate (Pn), and RBC total phosphate (Pt) levels were studied during the early phases of treatment and recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A steady drop in serum inorganic phosphate was found during the first 24 hours of insulin treatment and was most profound at 24 hours. No statistically significant changes (P less than 0.05) were found in red cell inorganic phosphate or nucleotide phosphate levels during the 24-hour study period. The levels of total red cell phosphate were lower in this group of patients than in nonacidotic diabetic subjects and decreased slightly after 24 hours of treatment. The red cell 2,3-DPG levels were low at the initiation of therapy and remained low during the 24-hour study period. Glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, and ketone levels fell in linear patterns with treatment. In view of the current evidence for the effects of low 2,3-DPG on oxygen delivery and the relation of low serum phosphate levels to RBC glycolysis and 2,3-DPG formation, this study reemphasizes the need for phosphate replacement during the early phases of treatment of DKA.

  16. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  17. Follicular Fluid redox involvement for ovarian follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudia; Neto, Ana Catarina; Matos, Liliana; Silva, Elisabete; Ribeiro, Ângela; Silva-Carvalho, João Luís; Almeida, Henrique

    2017-07-12

    As the human ovarian follicle enlarges in the course of a regular cycle or following controlled ovarian stimulation, the changes in its structure reveal the oocyte environment composed of cumulus oophorus cells and the follicular fluid (FF).In contrast to the dynamic nature of cells, the fluid compartment appears as a reservoir rich in biomolecules. In some aspects, it is similar to the plasma, but it also exhibits differences that likely relate to its specific localization around the oocyte. The chemical composition indicates that the follicular fluid is able to detect and buffer excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species, employing a variety of antioxidants, some of them components of the intracellular milieu.An important part is played by albumin through specific cysteine residues. But the fluid contains other molecules whose cysteine residues may be involved in sensing and buffering the local oxidative conditions. How these molecules are recruited and regulated to intervene such process is unknown but it is a critical issue in reproduction.In fact, important proteins in the FF, that regulate follicle growth and oocyte quality, exhibit cysteine residues at specific points, whose untoward oxidation would result in functional loss. Therefore, preservation of controlled oxidative conditions in the FF is a requirement for the fine-tuned oocyte maturation process. In contrast, its disturbance enhances the susceptibility to the establishment of reproductive disorders that would require the intervention of reproductive medicine technology.

  18. Dermoscopy of inverted follicular keratosis: study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Llambrich, A; Zaballos, P; Taberner, R; Terrasa, F; Bañuls, J; Pizarro, A; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2016-07-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is an uncommon benign tumour of the follicular infundibulum, which is often misdiagnosed clinically as other keratinizing tumours, and commonly diagnosed correctly by histopathology. There are few reports about the dermoscopic findings of this lesion. To evaluate the dermoscopic features of IFK. The dermoscopic structures and patterns in digital dermoscopic images of 12 histopathologically confirmed cases of IFK collected from 5 hospitals in Spain were evaluated. A keratoacanthoma (KA)-like pattern composed of central keratin surrounded by hairpin vessels in a radial arrangement was the most common pattern in IFK (58.3%). The second most common pattern was composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area surrounded by vascular structures in a radial arrangement (33.3%). The remaining case showed a pattern composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area with milky red globules. Vascular structures were present in all cases, with a monomorphic pattern in seven cases and a polymorphic pattern in five, mainly with radial arrangement. Arborizing vessels, linear irregular vessels, corkscrew vessels and milky red globules were present in some cases. We describe the two main patterns of IFK. Lesions with a KA-like pattern are clinically and dermoscopically undistinguishable from KA and squamous cell carcinoma. Cases with a polymorphic vascular pattern could be confused with malignant tumours, including basal cell carcinoma and amelanotic melanoma. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Pros and cons of rituximab maintenance in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ghielmini, Michele; Cheson, Bruce D; Ujjani, Chaitra

    2017-07-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most prevalent indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients present with advanced disease and are incurable with current therapy. The approval of rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of follicular lymphoma when administered in the induction setting for high-tumor burden disease, but the use of rituximab as a maintenance therapy (MR) continues to be a point of controversy. In this article, we review the main data and arguments in favor and against MR in FL. In summary, most studies have demonstrated a significant benefit in progression-free or event-free survival in this notoriously recurrent disease; however, long-term outcomes could not consistently demonstrate to be improved with this intervention. In a meta-analysis of randomized trials overall survival (OS) showed a tendency to improvement when given to patients in relapse, but no single study reached a significant OS advantage. The risk of high-grade transformation does not seem to be reduced in prospective trials. On the other hand, MR clearly increases toxicity without an improvement in quality of life. Finally, MR is expensive, and it is not proven that the delayed relapse time can compensate for these costs. In conclusion, despite the proven increase in progression-free survival, MR can't be recommended as a standard for the treatment of FL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory parameters of the lung immune response during the early phase of experimental trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Gentilini, María V; Venturiello, Stella M

    2016-11-15

    Parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis provokes an early stimulation of the mucosal immune system which causes an allergic inflammatory response in the lungs. The present work was intended to characterize the kinetics of emergence of regulatory parameters in Wistar rat lungs during this early inflammatory response, between days 0 and 13p.i. The presence of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) was analyzed in lung cell suspensions. Moreover, a regulatory cytokine (TGF-β) was studied in lung tissue extracts. Considering that newborn larvae (NBL) travel along the pulmonary microvasculature, the ability of this parasite stage to modulate the activation of lung macrophages was evaluated. For this purpose, lung macrophages from non-infected or infected rats (day 6p.i.) were cultured with live or dead NBL. Arginase activity (characteristic of AAM) and nitric oxide (NO produced by iNOS, characteristic of classical activated macrophages) were measured after 48h. Our results revealed a significant increase in the percentage of Tregs on days 6 and 13p.i., arginase activity on day 13p.i. and TGF-β levels on days 6 and 13p.i. Lung macrophages from non-infected rats cultured with live NBL showed a significant increase in arginase activity and NO levels. Live and dead NBL induced a significant increase in arginase activity in lung macrophages from infected rats. Only live NBL significantly increased NO levels in these macrophages. The present work demonstrates for the first time, the emergence of regulatory parameters in the early lung immune response during T. spiralis infection. The immumodulatory properties exerted by NBL during its passage through this organ could be the cause of such regulation. Moreover, we have shown the ability of NBL to activate macrophages from the lung parenchyma by the classical and alternative pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  3. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together.

  4. Solid Waste Processing: An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergic, technocentric approach estimate that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems. Hence, any early missions will require the presence of a closed life support system where all wastes, both solids and liquids, will need to be recycled or where all consumables will need to be supplied. The economics of both are often a matter of speculation and conjecture, but some attempt is made here to evaluate the choice. If a choice is made to completely resupply and eject the waste mass, a number of unknown issues are at hand. On the other hand, processing of the wastes, will enable predictability and reliability of the ecosystem. Solid wastes though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes contains more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Further, if left unprocessed they present a serious risk to human health. This paper presents the use of well established technology in processing solid wastes, ensuring that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.

  5. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  6. Aural exostoses (surfer's ear) provide vital fossil evidence of an aquatic phase in Man's early evolution.

    PubMed

    Rhys Evans, P H; Cameron, M

    2017-11-01

    For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution. In 1992 the senior author suggested that aural exostoses were evolved in early hominid Man for protection of the delicate tympanic membrane during swimming and diving by narrowing the ear canal in a similar fashion to other semiaquatic species. We now provide evidence for this theory and propose an aetiological explanation for the formation of exostoses.

  7. A study of cannabinoid-1 receptors during the early phase of excitotoxic damage to rat spinal locomotor networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Priyadharishini; Dekanic, Ana; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids acting on cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed to protect brain and spinal neurons from excitotoxic damage. The ability to recover from spinal cord injury (SCI), in which excitotoxicity is a major player, is usually investigated at late times after modulation of CB1Rs whose role in the early phases of SCI remains unclear. Using the rat spinal cord in vitro as a model for studying SCI initial pathophysiology, we investigated if agonists or antagonists of CB1Rs might affect SCI induced by the excitotoxic agent kainate (KA) within 24h from a transient (1h) application of this glutamate agonist. The CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA or pharmacological block of its degradation) did not limit excitotoxic depolarization of spinal networks: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay demonstrated that CB1Rs remained functional 24h later and similarly expressed among dead or survived cells. Locomotor-like network activity recorded from ventral roots could not recover with such treatments and was associated with persistent depression of synaptic transmission. Motoneurons, that are particularly vulnerable to KA, were not protected by AEA. Application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol also did not attenuate the electrophysiological and histological damage. The intensification of damage by the CB1 antagonist AM251 suggested that endocannabinoids were operative after excitotoxic stimulation, yet insufficient to contrast it efficiently. The present data indicate that the early phases of excitotoxic SCI could not be arrested by pharmacologically exploiting the endocannabinoid system, consistent with the notion that AEA and its derivatives are more useful to treat late SCI phases. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical factors of response in patients with advanced ovarian cancer participating in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    George, Angela; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Rafii, Saeed; Michie, Caroline O; Bowen, Rebecca; Michalarea, Vasiliki; van Hagen, Tom; Wong, Mabel; Rallis, Grigorios; Molife, L Rhoda; Lopez, Juanita; Banerji, Udai; Banerjee, Susana N; Gore, Martin E; de Bono, Johann S; Kaye, Stan B; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-05-01

