Science.gov

Sample records for early forest fire

  1. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  2. Early effects of forest fire on streamflow characteristics.

    H.W. Berndt

    1971-01-01

    A comparison of streamflow records from three small mountain streams in north-central Washington before, during, and after a severe forest fire showed three immediate effects of destructive burning. These were: 1. Flow rate was greatly reduced while the fire was actively burning. 2. Destruction of vegetation in the riparian zone reduced...

  3. Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artés, Tomás; Boca, Roberto; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in forest fire monitoring. Forest fire simulators have been improved, including some calibration techniques avoiding data uncertainty and taking into account complex factors as the atmosphere. Such techniques increase dramatically the computational cost in a context where the available time to provide a forecast is a hard constraint. Furthermore, an early mapping of the fire becomes crucial to assess it. In this work, a non-supervised method for forest fire early detection and mapping is proposed. As main sources, the method uses daily thermal anomalies from MODIS and VIIRS combined with land cover map to identify and monitor forest fires with very few resources. This method relies on a clustering technique (DBSCAN algorithm) and on filtering thermal anomalies to detect the forest fires. In addition, a concave hull (alpha shape algorithm) is applied to obtain rapid mapping of the fire area (very coarse accuracy mapping). Therefore, the method leads to a potential use for high-resolution forest fire rapid mapping based on satellite imagery using the extent of each early fire detection. It shows the way to an automatic rapid mapping of the fire at high resolution processing as few data as possible.

  4. Forest-fire models

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  5. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  6. Early forest dynamics in stand-replacing fire patches in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Brandon M. Collins; Gary B. Roller

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable concern over the occurrence of stand-replacing fire in forest types historically associated with low- to moderate-severity fire. The concern is largely over whether contemporary levels of stand-replacing fire are outside the historical range of variability, and what natural forest recovery is in these forest types following stand-replacing fire....

  7. Early forest fire detection using principal component analysis of infrared video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John A.; Radjabi, Ryan; Jacobs, John T.

    2011-09-01

    A land-based early forest fire detection scheme which exploits the infrared (IR) temporal signature of fire plume is described. Unlike common land-based and/or satellite-based techniques which rely on measurement and discrimination of fire plume directly from its infrared and/or visible reflectance imagery, this scheme is based on exploitation of fire plume temporal signature, i.e., temperature fluctuations over the observation period. The method is simple and relatively inexpensive to implement. The false alarm rate is expected to be lower that of the existing methods. Land-based infrared (IR) cameras are installed in a step-stare-mode configuration in potential fire-prone areas. The sequence of IR video frames from each camera is digitally processed to determine if there is a fire within camera's field of view (FOV). The process involves applying a principal component transformation (PCT) to each nonoverlapping sequence of video frames from the camera to produce a corresponding sequence of temporally-uncorrelated principal component (PC) images. Since pixels that form a fire plume exhibit statistically similar temporal variation (i.e., have a unique temporal signature), PCT conveniently renders the footprint/trace of the fire plume in low-order PC images. The PC image which best reveals the trace of the fire plume is then selected and spatially filtered via simple threshold and median filter operations to remove the background clutter, such as traces of moving tree branches due to wind.

  8. Fire decreases arthropod abundance but increases diversity: early and late season prescribed fire effects in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Scott M. Ferrenberg; Dylan W. Schwilk; Eric E. Knapp; Eric Groth; Jon E. Keeley

    2006-01-01

    Prior to fire suppression in the 20th century, the mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., historically burned in frequent fires that typically occurred during the late summer and early fall. Fire managers have been attempting to restore natural ecosystem processes through prescription burning, and have often favored burning during the fall in...

  9. Lidar Technique for Early Forest Fire Detection : Design and Development Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traïche, M.; Bourai, K.; Moussaoui, N.; Beggar, R.; Almabouada, F.; Louhibi, D.

    2008-09-01

    Many countries suffer from forest fires every summer, a phenomenon which wreaks havoc on both local and global environment. As well, it causes enormous damage to public health especially for people living in surrounding areas. For fighting against forest fires, ocular surveillance, in spite of its wide use, is not efficient owing to the costly mobilization of a great number of forest agents and to the fact that most of forest regions are not accessible. Other passive techniques such as infrared camera remote sensing are neither efficient under unfavorable weather conditions. An efficient way to early detect forest fires even under worse environmental conditions and in inaccessible mountainous regions uses the backscattering Lidar technique. This consists of the emission of monowavelength laser pulses spanning azimuthally the entire region subject to surveillance and the detection of the backscattered signal. The detection parameter is the signal to noise ration SNR. In this contribution, we will deal with approach and design aspects inherent to the development task of such a Lidar.

  10. Fire decreases arthropod abundance but increases diversity: Early and late season prescribed fire effects in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Schwilk, Dylan W.; Knapp, Eric E.; Groth, Eric; Keeley, Jon E.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to fire suppression in the 20th century, the mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., historically burned in frequent fires that typically occurred during the late summer and early fall. Fire managers have been attempting to restore natural ecosystem processes through prescription burning, and have often favored burning during the fall in order to mimic historical fire regimes. Increasingly, however, prescription burning is also being done during the late spring and early summer in order to expand the window of opportunity for needed fuel reduction burning. The effect of prescribed fires outside of the historical fire season on forest arthropods is not known. The objective of this study was to compare the short-term effects of prescribed fires ignited in the early and late fire season on forest floor arthropods. Arthropod abundance and diversity were assessed using pitfall trapping in replicated burn units in Sequoia National Park, California. Overall, abundance of arthropods was lower in the burn treatments than in the unburned control. However, diversity tended to be greater in the burn treatments. Fire also altered the relative abundances of arthropod feeding guilds. No significant differences in arthropod community structure were found between early and late season burn treatments. Instead, changes in the arthropod community appeared to be driven largely by changes in fuel loading, vegetation, and habitat heterogeneity, all of which differed more between the burned and unburned treatments than between early and late season burn treatments.

  11. Post-fire tree establishment and early cohort development in conifer forests of the western Cascades of Oregon, USA

    Alan J. Tepley; Frederick J. Swanson; Thomas A. Spies

    2014-01-01

    Early-seral ecosystems make important contributions to regional biodiversity by supporting high abundance and diversity of many plant and animal species that are otherwise rare or absent from closed-canopy forests. Therefore, the period of post-fire tree establishment is a key stage in forest stand and ecosystem development that can be viewed in the context of...

  12. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    SciT

    Knelman, Joseph E.; Graham, Emily B.; Ferrenberg, Scott

    In post-disturbance landscapes nutrient availability has proven a major control on ecological succession. In this study, we examined variation in connections between soil nutrient availability and decomposition extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across post fire secondary succession in forest soils as well as after a secondary flood disturbance. We also examined possible linkages between edaphic properties and bacterial communities based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. We found that with advancing succession in a post-fire landscape, the relationship between soil nutrients and EEA became stronger over time. In general, late successional soils showed stronger connections between EEA and soil nutrient status, whilemore » early successional soils were marked by a complete decoupling of nutrients and EEA. We also found that soil moisture and bacterial communities of post-fire disturbance soils were susceptible to change following the secondary flood disturbance, while undisturbed, reference forest soils were not. Our results demonstrate that nutrient pools correlating with EEA change over time. While past work has largely focused on ecosystem succession on decadal timescales, our work suggests that nutrients shift in their relative importance as a control of decomposition EEA in the earliest stages of secondary succession. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the relevance of successional stage, even on short timescales, in predicting rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, especially as disturbances become more frequent in a rapidly changing world.« less

  13. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    DOE PAGES

    Knelman, Joseph E.; Graham, Emily B.; Ferrenberg, Scott; ...

    2017-09-15

    In post-disturbance landscapes nutrient availability has proven a major control on ecological succession. In this study, we examined variation in connections between soil nutrient availability and decomposition extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across post fire secondary succession in forest soils as well as after a secondary flood disturbance. We also examined possible linkages between edaphic properties and bacterial communities based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. We found that with advancing succession in a post-fire landscape, the relationship between soil nutrients and EEA became stronger over time. In general, late successional soils showed stronger connections between EEA and soil nutrient status, whilemore » early successional soils were marked by a complete decoupling of nutrients and EEA. We also found that soil moisture and bacterial communities of post-fire disturbance soils were susceptible to change following the secondary flood disturbance, while undisturbed, reference forest soils were not. Our results demonstrate that nutrient pools correlating with EEA change over time. While past work has largely focused on ecosystem succession on decadal timescales, our work suggests that nutrients shift in their relative importance as a control of decomposition EEA in the earliest stages of secondary succession. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the relevance of successional stage, even on short timescales, in predicting rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, especially as disturbances become more frequent in a rapidly changing world.« less

  14. Forest fires in Missouri.

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; John S. Crosby

    1973-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires on two of the State of Missouri's Protection Districts and the Clark National Forest. Includes an analysis of fire cause, annual distribution, weather, and activity by day of week; also discusses multiple-fire day.

  15. Persistent effects of fire severity on early successional forests in interior Alaska

    Aditi Shenoy; Jill F. Johnstone; Eric S. Kasischke; Knut Kielland

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of...

  16. Managing forests after fires

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2007-01-01

    Fire is a part of the forest ecosystem, and its effects have been well documented in the scientific literature. But controversy remains about the effects of management options in a burned forest, and the scientific basis for decisionmaking about postfire management is uncertain and has not been effectively articulated. Management concerns after a fire...

  17. Fire and forest meteorology

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  18. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  19. Tree mortality from fire and bark beetles following early and late season prescribed fires in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Knapp, Eric E.; Ferrenberg, Scott; Keeley, Jon E.; Caprio, Anthony C.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century, fire exclusion in the forests of the Sierra Nevada has allowed surface fuels to accumulate and has led to increased tree density. Stand composition has also been altered as shade tolerant tree species crowd out shade intolerant species. To restore forest structure and reduce the risk of large, intense fires, managers have increasingly used prescription burning. Most fires prior to EuroAmerican settlement occurred during the late summer and early fall and most prescribed burning has taken place during the latter part of this period. Poor air quality and lack of suitable burn windows during the fall, however, have resulted in a need to conduct more prescription burning earlier in the season. Previous reports have suggested that burning during the time when trees are actively growing may increase mortality rates due to fine root damage and/or bark beetle activity. This study examines the effects of fire on tree mortality and bark beetle attacks under prescription burning during early and late season. Replicated early season burn, late season burn and unburned control plots were established in an old-growth mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada that had not experienced a fire in over 120 years. Although prescribed burns resulted in significant mortality of particularly the smallest tree size classes, no difference between early and late season burns was detected. Direct mortality due to fire was associated with fire intensity. Secondary mortality due to bark beetles was not significantly correlated with fire intensity. The probability of bark beetle attack on pines did not differ between early and late season burns, while the probability of bark beetle attack on firs was greater following early season burns. Overall tree mortality appeared to be primarily the result of fire intensity rather than tree phenology at the time of the burns. Early season burns are generally conducted under higher fuel moisture conditions, leading to less fuel

  20. SITHON: A Wireless Network of in Situ Optical Cameras Applied to the Early Detection-Notification-Monitoring of Forest Fires

    PubMed Central

    Tsiourlis, Georgios; Andreadakis, Stamatis; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    The SITHON system, a fully wireless optical imaging system, integrating a network of in-situ optical cameras linking to a multi-layer GIS database operated by Control Operating Centres, has been developed in response to the need for early detection, notification and monitoring of forest fires. This article presents in detail the architecture and the components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of an experimental test with small controlled fires over Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. The system has already been scheduled to be installed in some fire prone areas of Greece. PMID:22408536

  1. Forest Fire Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  2. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence

  3. Earth Observation - Forest Fire

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-010044 (27 June 2011) --- A crew member aboard the International Space Station, flying at an altitude of approximately 235 statute miles on June 27, 2011, exposed this still photograph of a major fire in the Jemez Mountains of the Santa Fe National Forest in north-central New Mexico. The fire is just southwest of Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  4. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  5. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

  6. Earth Observation - Forest Fire

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-010043 (27 June 2011) --- A crew member aboard the International Space Station, flying at an altitude of approximately 235 statute miles on June 27, 2011, exposed this still photograph of a major fire in the Jemez Mountains of the Santa Fe National Forest in north-central New Mexico. The fire is just southwest of Los Alamos National Laboratories, which can be seen just right of center.

  7. Measurements of forest fire danger

    Leo Shames

    1938-01-01

    Although the annual destruction of life and property attributable to forest fires is enormous, scientific methods of forest fire control in the United States are of comparatively recent origin. In one important phase of control, that of determining how large a network of observers is necessary for the purpose of discovering forest fires in their infancy, accurate means...

  8. Lightning fires in southwestern forests

    Jack S. Barrows

    1978-01-01

    Lightning is the leading cause of fires in southwestern forests. On all protected private, state and federal lands in Arizona and New Mexico, nearly 80 percent of the forest, brush and range fires are ignited by lightning. The Southwestern region leads all other regions of the United States both in total number of lightning fires and in the area burned by these fires...

  9. Progress in the development of a S-RETGEM-based detector for an early forest fire warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Peskov, V.

    2009-12-01

    We present a prototype of a Strip Resistive Thick GEM (S-RETGEM) photosensitive gaseous detector filled with Ne and ethylferrocene (EF) vapours at a total pressure of 1 atm for an early forest fire detection system. Measurements show that it is one hundred times more sensitive than the best commercial ultraviolet (UV) flame detectors; and therefore, it is able to reliably detect a flame of ~ 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 m3 at a distance of about 1 km. An additional and unique feature of this detector is its imaging capability, which in combination with other techniques, may significantly reduce false fire alarms rate when operating in an automatic mode. Preliminary results conducted with air-filled photosensitive gaseous detectors are also presented. The main advantages of this approach include both the simplicity of manufacturing and affordability of construction materials such as plastics and glues specifically reducing detector production cost. The sensitivity of these air-filled detectors at certain conditions may be as high as those filled with Ne and EF. Long-term tests of such sealed detectors indicate a significant progress in this direction. We believe that our detectors utilized in addition to other flame and smoke sensors will exceptionally increase the capability to detect forest fire at a very early stage of development. Our future efforts will be focused on attempts to commercialize such detectors utilizing our aforementioned findings.

  10. Tree mortality from fire and bark beetles following early and late season prescribed fires in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Dylan W. Schwilk; Eric E. Knapp; Scott M. Ferrenberg; Jon E. Keeley; Anthony. Caprio

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century, fire exclusion in the forests of the Sierra Nevada has allowed surface fuels to accumulate and has led to increased tree density. Stand composition has also been altered as shade tolerant tree species crowd out shade intolerant species. To restore forest structure and reduce the risk of large, intense fires, managers have increasingly used...

  11. Fire in southern forest landscapes

    John A. Stanturf; Dale D. Wade; Thomas A. Waldrop; Deborah K. Kennard; Gary L. Achtemeier

    2002-01-01

    Other than land clearing for urban development (Wear and others 1998), no disturbance is more common in southern forests than fire. The pervasive role of fire predates human activity in the South (Komarek 1964, 1974), and humans magnified that role. Repeating patterns of fire behavior lead to recognizable fire regimes, with temporal and spatial dimensions....

  12. First open field measurements with a portable CO2 lidar/dial system for early forest fires detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, Pasquale; Gelfusa, Michela; Lupelli, Ivan; Malizia, Andrea; Moretti, Alessandro; Richetta, Maria; Serafini, Camilla; Bellecci, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Lidar and dial are well established methods to explore the atmosphere. Different groups have already shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation of aerosol and particulate in the atmosphere due to plumes emitted in forest fires with this kind of systems. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the capabilities of our mobile Lidar system, based on a CO2 laser, to detect forest fires and minimizing false alarms. For this purpose, our system can be operated in both lidar and dial configurations in sequence. The first Lidar measurement is performed to evaluate the variation of the local density into the atmosphere, using a nonabsorption water wavelength 10R18 (10.571 μm). If the returned signal reports a backscattering peak, the presence of a fire is probable. To confirm this hypothesis, a second dial measurement is carried out to reveal a second component emitted during the combustion process. The chosen second component is water vapour, which is, as it is well-known, largely produced during the first combustion stage. Measuring the water concentration peak after the detection of the aerosol density increment (referred to the standard mean atmospheric value) represents a good method to reduce false alarms with a dial system. In order to test this methodology, a first set of measurements has been performed in a field near the Engineering Faculty of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata". A quite small controlled-fire has been lighted into a box at a distance of about one kilometre from the system. The data acquired at the two wavelengths (10R18 and 10R20) have been averaged on 100 elastic backscattered Lidar signals. The first results confirm the effectiveness of the measurement strategy for reducing the number of false alarm preserving the early detection.

  13. Amazon rain-forest fires.

    PubMed

    Sanford, R L; Saldarriaga, J; Clark, K E; Uhl, C; Herrera, R

    1985-01-04

    Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and igapo forest soils. Climatic changes or human activities, or both, have caused rain-forest fires.

  14. Arizona Forest Fire

    2001-10-22

    These ASTER images cover an area of 11 x 14 km on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and were acquired May 12, 2000. The left image displays bands 3,2,1 in RGB, displaying vegetation as red. The large dark area is burned forest, and small smoke plumes can be seen at the edges where active fires are burning. The right display substitutes SWIR band 8 for band 3. The bright red spots are the active fires, visible because the SWIR wavelength region has the capability to penetrate through the smoke. This image is located at 35.9 degrees north latitude and 113.4 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11092

  15. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  16. Thermocouples for forest fire research

    Erwin H. Breuer

    1965-01-01

    Thermocouples have proved valuable in research conducted by the Fire Physics Project at the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory because they can measure several important fire variables besides flame and convection column temperatures. These include rate of spread and flame residence time. Describes a simple, rapid method of fabrication and reports useful and diverse...

  17. Fuel reduction and coarse woody debris dynamics with early season and late season prescribed fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Ballenger, E.A.; Brennan, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fire exclusion has led to an unnatural accumulation and greater spatial continuity of organic material on the ground in many forests. This material serves both as potential fuel for forest fires and habitat for a large array of forest species. Managers must balance fuel reduction to reduce wildfire hazard with fuel retention targets to maintain other forest functions. This study reports fuel consumption and changes to coarse woody debris attributes with prescribed burns ignited under different fuel moisture conditions. Replicated early season burn, late season burn, and unburned control plots were established in old-growth mixed conifer forest in Sequoia National Park that had not experienced fire for more than 120 years. Early season burns were ignited during June 2002 when fuels were relatively moist, and late season burns were ignited during September/October 2001 when fuels were dry. Fuel loading and coarse woody debris abundance, cover, volume, and mass were evaluated prior to and after the burns. While both types of burns reduced fuel loading, early season burns consumed significantly less of the total dead and down organic matter than late season burns (67% versus 88%). This difference in fuel consumption between burning treatments was significant for most all woody fuel components evaluated, plus the litter and duff layers. Many logs were not entirely consumed - therefore the number of logs was not significantly changed by fire - but burning did reduce log length, cover, volume, and mass. Log cover, volume, and mass were reduced to a lesser extent by early season burns than late season burns, as a result of higher wood moisture levels. Early season burns also spread over less of the ground surface within the burn perimeter (73%) than late season burns (88%), and were significantly patchier. Organic material remaining after a fire can dam sediments and reduce erosion, while unburned patches may help mitigate the impact of fire on fire-sensitive species by

  18. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  19. Climate change and forest fires.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, M D; Stocks, B J; Wotton, B M

    2000-11-15

    This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity in the middle of the next century. Ratios of 2 x CO2 seasonal severity rating (SSR) over present day SSR were calculated for the means and maximums for North America. The results suggest that the SSR will increase by 10-50% over most of North America; although, there are regions of little change or where the SSR may decrease by the middle of the next century. Increased SSRs should translate into increased forest fire activity. Thus, forest fires could be viewed as an agent of change for US forests as the fire regime will respond rapidly to climate warming. This change in the fire regime has the potential to overshadow the direct effects of climate change on species distribution and migration.

  20. The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  1. Heterogeneity in fire severity with early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed conifer forest

    Eric E. Knapp; Jon E. Keeley

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were...

  2. Fire risk in east-side forests.

    Valerie. Rapp

    2002-01-01

    Wildfire was a natural part of ecosystems in east-side Oregon and Washington before the 20th century. The fire regimes, or characteristic patterns of fire—how often, how hot, how big, what time of year—helped create and maintain various types of forests.Forests are dynamic, and fire interacts with other ecological processes. Fires, forests...

  3. Fuel reduction and coarse woody debris dynamics with early season and late season prescribed fires in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Eric E. Knapp; Jon E. Keeley; Elizabeth A. Ballenger; Teresa J. Brennan

    2005-01-01

    Fire exclusion has led to an unnatural accumulation and greater spatial continuity of organic material on the ground in many forests. This material serves both as potential fuel for forest fires and habitat for a large array of forest species. Managers must balance fuel reduction to reduce wildfire hazard with fuel retention targets to maintain other forest functions....

  4. Southwestern Oregon's Biscuit Fire: An Analysis of Forest Resources, Fire Severity, and Fire Hazard

    David L. Azuma; Glenn A. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    This study compares pre-fire field inventory data (collected from 1993 to 1997) in relation to post-fire mapped fire severity classes and the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator growth and yield model measures of fire hazard for the portion of the Siskiyou National Forest in the 2002 Biscuit fire perimeter of southwestern Oregon. Post-fire...

  5. The use of fire in forest restoration

    Colin C. Hardy; Stephen F. Arno

    1996-01-01

    The 26 papers in this document address the current knowledge of fire as a disturbance agent, fire history and fire regimes, applications of prescribed fire for ecological restoration, and the effects of fire on the various forested ecosystems of the north-western United States. The main body of this document is organized in three sections: Assessing Needs for Fire in...

  6. Seed invasion filters and forest fire severity

    Tom R. Cottrell; Paul F. Hessburg; Jonathan A. Betz

    2008-01-01

    Forest seed dispersal is altered after fire. Using seed traps, we studied impacts of fire severity on timing of seed dispersal, total seed rain, and seed rain richness in patches of high and low severity fire and unburned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Fischer and Tyee fire complexes in the eastern Washington Cascades. Unburned...

  7. Assessment of Post Forest Fire Landslides in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, N.; Singh, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    According to Forest Survey of India-State Forest Report (2015), the total geographical area of Uttarakhand is 53, 483 covers km2 out of which 24,402 km2 area covers under total forest covers. As noticed during last week of April, 2016 forest of Uttarakhand mountains was gutted down due to major incidences of fire. This incident caused huge damage to different species of flora-fauna, human being, livestock, property and destruction of mountain ecosystem. As per media reports, six people were lost their lives and recorded several charred carcasses of livestock's due to this incident. The forest fire was affected the eleven out of total thirteen districts which roughly covers the 0.2% (approx.) of total vegetation covers.The direct impact of losses are easy to be estimated but indirect impacts of this forest fire are yet to be occurred. The threat of post Forest fire induced landslides during rainfall is themain concern. Since, after forest fire top soil and rocks are loose due to loss of vegetation as binding and protecting agent against rainfall. Therefore, the pore water pressure and weathering will be very high during rainy season which can cause many landslides in regions affected by forest fire. The demarcation of areas worse affected by forest fire is necessary for issuing alerts to habitations and important infrastructures. These alerts will be based upon region specific probable rainfall forecasting through Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). The main objective is to develop a tool for detecting early forest fire and to create awareness amongst mountain community, researchers and concerned government agencies to take an appropriate measures to minimize the incidences of Forest fire and impact of post forest fire landslides in future through implementation of sustainable mountain strategy.

  8. Fire in the forest

    James M. Saveland

    1995-01-01

    From ancient philosophies to present day science, the ubiquity of change and the process of transformation are core concepts. The primary focus of a recent white paper on disturbance ecology is summed up by the Greek philosopher Heraclitus who stated, "Nothing is permanent but change." Disturbance processes, such as fire, provide a window into the emerging...

  9. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean

    A.M.J. Robbins; C.M. Eckelmann; M. Quinones

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire...

  10. Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

  11. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical

  12. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types

    William C. Fischer; Anne F. Bradley

    1987-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types in western Montana. Identifies Fire Groups of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  13. Early spring post-fire snow albedo dynamics in high latitude boreal forests using Landsat-8 OLI data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Román, Miguel O.

    2018-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (< 100m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high- burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will thus

  14. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  15. Early spring post-fire snow albedo dynamics in high latitude boreal forests using Landsat-8 OLI data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M; Schaaf, Crystal B; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A; Román, Miguel O

    2016-11-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (< 100m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high- burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will thus

  16. Natural phenomena exhibited by forest fires

    J. S. Barrows

    1961-01-01

    Forest fire phenomena are presented through a series of motion pictures and 35 mm slides. These films have been taken by the staffs of the Southeastern, Pacific Southwest, and Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Stations of the U. S. Forest Service and by Dr. Vincent J. Schaefer during the course of fire research activities. Both regular speed and time-lapse...

  17. Prescribed fire in upland harwood forests

    T.L. Keyser; C.H. Greenberg; H. McNab

    2014-01-01

    In upland hardwood forests of the Southeastern U.S.,prescribed fire is increasingly used by land managers citing objectives that include hazardous fuels reduction, wildlife habitat improvement, promoting oak regeneration, or restoring forest composition or structure to an historic condition. Research suggests that prescribed fire effects on hardwood forests and...

  18. Forest-fire model with natural fire resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Mark R; Turcotte, Donald L; Rundle, John B

    2011-04-01

    Observations suggest that contemporary wildfire suppression practices in the United States have contributed to conditions that facilitate large, destructive fires. We introduce a forest-fire model with natural fire resistance that supports this theory. Fire resistance is defined with respect to the size and shape of clusters; the model yields power-law frequency-size distributions of model fires that are consistent with field observations in the United States, Canada, and Australia.

  19. The paleoecology of fire and oaks in eastern forests

    William A. III Patterson

    2006-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) currently dominate eastern deciduous forests, but are widely perceived as declining, with regeneration inadequate to perpetuate many stands. Most stands regenerated following fire in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and a lack of recent fire is viewed as contributing to the shortage of sapling and pole-size stands. But paleoecological studies...

  20. Forest Fire Research--Hindsight and Foresight

    C. E. Van Wagner

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of Forest fire research in Canada first is examined through the works of Wright and Beall, at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute in Ontario, then some lessons are drawn from the past that ought to bear on the future. Some opinions are delivered on the future course of research in fire danger rating, prescribed fire and the impacts of fire on the...

  1. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  2. Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

  3. A Drought Index for Forest Fire Control

    John J. Keetch; George M. Byram

    1968-01-01

    The moisture content of the upper soil, as well as that of the covering layer of duff, has an important effect on the fire suppression effort in forest and wildland areas. In certain forested areas of the United States, fires in deep duff fuels are of particular concern to the fire control manager. When these fuels are dry, fires burn deeply, dam-age is excessive, and...

  4. Early fire history near Papineau lake, Ontario

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    Research that defines the role of fire in upland red oak-pine ecosystems in central Ontario is being conducted by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Silviculture program. Site-specific fire histories are being developed that document fire frequency, fire behavior, fire effects on forest regeneration and grwoth, and the influnce of human activites on fire disturbances. This...