    Drug resistance to conventional anticancer therapies is almost inevitable in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC), limiting their available treatment options. Novel phase I trial therapies within a dedicated drug development unit may represent a viable alternative; however, there is currently little evidence for patient outcomes in such patients. To address this, we undertook a retrospective review of patients with AOC allocated to phase I trials in the Drug Development Unit at Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) between June 1998 and October 2010. A total of 200 AOC patients with progressive disease were allocated to ≥1 trial each, with a total of 281 allocations. Of these, 135 (68%) patients commenced ≥1 trial (mean 1.4 [1-8]), totaling 216 allocated trials; 65 (32%) patients did not start due to deterioration resulting from rapidly progressive disease (63 patients) or patient choice (2 patients). Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) complete/partial responses (CR/PR) were observed in 43 (20%) of those starting trials, including those on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (18/79 [23%]), antiangiogenics (9/65 [14%]) and chemotherapy combinations (14/43 [33%]). Factors associated with CR/PR included: fewer prior treatments, platinum-sensitive disease, CR/PR with prior therapy, (the United States-based) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, fewer metastatic sites, higher albumin and haemoglobin levels, lower white cell counts and baseline CA125 levels, germline BRCA1/2 mutations and better RMH Prognostic Score. Mean survival was 32° months for patients who achieved CR/PR. Treatments were generally well tolerated. Most patients with AOC (134/200 [67%]) received ≥1 subsequent line of therapy after phase I trials. Our data suggest that phase I trial referrals should be considered earlier in the AOC treatment pathway and before the onset of rapid disease progression particularly with the emergence of

  9. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-Ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    fibrils in the x-ray phase contrast CT imaging, as a function over the molar concentrations corresponding to normal, pathologic and Alzheimer’s...panel imagers and the artifact removal using a wavelet -analysis-based algorithm” Med. Phys., 28(3): 812-25, 2001. 4. X Wu and H Liu, “Clinical...and the artifact removal using a wavelet -analysis-based algorithm” Med. Phys., 28(3): 812-25, 2001 12. Tang X, Hsieh J, Nilsen RA, Hagiwara A

  10. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    SciT

    Marking, Gregory Allen

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf 10Ta 3S 3 was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the knownmore » gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported "stuffed" gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo Kα X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co 2Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.« less

  11. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation: II. The role of connexin 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Tran, D. T.; Murray, D. K.; Rightnar, S. S.; Todd, S.; Nelson, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether connexin 32-type gap junctions contribute to the "contact effect" in follicular thyrocytes and whether the response is influenced by radiation quality. Our previous studies demonstrated that early-passage follicular cultures of Fischer rat thyroid cells express functional connexin 32 gap junctions, with later-passage cultures expressing a truncated nonfunctional form of the protein. This model allowed us to assess the role of connexin 32 in radiation responsiveness without relying solely on chemical manipulation of gap junctions. The survival curves generated after gamma irradiation revealed that early-passage follicular cultures had significantly lower values of alpha (0.04 Gy(-1)) than later-passage cultures (0.11 Gy(-1)) (P < 0.0001, n = 12). As an additional way to determine whether connexin 32 was contributing to the difference in survival, cultures were treated with heptanol, resulting in higher alpha values, with early-passage cultures (0.10 Gy(-1)) nearly equivalent to untreated late-passage cultures (0.11 Gy(-1)) (P > 0.1, n = 9). This strongly suggests that the presence of functional connexin 32-type gap junctions was contributing to radiation resistance in gamma-irradiated thyroid follicles. Survival curves from proton-irradiated cultures had alpha values that were not significantly different whether cells expressed functional connexin 32 (0.10 Gy(-1)), did not express connexin 32 (0.09 Gy(-1)), or were down-regulated (early-passage plus heptanol, 0.09 Gy(-1); late-passage plus heptanol, 0.12 Gy(-1)) (P > 0.1, n = 19). Thus, for proton irradiation, the presence of connexin 32-type gap junctional channels did not influence their radiosensitivity. Collectively, the data support the following conclusions. (1) The lower alpha values from the gamma-ray survival curves of the early-passage cultures suggest greater repair efficiency and/or enhanced resistance to radiation-induced damage, coincident with the

  12. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  14. A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial after stroke (AVERT): a Phase III, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Langhorne, Peter; Wu, Olivia; Rodgers, Helen; Ashburn, Ann; Bernhardt, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Mobilising patients early after stroke [early mobilisation (EM)] is thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of stroke unit care but it is poorly defined and lacks direct evidence of benefit. We assessed the effectiveness of frequent higher dose very early mobilisation (VEM) after stroke. We conducted a parallel-group, single-blind, prospective randomised controlled trial with blinded end-point assessment using a web-based computer-generated stratified randomisation. The trial took place in 56 acute stroke units in five countries. We included adult patients with a first or recurrent stroke who met physiological inclusion criteria. Patients received either usual stroke unit care (UC) or UC plus VEM commencing within 24 hours of stroke. The primary outcome was good recovery [modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-2] 3 months after stroke. Secondary outcomes at 3 months were the mRS, time to achieve walking 50 m, serious adverse events, quality of life (QoL) and costs at 12 months. Tertiary outcomes included a dose-response analysis. Patients, outcome assessors and investigators involved in the trial were blinded to treatment allocation. We recruited 2104 (UK, n  = 610; Australasia, n  = 1494) patients: 1054 allocated to VEM and 1050 to UC. Intervention protocol targets were achieved. Compared with UC, VEM patients mobilised 4.8 hours [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1 to 5.7 hours; p  < 0.0001] earlier, with an additional three (95% CI 3.0 to 3.5; p  < 0.0001) mobilisation sessions per day. Fewer patients in the VEM group ( n  = 480, 46%) had a favourable outcome than in the UC group ( n  = 525, 50%) (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90; p  = 0.004). Results were consistent between Australasian and UK settings. There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes at 3 months and QoL at 12 months. Dose-response analysis found a consistent pattern of an improved odds of efficacy and safety outcomes in

  15. Monitoring early phases of orthodontic treatment by means of Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Perillo, Letizia; Delfino, Ines; Portaccio, Marianna; Lepore, Maria; Camerlingo, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a site-specific exudate in the gingival sulcus. GCF composition changes in response to diseases or mechanical stimuli, such as those occurring during orthodontic treatments. Raman microspectroscopy (μ-RS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were adopted for a GCF analysis during different initial phases of orthodontic force application. GCF samples were pooled from informed patients using paper cones. SERS spectra were obtained from GCF extracted from these cones, whereas μ-RS spectra were directly acquired on paper cones without any manipulation. The spectral characteristics of the main functional groups and the changes in cytochrome, amide III, and amide I contributions were highlighted in the different phases of orthodontic treatment with both SERS and μ-RS analysis. μ-RS directly performed on the paper cones together with proper statistical methods can offer an effective approach for the development of a tool for monitoring the processes occurring during orthodontic treatments, which may help the clinician in the choice of type of treatment individually for each patient and accelerate and improve the orthodontic therapy.

  16. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. PMID:28282868

  17. Two-stage phase II oncology designs using short-term endpoints for early stopping.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Cornelia U; Wason, James Ms; Kieser, Meinhard

    2017-08-01

    Phase II oncology trials are conducted to evaluate whether the tumour activity of a new treatment is promising enough to warrant further investigation. The most commonly used approach in this context is a two-stage single-arm design with binary endpoint. As for all designs with interim analysis, its efficiency strongly depends on the relation between recruitment rate and follow-up time required to measure the patients' outcomes. Usually, recruitment is postponed after the sample size of the first stage is achieved up until the outcomes of all patients are available. This may lead to a considerable increase of the trial length and with it to a delay in the drug development process. We propose a design where an intermediate endpoint is used in the interim analysis to decide whether or not the study is continued with a second stage. Optimal and minimax versions of this design are derived. The characteristics of the proposed design in terms of type I error rate, power, maximum and expected sample size as well as trial duration are investigated. Guidance is given on how to select the most appropriate design. Application is illustrated by a phase II oncology trial in patients with advanced angiosarcoma, which motivated this research.

  18. Pretreatment with myo-inositol in non polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for IVF: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Franco; Carfagna, Piero; Oliva, Mario Montanino; Rago, Rocco; Lisi, Rosella; Poverini, Roberta; Manna, Claudio; Vaquero, Elena; Caserta, Donatella; Raparelli, Valeria; Marci, Roberto; Moscarini, Massimo

    2012-07-23

    Aim of this pilot study is to examine the effects of myo-inositol administration on ovarian response and oocytes and embryos quality in non PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation and in vitro insemination by conventional in vitro fertilization or by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. One hundred non-PCOS women aged <40 years and with basal FSH <10 mUI/ml were down-regulated with triptorelin acetate from the mid-luteal phase for 2 weeks, before starting the stimulation protocol for oocytes recovery. All patients received rFSH, at a starting dose of 150 IU for 6 days. The dose was subsequently adjusted according to individual response. Group B (n=50) received myo-inositol and folic acid for 3 months before the stimulation period and then during the stimulation itself. Group A (n-50) received only folic acid as additional treatment in the 3 months before and through treatment. Total length of the stimulation was similar between the two groups. Nevertheless, total amount of gonadotropins used to reach follicular maturation was found significantly lower in group B. In addition, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced in the group pretreated with myo-inositol. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were not significantly different in the two groups. Our findings suggest that the addition of myo-inositol to folic acid in non PCOS-patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization may reduce the numbers of mature oocytes and the dosage of rFSH whilst maintaining clinical pregnancy rate. Further, a trend in favor of increased incidence of implantation in the group pretreated with myo-inositol was apparent in this study. Further investigations are warranted to clarify this pharmacological approach, and the benefit it may hold for patients.