  5. Forest Fire Management: A Comprehensive And Operational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Perez, Bruno; Gomez, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in obtaining rapid and complete information on the occurrence and evolution in space and time of forest fires. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of fire events through Earth Observation data for early warning, crisis monitoring and post-event damage assessment or a synthesis of the fire event, both in a wide spatial range (local to regional) and temporal scale (short to long term). The fire products are stored and distributed by means of a WebGIS and a Geoportal with additional auxiliary geospatial data. These products allow fire managers to perform analysis and decision making in a more comprehensive manner.

  6. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

    2008-12-01

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for

  7. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of central Idaho

    M. F. Crane; William C. Fischer

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring in central Idaho. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Considerations for fire management are suggested.

  8. Characteristics of forest fuels, fire and emissions

    Charles K. McMahon

    1983-01-01

    Introduction Forest fires can be divided into two broad classes--wildfires and prescribed fires. Wildfires, whether caused by nature (lightning, etc.) or by the accidental or malicious acts of man, are not planned by forest managers and do not occur under controlled conditions. They can be relatively tame, covering only a few hectares and burning...

  9. Mexican forest fires and their decadal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    A high forest fire season of two to three years is regularly observed each decade in Mexican forests. This seems to be related to the presence of the El Niño phenomenon and to the amount of total solar irradiance. In this study, the results of a multi-cross wavelet analysis are reported based on the occurrence of Mexican forest fires, El Niño and the total solar irradiance for the period 1970-2014. The analysis shows that Mexican forest fires and the strongest El Niño phenomena occur mostly around the minima of the solar cycle. This suggests that the total solar irradiance minima provide the appropriate climatological conditions for the occurrence of these forest fires. The next high season for Mexican forest fires could start in the next solar minimum, which will take place between the years 2017 and 2019. A complementary space analysis based on MODIS active fire data for Mexican forest fires from 2005 to 2014 shows that most of these fires occur in cedar and pine forests, on savannas and pasturelands, and in the central jungles of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

  10. Two keys for appraising forest fire fuels.

    George R. Fahnestock

    1970-01-01

    This is an attempt to characterize forest fire fuels in a new way. The immediate purpose is to provide means for recognizing and tentatively evaluating, in the field, the fire spread potential and the crowning potential of fuels on the basis of readily observed characteristics without need for prior technical knowledge of vegetation or experience with fire. The medium...

  11. Measuring fire weather and forest inflammability

    H. T. Gisborne

    1936-01-01

    In the measurement of fire weather and forest inflammability, now practiced regularly at more than 90 forest stations in northern Idaho and western Montana, it is necessary to use many methods that are peculiar to this work. Some of these methods are familiar to meteorologists, but few foresters have had any appreciable training in meteorology. Others are of such,...

  12. Fire intensity drives post-fire temporal pattern of soil carbon accumulation in Australian fire-prone forests.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Robert; Bradstock, Ross; Bedward, Michael; Morrison, R John

    2018-01-01

    The impact of fire on global C cycles is considerable but complex. Nevertheless, studies on patterns of soil C accumulation following fires of differing intensity over time are lacking. Our study utilised 15 locations last burnt by prescribed fire (inferred low intensity) and 18 locations last burnt by wildfire (inferred high intensity), with time since fire (TSF) up to 43years, in a homogenous forest type in south eastern Australia. Following a stratified approach to mineral soil sampling, the soil % total C (% C Tot ) and % recalcitrant pyrogenic C (% RPC), were estimated. Generalised additive models indicated increases in % C Tot at TSF >30years in sites last burnt by wildfire. Estimates in sites last subjected to prescribed fire however, remained constant across the TSF chronosequence. There was no significant difference in % C Tot between the different fire types for the first 20years after fire. In the first 10years after wildfires, % RPC was elevated, declining to a minimum at ca. TSF 25years. After prescribed fires, % RPC was unaffected by TSF. Differences in response of % C Tot and % RPC to fire type may reflect the strength of stimulation of early successional processes and extent of charring. The divergent response to fire type in % C Tot was apparent at TSF longer than the landscape average fire return interval (i.e., 15 to 20years). Thus, any attempt to increase C sequestration in soils would require long-term exclusion of fire. Conversely, increased fire frequency is likely to have negligible impact on soil C stocks in these forests. Further investigation of the effects of fire frequency, fire intensity combinations and interaction of fire with other disturbances will enhance prediction of the likely impact of imposed or climatically induced changes to fire regimes on soil C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meteorological factors in the Quartz Creek forest fire

    H. T. Gisborne

    1927-01-01

    It is not often that a large forest fire occurs conveniently near a weather station specially equipped for measuring forest-fire weather. The 13,000-acre Quartz Creek fire on the Kaniksu National Forest during the summer of 1936 was close enough to the Priest River Experimental Forest of the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station for the roar of the flumes...

  14. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  15. Reducing social losses from forest fires

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate two financial incentives to encourage nonindustrial forest landowners to undertake activities that mitigate fire losses: sharing of fire suppression costs by the landowner and sharing of fuel reduction costs by the government. First and second best outcomes are identified and compared to assess the effectiveness of these incentives in reducing social...

  16. An approach to the real time risk evaluation system of boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakau, K.; Fukuda, M.; Kimura, K.; Hayasaka, H.; Tani, H.; Kushida, K.

    2005-12-01

    Huge boreal forest fire may cause massive impacts not only on global warming gas emission but also local communities. Thus, it is important to control forest fire. We collected data about boreal forest fire as satellite imagery and fire observation simultaneously in Alaska and east Siberia in summer fire seasons for these three years. Fire observation data was collected from aircraft flying between Japan and Europe. Fire detection results were compared with observed data to evaluate the accuracy and earliness of automatic detection. NOAA and MODIS satellite images covering Alaska and East Siberia are collected. We are also developing fire expansion simulation model to forecast the possible fire expansion area. On the basis of fire expansion forecast, risk analysis of possible fire expansion for decision aid of fire-fighting activities will be analyzed. To identify the risk of boreal forest fire and public concern about forest fire, we collected local news paper in Fairbanks, AK and discuss the statistics of articles related to forest fire on the newspaper.

  17. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was bu...

  18. The principles of measuring forest fire danger

    H. T. Gisborne

    1936-01-01

    Research in fire danger measurement was commenced in 1922 at the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station of the U. S. Forest Service, with headquarters at Missoula, Mont. Since then investigations have been made concerning ( 1) what to measure, (2) how to measure, and ( 3) field use of these measurements. In all cases the laboratory or restricted...

  19. Western forest, fire risk, and climate change

    Valerie Rapp

    2004-01-01

    Climate warming may first show up in forests as increased growth, which occurs as warmer temperatures, increased carbon dioxide, and more precipitation encourage higher rates of photosynthesis. The second way that climate change may show up in forests is through changes in disturbance regimes—the long-term patterns of fire, drought, insects, and diseases that are basic...

  20. Western forests, fire risk, and climate change.

    Valerie Rapp

    2004-01-01

    Climate warming may first show up in forests as increased growth, which occurs as warmer temperatures, increased carbon dioxide, and more precipitation encourage higher rates of photosynthesis. The second way that climate change may show up in forests is through changes in disturbance regimes—the long-term patterns of fire, drought, insects, and diseases that are basic...

  1. Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City.

    R.J. Yokelson; S.P. Urbanski; E.L. Atlas; D.E. Toohey; E.C. Alvarado; J.D. Crounse; P.O. Wennberg; M.E. Fisher; C.E. Would; T.L. Campos; K. Adachi; P.T. Buseck; W.M. Hao

    2007-01-01

    The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3...

  2. Forest fire effects on mercury deposition in the boreal forest

    Emma L. Witt; Randall K. Kolka; Edward A. Nater; Trent R. Wickman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how forest fire effects Hg deposition to nearby landscapes impacted by smoke plumes. Hg concentrations and deposition were hypothesized to increase in throughfall and open precipitation after fire, and canopy type was hypothesized to influence the magnitude of the increase. Conifer canopies, which are better able to scavenge...

  3. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah

    Anne F. Bradley; Nonan V. Noste; William C. Fischer

    1992-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor in forest habitat types, and in pinyon-juniper woodland and oak-maple brushland communities occurring in Utah. Identifies Fire Groups based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  4. Alternative characterization of forest fire regimes: incorporating spatial patterns

    Brandon M. Collins; Jens T. Stevens; Jay D. Miller; Scott L. Stephens; Peter M. Brown; Malcolm P. North

    2017-01-01

    ContextThe proportion of fire area that experienced stand-replacing fire effects is an important attribute of individual fires and fire regimes in forests, and this metric has been used to group forest types into characteristic fire regimes. However, relying on proportion alone ignores important spatial characteristics...

  5. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho

    Jane Kapler Smith; William C. Fischer

    1997-01-01

    Provides information on fire ecology in forest habitat and community types occurring in northern Idaho. Identifies fire groups based on presettlement fire regimes and patterns of succession and stand development after fire. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  6. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    PubMed

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns.

  7. What ignited Forest Service interest in nonmarket valuation in fire economics?

    John B. Loomis; Armando González-Cabán

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the origin and evolution of the application of nonmarket valuation techniques to fire management within the USDA Forest Service. The motivation for contingent valuation (CVM) studies that quantify existence value is traced to the need for monetary benefits of protecting spotted owl old-growth forest habitat from fire in the early 1990s. Two large...

  8. Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Omer; Topaloglu, Ozer; Altunel, Arif Oguz; Cetin, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    For a successful fire suppression, it is essential to detect and intervene forest fires as early as possible. Fire lookout towers are crucial assets in detecting forest fires, in addition to other technological advancements. In this study, we performed a visibility analysis on a network of fire lookout towers currently operating in a relatively fire-prone region in Turkey's Western Black Sea region. Some of these towers had not been functioning properly; it was proposed that these be taken out of the grid and replaced with new ones. The percentage of visible areas under the current network of fire lookout towers was 73%; it could rise to 81% with the addition of newly proposed towers. This study was the first research to conduct a visibility analysis of current and newly proposed fire lookout towers in the Western Black Sea region and focus on its forest fire problem.

  9. Forest-fire behavior studies

    J.R. Curry; W.L. Fons

    1940-01-01

    General principles of forest management were established over 200 years ago in Central Europe and the task of the American forester has been largely to adapt these principles to the management of the vast, rough, and inaccessible natural forests of this country. A series of essentially new problems has arisen, however. In the humid climate where forestry originated,...

  10. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  11. Real time forest fire warning and forest fire risk zoning: a Vietnamese case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Pham, D.; Phung, T.; Ha, A.; Paschke, M.

    2016-12-01

    Forest fire occurs seriously in Vietnam and has been considered as one of the major causes of forest lost and degradation. Several studies of forest fire risk warning were conducted using Modified Nesterov Index (MNI) but remaining shortcomings and inaccurate predictions that needs to be urgently improved. In our study, several important topographic and social factors such as aspect, slope, elevation, distance to residential areas and road system were considered as "permanent" factors while meteorological data were updated hourly using near-real-time (NRT) remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS Terra/Aqua and TRMM) for the prediction and warning of fire. Due to the limited number of weather stations in Vietnam, data from all active stations (i.e. 178) were used with the satellite data to calibrate and upscale meteorological variables. These data with finer resolution were then used to generate MNI. The only significant "permanent" factors were selected as input variables based on the correlation coefficients that computed from multi-variable regression among true fire-burning (collected from 1/2007) and its spatial characteristics. These coefficients also used to suggest appropriate weight for computing forest fire risk (FR) model. Forest fire risk model was calculated from the MNI and the selected factors using fuzzy regression models (FRMs) and GIS based multi-criteria analysis. By this approach, the FR was slightly modified from MNI by the integrated use of various factors in our fire warning and prediction model. Multifactor-based maps of forest fire risk zone were generated from classifying FR into three potential danger levels. Fire risk maps were displayed using webgis technology that is easy for managing data and extracting reports. Reported fire-burnings thereafter have been used as true values for validating the forest fire risk. Fire probability has strong relationship with potential danger levels (varied from 5.3% to 53.8%) indicating that the higher

  12. Remote Sensing of Forest Fires from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Forest fires, and fires used for deforestation and agriculture are sporadic. Some may last an hour others several days. It is difficult to find the fires or to estimate their effect on atmospheric pollution without an "eye in the sky" a satellite or an array of satellites that monitors them routinely from space. Since fires have a significant effect on the quality of air that we breath, on the surface vegetation, on clouds and precipitation and even on climate, NASA and other space agencies try to develop fire monitoring capability from space. Presently satellites were not designed to monitor fires. But the AVHRR and GOES satellites were used for fire monitoring. AVHRR is an orbiter that passes over the same area twice a day with detailed observations of fires from a distance of 800 km, GOES is a stationary satellite located above the equator, and observes the larger fires from a distance of 20,000 km. Field experiments, such as the "SCAR-B" experiment in Brazil conducted in 1995 by INPE, NASA and Universities of Sao Paulo, Washington and Wisconsin, were used to determine the ability of satellites to observe fires and the emitted pollution. They are the basis of a new system of satellites designed by NASA to observe fires and pollution, the Earth Observing System AM1 and PM1. NASA plans to use the information for four observations a day of the fires and the emitted smoke. The information can be used to determine the location of the fires, to distinguish between small and large fires and monitor their development. The satellites will measure the emitted smoke and with trajectory models can be used to predict the density and spread of the smoke.