  19. Pretreatment with myo-inositol in non polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for IVF: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this pilot study is to examine the effects of myo-inositol administration on ovarian response and oocytes and embryos quality in non PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation and in vitro insemination by conventional in vitro fertilization or by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Methods One hundred non-PCOS women aged <40 years and with basal FSH <10 mUI/ml were down-regulated with triptorelin acetate from the mid-luteal phase for 2 weeks, before starting the stimulation protocol for oocytes recovery. All patients received rFSH, at a starting dose of 150 IU for 6 days. The dose was subsequently adjusted according to individual response. Group B (n = 50) received myo-inositol and folic acid for 3 months before the stimulation period and then during the stimulation itself. Group A (n-50) received only folic acid as additional treatment in the 3 months before and through treatment. Results Total length of the stimulation was similar between the two groups. Nevertheless, total amount of gonadotropins used to reach follicular maturation was found significantly lower in group B. In addition, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced in the group pretreated with myo-inositol. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the addition of myo-inositol to folic acid in non PCOS-patients undergoing multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization may reduce the numbers of mature oocytes and the dosage of rFSH whilst maintaining clinical pregnancy rate. Further, a trend in favor of increased incidence of implantation in the group pretreated with myo-inositol was apparent in this study. Further investigations are warranted to clarify this pharmacological approach, and the benefit it may hold for patients. PMID:22823904

  20. Increase in endogenous estradiol in the progeny of obese rats is associated with precocious puberty and altered follicular development in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Valery; Guerra, Marcelo; Ramírez, Luisa A; Reyes, Aldo; Álvarez, Daniela; Olguín, Sofía; González-Mañan, Daniel; Fernandois, Daniela; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Cruz, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been related with several pathological states in offspring. However, the impact of maternal obesity on reproductive system on the progeny is beginning to be elucidated. In this work, we characterize the effect of maternal obesity on puberty onset and follicular development in adult offspring in rats. We also propose that alterations in ovarian physiology observed in offspring of obese mothers are due to increased levels of estradiol during early development. Offspring of control dams and offspring of dams exposed to a high-fat diet (HF) were studied at postnatal days (PND) 1, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120. Body weight and onset of puberty were measured. Counting of ovarian follicles was performed at PND 60 and 120. Serum estradiol, estriol, androstenedione, FSH, LH, and insulin levels were measured by ELISA. Hepatic CYP3A2 expression was determined by Western blot. HF rats had a higher weight than controls at all ages and they also had a precocious puberty. Estradiol levels were increased while CYP3A2 expression was reduced from PND 1 until PND 60 in HF rats compared to controls. Estriol was decreased at PND60 in HF rats. Ovaries from HF rats had a decrease in antral follicles at PND60 and PND120 and an increase in follicular cysts at PND60 and PND120. In this work, we demonstrated that maternal obesity in rats alters follicular development and induces follicular cysts generation in the adult offspring. We observed that maternal obesity produces an endocrine disruption through increasing endogenous estradiol in early life. A programmed failure in hepatic metabolism of estradiol is probably the cause of its increase.

  1. Effects of TORC1 Inhibition during the Early and Established Phases of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Michelle H. T.; Schwensen, Kristina G.; Foster, Sheryl; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Ozimek-Kulik, Justyna E.; Phillips, Jacqueline K.; Peduto, Anthony; Rangan, Gopala K.

    2016-01-01

    The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20). In early-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 63%), slowed the rate of increase in total kidney volume (TKV) in serial MRI by 78.2% (LPK+V: 132.3±59.7 vs. LPK+S: 28.8±12.0% per week) but only partly reduced the percentage renal cyst area (by 19%) and did not affect the decline in endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) in LPK rats. In late-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 22%) and the rate of increase in TKV by 71.8% (LPK+V: 13.1±6.6 vs. LPK+S: 3.7±3.7% per week) but the percentage renal cyst area was unaltered, and the CrCl only marginally better. Sirolimus reduced renal TORC1 activation but not TORC2, NF-κB DNA binding activity, CCL2 or TNFα expression, and abnormalities in cilia ultrastructure, hypertension and cardiac disease were also not improved. Thus, the relative treatment efficacy of TORC1 inhibition on kidney enlargement was consistent at all disease stages, but the absolute effect was determined by the timing of drug initiation. Furthermore, cystic microarchitecture, renal function and cardiac disease remain abnormal with TORC1 inhibition, indicating that additional approaches to normalise cellular dedifferentiation, inflammation and hypertension are required to completely arrest the progression of PKDs. PMID:27723777

  2. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells and HIV Infection: Friends or Enemies?

    PubMed

    Moukambi, Félicien; Rodrigues, Vasco; Fortier, Yasmina; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Borde, Chloé; Krust, Bernard; Andreani, Guadalupe; Silvestre, Ricardo; Petrovas, Constantinos; Laforge, Mireille; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation. Our recent observations indicated an early and profound loss of splenic Tfh cells. The role of transcriptional activator and repressor factors that control Tfh differentiation is also discussed in the context of HIV/SIV infection. Because Tfh cells are important for B cell differentiation and antibody production, accelerating the Tfh responses early during HIV/SIV infection could be promising as novel immunotherapeutic approach or alternative vaccine strategies. However, because Tfh cells are infected during the HIV/SIV infection and represent a reservoir, this may interfere with HIV vaccine strategy. Thus, Tfh represent the good and bad guys during HIV infection.

  3. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells and HIV Infection: Friends or Enemies?

    PubMed Central

    Moukambi, Félicien; Rodrigues, Vasco; Fortier, Yasmina; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Borde, Chloé; Krust, Bernard; Andreani, Guadalupe; Silvestre, Ricardo; Petrovas, Constantinos; Laforge, Mireille; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation. Our recent observations indicated an early and profound loss of splenic Tfh cells. The role of transcriptional activator and repressor factors that control Tfh differentiation is also discussed in the context of HIV/SIV infection. Because Tfh cells are important for B cell differentiation and antibody production, accelerating the Tfh responses early during HIV/SIV infection could be promising as novel immunotherapeutic approach or alternative vaccine strategies. However, because Tfh cells are infected during the HIV/SIV infection and represent a reservoir, this may interfere with HIV vaccine strategy. Thus, Tfh represent the good and bad guys during HIV infection. PMID:28265271

  4. Reconstruction of early phase deformations by integrated magnetic and mesotectonic data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, András A.; Márton, Emő; Fodor, László

    2018-02-01

    Markers of brittle faulting are widely used for recovering past deformation phases. Rocks often have oriented magnetic fabrics, which can be interpreted as connected to ductile deformation before cementation of the sediment. This paper reports a novel statistical procedure for simultaneous evaluation of AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) and fault-slip data. The new method analyzes the AMS data, without linearization techniques, so that weak AMS lineation and rotational AMS can be assessed that are beyond the scope of classical methods. This idea is extended to the evaluation of fault-slip data. While the traditional assumptions of stress inversion are not rejected, the method recovers the stress field via statistical hypothesis testing. In addition it provides statistical information needed for the combined evaluation of the AMS and the mesotectonic (0.1 to 10 m) data. In the combined evaluation a statistical test is carried out that helps to decide if the AMS lineation and the mesotectonic markers (in case of repeated deformation of the oldest set of markers) were formed in the same or different deformation phases. If this condition is met, the combined evaluation can improve the precision of the reconstruction. When the two data sets do not have a common solution for the direction of the extension, the deformational origin of the AMS is questionable. In this case the orientation of the stress field responsible for the AMS lineation might be different from that which caused the brittle deformation. Although most of the examples demonstrate the reconstruction of weak deformations in sediments, the new method is readily applicable to investigate the ductile-brittle transition of any rock formation as long as AMS and fault-slip data are available.

  5. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study.

    PubMed

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Effect of anabolic implants on adrenal cortisol synthesis in feedlot beef cattle implanted early or late in the finishing phase.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Branham, K A; Ellison, J O; Gómez, B I; Lemley, C O; Hart, C G; Krehbiel, C R; Bernhard, B C; Maxwell, C L; Goad, C L; Hallford, D M; Hernandez Gifford, J A

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of anabolic steroids to increase growth rate in beef cattle impacts adrenal glucocorticoid production. The mechanism by which combination androgen and estrogen implants reduce cortisol biosynthesis in heifers is not clear. The objective of this study was to identify whether pituitary or adrenal gene expression and liver enzyme activity may contribute to altered serum cortisol concentrations in heifers receiving a combination implant. On d 0 of a 122-d finishing phase, 187 predominantly Angus heifers (361 kg) approximately 14 months old were randomly assigned to one of three implant groups: (1) non-implanted control, (2) implanted at the beginning of the finishing phase (d 0; early implant) with a combination implant (200mg TBA+20mg E2; Revalor 200®), and (3) implanted during the late stage of the finishing phase (d 56; late implant) with Revalor 200®. At d 56, body weight (BW) was greater (P<0.0001) for the early implanted heifers (456 ± 1.9 kg) compared to 437 and 435 (± 1.8) kg for control and late implanted heifers, respectively. Final BW (d 122) was similar between both implanted groups and heavier than non-implanted controls (P<0.0001). Serum cortisol was similar among groups at d 0 (P=0.86) however, by d 28 heifers receiving the combination implant had reduced (P<0.05) serum cortisol concentrations (31.2 ng/mL) compared to controls (49.4 ng/mL) and late (48.2 ng/mL) groups. On d 84 cortisol was similar (P=0.75) among implanted heifers and was less (P<0.01) than non-implanted heifers. Expression of pituitary and adrenal genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis was evaluated at d 28/29 or 84/85; however, despite decreased serum cortisol in implanted heifers, no change in mRNA expression was demonstrated. Liver CYP3A enzyme activity at d 28/29 was decreased 59% in early implanted heifers compared to control heifers (P=0.01). Additionally, at d 84/85 AKR1C activity was greatest (P=0.01) in control heifers compared to both implanted groups. Data

  7. Women in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle have difficulty suppressing the processing of negative emotional stimuli: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Emotion regulation deficits have been implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders, and these internalising disorders are more prevalent in women than men. Few electrophysiological studies have investigated sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation controlling for menstrual phase. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men who completed an emotion regulation task. A novel finding of increased N2 amplitude during suppression was found for midluteal women compared with men. These findings suggest midluteal women may be significantly less able to suppress cortical processing of negative stimuli compared to men. This ERP finding was complemented by behavioral ratings data which revealed that while both early follicular and midluteal women reported more distress than men, midluteal women also reported greater effort when suppressing their responses than men. P1 and N1 components were increased in midluteal women compared to men regardless of instructional set, suggesting greater early attentional processing. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in P3 or LPP. This study underscores the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of emotion regulation and demonstrates that midluteal women may have deficits in down-regulating their neural and behavioural responses.

  8. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  9. Is nevtral NEUTRAL? Visual similarity effects in the early phases of written-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ana; Perea, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    For simplicity, contemporary models of written-word recognition and reading have unspecified feature/letter levels-they predict that the visually similar substituted-letter nonword PEQPLE is as effective at activating the word PEOPLE as the visually dissimilar substituted-letter nonword PEYPLE. Previous empirical evidence on the effects of visual similarly across letters during written-word recognition is scarce and nonconclusive. To examine whether visual similarity across letters plays a role early in word processing, we conducted two masked priming lexical decision experiments (stimulus-onset asynchrony = 50 ms). The substituted-letter primes were visually very similar to the target letters (u/v in Experiment 1 and i/j in Experiment 2; e.g., nevtral-NEUTRAL). For comparison purposes, we included an identity prime condition (neutral-NEUTRAL) and a dissimilar-letter prime condition (neztral-NEUTRAL). Results showed that the similar-letter prime condition produced faster word identification times than the dissimilar-letter prime condition. We discuss how models of written-word recognition should be amended to capture visual similarity effects across letters.

  10. From Famine to Feast: Developing Early-Phase Combination Immunotherapy Trials Wisely.

    PubMed

    Day, Daphne; Monjazeb, Arta M; Sharon, Elad; Ivy, S Percy; Rubin, Eric H; Rosner, Gary L; Butler, Marcus O

    2017-09-01

    Not until the turn of this century has immunotherapy become a fundamental component of cancer treatment. While monotherapy with immune modulators, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, provides a subset of patients with durable clinical benefit and possible cure, combination therapy offers the potential for antitumor activity in a greater number of patients. The field of immunology has provided us with a plethora of potential molecules and pathways to target. This abundance makes it impractical to empirically test all possible combinations efficiently. We recommend that potential immunotherapy combinations be chosen based on sound rationale and available data to address the mechanisms of primary and acquired immune resistance. Novel trial designs may increase the proportion of patients receiving potentially efficacious treatments and, at the same time, better define the balance of clinical activity and safety. We believe that implementing a strategic approach in the early development of immunotherapy combinations will expedite the delivery of more effective therapies with improved safety and durable outcomes. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    PubMed

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  12. Stable isotope evidence for an amphibious phase in early proboscidean evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander G. S. C.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2008-01-01

    The order Proboscidea includes extant elephants and their extinct relatives and is closely related to the aquatic sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and terrestrial hyracoids (hyraxes). Some analyses of embryological, morphological, and paleontological data suggest that proboscideans and sirenians shared an aquatic or semiaquatic common ancestor, but independent tests of this hypothesis have proven elusive. Here we test the hypothesis of an aquatic ancestry for advanced proboscideans by measuring δ18O in tooth enamel of two late Eocene proboscidean genera, Barytherium and Moeritherium, which are sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans. The combination of low δ18O values and low δ18O standard deviations in Barytherium and Moeritherium matches the isotopic pattern seen in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, and differs from that of terrestrial mammals. δ13C values of these early proboscideans suggest that both genera are likely to have consumed freshwater plants, although a component of C3 terrestrial vegetation cannot be ruled out. The simplest explanation for the combined evidence from isotopes, dental functional morphology, and depositional environments is that Barytherium and Moeritherium were at least semiaquatic and lived in freshwater swamp or riverine environments, where they grazed on freshwater vegetation. These results lend new support to the hypothesis that Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans are derived from amphibious ancestors. PMID:18413605

  13. Stable isotope evidence for an amphibious phase in early proboscidean evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Alexander G S C; Seiffert, Erik R; Simons, Elwyn L

    2008-04-15

    The order Proboscidea includes extant elephants and their extinct relatives and is closely related to the aquatic sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and terrestrial hyracoids (hyraxes). Some analyses of embryological, morphological, and paleontological data suggest that proboscideans and sirenians shared an aquatic or semiaquatic common ancestor, but independent tests of this hypothesis have proven elusive. Here we test the hypothesis of an aquatic ancestry for advanced proboscideans by measuring delta(18)O in tooth enamel of two late Eocene proboscidean genera, Barytherium and Moeritherium, which are sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans. The combination of low delta(18)O values and low delta(18)O standard deviations in Barytherium and Moeritherium matches the isotopic pattern seen in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, and differs from that of terrestrial mammals. delta(13)C values of these early proboscideans suggest that both genera are likely to have consumed freshwater plants, although a component of C(3) terrestrial vegetation cannot be ruled out. The simplest explanation for the combined evidence from isotopes, dental functional morphology, and depositional environments is that Barytherium and Moeritherium were at least semiaquatic and lived in freshwater swamp or riverine environments, where they grazed on freshwater vegetation. These results lend new support to the hypothesis that Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans are derived from amphibious ancestors.

  14. Insecticide ADME for support of early-phase discovery: combining classical and modern techniques.

    PubMed

    David, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    The two factors that determine an insecticide's potency are its binding to a target site (intrinsic activity) and the ability of its active form to reach the target site (bioavailability). Bioavailability is dictated by the compound's stability and transport kinetics, which are determined by both physical and biochemical characteristics. At BASF Global Insecticide Research, we characterize bioavailability in early research with an ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) approach, combining classical and modern techniques. For biochemical assessment of metabolism, we purify native insect enzymes using classical techniques, and recombinantly express individual insect enzymes that are known to be relevant in insecticide metabolism and resistance. For analytical characterization of an experimental insecticide and its metabolites, we conduct classical radiotracer translocation studies when a radiolabel is available. In discovery, where typically no radiolabel has been synthesized, we utilize modern high-resolution mass spectrometry to probe complex systems for the test compounds and its metabolites. By using these combined approaches, we can rapidly compare the ADME properties of sets of new experimental insecticides and aid in the design of structures with an improved potential to advance in the research pipeline. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Controlling grape must fermentation in early winemaking phases: the role of electrochemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Lustrato, G; Alfano, G; Belli, C; Grazia, L; Iorizzo, M; Maiuro, L; Massarella, F; Zanardini, E; Ranalli, G

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of the phenomena related to the effect of low electric current (LEC) in grape must fermentation during laboratory and pilot plant scale winemaking, with selected co-culture yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 404 and Hanseniaspora guilliermodii strain 465). LEC (10, 30, 50 and 100 mA) was applied to fresh grape must as an alternative method to the usual addition of SO2. Parameters such as polarity, treatment duration (24-96 h) and type of inoculum yeast were varied one at a time. LEC decreased the survival time and increased the death rate of H. guilliermondii strain 465 in co-cultures, whereas it did not affect the growth and survival of S. cerevisiae strain 40. A final comparison was made of the main physico-chemical parameters on wine obtained after the different tests. The results have demonstrated that the low voltage treatment using a pair of graphite electrodes had a positive effect on grape juice fermentation (yeast microflora) during the early stages of winemaking, even with the potential of being an alternative method to the usual addition of SO2. These results could be of significant importance in developing new winemaking technologies for an innovative yeast fermentation control process for 'biological wine'.