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of fire-induced forest mortality in boreal regions and its potential drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Hansen, M.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is the major natural disturbance in boreal forests, which have substantially affected various biological and biophysical processes. Although a few previous studies examined fire severity in boreal regions and reported a higher fire-induced forest mortality in boreal North America than in boreal Eurasia, it remains unclear how this mortality changes over time and how environmental factors affect the temporal dynamics of mortality at a large scale. By using a combination of multiple sources of satellite observations, we investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of fire-induced forest mortality in boreal regions, and examine the contributions of potential drivers. Our results show that forest composition is the key factor influencing the spatial variations of fire mortality across ecoregions. For the temporal variations, we find that the late-season burning was associated with higher fire intensity, which lead to greater forest mortality than the early-season burning. Forests burned in the warm and dry years had greater mortality than those burned in the cool and wet years. Our findings suggest that climate warming and drying not only stimulated boreal fire frequency, but also enhanced fire severity and forest mortality. Due to the significant effects of forest mortality on vegetation structure and ecosystem carbon dynamics, the spatiotemporal changes of fire-induced forest mortality should be explicitly considered to better understand fire impacts on regional and global climate change.

  14. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Catastrophic fires in Russian forests

    A. I. Sukhinin; D. J. McRae; B. J. Stocks; S. G. Conard; WeiMin Hao; A. J. Soja; D. Cahoon

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001...

  16. Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European forest fire information system

    Paulo Barbosa; Andrea Camia; Jan Kucera; Giorgio Libertá; Ilaria Palumbo; Jesus San-Miguel-Ayanz; Guido Schmuck

    2009-01-01

    An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about...

  17. Mathematical modeling of forest fire initiation in three dimensional setting

    Valeriy Perminov

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the assignment and theoretical investigations of the problems of forest fire initiation were carried out, including development of a mathematical model for description of heat and mass transfer processes in overterrestrial layer of atmosphere at crown forest fire initiation, taking into account their mutual influence. Mathematical model of forest fire...

  18. Forest fire risk zonation mapping using remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sunil; Arora, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires cause major losses to forest cover and disturb the ecological balance in our region. Rise in temperature during summer season causing increased dryness, increased activity of human beings in the forest areas, and the type of forest cover in the Garhwal Himalayas are some of the reasons that lead to forest fires. Therefore, generation of forest fire risk maps becomes necessary so that preventive measures can be taken at appropriate time. These risk maps shall indicate the zonation of the areas which are in very high, high, medium and low risk zones with regard to forest fire in the region. In this paper, an attempt has been made to generate the forest fire risk maps based on remote sensing data and other geographical variables responsible for the occurrence of fire. These include altitude, temperature and soil variations. Key thematic data layers pertaining to these variables have been generated using various techniques. A rule-based approach has been used and implemented in GIS environment to estimate fuel load and fuel index leading to the derivation of fire risk zonation index and subsequently to fire risk zonation maps. The fire risk maps thus generated have been validated on the ground for forest types as well as for forest fire risk areas. These maps would help the state forest departments in prioritizing their strategy for combating forest fires particularly during the fire seasons.

  19. 1954 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Owen P. Cramer

    1954-01-01

    For the second successive fire season forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington was far below normal severity. The low danger is reflected in record low numbers of fires reported by forestry offices of both States and by the U. S. Forest Service for their respective protection areas. Although spring and fall fire weather was near normal, a rain-producing...

  20. Emissions from Forest Fires near Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOX to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was approximately 0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (approximately 0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012 +/- 0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003 +/- 0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MCarea (approximately 98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.01 15 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as approximately 79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50 +/- 30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

  1. Villaflores: Municipal forest fire management model

    Pedro Martínez Muñoz; Carlos Alberto Velázquez Sanabria

    2013-01-01

    As provided for in the General Law on Sustainable Forestry Development, the Municipality of Villaflores has worked on a continuous basis since 2002 to reduce the damage caused by forest fires as part of its working agenda, in conjunction with Federal and State agencies and NGOs. The work plan has the following phases: a) Inter-agency coordination:...

  2. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  3. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  4. Fire, climate change, and forest resilience in interior Alaska

    Jill F. Johnstone; F. Stuart Chapin; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Michelle C. Mack; Vladimir Romanovsky; Merritt Turetsky

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of interior Alaska, feedbacks that link forest soils, fire characteristics, and plant traits have supported stable cycles of forest succession for the past 6000 years. This high resilience of forest stands to fire disturbance is supported by two interrelated feedback cycles: (i) interactions among disturbance regime and plant-soil-microbial...

  5. Changing Weather Extremes Call for Early Warning of Potential for Catastrophic Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Matthias M.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Resco De Dios, Víctor; Clarke, Hamish; Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.

    2017-12-01

    Changing frequencies of extreme weather events and shifting fire seasons call for enhanced capability to forecast where and when forested landscapes switch from a nonflammable (i.e., wet fuel) state to the highly flammable (i.e., dry fuel) state required for catastrophic forest fires. Current forest fire danger indices used in Europe, North America, and Australia rate potential fire behavior by combining numerical indices of fuel moisture content, potential rate of fire spread, and fire intensity. These numerical rating systems lack the physical basis required to reliably quantify forest flammability outside the environments of their development or under novel climate conditions. Here, we argue that exceedance of critical forest flammability thresholds is a prerequisite for major forest fires and therefore early warning systems should be based on a reliable prediction of fuel moisture content plus a regionally calibrated model of how forest fire activity responds to variation in fuel moisture content. We demonstrate the potential of this approach through a case study in Portugal. We use a physically based fuel moisture model with historical weather and fire records to identify critical fuel moisture thresholds for forest fire activity and then show that the catastrophic June 2017 forest fires in central Portugal erupted shortly after fuels in the region dried out to historically unprecedented levels.

  6. Effects of forest fire and logging on forest degradation in Mongolia

    Yeong Dae Park; Don Koo Lee; Jamsran Tsogtbaatar; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    Forests in Mongolia have been severely degraded by forest fire and exploitive logging. This study investigate changes in vegetation and soil properties after forest fire or clearfelling. Microclimate conditions such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) changed drastically after forest fire or logging; temperature increased 1.6-1.7 ºC on average, whereas...

  7. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  8. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  9. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests

    Jill F. Johnstone; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession. Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous...

  10. Mitigating Large Fires in Drossel-Schwabl Forest Fire Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, M.; Turcotte, D.; Rundle, J.; Morein, G.

    2008-12-01

    We employ variations of the traditional Drossel-Schwabl cellular automata Forest Fire Models (FFM) to study wildfire dynamics. The traditional FFM produces a very robust power law distribution of events, as a function of size, with frequency-size slope very close to -1. Observed data from Australia, the US and northern Mexico suggest that real wild fires closely follow power laws in frequency size with slopes ranging from close to -2 to -1.3 (B.D. Malamud et al. 2005). We suggest two models that, by fracturing and trimming large clusters, reduce the number of large fires while maintaining scale invariance. These fracturing and trimming processes can be justified in terms of real physical processes. For each model, we achieve slopes in the frequency-size relation ranging from approximately -1.77 to -1.06.

  11. The forest fire season at different elevations in Idaho

    J. A. Larsen

    1925-01-01

    In any fire-ridden forest region, such as north Idaho, there is great need for a tangible basis by which to judge the length and the intensity of the fire season in different forest types and at different elevations. The major and natural forest types, such as the western yellow pine forests, the western white-pine forests, and the subalpine forests occur in...

  12. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming

    Anne F. Bradley; William C. Fischer; Nonan V. Noste

    1992-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor in the forest habitat types occurring in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Identifies Fire Groups based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  13. Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Arie; Hantson, Stijn; Holmgren, Milena; Pueyo, Salvador; Bernardi, Rafael E.; Flores, Bernardo M.; Xu, Chi; Scheffer, Marten

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality. We show that across all continents, observed frequency distributions of tropical tree cover are consistent with this hypothesis. We argue that percolation of fire through an open landscape may explain the remarkably universal rise of fire frequency around a critical tree cover, but we show that simple percolation models cannot predict the actual threshold quantitatively. The fire-driven instability of intermediate states implies that tree cover will not change smoothly with climate or other stressors and shifts between closed forest and a state of low tree cover will likely tend to be relatively sharp and difficult to reverse. PMID:29351323

  14. Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest.

    PubMed

    van Nes, Egbert H; Staal, Arie; Hantson, Stijn; Holmgren, Milena; Pueyo, Salvador; Bernardi, Rafael E; Flores, Bernardo M; Xu, Chi; Scheffer, Marten

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality. We show that across all continents, observed frequency distributions of tropical tree cover are consistent with this hypothesis. We argue that percolation of fire through an open landscape may explain the remarkably universal rise of fire frequency around a critical tree cover, but we show that simple percolation models cannot predict the actual threshold quantitatively. The fire-driven instability of intermediate states implies that tree cover will not change smoothly with climate or other stressors and shifts between closed forest and a state of low tree cover will likely tend to be relatively sharp and difficult to reverse.

  15. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    Angela White; Patricia Manley; Gina Tarbill; T. W. Richardson; R. E. Russell; H. D. Safford; S. Z. Dobrowski

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire...

  16. Dry forests of the Northeastern Cascades Fire and Fire Surrogate project site, Mission Creek, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest

    James K. Agee; John F. (comps.) Lehmkuhl

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) project is a large long-term metastudy established to assess the effectiveness and ecological impacts of burning and fire "surrogates" such as cuttings and mechanical fuel treatments that are used instead of fire, or in combination with fire, to restore dry forests. One of the 13 national FFS sites is the Northeastern...

  17. Early fire history near Seguin Falls, Ontario

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    This report is one of a series of site-specfic fire histories being developed for red oak (Quercus rubra L.)-pine ecosystems in central Ontario. Collectively, these studies documents the role of fire in upland oak forests. this information also provides an ecological basis for developing silviculture prescriptions that use prescribed burning to...

  18. Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest

    Steven D. Allison; Tracy B. Gartner; Michelle C. Mack; Krista McGuire; Kathleen Treseder

    2010-01-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of wood products, and fertilizers could be used to improve forest yields, especially in nutrient poor regions of the boreal zone. With climate change, fire frequencies may increase, resulting in a larger fraction of the boreal landscape present in early successional stages. Since most fertilization studies have focused on mature...

  19. View of forest fires in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view, acquired with a Hasselblad camera equipped with a 250mm lens, shows only a small portion of forest fires that marked the Earth photography taken over Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina during this mission. Numerous fires are visible in this late-dry-season scene of the areas between the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Most of this burning is usually associated with agricultural preparations. The nadir point of the Space Shuttle at the time this photograph was taken (2018 GMT, September 16, 1993) was 28.5 degrees South, 60.0 degrees West. The view is to the west.

  20. Restoring fire-adapted forested ecosystems—research in longleaf pine on the Kisatchie National Forest.

    James D. Haywood

    2007-01-01

    Prescribed burning research on the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana spanned the last five decades and led to a greater understanding of fire behavior and the importance of burning in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) forests. Early research found that biennial burning in May favored the growth of longleaf pine seedlings. However, burning...

  1. Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value

  2. Using weather forecasts for predicting forest-fire danger

    H. T. Gisborne

    1925-01-01

    Three kinds of weather control the fluctuations of forest-fire danger-wet weather, dry weather, and windy weather. Two other conditions also contribute to the fluctuation of fire danger. These are the occurrence of lightning and the activities of man. But neither of these fire-starting agencies is fully effective unless the weather has dried out the forest materials so...

  3. A guide for salvaging white pine injured by forest fires

    Thomas W. McConkey; Donald R. Gedney

    1951-01-01

    White pine forests are severely damaged by forest fires. Generally a fire kills all trees less than 20 feet high immediately. Larger trees may die later, depending on the degree of injury. Salvage operations must be started soon after a fire, because insects and fungi quickly attack trees that are killed.

  4. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  5. A second-order impact model for forest fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Stefano; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2006-09-01

    We present a very simple "impact" model for the description of forest fires and show that it can mimic the known characteristics of wild fire regimes in savannas, boreal forests, and Mediterranean forests. Moreover, the distribution of burned biomasses in model generated fires resemble those of burned areas in numerous large forests around the world. The model has also the merits of being the first second-order model for forest fires and the first example of the use of impact models in the study of ecosystems.

  6. Gaseous emissions from Canadian boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

    1990-01-01

    CO2-normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were determined from smoke samples collected during low-altitude helicopter flights over two prescribed fires in northern Ontario, Canada. The emission ratios determined from these prescribed boreal forest fires are compared to emission ratios determined over two graminoid (grass) wetlands fires in central Florida and are found to be substantially higher (elevated levels of reduced gas production relative to CO2) during all stages of combustion. These results argue strongly for the need to characterize biomass burning emissions from the major global vegetation/ecosystems in order to couple combustion emissions to their vegetation/ecosystem type.

  7. Longleaf pine forests and woodlands: old growth under fire!

    Joan L. Walker

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses a once widespread forest type of the Southeast – longleaf pine dominated forests and woodlands. This system depends on fire – more or less frequent, and often of low intensity. Because human-mediated landscape fragmentation has drastically changed the behavior of fire on longleaf pine dominated landscapes, these forests and woodlands will never be...

  8. Measuring forest-fire danger in northern Idaho

    H. T. Gisborne

    1928-01-01

    In most of the forest regions of the United States the fire problem is the greatest forest problem. Wasteful methods of logging and lumbering may result in the loss of a large proportion of the remaining forest growth, but the land will usually produce a new crop of timber without undue delay, unless fire occurs.

  9. Short-term responses of birds to prescribed fire in fire-suppressed forests of California

    Bagne Karen; Kathryn Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is one tool for restoring fire-suppressed forests, but application of fire during spring coincides with breeding and arrival of migrant birds. We examined effects of low-severity prescribed fires on counts of birds in a managed forest in the Sierra Nevada of California immediately, 1 year, and 3–6 years after fire was applied in spring. Of 26 species...

  10. Soil nutrients and microbial activity after early and late season prescribed burns in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Sarah T. Hamman; Ingrid C. Burke; Eric E. Knapp

    2008-01-01

    Restoring the natural fire regime to forested systems that have experienced fire exclusion throughout the past century can be a challenge due to the heavy fuel loading conditions. Fire is being re-introduced to mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada through both early season and late season prescribed burns, even though most fires historically occurred in the late...

  11. Human ecological intervention and the role of forest fires in human ecology.

    PubMed

    Caldararo, N

    2002-06-26

    The present text is a summary of research on the relationship between forest fires and human activities. Numerous theories have been created to explain changes in forests during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, and a general understanding has developed in the past 50 years regarding natural fire regimes. The present summary is directed to assess the validity of these theories. A re-analysis of the literature argues that the intense forest fires we experience today are an artifact of human intervention in forest ecology, especially by the reduction of herbivores and are relatively recent, approximately 100,000-250,000 BP. The history of fire, especially in the context of the increased dominance of humans, has produced a progressively fire-adapted ecology, which argues for human-free wildlife areas and against prescribed burns under many circumstances.

  12. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges

    Stephens, Scott L.; Burrows, Neil; Buyantuyev, Alexander; Gray, Robert W.; Keane, Robert E.; Kubian, Rick; Liu, Shirong; Seijo, Francisco; Shu, Lifu; Tolhurst, Kevin G.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2014-01-01

    Mega-fires are often defined according to their size and intensity but are more accurately described by their socioeconomic impacts. Three factors – climate change, fire exclusion, and antecedent disturbance, collectively referred to as the “mega-fire triangle” – likely contribute to today's mega-fires. Some characteristics of mega-fires may emulate historical fire regimes and can therefore sustain healthy fire-prone ecosystems, but other attributes decrease ecosystem resiliency. A good example of a program that seeks to mitigate mega-fires is located in Western Australia, where prescribed burning reduces wildfire intensity while conserving ecosystems. Crown-fire-adapted ecosystems are likely at higher risk of frequent mega-fires as a result of climate change, as compared with other ecosystems once subject to frequent less severe fires. Fire and forest managers should recognize that mega-fires will be a part of future wildland fire regimes and should develop strategies to reduce their undesired impacts.

  13. Effects of fire severity on plant nutrient uptake reinforce alternate pathways of succession in boreal forests

    A. Shenoy; K. Kielland; J.F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the North American boreal region is projected to increase under a warming climate and trigger changes in vegetation composition. In black spruce forests of interior Alaska, fire severity impacts residual organic layer depth which is strongly linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous trees in early succession. These alternate...

  14. Advanced analysis of forest fire clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Pereira, Mario; Golay, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of point pattern clustering is an important topic in spatial statistics and for many applications: biodiversity, epidemiology, natural hazards, geomarketing, etc. There are several fundamental approaches used to quantify spatial data clustering using topological, statistical and fractal measures. In the present research, the recently introduced multi-point Morisita index (mMI) is applied to study the spatial clustering of forest fires in Portugal. The data set consists of more than 30000 fire events covering the time period from 1975 to 2013. The distribution of forest fires is very complex and highly variable in space. mMI is a multi-point extension of the classical two-point Morisita index. In essence, mMI is estimated by covering the region under study by a grid and by computing how many times more likely it is that m points selected at random will be from the same grid cell than it would be in the case of a complete random Poisson process. By changing the number of grid cells (size of the grid cells), mMI characterizes the scaling properties of spatial clustering. From mMI, the data intrinsic dimension (fractal dimension) of the point distribution can be estimated as well. In this study, the mMI of forest fires is compared with the mMI of random patterns (RPs) generated within the validity domain defined as the forest area of Portugal. It turns out that the forest fires are highly clustered inside the validity domain in comparison with the RPs. Moreover, they demonstrate different scaling properties at different spatial scales. The results obtained from the mMI analysis are also compared with those of fractal measures of clustering - box counting and sand box counting approaches. REFERENCES Golay J., Kanevski M., Vega Orozco C., Leuenberger M., 2014: The multipoint Morisita index for the analysis of spatial patterns. Physica A, 406, 191-202. Golay J., Kanevski M. 2015: A new estimator of intrinsic dimension based on the multipoint Morisita index

  15. The Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Elizabeth Reinhardt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2003-01-01

    The Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) simulates fuel dynamics and potential fire behaviour over time, in the context of stand development and management. Existing models of fire behavior and fire effects were added to FVS to form this extension. New submodels representing snag and fuel dynamics were created to complete the linkages...

  16. Forest fire danger in western Oregon and Washington during 1953.

    Owen P. Cramer

    1953-01-01

    Following two successive fire seasons of record breaking severity, the 1953 season set new records for low fire danger in western Oregon and Washington. The low danger is reflected in the fire record—the U. S. Forest Service and forestry offices of both States all report the lowest acreage burned since fire records have been kept. A cool, wet spring, above...

  17. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  18. Northwest California National Forests fire severity monitoring 1987-2008

    Jay D. Miller; Carl N. Skinner; Hugh D. Safford; Eric E. Knapp; Carlos M. Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Research in the last several years has indicated that the frequency of large fires is on the rise in western US forests. Although fire size and frequency are important, they do not necessarily provide information concerning the effects of fire on ecosystems, as ecosystems differ in ecological and evolutionary relationships with fire. Our study focused on the four...

  19. Effects of fire on birds in Madrean forests and woodlands

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Paul F. Boucher

    1996-01-01

    Fire usually affects birds indirectly, by altering habitat or food resources. Bird response may be positive or negative, depending on life-history characteristics and fire extent, intensity, and duration. Disruption of natural fire regimes may have far-reaching consequences for these birds and their habitat. The effects of fire on forest birds should be studied...

  20. Identifying the location of fire refuges in wet forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berry, Laurence E; Driscoll, Don A; Stein, John A; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Bradstock, Ross A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies. We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches, including generalized linear modeling, variogram analysis, and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC). We found that the amount of unburned habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution. Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential

  1. Forest fire laboratory at Riverside and fire research in California: past, present, and future

    Carl C. Wilson; James B. Davis

    1988-01-01

    The need for protection from uncontrolled fire in California was identified by Abbott Kinney, Chairman of the State Board of Forestry, more than 75 years before the construction of the Riverside Forest Fire Laboratory. With the organization of the USDA Forest Service the need for an effective fire protection organization became apparent. In response, a...

  2. Historical fire regime and forest variability on two eastern Great Basin fire-sheds (USA)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2012-01-01

    Proper management of naturally forested landscapes requires knowledge of key disturbance processes and their effects on species composition and structure. Spatially-intensive fire and forest histories provide valuable information about how fire and vegetation may vary and interact on heterogeneous landscapes. I constructed 800-year fire and tree recruitment...

  3. Fire effects in southwestern forests: Proceedings of the second La Mesa Fire Symposium

    Craig D. Allen

    1996-01-01

    In 1977, the La Mesa Fire burned across 15,444 acres of ponderosa pine forests on the adjoining lands of Bandelier National Monument, the Santa Fe National Forest, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Following this event, several fire effects studies were initiated. The 16 papers herein document longer-term knowledge gained about the ecological effects of the fire and...

  4. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  5. Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition

  6. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  7. Ecological and ecophysiological attributes and responses to fire in eastern oak forests

    Marc D. Abrams

    2006-01-01

    Prior to European settlement vast areas of the eastern U. S. deciduous forest were dominated by oak species. Evidence indicates that periodic understory fire was an important ecological factor in the historical development of oak forests. During European settlement of the late 19th and early 20th century, much of the Eastern United States was impacted by land clearing...

  8. The causes of fires on northeastern national forests.

    William A. Main; Donald A. Haines

    1974-01-01

    Presents cross-tabulations of classes of people, activities, and causes responsible for forest fires on national forests. The data combinations indicate that greater prevention efforts might be directed toward hunters and fishermen.

  9. Early warning of active fire hotspots through NASA FIRMS fire information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wildfires can threaten ecosystems, wildlife, property, and often, large swaths of populations. Early warning of active fire hotspots plays a crucial role in planning, managing, and mitigating the damaging effects of wildfires. The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) has been providing active fire location information to users in easy-to-use formats for the better part of last decade, with a view to improving the alerting mechanisms and response times to fight forest and wildfires. FIRMS utilizes fires flagged as hotspots by the MODIS instrument flying aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites and sends early warning of detected hotspots via email in near real-time or as daily and weekly summaries. The email alerts can also be customized to send alerts for a particular region of interest, a country, or a specific protected area or park. In addition, a web mapping component, named "Web Fire Mapper" helps query and visualize hotspots. A newer version of Web Fire Mapper is being developed to enhance the existing visualization and alerting capabilities. Plans include supporting near real-time imagery from Aqua and Terra satellites to provide a more helpful context while viewing fires. Plans are also underway to upgrade the email alerts system to provide mobile-formatted messages and short text messages (SMS). The newer version of FIRMS will also allow users to obtain geo-located image snapshots, which can be imported into local GIS software by stakeholders to help further analyses. This talk will discuss the FIRMS system, its enhancements and its role in helping map, alert, and monitor fire hotspots by providing quick data visualization, querying, and download capabilities.

  10. Fire and fire surrogate treatments in mixed-oak forests: Effects on herbaceous layer vegetation

    Ross Phillips; Todd Hutchinson; Lucy Brudnak; Thomas Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Herbaceous layer vegetation responses to prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (thinning and understory removal) were examined. Results from 3 to 4 years following treatment are presented for the Ohio Hills Country and the Southern Appalachian Mountain sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study. At the Ohio Hills site, changes in forest structure were...

  11. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  12. Restoring surface fire stabilizes forest carbon under extreme fire weather in the Sierra Nevada

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Matthew D. Hurteau; Robert M. Scheller; E. Louise Loudermilk

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the western United States has increased the frequency of extreme fire weather events and is projected to increase the area burned by wildfire in the coming decades. This changing fire regime, coupled with increased high-severity fire risk from a legacy of fire exclusion, could destabilize forest carbon (C), decrease net ecosystem exchange (...

  13. Rehabilitation of fire-damaged forest lands in southwestern Maine

    A. D. Nutting; James C. Rettie; Wayne G. Banks

    1949-01-01

    Recognizing that it can ill afford the loss of timber productivity on the large acreage of forest land burned over by the 1947 fires, the state of Maine requested assistance of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station of the United States Forest Service in a program of research that would aid in the rehabilitation of the burned-over forest land.

  14. Design and realization of disaster assessment algorithm after forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aijun; Wang, Danfeng; Tang, Lihua

    2008-10-01

    Based on GIS technology, this paper mainly focuses on the application of disaster assessment algorithm after forest fire and studies on the design and realization of disaster assessment based on GIS. After forest fire through the analysis and processing of multi-sources and heterogeneous data, this paper integrates the foundation that the domestic and foreign scholars laid of the research on assessment for forest fire loss with the related knowledge of assessment, accounting and forest resources appraisal so as to study and approach the theory framework and assessment index of the research on assessment for forest fire loss. The technologies of extracting boundary, overlay analysis, and division processing of multi-sources spatial data are available to realize the application of the investigation method of the burnt forest area and the computation of the fire area. The assessment provides evidence for fire cleaning in burnt areas and new policy making on restoration in terms of the direct and the indirect economic loss and ecological and environmental damage caused by forest fire under the condition of different fire danger classes and different amounts of forest accumulation, thus makes forest resources protection operated in a faster, more efficient and more economical way. Finally, this paper takes Lin'an city of Zhejiang province as a test area to confirm the method mentioned in the paper in terms of key technologies.

  15. Forest fire spatial pattern analysis in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santos, I; Marey-Pérez, M F; González-Manteiga, W

    2013-10-15

    Knowledge of fire behaviour is of key importance in forest management. In the present study, we analysed the spatial structure of forest fire with spatial point pattern analysis and inference techniques recently developed in the Spatstat package of R. Wildfires have been the primary threat to Galician forests in recent years. The district of Fonsagrada-Ancares is one of the most seriously affected by fire in the region and, therefore, the central focus of the study. Our main goal was to determine the spatial distribution of ignition points to model and predict fire occurrence. These data are of great value in establishing enhanced fire prevention and fire fighting plans. We found that the spatial distribution of wildfires is not random and that fire occurrence may depend on ownership conflicts. We also found positive interaction between small and large fires and spatial independence between wildfires in consecutive years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Fire on Understory Vegetation Communities in Siberian Boreal Forests and Alaskan Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, H., III; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Holmes, R. M.; Mack, M. C.; Schade, J. D.; Mann, P. J.; Davydov, S. P.; Frey, B.; Zimov, N.; Jardine, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    Fire is an important disturbance in Arctic ecosystems that is increasing in frequency and severity as a result of climate warming. Fire alters the landscape, changes soil conditions, and influences vegetation regrowth, favoring early-successional plants and those with well-established root systems capable of surviving fire. Post-fire vegetation establishment contributes to the recovery of the soil organic layer (SOL), which insulates the soil and protects soil and permafrost carbon pools. In order to better understand successional dynamics following fire in the Arctic we assessed the short-(years) and long-(decades) term effects of fire on vegetation communities, SOL depth, and thaw depth across fire-affected sites located in two regions of the Arctic- a 76-year old fire scar in a larch forest in Siberia near Cherskiy, Russia, and a 2-year old fire scar in tundra in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. We measured species diversity, plant carbon (C) pools, SOL conditions and NDVI at both study areas. As expected, there was a decline in vegetation C pools following fire in Alaskan tundra, and as a result of higher severity fire in Siberian boreal forests. Two years following fire in Alaskan tundra, vegetation C pools decreased six-fold from 600 g C m-2 at unburned areas, to 100 g C m-2 at the 2015 burn areas. In larch forests, understory C pools were three-times lower in stands with high intensity fires (135 g C m-2) compared to those with low intensity fires (415 g C m-2), due to the absence of dwarf birch (Betula nana). Our results illustrate how fire influences vegetation at both early and later stages of succession, which can have cascading effects on SOL development and permafrost integrity, with the potential for release of large C stocks that may further exacerbate climate warming.