  16. Bromelain in the early phase of healing in acute crush Achilles tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Anunobi, C C; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O

    2011-01-01

    Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant has been proposed as a treatment for reducing pain and swelling following acute muscle injuries but studies are yet to be done on its effect on tendon healing. This study therefore investigated the effects of bromelain on tenocyte proliferation and the tendon malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty four male rats were divided randomly into three groups; groups 2 and 3 had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; nil injury and nil treatment, Group 2; nil treatment, Group 3; oral bromelain treatment. Bromelain was given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post injury, the animals were killed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The results showed a significant increase in the tenocyte population in the bromelain group; p < 0.05. There was, however, no significant difference in the MDA level. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given once daily in acute tendon injury at a dosage of 7 mg/kg promoted healing by stimulating tenocyte proliferation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    PubMed

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-04-01

    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change.

  18. Electronic Monitoring of Medication Adherence in Early Maintenance Phase Treatment for Pediatric Leukemia and Lymphoma: Identifying Patterns of Nonadherence

    PubMed Central

    Drotar, Dennis; Alderfer, Melissa; Donewar, Crista Wetherington; Ewing, Linda; Katz, Ernest R.; Muriel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns of treatment adherence to early maintenance phase therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL). Methods Using an objective observational method (electronic monitoring), adherence was examined for 139 patients aged 7–19 years diagnosed with ALL or LBL across 6 centers. Results The mean adherence percentage was 86.2%. Adherence rates declined over the 1-month of follow-up to 83%. 3 linear trajectories of 6-mercaptopurine adherence were identified: (1) exemplary adherence (n = 99): Averaging nearly 100%; (2) deteriorating (n = 23): Adherence decreased from 100 to 60%; and (3) chronically poor adherence (n = 9): Averaging 40%. Conclusions Adherence promotion interventions might be tailored to subgroups of patients who demonstrated problematic patterns of treatment adherence that could place them at risk for relapse. This research demonstrates the importance of using objective real-time measures of medication adherence for measuring and documenting adherence patterns. PMID:24365698

  19. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

  20. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W H; Daeschner, C W; Files, B A; McConnell, M E; Strandjord, S E

    2001-10-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

  1. On the Hayashi Effect in the Early Phases of Gravitational Contraction of the Sun

    SciT

    Faulkner, J.; Griffiths, K.; Hoyle, F.

    1963-02-01

    Computations are made using a program for the subphotospheric layers, including opacity effects due to the negative hydrogen ion and to Rayleigh scattering. Under thermodynamic conditions completely convective models are found to occur, displaced toward late types in the H-R (Hertzsprang-Russell) diagram. The models investigated range from the late K subclasses to about M/sub 3/. Nonthermodynamic effects are considered. It appears that free electrons produced by high-energy particles are capable of modifying the results by reducing the effective temperature and luminosity, but not by completely removing the convective structure. Nor does it seem likely that opacity effects arising from solidmore » particles can destroy the convective structure. The possibility remains, however, that convective efficiency in the subphotospheric layers could be much reduced by a magnetic field at the stage where the planetary material separated from the Sun, and during the condensation of the first planetesimals and of the parent bodies of the meteorites. Only by a suppression of the highluminosity convective models during this phase does it seem possible to explain the presence of water in meteorites, and the likely presence of any icy matrix in the first planetesimals. (auth)« less

  2. Morphology and Dynamics of Jets of Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Early Phase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhong-Yi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin; Lee, Jui-Chi; Pajola, Maurizio; Lara, Luisa; Gutierrez, Pedro; Rodrigo, Rafael; Bodewits, Dennis; A'Hearn, Mike; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Agarwal, Jessica; Keller, Uwe; Mottola, Stefano; Bertini, Ivano; Lowry, Stephen; Rozek, Agata; Liao, Ying; Rosetta Osiris Coi Team

    2015-04-01

    The scientific camera, OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System), onboard the Rosetta spacecraft comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field of dust and gas coma investigations. The dynamical behavior of jets in the dust coma continuously monitored by using dust filters from the arrival at the comet (August 2014) throughout the mapping phase (Oct. 2014) is described here. The analysis will cover the study of the time variability of jets, the source regions of these jets, the excess brightness of jets relative to the averaged coma brightness, and the brightness distribution of dust jets along the projected distance. The jets detected between August and September originated mostly from the neck region (Hapi). Morphological changes appeared over a time scale of several days in September. The brightness slope of the dust jets is much steeper than the background coma. This might be related to the sublimation or fragmentation of the emitted dust grains. Inter-comparison with results from other experiments will be necessary to understand the difference between the dust emitted from Hapi and those from the head and the body of the nucleus surface. The physical properties of the Hapi jets will be compared to dust jets (and their source regions) to emerge as comet 67P moves around the perihelion.

  3. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaouss, M.; Corre, Y.; Languille, P.; Greuner, H.; Autissier, E.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pocheau, C.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m-2 for the required pulse length.

  4. Experimental investigation of the dissolution of fractures. From early stage instability to phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osselin, Florian; Budek, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Olgierd; Kondratiuk, Pawel; Garstecki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution of natural rocks is a fundamental geological process and a key part of landscape formation and weathering processes. Moreover, in current hot topics like Carbon Capture and Storage or Enhanced Oil Recovery, mastering dissolution of the host rock is fundamental for the efficiency and the security of the operation. The basic principles of dissolution are well-known and the theory of the reactive infiltration instability has been extensively studied. However, the experimental aspect has proved very challenging because of the strong dependence of the outcome with pore network, chemical composition, flow rate... In this study we are trying to tackle this issue by using a very simple and efficient device consisting of a chip of pure gypsum inserted between two polycarbonate plates and subjected to a constant flow rate of pure water. Thanks to this device, we are able to control all parameters such as flow rate, fracture aperture, roughness of the walls... but also to observe in situ the progression of the dissolution thanks to the transparency of the polycarbonate which is impossible with 3D rocks. We have been using this experimental set-up to explore and investigate all aspects of the dissolution in a fracture, such as initial instability and phase diagram of different dissolution patterns, and to compare it with theory and simulations, yielding very good agreement and interesting feedbacks on the coupling between flow and chemistry in geological media

  5. Expectations of Benefit in Early-Phase Clinical Trials: Implications for Assessing the Adequacy of Informed Consent

    PubMed Central

    Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Seils, Damon M.; Tzeng, Janice P.; Compton, Kate L.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Astrow, Alan B.; Solarino, Nicholas A.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Meropol, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Participants in early-phase clinical trials have reported high expectations of benefit from their participation. There is concern that participants misunderstand the trials to which they have consented. Such concern is based on assumptions about what patients mean when they respond to questions about likelihood of benefit. Methods Participants were 27 women and 18 men in early-phase oncology trials at 2 academic medical centers in the United States. To determine whether expectations of benefit differ depending on how patients are queried, we randomly assigned participants to 1 of 3 interviews corresponding to 3 questions about likelihood of benefit: frequency-type, belief-type, and vague. In semistructured interviews, we queried participants about how they understood and answered the question. Participants then answered and discussed one of the other questions. Results Expectations of benefit in response to the belief-type question were significantly greater than expectations in response to the frequency-type and vague questions (P = .02). The most common justifications involved positive attitude (n = 27 [60%]) and references to physical health (n = 23 [51%]). References to positive attitude were most common among participants with higher (> 70%) expectations (n = 11 [85%]) and least common among those with lower (< 50%) expectations (n = 3 [27%]). Conclusions The wording of questions about likelihood of benefit shapes the expectations that patients express. Also, patients who express high expectations may not do so to communicate understanding, but rather to register optimism. Ongoing research will clarify the meaning of high expectations and examine methods for assessing understanding in this context. PMID:18378940

  6. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

    2016-12-01

    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  7. Critical roles of myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine release in early phase clearance of Listeria monocytogenes in mice.

    PubMed

    Seki, Ekihiro; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Tsuji, Noriko M; Hayashi, Nobuki; Adachi, Keishi; Nakano, Hiroki; Futatsugi-Yumikura, Shizue; Takeuchi, Osamu; Hoshino, Katsuaki; Akira, Shizuo; Fujimoto, Jiro; Nakanishi, Kenji

    2002-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium, often causes lethal infection of the host. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying LM eradication in the early phase of infection. Upon infection with LM, both IL-12 and IL-18 were produced, and then they synergistically induced IFN-gamma production, leading to normal LM clearance in the host. IFN-gamma knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to LM infection. IL-12/IL-18 double knockout mice were also highly susceptible. Their susceptibility was less than that of IFN-gamma KO mice, but more than that of single IL-12 or IL-18 KO mice. Mice deficient in myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an essential adaptor molecule used by signal transduction pathways of all members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, showed an inability to produce IL-12 and IFN-gamma following LM infection and were most susceptible to LM. Furthermore, MyD88-deficient, but not IFN-gamma-deficient, Kupffer cells could not produce TNF-alpha in response to LM in vitro, indicating the importance of MyD88-dependent TNF-alpha production for host defense. As TLR2 KO, but not TLR4 KO, mice showed partial impairment in their capacity to produce IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, TLR2 activation partly contributed to the induction of IL-12-mediated IFN-gamma production. These results indicated a critical role for TLRs/MyD88-dependent IL-12/TNF-alpha production and for IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-gamma production in early phase clearance of LM.