  17. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  18. Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing

    Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

  19. Strengthening community participation in reducing GHG emission from forest and peatland fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoha, A. S.; Saharjo, B. H.; Boer, R.; Ardiansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Strengthening community participation is needed to find solutions to encourage community more participate in reducing Green House Gas (GHG) from forest and peatland fire. This research aimed to identify stakeholders that have the role in forest and peatland fire control and to formulate strengthening model of community participation through community-based early warning fire. Stakeholder mapping and action research were used to determine stakeholders that had potential influence and interest and to formulate strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire. There was found that position of key players in the mapping of stakeholders came from the government institution. The existence of community-based fire control group can strengthen government institution through collaborating with stakeholders having strong interest and influence. Moreover, it was found several local knowledge in Kapuas District about how communities predict drought that have potential value for developing the community-based early warning fire system. Formulated institutional model in this research also can be further developed as a model institution in the preservation of natural resources based on local knowledge. In conclusion, local knowledge and community-based fire groups can be integrated within strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire.

  20. Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape.

    PubMed

    Zald, Harold S J; Dunn, Christopher J

    2018-04-26

    Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are composed of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland (Bureau of Land Management, BLM) with contrasting management objectives, providing a unique experimental landscape to understand how different management practices influence wildfire severity. Leveraging Landsat based estimates of fire severity (Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, RdNBR) and geospatial data on fire progression, weather, topography, pre-fire forest conditions, and land ownership, we asked (1) what is the relative importance of different variables driving fire severity, and (2) is intensive plantation forestry associated with higher fire severity? Using Random Forest ensemble machine learning, we found daily fire weather was the most important predictor of fire severity, followed by stand age and ownership, followed by topographic features. Estimates of pre-fire forest biomass were not an important predictor of fire severity. Adjusting for all other predictor variables in a general least squares model incorporating spatial autocorrelation, mean predicted RdNBR was higher on private industrial forests (RdNBR 521.85 ± 18.67 [mean ± SE]) vs. BLM forests (398.87 ± 18.23) with a much greater proportion of older forests. Our findings suggest intensive plantation forestry characterized by young forests and spatially homogenized fuels, rather than pre-fire biomass, were significant drivers of wildfire severity. This has implications for perceptions of wildfire risk, shared fire management responsibilities, and developing

  1. Toward a more ecologically informed view of severe forest fires

    Richard L. Hutto; Robert E. Keane; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Christopher T. Rota; Lisa A. Eby; Vicki Saab

    2016-01-01

    We use the historical presence of high-severity fire patches in mixed-conifer forests of the western United States to make several points that we hope will encourage development of a more ecologically informed view of severe wildland fire effects. First, many plant and animal species use, and have sometimes evolved to depend on, severely burned forest...

  2. The trend of forest fire research in northern Idaho

    H. T. Gisborne

    1926-01-01

    Readers or the Idaho Forester do not need to be told why it is necessary to study forest fires in Northern Idaho. They have seen the fires sweep though virgin stands or merchantable timber and through beautiful young stands of valuable reproduction, greatly reducing the value of the merchantable timber and trees and often completely destroying the young stands which...

  3. Influence of fire on mammals in eastern oak forests

    Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

    2006-01-01

    With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change inrelative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and...

  4. Who starts forest fires in Maine - and how?

    Wayne G. Banks; Fred E. Holt

    1966-01-01

    In 1964 the Maine Forest Service, in cooperation with the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, conducted intensive investigations of a systematically selected sample of the fires that occurred in the State that year. The immediate purpose was to determine precisely how the fires started and who or what started them, and to assemble relevant information about the...

  5. Fire effects in southwestern forests: Proceedings of the Second La Mesa Fire symposium

    Allen, Craig D.

    1996-01-01

    In 1977, the La Mesa Fire burned across 15,444 acres of ponderosa pine forests on the adjoining lands of Bandelier National Monument, the Santa Fe National Forest, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Following this event, several fire effects studies were initiated. The 16 papers herein document longer-term knowledge gained about the ecological effects of the fire and about Southwestern fire ecology in general. The presentations are also designed to give resource managers practical information for managing fire in local landscapes. Studies presented range from fire histories and avifauna to geomorphology and arthropods.

  6. Effects of fire on small mammal communities in frequent-fire forests in California

    Roberts, Susan L.; Kelt, Douglas A.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Meyer, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural, dynamic process that is integral to maintaining ecosystem function. The reintroduction of fire (e.g., prescribed fire, managed wildfire) is a critical management tool for protecting many frequent-fire forests against stand-replacing fires while restoring an essential ecological process. Understanding the effects of fire on forests and wildlife communities is important in natural resource planning efforts. Small mammals are key components of forest food webs and essential to ecosystem function. To investigate the relationship of fire to small mammal assemblages, we live trapped small mammals in 10 burned and 10 unburned forests over 2 years in the central Sierra Nevada, California. Small mammal abundance was higher in unburned forests, largely reflecting the greater proportion of closed-canopy species such as Glaucomys sabrinus in unburned forests. The most abundant species across the entire study area was the highly adaptable generalist species, Peromyscus maniculatus. Species diversity was similar between burned and unburned forests, but burned forests were characterized by greater habitat heterogeneity and higher small mammal species evenness. The use and reintroduction of fire to maintain a matrix of burn severities, including large patches of unburned refugia, creates a heterogeneous and resilient landscape that allows for fire-sensitive species to proliferate and, as such, may help maintain key ecological functions and diverse small mammal assemblages.

  7. Fire and the herbaceous layer of eastern oak forests

    Todd Hutchinson

    2006-01-01

    Across oak forest landscapes, the herbaceous layer supports the great majority of plant diversity. As the use of prescribed fire increases, it is important to better understand its effects on biodiversity. This paper reviews the current ?state of the knowledge? regarding fire effects on herbaceous layer vegetation. In typical dormant-season fires, direct heating...

  8. Comparative ratings of 1951 forest fire weather in western Oregon.

    Owen P. Cramer; Robert Kirkpatrick

    1951-01-01

    The 1951 forest fire weather in western Oregon is generally conceded to have been unusually severe. In order to compare this season with others, this report uses a scheme for rating fire seasons recently developed by the Fire Research section of the Experiment Station, The rating is based on indices of three weather characteristics which generally control burning...

  9. Fuels planning: Managing forest structure to reduce fire hazard

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the 20th century, low intensity fires burned regularly in most arid to semiarid forest ecosystems, with ignitions caused by lightning and humans (e.g., Baisan and Swetnam 1997, Allen et al. 2002, Hessl et al. 2004). Low intensity fires controlled regeneration of fire sensitive (e.g., grand fir [Abies grandis]) species (Arno and Allison-Bunnell 2002), promoted...

  10. Forest Fire History... A Computer Method of Data Analysis

    Romain M. Meese

    1973-01-01

    A series of computer programs is available to extract information from the individual Fire Reports (U.S. Forest Service Form 5100-29). The programs use a statistical technique to fit a continuous distribution to a set of sampled data. The goodness-of-fit program is applicable to data other than the fire history. Data summaries illustrate analysis of fire occurrence,...

  11. Fire performance in traditional silvicultural and fire and fire surrogate treatments in Sierran mixed-conifer forests: a brief summary

    Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2007-01-01

    Mixed conifer forests cover 7.9 million acres of California’s total land base. Forest structure in these forests has been influenced by harvest practices and silvicultural systems implemented since the beginning of the California Gold Rush in 1849. Today, the role of fire in coniferous forests, both in shaping past stand structure and its ability to shape future...

  12. Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

    2009-04-01

    It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the

  13. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest

    Calvin A. Farris; Christopher H. Baisan; Donald A. Falk; Stephen R. Yool; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2010-01-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire...

  14. Forest Fire Finder - DOAS application to long-range forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente de Almeida, Rui; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Fires are an important factor in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Plant and animal life, in almost every land habitat, are at least partially dependent on the effects of fire. However, their destructive force, which has often proven uncontrollable, is one of our greatest concerns, effectively resulting in several policies in the most important industrialised regions of the globe. This paper aims to comprehensively characterise the Forest Fire Finder (FFF), a forest fire detection system based mainly upon a spectroscopic technique called differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The system is designed and configured with the goal of detecting higher-than-the-horizon smoke columns by measuring and comparing scattered sunlight spectra. The article covers hardware and software, as well as their interactions and specific algorithms for day mode operation. An analysis of data retrieved from several installations deployed in the course of the last 5 years is also presented. Finally, this paper features a discussion on the most prominent future improvements planned for the system, as well as its ramifications and adaptations, such as a thermal imaging system for short-range fire seeking or environmental quality control.

  15. Simulations of Forest Fires by the Cellular Automata Model "ABBAMPAU"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, S.; Bendicenti, E.

    2003-04-01

    Forest fires represent a serious environmental problem, whose negative impact is becoming day by day more worrisome. Forest fires are very complex phenomena; that need an interdisciplinary approach. The adopted method to modelling involves the definition of local rules, from which the global behaviour of the system can emerge. The paradigm of Cellular Automata was applied and the model ABBAMPAU was projected to simulate the evolution of forest fires. Cellular Automata features (parallelism and a-centrism) seem to match the system "forest fire"; the parameters, describing globally a forest fire, i.e. propagation rate, flame length and direction, fireline intensity, fire duration time et c. are mainly depending on some local characteristics i.e. vegetation type (live and dead fuel), relative humidity, fuel moisture, heat, territory morphology (altitude, slope), et c.. The only global characteristic is given by wind velocity and direction, but wind velocity and direction is locally altered according to the morphology; therefore wind has also to be considered at local level. ABBAMPAU accounts for the following aspects of the phenomenon: effects of combustion in surface and crown fire inside the cell, crown fire triggering off; surface and crown fire spread, determination of the local wind rate and direction. A validation of ABBAMPAU was tested on a real case of forest fire, in the territory of Villaputzu, Sardinia island, August 22nd, 1998. First simulations account for the main characteristics of the phenomenon and agree with the observations. The results show that the model could be applied for the forest fire preventions, the productions of risk scenarios and the evaluation of the forest fire environmental impact.

  16. Fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage.

    PubMed

    Nave, Lucas E; Vance, Eric D; Swanston, Christopher W; Curtis, Peter S

    2011-06-01

    Temperate forest soils store globally significant amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Understanding how soil pools of these two elements change in response to disturbance and management is critical to maintaining ecosystem services such as forest productivity, greenhouse gas mitigation, and water resource protection. Fire is one of the principal disturbances acting on forest soil C and N storage and is also the subject of enormous management efforts. In the present article, we use meta-analysis to quantify fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage. Across a combined total of 468 soil C and N response ratios from 57 publications (concentrations and pool sizes), fire had significant overall effects on soil C (-26%) and soil N (-22%). The impacts of fire on forest floors were significantly different from its effects on mineral soils. Fires reduced forest floor C and N storage (pool sizes only) by an average of 59% and 50%, respectively, but the concentrations of these two elements did not change. Prescribed fires caused smaller reductions in forest floor C and N storage (-46% and -35%) than wildfires (-67% and -69%), and the presence of hardwoods also mitigated fire impacts. Burned forest floors recovered their C and N pools in an average of 128 and 103 years, respectively. Among mineral soils, there were no significant changes in C or N storage, but C and N concentrations declined significantly (-11% and -12%, respectively). Mineral soil C and N concentrations were significantly affected by fire type, with no change following prescribed burns, but significant reductions in response to wildfires. Geographic variation in fire effects on mineral soil C and N storage underscores the need for region-specific fire management plans, and the role of fire type in mediating C and N shifts (especially in the forest floor) indicates that averting wildfires through prescribed burning is desirable from a soils perspective.

  17. Spatially explicit measurements of forest structure and fire behavior following restoration treatments in dry forests

    Justin Paul Ziegler; Chad Hoffman; Michael Battaglia; William Mell

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in dry forests of the western US often attempt silvicultural practices to restore the historical characteristics of forest structure and fire behavior. However, it is suggested that a reliance on non-spatial metrics of forest stand structure, along with the use of wildland fire behavior models that lack the ability to handle complex structures,...

  18. Forest structure and fire hazard in dry forests of the Western United States

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2005-01-01

    Fire, in conjunction with landforms and climate, shapes the structure and function of forests throughout the Western United States, where millions of acres of forest lands contain accumulations of flammable fuel that are much higher than historical conditions owing to various forms of fire exclusion. The Healthy Forests Restoration Act mandates that public land...

  19. Predicting Peak Flows following Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Dobre, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Following forest fires, peak flows in perennial and ephemeral streams often increase by a factor of 10 or more. This increase in peak flow rate may overwhelm existing downstream structures, such as road culverts, causing serious damage to road fills at stream crossings. In order to predict peak flow rates following wildfires, we have applied two different tools. One is based on the U.S.D.A Natural Resource Conservation Service Curve Number Method (CN), and the other is by applying the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to the watershed. In our presentation, we will describe the science behind the two methods, and present the main variables for each model. We will then provide an example of a comparison of the two methods to a fire-prone watershed upstream of the City of Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, where a fire spread model was applied for current fuel loads, and for likely fuel loads following a fuel reduction treatment. When applying the curve number method, determining the time to peak flow can be problematic for low severity fires because the runoff flow paths are both surface and through shallow lateral flow. The WEPP watershed version incorporates shallow lateral flow into stream channels. However, the version of the WEPP model that was used for this study did not have channel routing capabilities, but rather relied on regression relationships to estimate peak flows from individual hillslope polygon peak runoff rates. We found that the two methods gave similar results if applied correctly, with the WEPP predictions somewhat greater than the CN predictions. Later releases of the WEPP model have incorporated alternative methods for routing peak flows that need to be evaluated.