  8. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001). The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16). With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004) and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05). The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83). Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  9. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (P<0.05) and IL-8 (P<0.01) responses to T-cell activation. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 distinct inflammatory clusters associated with previous preeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  11. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

    PubMed

    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  12. Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Heesters, Balthasar A.; Lindqvist, Madelene; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Scully, Eileen P.; Schildberg, Frank A.; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Carroll, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it does not cure Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and discontinuation results in viral rebound. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are in direct contact with CD4+ T cells and they retain intact antigen for prolonged periods. We found that human FDC isolated from patients on ART retain infectious HIV within a non-degradative cycling compartment and transmit infectious virus to uninfected CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, treatment of the HIV+ FDC with a soluble complement receptor 2 purges the FDC of HIV virions and prevents viral transmission in vitro. Our results provide an explanation for how FDC can retain infectious HIV for extended periods and suggest a therapeutic strategy to achieve cure in HIV-infected humans. PMID:26623655

  13. T follicular helper cell differentiation, function, and roles in disease

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Summary Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are specialized providers of T cell help to B cells, and are essential for germinal center formation, affinity maturation, and the development of most high affinity antibodies and memory B cells. Tfh cell differentiation is a multi-stage, multi-factorial process involving B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) and other transcription factors. This article reviews understanding of Tfh cell biology, including their differentiation, migration, transcriptional regulation, and B cell help functions. Tfh cells are critical components of many protective immune responses against pathogens. As such, there is strong interest in harnessing Tfh cells to improve vaccination strategies. Tfh cells also have roles in a range of other diseases, particularly autoimmune diseases. Overall, there have been dramatic advances in this young field, but there is much to be learned about Tfh cell biology in the interest of applying that knowledge to biomedical needs. PMID:25367570

  14. How Follicular Dendritic Cells Shape the B-Cell Antigenome

    PubMed Central

    Kranich, Jan; Krautler, Nike Julia

    2016-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are stromal cells residing in primary follicles and in germinal centers of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs (SLOs and TLOs). There, they play a crucial role in B-cell activation and affinity maturation of antibodies. FDCs have the unique capacity to bind and retain native antigen in B-cell follicles for long periods of time. Therefore, FDCs shape the B-cell antigenome (the sum of all B-cell antigens) in SLOs and TLOs. In this review, we discuss recent findings that explain how this stromal cell type can arise in almost any tissue during TLO formation and, furthermore, focus on the mechanisms of antigen capture and retention involved in the generation of long-lasting antigen depots displayed on FDCs. PMID:27446069

  15. Pioglitazone in early Parkinson's disease: a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background A systematic assessment of potential disease-modifying compounds for Parkinson's disease concluded that pioglitazone could hold promise for the treatment of patients with this disease. We assessed the effect of pioglitazone on the progression of Parkinson's disease in a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, futility clinical trial. Methods Participants with the diagnosis of early Parkinson's disease on a stable regimen of 1 mg/day rasagiline or 10 mg/day selegiline were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 15 mg/day pioglitazone, 45 mg/day pioglitazone, or placebo. Investigators were masked to the treatment assignment. Only the statistical centre and the central pharmacy knew the treatment name associated with the randomisation number. The primary outcome was the change in the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score between the baseline and 44 weeks, analysed by intention to treat. The primary null hypothesis for each dose group was that the mean change in UPDRS was 3 points less than the mean change in the placebo group. The alternative hypothesis (of futility) was that pioglitazone is not meaningfully different from placebo. We rejected the null if there was significant evidence of futility at the one-sided alpha level of 0.10. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01280123. Findings 210 patients from 35 sites in the USA were enrolled between May 10, 2011, and July 31, 2013. The primary analysis included 72 patients in the 15 mg group, 67 in the 45 mg group, and 71 in the placebo group. The mean total UPDRS change at 44 weeks was 4.42 (95% CI 2.55–6.28) for 15 mg pioglitazone, 5.13 (95% CI 3.17–7.08) for 45 mg pioglitazone, and 6.25 (95% CI 4.35–8.15) for placebo (higher change scores are worse). The mean difference between the 15 mg and placebo groups was −1.83 (80% CI −3.56 to −0.10) and the null hypothesis could not be rejected (p=0.19). The mean difference between the 45 mg and placebo

  16. Global Warming Potential from early phase decomposition of soil organic matter amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter amendments to soil are widely used as a method of enhancing nutrient availability for crops or grassland. Amendments such as composted manure or greenwaste also have the co-benefits of potentially increasing soil carbon (C) stocks (DeLonge et al., 2013) and diverting organic waste from landfills or manure lagoons. However, application of organic matter amendments can also stimulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study we determined how the chemical quality of organic matter amendments affected soil C and N content and GHG emissions during early stage decomposition. California grassland soils were amended with six different amendments of varying C and N content including three composts and three feedstocks (goat and horse bedding and cattle manure). Amendments and soils were incubated in the laboratory for 7 weeks; GHG fluxes were measured weekly. The three feedstocks emitted significantly more GHGs than the composted materials. With the exception of cow manure, N content of the amendment was linearly correlated with global warming potential emitted (R2= 0.66, P <0.0001). C:N ratios were not a significant predictor of GHG emissions. Cow manure stimulated a net loss of C (or C equivalents) in the mineral soil, as expected. However, greenwaste compost also surprisingly resulted in net C losses, while goat bedding, horse bedding, and the other compost were either C neutral or a slight net C sink at the end of the incubation. Ongoing analyses are examining the fate of the C incorporated from the amendment to the soil as occluded or free light fraction, as well as N mineralization rates. Our data suggest that N content of organic matter amendments is a good predictor of initial GHG emissions. The study also indicates that composting greenwaste with N-rich bedding and manure can result in lower GHG emissions and C sequestration compared to the individual uncomposted components.

  17. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.

  18. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  19. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  20. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    SciT

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the mostmore » basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  1. Oxidative stress in follicular units during hair transplantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Crisóstomo, Márcio Rocha; Guimarães, Sérgio Botelho; de Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão; Crisóstomo, Marília Gabriela Rocha; Benevides, André Nunes

    2011-02-01

    Hair transplantation surgery currently is a well-established procedure in plastic surgery. It consists of harvesting a strip of scalp from the back of the head, then obtaining grafts called follicular units (FUs) from this strip and implanting them in the bald area. The FUs undergo oxidative stress during cold ischemia and after their implantation. Surgery was performed for 18 patients between April and July 2008. Follicular units were preserved in solutions containing different growth-stimulating hormone (GSH) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol). Saline solution was used as a control condition. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and GSH concentrations before ischemia (control group) in the FUs preserved in the four proposed solutions, then after 30 min of cold ischemia and 30 min after grafting. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance, t test, and linear regression analysis. The TBARS (μmol of malondialdehyde [MDA]/g) and GSH (μmol/g) concentrations were not significantly different between the four solutions in either the ischemia or grafting group. The GSH concentration did not differ significantly between the control (59.801 ± 30.639 μmol/g) and ischemia (56.284 ± 28.404 μmol/g) groups. The GSH concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the postgrafting group (63.815 ± 28.404 μmol/g) than in the group subjected to ischemia. Increasing the GSH concentrations used in FU preservation solutions does not reduce the oxidative effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion injury during hair transplantation surgery.

  2. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  3. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeanette H; Conley, Lene N; Hedegaard, Jakob; Nielsen, Mathilde; Young, Jette F; Oksbjerg, Niels; Hornshøj, Henrik; Bendixen, Christian; Thomsen, Bo

    2012-07-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact of unaccustomed exercise on global transcriptional profiles in porcine skeletal muscles. Using a combined microarray and candidate gene approach, we identified a suite of genes that are differentially expressed in muscles during postexercise recovery. Several members of the heat shock protein family and proteins associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NR4A3, which regulates metabolic functions associated with lipid, carbohydrate and energy homeostasis. Finally, we observed an unanticipated induction of the long non-coding RNA transcript NEAT1, which has been implicated in RNA processing and nuclear retention of adenosine-to-inosine edited mRNAs in the ribonucleoprotein bodies called paraspeckles. These findings expand the complexity of pathways affected by acute contractile activity of skeletal muscle, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in muscle tissue in the recovery phase.