  20. Tree mortality based fire severity classification for forest inventories: A Pacific Northwest national forests example

    Thomas R. Whittier; Andrew N. Gray

    2016-01-01

    Determining how the frequency, severity, and extent of forest fires are changing in response to changes in management and climate is a key concern in many regions where fire is an important natural disturbance. In the USA the only national-scale fire severity classification uses satellite image changedetection to produce maps for large (>400 ha) fires, and is...

  1. Fire regime in a Mexican forest under indigenous resource management.

    PubMed

    Fulé, Peter Z; Ramos-Gómez, Mauro; Cortés-Montaño, Citlali; Miller, Andrew M

    2011-04-01

    The Rarámuri (Tarahumara) people live in the mountains and canyons of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Mexico. They base their subsistence on multiple-use strategies of their natural resources, including agriculture, pastoralism, and harvesting of native plants and wildlife. Pino Gordo is a Rarámuri settlement in a remote location where the forest has not been commercially logged. We reconstructed the forest fire regime from fire-scarred trees, measured the structure of the never-logged forest, and interviewed community members about fire use. Fire occurrence was consistent throughout the 19th and 20th centuries up to our fire scar collection in 2004. This is the least interrupted surface-fire regime reported to date in North America. Studies from other relict sites such as nature reserves in Mexico or the USA have all shown some recent alterations associated with industrialized society. At Pino Gordo, fires recurred frequently at the three study sites, with a composite mean fire interval of 1.9 years (all fires) to 7.6 years (fires scarring 25% or more of samples). Per-sample fire intervals averaged 10-14 years at the three sites. Approximately two-thirds of fires burned in the season of cambial dormancy, probably during the pre-monsoonal drought. Forests were dominated by pines and contained many large living trees and snags, in contrast to two nearby similar forests that have been logged. Community residents reported using fire for many purposes, consistent with previous literature on fire use by indigenous people. Pino Gordo is a valuable example of a continuing frequent-fire regime in a never-harvested forest. The Rarámuri people have actively conserved this forest through their traditional livelihood and management techniques, as opposed to logging the forest, and have also facilitated the fire regime by burning. The data contribute to a better understanding of the interactions of humans who live in pine forests and the fire regimes of these

  2. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Laboratory fire measurement and synthesis of campaign data

    R. J. Yokelson; T. J. Christian; T. G. Karl; A. Guenther

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE), tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gas chromatography (GC), GC/PTRMS, and filter sampling of the particles...

  3. Fire's importance in South Central U.S. forests: distribution of fire evidence

    Victor A. Rudis; Thomas V. Skinner

    1991-01-01

    Evidence of past fire occurrence is estimated to occur on 26 percent of the 87.2 million acres of forests in Alabama, Arkansas, southeast Louisiana, Mississippi, east Oklahoma, Tennessee, and east Texas.Data are drawn from a systematic survey of fire evidence conducted in conjunction with recent inventories of private and public forested areas in the South Central U.S....

  4. Continuity in fire disturbance between riparian and adjacent sideslopes in the Douglas-fire forest series.

    Richard L. Everett; Richard Schellhaas; Pete Ohlson

    2000-01-01

    Fire scar and stand cohort records were used to estimate the number and timing of fire disturbance events that impacted riparian and adjacent sideslope forests in the Douglas-fir series. Data were gathered from 49 stream segments on 24 separate streams on the east slope of the Washington Cascade Range. Upslope forests had more traceable disturbance events than riparian...

  5. Fire History of a Ridge and Valley Oak Forest

    Thomas M. Schuler; W. Russ McClain

    2003-01-01

    The fire history of an oak stand located near Pike Knob, Pendleton County, WV is described. A 156-year fire history chronology was developed from 1846 to 2002 and fire intervals ranged from 7 to 32 years for a single forest stand. The Weibull median fire interval was 14.76 years for one or more trees scarred during a single year, and 17.11 years when at least two trees...

  6. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic

  7. Fire History of a Forest, Savanna, and Fen Mosaic at White Ranch State Forest

    Daniel C. Dey; Ricahrd P. Guyette; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2004-01-01

    We present the fire history of a 1-km2 area that is a mosaic of oak forest, savanna, and fen on the White Ranch State Forest, Howell County, Missouri. We dated 135 fire scars on 35 cross-sections of post oak ( Quercus stellata) trees and constructed a fire chronology dating from 1705 to 1997. Mean fire return intervals by periods were 3.7 years (...

  8. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires

    Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Juan Ramon Molina; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Miguel Angel Herrera Machuca

    2012-01-01

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is...

  9. Combining fire and erosion modeling to target forest management activities

    William J. Elliot; Mary Ellen Miller; Nic Enstice

    2015-01-01

    Forests deliver a number of important ecosystem services including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing, quantity and quality of runoff are altered. A modeling study was carried out in a forested watershed in California to determine the risk of wildfire, and the potential post-fire sediment delivery from approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons...

  10. Targeting forest management through fire and erosion modeling

    William J. Elliot; Mary Ellen Miller; Nic Enstice

    2016-01-01

    Forests deliver a number of important ecosystem services, including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing, quantity and quality of runoff are altered. A modelling study was conducted in a forested watershed in California, USA, to determine the risk of wildfire, and the potential post-fire sediment delivery from ~4-ha hillslope polygons within...

  11. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  12. Fire scars and tree vigor following prescribed fires in Missouri Ozark upland forests

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2008-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine basal fire scars caused by prescribed fires and tree vigor in upland forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Fire scar data were collected in 100 plots from black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muench.), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii Buckl.), post oak (Q...

  13. Relating fire-caused change in forest structure to remotely sensed estimates of fire severity

    Jamie M. Lydersen; Brandon M. Collins; Jay D. Miller; Danny L. Fry; Scott L. Stephens

    2016-01-01

    Fire severity maps are an important tool for understanding fire effects on a landscape. The relative differenced normalized burn ratio (RdNBR) is a commonly used severity index in California forests, and is typically divided into four categories: unchanged, low, moderate, and high. RdNBR is often calculated twice--from images collected the year of the fire (initial...

  14. Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

  15. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.

    PubMed

    y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

    2012-06-15

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. WebGIS Platform Adressed to Forest Fire Management Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Ramos-Simões, Nuno; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel; Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Silva, Elisa; Jordán, António; Zavala, Lorena; Soares, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the natural disasters that causes more damages in nature, as well as high material costs, and sometimes, a significant losses in human lives. In summer season, when high temperatures are attained, fire may rapidly progress and destroy vast areas of forest and also rural and urban areas. The forest fires have effect on forest species, forest composition and structure, soil properties and soil capacity for nutrient retention. In order to minimize the negative impact of the forest fires in the environment, many studies have been developed, e.g. Jordán et al (2009), Cerdà & Jordán (2010), and Gonçalves & Vieira (2013). Nowadays, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are used as support tools in fire management decisions, namely during the fire, but also before and after. This study presents the development of a user-friendly WebGIS dedicated to share data, maps and provide updated information on forest fire management for stakeholders in Iberia Peninsula. The WebGIS platform was developed with ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS for Desktop; HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript. This platform has a database that includes spatial and alphanumeric information, such as: origin, burned areas, vegetation change over time, terrain natural slope, land use, soil erosion and fire related hazards. The same database contains also the following relevant information: water sources, forest tracks and traffic ways, lookout posts and urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide the authorities with a tool to assess risk areas and manage more efficiently forest fire hazards, giving more support to their decisions and helping the populations when facing this kind of phenomena.

  17. Fire effects in northeastern forests: oak.

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    Effects of fire on the oak timber type are reviewed. Many oak stands of today originated under severe fire regimes. Fire can ill or injure oak trees. Factors determining direct injury or mortality from fire include: season of year; bark characteristics; size, vigor and form of tree; fire characteristics and stocking level.

  18. Spatial patterns and controls on historical fire regimes and forest structure in the Klamath Mountains

    Alan H. Taylor; Carl N. Skinner

    2003-01-01

    Fire exclusion in mixed conifer forests has increased the risk of fire due to decades of fuel accumulation. Restoration of fire into altered forests is a challenge because of a poor understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of fire regimes. In this study the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes and forest age structure are reconstructed in a...

  19. Fuel variability following wildfire in forests with mixed severity fire regimes, Cascade Range, USA

    Jessica L. Hudec; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Fire severity influences post-burn structure and composition of a forest and the potential for a future fire to burn through the area. The effects of fire on forests with mixed severity fire regimes are difficult to predict and interpret because the quantity, structure, and composition of forest fuels vary considerably. This study examines the relationship between fire...

  20. Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping

    J. David Nichols; John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    The Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST) project is developing a data system to provide near-real-time forest fire information to fire management at the fire Incident Command Post (ICP). The completed conceptual design defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that is based upon technology available in the 1990's. System component...

  1. Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park

    Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    , the estimated fire severities at which these transitions occurred differed for each forest type. Our work suggests that low severity fire in red fir forests and moderate severity fire in ponderosa pine and white fir-sugar pine forests would restore vertical and horizontal canopy structures believed to have been common prior to the start of widespread fire suppression in the early 1900s. The fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data identified post-fire structural conditions that would not be identified by Landsat alone, suggesting a broad applicability of combining Landsat and LiDAR data for landscape-scale structural analysis for fire management.

  2. Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.

    PubMed

    Wright, H E

    1974-11-08

    ' grand scheme of vegetational climax-created soon after Davis's model of landform development-can be evaluated in terms of modern knowledge. Disillusion with the climax model paralleled disillusion with Davis's model in the 1950's, but the climax model can be tested, because the record of vegetational history is accessible, datable, and decipherable. In the short term of a few decades, successional vegetation stages occur in variety of situations, as confirmed by observation or by techniques such as tree-ring analysis. The successional vegetation stages are reactions to nutrients, weather, competition, and consumption. Such succession implies long-term disequilibrium, or at least unidirectional development. The long-term controlling factor in Clements' model of vegetation development is climate. With climatic stability the succession will proceed to a climax. In the Appalachian Mountains, geomorphic, microclimatic, and edaphic conditions limit climax development, producing a polyclimax, which is generally sustained by the dominance of these factors. Death and regeneration of single forest trees is controlled mostly by windstorms. The distributional pattern may be locally transected by lightning fires, major windstorms, or washouts. However, the long-term stability of Appalachian forests is demonstrated by pollen stratigraphy. Although we can infer the long-term stability of Appalachian forests, the trends and mechanics of short-term vegetational succession are not fully understood, because lack of sizable areas of virgin forest limits investigations of natural conditions. In this respect, the eastern United States is already much like western Europe, where climatic and disturbance factors in vegetational history cannot be disentangled. In the Great Lakes region, a large area of virgin forest exists in the BWCA of northeastern Minnesota. Here short- and long-term studies show that for at least 9000 years the principal stabilizing factor has been the frequent occurrence of

  3. Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States

    Kotliar, N.B.; Hejl, S.J.; Hutto, R.L.; Saab, V.; Melcher, Cynthia; McFadzen, M.E.; George, T.L.; Dobkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and postfire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns.Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early postfire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to tire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre-and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, postfire management can alter species’ responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer

  4. Small-area estimation of forest attributes within fire boundaries

    T. Frescino; G. Moisen; K. Adachi; J. Breidt

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are gaining more attention every year as they burn more frequently, more intensely, and across larger landscapes. Generating timely estimates of forest resources within fire perimeters is important for land managers to quickly determine the impact of fi res on U.S. forests. The U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needs tools to...

  5. Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often.

  6. Forest Fire Danger Rating (FFDR) Prediction over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Won, M.; Jang, K.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately five hundred forest fires occur and inflict the losses of both life and property each year in Korea during the forest fire seasons in the spring and autumn. Thus, an accurate prediction of forest fire is essential for effective forest fire prevention. The meteorology is one of important factors to predict and understand the fire occurrence as well as its behaviors and spread. In this study, we present the Forest Fire Danger Rating Systems (FFDRS) on the Korean Peninsula based on the Daily Weather Index (DWI) which represents the meteorological characteristics related to forest fire. The thematic maps including temperature, humidity, and wind speed produced from Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) were applied to the forest fire occurrence probability model by logistic regression to analyze the DWI over the Korean Peninsula. The regional data assimilation and prediction system (RDAPS) and the improved digital forecast model were used to verify the sensitivity of DWI. The result of verification test revealed that the improved digital forecast model dataset showed better agreements with the real-time weather data. The forest fire danger rating index (FFDRI) calculated by the improved digital forecast model dataset showed a good agreement with the real-time weather dataset at the 233 administrative districts (R2=0.854). In addition, FFDRI were compared with observation-based FFDRI at 76 national weather stations. The mean difference was 0.5 at the site-level. The results produced in this study indicate that the improved digital forecast model dataset can be useful to predict the FFDRI in the Korean Peninsula successfully.