  4. Induction of Fas-Mediated Apoptosis by Interferon-γ is Dependent on Granulosa Cell Differentiation and Follicular Maturation in the Rat Ovary.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Tsang, Benjamin K; Kim, Jong-Min

    2016-12-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) and its receptor Fas have been implicated in granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is believed to be involved in the regulation Fas expression in differentiated granulosa or granulosa-luteal cells, the expression of this cytokine and its role in the regulation of the granulosa cell Fas/FasL system and apoptosis during follicular maturation have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we have examined the presence of IFN-γ in ovarian follicles at different stage of development by immunohistochemistry and related their relative intensities with follicular expression of Fas and FasL, and with differences in granulosa cell sensitivity to Fas activation by exogenous agonistic Anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (Fas mAb). Although IFN-γ immunostaining was detectable in oocyte and granulosa cells in antral follicles, most intense immunoreactivity for the cytokine was observed in these cells of preantral follicles. Intense immunoreactivity for IFN-γ was most evident in granulosa cells of atretic early antral follicles where increased Fas and FasL expression and apoptosis were also observed. Whereas low concentrations of IFN-γ (10-100 U/mL) significantly increased Fas expression in undifferentiated granulosa cells (from preantral or very early antral follicles) in vitro , very higher concentrations (≥ 1,000 U/mL) were required to up-regulate of Fas in differentiated cells isolated from eCG-primed (antral) follicles. Addition of agonistic Fas mAb to cultures of granulosa cells at the two stages of differentiation and pretreated with IFN-γ (100 U/mL) elicited morphological and biochemical apoptotic features which were more prominent in cells not previously exposed to the gonadotropin in vivo . These findings suggested that IFN-γ is an important physiologic intra-ovarian regulator of follicular atresia and plays a pivotal role in regulation of expression of Fas receptor and subsequent

  5. Induction of Fas-Mediated Apoptosis by Interferon-γ is Dependent on Granulosa Cell Differentiation and Follicular Maturation in the Rat Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Tsang, Benjamin K.; Kim, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fas ligand (FasL) and its receptor Fas have been implicated in granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is believed to be involved in the regulation Fas expression in differentiated granulosa or granulosa-luteal cells, the expression of this cytokine and its role in the regulation of the granulosa cell Fas/FasL system and apoptosis during follicular maturation have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we have examined the presence of IFN-γ in ovarian follicles at different stage of development by immunohistochemistry and related their relative intensities with follicular expression of Fas and FasL, and with differences in granulosa cell sensitivity to Fas activation by exogenous agonistic Anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (Fas mAb). Although IFN-γ immunostaining was detectable in oocyte and granulosa cells in antral follicles, most intense immunoreactivity for the cytokine was observed in these cells of preantral follicles. Intense immunoreactivity for IFN-γ was most evident in granulosa cells of atretic early antral follicles where increased Fas and FasL expression and apoptosis were also observed. Whereas low concentrations of IFN-γ (10-100 U/mL) significantly increased Fas expression in undifferentiated granulosa cells (from preantral or very early antral follicles) in vitro, very higher concentrations (≥ 1,000 U/mL) were required to up-regulate of Fas in differentiated cells isolated from eCG-primed (antral) follicles. Addition of agonistic Fas mAb to cultures of granulosa cells at the two stages of differentiation and pretreated with IFN-γ (100 U/mL) elicited morphological and biochemical apoptotic features which were more prominent in cells not previously exposed to the gonadotropin in vivo. These findings suggested that IFN-γ is an important physiologic intra-ovarian regulator of follicular atresia and plays a pivotal role in regulation of expression of Fas receptor and subsequent

  6. Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Klaas, H S; Clémence, A; Marion-Veyron, R; Antonietti, J-P; Alameda, L; Golay, P; Conus, P

    2017-03-01

    Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

  7. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  8. Role of phase instabilities in the early response of bulk fused silica during laser-induced breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, P.; Negres, R. A.; Raman, R. N.; Colvin, J. D.; Demos, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the experimental and hydrocode modeling investigation of the early material response to localized energy deposition via nanosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica. A time-resolved microscope system was used to acquire transient images with adequate spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the material behavior from the onset of the process. These images revealed a high-pressure shock front propagating at twice the speed of sound at ambient conditions and bounding a region of modified material at delays up to one nanosecond. Hydrocode simulations matching the experimental conditions were also performed and indicated initial pressures of ˜40 GPa and temperatures of ˜1 eV at the absorption region. Both the simulations and the image data show a clear boundary between distinct material phases, a hot plasma and solid silica, with a suggestion that growth of perturbations at the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the two phases is the seed mechanism for the growth of cracks into the stressed solid.

  9. The effect of pinealectomy, melatonin and leptin hormones on ovarian follicular development in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Karakaş, A; Kaya, Aliye; Gündüz, B

    2010-12-01

    We studied the effects of melatonin and leptin hormones on ovarian follicular development in intact and pinealectomized female Syrian hamsters. We first monitored the oestrous cycle of the hamsters by the vaginal smear samples throughout a ten day period to start the injections simultaneously in all groups and performed saline, melatonin and leptin hormone injection groups for both control and pinealectomized hamsters. Then the injections were applied for four days starting the oestrus phase of the cycle and the ovaries were removed for preparation of histological analysis. We measured the diameters and the numbers of the follicles and we classified the follicles according to the number of the granulosa cell layer. Leptin hormone injection increased melatonin hormone injection decreased the number and the diameter of the follicles. The stimulating effect of the leptin hormone was more pronounced in the pinealectomized group. The results of the present study indicate that the removal of the pineal gland and leptin hormone administration are playing a stimulatory while melatonin hormone administration is playing an inhibitory role on the follicular development in female Syrian hamsters.

  10. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  11. NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme in England: formative evaluation of the programme in early phase implementation.

    PubMed

    Penn, Linda; Rodrigues, Angela; Haste, Anna; Marques, Marta M; Budig, Kirsten; Sainsbury, Kirby; Bell, Ruth; Araújo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn; Goyder, Elizabeth; Brennan, Alan; Adamson, Ashley J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2018-02-21

    Evaluation of the demonstrator phase and first wave roll-out of the National Health Service (NHS) Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England. To examine: (1) intervention design, provision and fidelity assessment procedures; (2) risk assessment and recruitment pathways and (3) data collection for monitoring and evaluation. To provide recommendations informing decision makers on programme quality, improvements and future evaluation. We reviewed programme documents, mapping against the NHS DPP specification and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) public health guideline: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention in people at high risk (PH38), conducted qualitative research using individual interviews and focus group discussions with stakeholders and examined recruitment, fidelity and data collection procedures. Seven NHS DPP demonstrator sites and, subsequently, 27 first wave areas across England. Intensive behavioural intervention with weight loss, diet and physical activity goals. The national programme specifies at least 13 sessions over 9 months, delivered face to face to groups of 15-20 adults with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, mainly recruited from primary care and NHS Health Checks. Participants for qualitative research were purposively sampled to provide a spread of stakeholder experience. Documents for review were provided via the NHS DPP Management Group. The NHS DPP specification reflected current evidence with a clear framework for service provision. Providers, with national capacity to deliver, supplied intervention plans compliant with this framework. Stakeholders highlighted limitations in fidelity assessment and recruitment and retention challenges, especially in reach and equity, that could adversely impact on implementation. Risk assessment for first wave eligibility differed from NICE guidance. The NHS DPP provides an evidence-based behavioural intervention for prevention of T2D in adults at high risk, with capacity to deliver

  12. NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme in England: formative evaluation of the programme in early phase implementation

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Rodrigues, Angela; Haste, Anna; Marques, Marta M; Budig, Kirsten; Sainsbury, Kirby; Bell, Ruth; Araújo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn; Goyder, Elizabeth; Brennan, Alan; Adamson, Ashley J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of the demonstrator phase and first wave roll-out of the National Health Service (NHS) Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England. To examine: (1) intervention design, provision and fidelity assessment procedures; (2) risk assessment and recruitment pathways and (3) data collection for monitoring and evaluation. To provide recommendations informing decision makers on programme quality, improvements and future evaluation. Design We reviewed programme documents, mapping against the NHS DPP specification and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) public health guideline: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention in people at high risk (PH38), conducted qualitative research using individual interviews and focus group discussions with stakeholders and examined recruitment, fidelity and data collection procedures. Setting Seven NHS DPP demonstrator sites and, subsequently, 27 first wave areas across England. Interventions Intensive behavioural intervention with weight loss, diet and physical activity goals. The national programme specifies at least 13 sessions over 9 months, delivered face to face to groups of 15–20 adults with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, mainly recruited from primary care and NHS Health Checks. Participants Participants for qualitative research were purposively sampled to provide a spread of stakeholder experience. Documents for review were provided via the NHS DPP Management Group. Findings The NHS DPP specification reflected current evidence with a clear framework for service provision. Providers, with national capacity to deliver, supplied intervention plans compliant with this framework. Stakeholders highlighted limitations in fidelity assessment and recruitment and retention challenges, especially in reach and equity, that could adversely impact on implementation. Risk assessment for first wave eligibility differed from NICE guidance. Conclusions The NHS DPP provides an evidence-based behavioural intervention

  13. Follicular Dowling Degos disease: a rare variant of an evolving dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Khandpur, Sujay; Verma, Parul; Singh, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Dowling Degos disease is a rare, reticulate pigmentary disorder with variable phenotypic expression that manifests as hyperpigmented macules and reticulate pigmentary anomaly of the flexures. Many variants of this condition and its overlap with other reticulate pigmentary disorders have been reported in the literature. We present here two cases of DDD with follicular localization, both clinically and histologically. It was associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in one case. Follicular DDD is an uncommon variant of this evolving dermatosis. Our report supports the possible role for disordered follicular keratinisation in its pathogenesis.

  14. [Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries: Perfusion Imaging in the Early Arterial Phase].

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, T; Carl, H D; Swoboda, B; Engelhardt, M; Heinrich, M; Strobel, D; Wildner, D

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound is a standard procedure widely used in the diagnostic investigation of muscle injuries and widely described in the literature. Its advantages include rapid availability, cost effectiveness and the possibility to perform a real-time dynamic examination with the highest possible spatial resolution. In the diagnostic work-up of minor lesions (muscle stiffness, muscle strain), plain ultrasound has so far been inferior to MRI. The case presented by us is an example of the possibilities offered by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries compared with plain B-mode image ultrasound and MRI imaging of the affected region. This case report is about a high-performance football player who sustained a muscle injury. He underwent an ultrasound examination (S 2000, 9L4 Probe, Siemens, Germany), which was performed simultaneously in the conventional and contrast-enhanced mode at the level of the lesion. An intravenous bolus injection of 4.8 ml of intravascular contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Italy) was given via a cubital intravenous line. After that, the distribution of contrast agent was visualised in the early arterial phase. In addition, a plain magnetic resonance imaging scan of both thighs was performed for reference. On conventional ultrasound, the lesion was not clearly distinguishable from neighbouring tissue, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound demonstrated a well delineated, circumscribed area of impaired perfusion with hypoenhancement compared with the surrounding muscles at the clinical level of the lesion in the arterial wash-in phase (0-30 sec, after intravenous administration). The MRI scan revealed an edema signal with perifascial fluid accumulation in the corresponding site. The use of intravascular contrast agent enabled the sensitive detection of a minor injury by ultrasound for the first time. An intramuscular edema seen in the MRI scan showed a functional arterial perfusion impairment on ultrasound, which was

  15. Thymic pseudotumorous enlargement due to follicular hyperplasia in a human immunodeficiency virus sero-positive patient. Immunohistochemical and molecular biological study of viral infected cells.

    PubMed

    Prevot, S; Audouin, J; Andre-Bougaran, J; Griffais, R; Le Tourneau, A; Fournier, J G; Diebold, J

    1992-03-01

    An enlargement of the thymus suggesting a tumor was discovered in a 28-year-old man who had early-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A biopsy was performed. The adipose involuted thymus, with persistence of many Hassall's corpuscles, was judged to be a large lymphoid follicular hyperplasia. This follicular hyperplasia was similar to that previously described for lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid tissues at earlier stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection, before the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA and p24 human immunodeficiency virus protein were detected in the hyperplastic germinal centers (lymphocytes and follicular dendritic infected cells), and also in many cells that may have been either lymphocytes and/or epithelial cells in the interfollicular areas. The tissue was negative for Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences, as determined by the polymerase chain reaction. These observations identify the first state of infection of the thymus in a human immune deficiency virus-infected adult, preceding the severe involution with lymphoid depletion observed in all fatal cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in which the thymus has been analyzed.

  16. Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P < 0.001 for all the three molecules). GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression in 106 FTCs and 128 FTAs were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The rates of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 high expression were 73.6%, 72.6% and 70.8% in FTC and 30.5%, 28.1% and 27.3% in FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. PMID:26617848

  17. Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P < 0.001 for all the three molecules). GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression in 106 FTCs and 128 FTAs were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The rates of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 high expression were 73.6%, 72.6% and 70.8% in FTC and 30.5%, 28.1% and 27.3% in FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA.

  18. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian. Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate production on the northern Tethyan shelf. The

  19. The hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis in a rat model: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunmei; Liu, Ailian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Geng, Xiaoling; Hao, Li; Song, Qingwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Heqing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-17

    To evaluate the hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the early diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and assessment of liver function in a rat model. In 2 groups of SD rats, liver fibrosis was induced in experimental animals by repetitive carbon tetrachloride injections, while the control group received saline injections. Five experimental rats and 2 control rats were randomly selected at weeks 4, 8, 12. One week after carbon tetrachloride administration, MRI (FIRM T1WI) scan was performed. Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.08mL) was injected into the rat's tail vein and hepatocyte phase images were obtained after 20min. The pre-enhanced phase and hepatocyte phase signal intensities (SI) were measured, and the relative contrast enhancement index (RCEI) was calculated. ANOVA analysis (LSD) of RCEI values in controls (n=6), hepatic fibrosis (n=7), and histopathologically-determined early cirrhosis group (n=6) was performed. RECI values showed a decreasing trend in the control group, hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis groups (1.11±0.43, 0.96±0.22, and 0.57±0.33, respectively). While the difference between the control and early cirrhosis groups was statistically significant (p=0.013), there was no significant difference in the hepatic fibrosis group vs the control (p=0.416) and the hepatic fibrosis group vs the early cirrhosis group (p=0.054). Hepatocyte phase RCEI values obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI scan indicate liver injury in hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis. RCEI values are helpful for early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trefoil factor 3 is required for differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and acts as a context-dependent tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Abols, A; Ducena, K; Andrejeva, D; Sadovska, L; Zandberga, E; Vilmanis, J; Narbuts, Z; Tars, J; Eglitis, J; Pirags, V; Line, A

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is overexpressed in a variety of solid epithelial cancers, where it has been shown to promote migration, invasion, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. On the contrary, in the majority of thyroid tumors, it is downregulated, yet its role in the development of thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here we show that TFF3 exhibits strong cytoplasmic staining of normal thyroid follicular cells and colloid and the staining is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, while it is decreased in all thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. By meta-analysis of gene expression datasets, we found that in the thyroid cancer, conversely to the breast cancer, the expression of TFF3 mRNA was downregulated by estrogen signaling and confirmed this by treating thyroid cancer cells with estradiol. Forced expression of TFF3 in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation, clonal spheroid formation and entry into the S phase. Furthermore, it induced acquisition of epithelial-like cell morphology and expression of the differentiation markers of thyroid follicular cells and transcription factors implicated in the thyroid morphogenesis and function. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that TFF3 may act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the cellular context.

  1. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  2. Surgical orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine in the presence of dens invaginatus and follicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Spallarossa, Marialuce; Canevello, Carola; Silvestrini Biavati, Francesca; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. "Dens invaginatus" is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning.

  3. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nengming; Eto, Danelle; Elly, Chris; Peng, Guiying; Crotty, Shane; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are responsible for effective B cell–mediated immunity, and Bcl-6 is a central factor for the differentiation of TFH cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction of TFH cells remain unclear. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch was essential for the differentiation of TFH cells, germinal center responses and immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to acute viral infection. Itch acted intrinsically in CD4+ T cells at early stages of TFH cell development. Itch seemed to act upstream of Bcl-6 expression, as Bcl-6 expression was substantially impaired in Itch−/− cells, and the differentiation of Itch−/− T cells into TFH cells was restored by enforced expression of Bcl-6. Itch associated with the transcription factor Foxo1 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. The defective TFH differentiation of Itch−/− T cells was rectified by deletion of Foxo1. Thus, our results indicate that Itch acts as an essential positive regulator in the differentiation of TFH cells. PMID:24859451

  4. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: more than a disease of T follicular helper cells.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, François; Mak, Tak W

    2017-08-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most frequent entities of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. An AITL has two components: the AITL tumour cells, which have a T follicular helper (TFH) cell phenotype, and a surrounding and extensive tumour microenvironment that is populated with various reactive cell types, including B cells. Recurrent TET2 mutations have been described in 50-80% of AITLs, possibly occurring in a haematopoietic progenitor cell. An article published recently in the Journal of Pathology describes the use of microdissection to isolate PD1 + AITL tumour cells and CD20 + B cells from the AITL microenvironment, and to show that TET2 mutations are actually more frequent in these diseases than previously thought. Whereas TET2 mutations were detected in only six of 13 AITLs, 12 of 13 samples of microdissected PD1 + AITL tumour cells possessed this mutation. Moreover, TET2 mutations were detected in CD20 + B cells from the AITL microenvironment in six of nine informative cases. These results confirm that TET2 mutation is an early event in the majority of AITL cases, and that the driving molecular anomalies are not restricted to the T lineage tumour cells. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of an Impacted Canine in the Presence of Dens Invaginatus and Follicular Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421

  6. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  7. Effect of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity on follicular development and pregnancy rate in cattle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Natália A; Pfeifer, Luiz F M; Andrade, Jéssica S; Rincón, Joao A A; Pegoraro, Ligia M Cantarelli; Schneider, Augusto

    2018-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity has been associated with improvement in ovarian function in early postpartum dairy cows and improved in vitro embryo development. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential association among PON1 activity and follicular growth, diameter of the preovulatory follicle and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) service in cattle. In Experiment 1, cows (n=33) were subjected to an estradiol-progesterone based protocol to control time of ovulation. Starting on Day 8 of the protocol, follicular growth and serum PON1 activity were monitored. Cows were separated according to the occurrence of ovulation into two groups: Ovulatory (Ov; n=22) and Anovulatory (Anov; n=11). The serum activity of PON1 was not different between Ov and Anov cows (P=0.94). In addition, using a regression model there was no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of dominant follicle (r 2 =0.00; P=0.99). In Experiment 2, cows (n=193) were submitted to the same hormonal protocol as in Experiment 1. On the day of the timed artificial insemination (TAI), the diameter of dominant follicle was evaluated and blood samples were collected for analysis of PON1 activity. According to the serum PON1 activity, cows were divided into three groups: Low (<70U/mL), Medium (70-90U/mL) or High (>90U/mL) PON1 activity. The overall pregnancy rate was 62.7% (121/193), with no difference among PON1 activity groups. Additionally, using a regression model there was no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (r 2 =0.03; P=0.65) and pregnancy rate (r 2 =0.005; P=0.94). The results of this study indicate that there is no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of preovulatory follicle or establishment of pregnancy in cows submitted to time of ovulation synchronization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The