  7. Characterization of the Fire Regime and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Upper Guinean forest (UGF), encompassing the tropical regions of West Africa, is a globally significant biodiversity hotspot and a critically important socio-economic and ecological resource for the region. However, the UGF is one of the most human-disturbed tropical forest ecosystems with the only remaining large patches of original forests distributed in protected areas, which are embedded in a hotspot of climate stress & land use pressures, increasing their vulnerability to fire. We hypothesized that human impacts and climate interact to drive spatial and temporal variability in fire, with fire exhibiting distinctive seasonality and sensitivity to drought in areas characterized by different population densities, agricultural practices, vegetation types, and levels of forest degradation. We used the MODIS active fire product to identify and characterize fire activity in the major ecoregions of the UGF. We used TRMM rainfall data to measure climatic variability and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We employed time series modeling to identify the influences of drought indices and other antecedent climatic indicators on temporal patterns of active fire occurrence. We used a variety of modeling approaches to assess the influences of human activities and land cover variables on the spatial pattern of fire activity. Our results showed that temporal patterns of fire activity in the UGF were related to precipitation, but these relationships were spatially heterogeneous. The pattern of fire seasonality varied geographically, reflecting both climatological patterns and agricultural practices. The spatial pattern of fire activity was strongly associated with vegetation gradients and anthropogenic activities occurring at fine spatial scales. The Guinean forest-savanna mosaic ecoregion had the most fires. This study contributes to our understanding of UGF fire regime and the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in

  8. Fire spread estimation on forest wildfire using ensemble kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifah, Wardatus; Apriliani, Erna

    2018-04-01

    Wildfire is one of the most frequent disasters in the world, for example forest wildfire, causing population of forest decrease. Forest wildfire, whether naturally occurring or prescribed, are potential risks for ecosystems and human settlements. These risks can be managed by monitoring the weather, prescribing fires to limit available fuel, and creating firebreaks. With computer simulations we can predict and explore how fires may spread. The model of fire spread on forest wildfire was established to determine the fire properties. The fire spread model is prepared based on the equation of the diffusion reaction model. There are many methods to estimate the spread of fire. The Kalman Filter Ensemble Method is a modified estimation method of the Kalman Filter algorithm that can be used to estimate linear and non-linear system models. In this research will apply Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) method to estimate the spread of fire on forest wildfire. Before applying the EnKF method, the fire spread model will be discreted using finite difference method. At the end, the analysis obtained illustrated by numerical simulation using software. The simulation results show that the Ensemble Kalman Filter method is closer to the system model when the ensemble value is greater, while the covariance value of the system model and the smaller the measurement.

  9. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  10. Fire effects on infiltration rates after prescribed fire in northern Rocky Mountain forests, USA

    Peter R. Robichaud

    2000-01-01

    Infiltration rates in undisturbed forest environments are generally high. These high infiltration rates may be reduced when forest management activities such as timber harvesting and/or prescribed fires are used. Post-harvest residue burning is a common site preparation treatment used in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, to reduce forest fuels and to prepare sites for...

  11. [Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

    2012-05-01

    Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio.

  12. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S

    2016-06-05

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Power, M. J.; Whitney, B. S.; Mayle, F. E.; Neves, D. M.; de Boer, E. J.; Maclean, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216522

  14. Focused sunlight factor of forest fire danger assessment using Web-GIS and RS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Sherstnyov, Vladislav S.; Yankovich, Elena P.; Engel, Marina V.; Belov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Timiryazevskiy forestry of Tomsk region (Siberia, Russia) is a study area elaborated in current research. Forest fire danger assessment is based on unique technology using probabilistic criterion, statistical data on forest fires, meteorological conditions, forest sites classification and remote sensing data. MODIS products are used for estimating some meteorological conditions and current forest fire situation. Geonformation technologies are used for geospatial analysis of forest fire danger situation on controlled forested territories. GIS-engine provides opportunities to construct electronic maps with different levels of forest fire probability and support raster layer for satellite remote sensing data on current forest fires. Web-interface is used for data loading on specific web-site and for forest fire danger data representation via World Wide Web. Special web-forms provide interface for choosing of relevant input data in order to process the forest fire danger data and assess the forest fire probability.

  15. Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors for Forest Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a mobile biological sensor system that can assist in early detection of forest fires one of the most dreaded natural disasters on the earth. The main idea presented in this paper is to utilize animals with sensors as Mobile Biological Sensors (MBS). The devices used in this system are animals which are native animals living in forests, sensors (thermo and radiation sensors with GPS features) that measure the temperature and transmit the location of the MBS, access points for wireless communication and a central computer system which classifies of animal actions. The system offers two different methods, firstly: access points continuously receive data about animals' location using GPS at certain time intervals and the gathered data is then classified and checked to see if there is a sudden movement (panic) of the animal groups: this method is called animal behavior classification (ABC). The second method can be defined as thermal detection (TD): the access points get the temperature values from the MBS devices and send the data to a central computer to check for instant changes in the temperatures. This system may be used for many purposes other than fire detection, namely animal tracking, poaching prevention and detecting instantaneous animal death. PMID:28903281

  16. Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

    2007-04-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

  17. A Forest Fire Sensor Web Concept with UAVSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Y.; Chien, S.; Clark, D.; Doubleday, J.; Muellerschoen, R.; Zheng, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a forest fire sensor web concept with a UAVSAR-based smart sensor and onboard automated response capability that will allow us to monitor fire progression based on coarse initial information provided by an external source. This autonomous disturbance detection and monitoring system combines the unique capabilities of imaging radar with high throughput onboard processing technology and onboard automated response capability based on specific science algorithms. In this forest fire sensor web scenario, a fire is initially located by MODIS/RapidFire or a ground-based fire observer. This information is transmitted to the UAVSAR onboard automated response system (CASPER). CASPER generates a flight plan to cover the alerted fire area and executes the flight plan. The onboard processor generates the fuel load map from raw radar data, used with wind and elevation information, predicts the likely fire progression. CASPER then autonomously alters the flight plan to track the fire progression, providing this information to the fire fighting team on the ground. We can also relay the precise fire location to other remote sensing assets with autonomous response capability such as Earth Observation-1 (EO-1)'s hyper-spectral imager to acquire the fire data.

  18. Post-fire reconstructions of fire intensity from fire severity data: quantifying the role of spatial variability of fire intensity on forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Oborne, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Large, high-intensity fires have direct and long-lasting effects on forest ecosystems and present a serious threat to human life and property. However, even within the most catastrophic fires there is important variability in local-scale intensity that has important ramifications for forest mortality and regeneration. Quantifying this variability is difficult due to the rarity of catastrophic fire events, the extreme conditions at the time of the fires, and their large spatial extent. Instead fire severity is typically measured or estimated from observed patterns of vegetation mortality; however, differences in species- and size-specific responses to fires often makes fire severity a poor proxy for fire intensity. We developed a statistical method using simple, plot-based measurements of individual tree mortality to simultaneously estimate plot-level fire intensity and species-specific mortality patterns as a function of tree size. We applied our approach to an area of forest burned in the catastrophic Black Saturday fires that occurred near Melbourne, Australia, in February 2009. Despite being the most devastating fire in the past 70 years and our plots being located in the area that experienced some of the most intense fires in the 350,000 ha fire complex, we found that the estimated fire intensity was highly variable at multiple spatial scales. All eight tree species in our study differed in their susceptibility to fire-induced mortality, particularly among the largest size classes. We also found that seedling height and species richness of the post-fire seedling communities were both positively correlated with fire intensity. Spatial variability in disturbance intensity has important, but poorly understood, consequences for the short- and long-term dynamics of forests in the wake of catastrophic wildfires. Our study provides a tool to estimate fire intensity after a fire has passed, allowing new opportunities for linking spatial variability in fire intensity to

  19. Clemson Researchers Find Prescribed Fire Regenerates Oak Forests

    David van Lear; Patrick Brose

    1999-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed by Clemson University forestry researchers to regenerate oak forests. Regenerating oaks following timber harvests is a major challenge because faster growing yellow polar and red maple trees crowd out hte more valuable oak seedlings.

  20. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers

    Matthew B., ed. Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    Contains 20 papers and 36 poster abstracts presented at a conference on fire in oak forests of the Eastern United States that was held at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, on November 15-17, 2005.

  1. Web service tools in the era of forest fire management and elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursanidis, Dimitris; Kochilakis, Giorgos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Varella, Vasiliki; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Eftychidis, Giorgos; Lagouvardos, Kostas

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires in forests and forested areas in South Europe, North America, Central Asia and Australia are a diachronic threat with crucial ecological, economic and social impacts. Last decade the frequency, the magnitude and the intensity of fires have increased even more because of the climate change. An efficient response to such disasters requires an effective planning, with an early detection system of the ignition area and an accurate prediction of fire propagation to support the rapid response mechanisms. For this reason, information systems able to predict and visualize the behavior of fires, are valuable tools for fire fighting. Such systems, able also to perform simulations that evaluate the fire development scenarios, based on weather conditions, become valuable Decision Support Tools for fire mitigation planning. A Web-based Information System (WIS) developed in the framework of the FLIRE (Floods and fire risk assessment and management) project, a LIFE+ co-funded by the European Commission research, is presented in this study. The FLIRE WIS use forest fuel maps which have been developed by using generalized fuel maps, satellite data and in-situ observations. Furthermore, it leverages data from meteorological stations and weather forecast from numerical models to feed the fire propagation model with the necessary for the simulations inputs and to visualize the model's results for user defined time periods and steps. The user has real-time access to FLIRE WIS via any web browser from any platform (PC, Laptop, Tablet, Smartphone).

  2. Roost selection by male Indiana Myotis following forest fires in central Appalachian hardwoods forests

    Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards; Catherine Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Despite the potential for prescribed fire and natural wildfire to increase snag abundance in hardwood forests, few studies have investigated effects of fire on bat roosting habitat, particularly that of the endangered Indiana myotis Myotis sodalis. From 2001 to 2009, we examined roost selection of Indiana myotis in burned and unburned forests in...

  3. Restoring forest health: fire and thinning effects on mixed-conifer forests

    Malcolm P. North

    2006-01-01

    Even after 140 years without a fire, mixed-conifer forest such as Teakettle's Experimental Forest has a distinct patch pattern and complex structure. Researcher Malcolm North and colleagues examined the structure and function of these ecosystems and their response to widely used restoration treatments. Collectively the studies found fire was essential to restoring...

  4. Fire effects in northeastern forests: jack pine.

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    The jack pine ecosystem has evolved through fire. Jack pine, although easily killed by fire, has developed serotinous cones that depend upon high heat to open and release the seeds. Without a fire to enable the cones to open, jack pine would be replaced by another species. Prescribed fire can be an economical management tool for site preparation in either a natural...

  5. Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire.

    PubMed

    Tingley, Morgan W; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Wilkerson, Robert L; Howell, Christine A; Siegel, Rodney B

    2016-10-12

    An emerging hypothesis in fire ecology is that pyrodiversity increases species diversity. We test whether pyrodiversity-defined as the standard deviation of fire severity-increases avian biodiversity at two spatial scales, and whether and how this relationship may change in the decade following fire. We use a dynamic Bayesian community model applied to a multi-year dataset of bird surveys at 1106 points sampled across 97 fires in montane California. Our results provide strong support for a positive relationship between pyrodiversity and bird diversity. This relationship interacts with time since fire, with pyrodiversity having a greater effect on biodiversity at 10 years post-fire than at 1 year post-fire. Immediately after fires, patches of differing burn severities hold similar bird communities, but over the ensuing decade, bird assemblages within patches of contrasting severities differentiate. When evaluated at the scale of individual fires, fires with a greater heterogeneity of burn severities hold substantially more species. High spatial heterogeneity in severity, sometimes called 'mixed-severity fire', is a natural part of wildfire regimes in western North America, but may be jeopardized by climate change and a legacy of fire suppression. Forest management that encourages mixed-severity fire may be critical for sustaining biodiversity across fire-prone landscapes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Howell, Christine A.; Siegel, Rodney B.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging hypothesis in fire ecology is that pyrodiversity increases species diversity. We test whether pyrodiversity—defined as the standard deviation of fire severity—increases avian biodiversity at two spatial scales, and whether and how this relationship may change in the decade following fire. We use a dynamic Bayesian community model applied to a multi-year dataset of bird surveys at 1106 points sampled across 97 fires in montane California. Our results provide strong support for a positive relationship between pyrodiversity and bird diversity. This relationship interacts with time since fire, with pyrodiversity having a greater effect on biodiversity at 10 years post-fire than at 1 year post-fire. Immediately after fires, patches of differing burn severities hold similar bird communities, but over the ensuing decade, bird assemblages within patches of contrasting severities differentiate. When evaluated at the scale of individual fires, fires with a greater heterogeneity of burn severities hold substantially more species. High spatial heterogeneity in severity, sometimes called ‘mixed-severity fire', is a natural part of wildfire regimes in western North America, but may be jeopardized by climate change and a legacy of fire suppression. Forest management that encourages mixed-severity fire may be critical for sustaining biodiversity across fire-prone landscapes. PMID:27708152

  7. Deriving forest fire ignition risk with biogeochemical process modelling.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, C S; Hasenauer, H

    2014-05-01

    Climate impacts the growth of trees and also affects disturbance regimes such as wildfire frequency. The European Alps have warmed considerably over the past half-century, but incomplete records make it difficult to definitively link alpine wildfire to climate change. Complicating this is the influence of forest composition and fuel loading on fire ignition risk, which is not considered by purely meteorological risk indices. Biogeochemical forest growth models track several variables that may be used as proxies for fire ignition risk. This study assesses the usefulness of the ecophysiological model BIOME-BGC's 'soil water' and 'labile litter carbon' variables in predicting fire ignition. A brief application case examines historic fire occurrence trends over pre-defined regions of Austria from 1960 to 2008. Results show that summer fire ignition risk is largely a function of low soil moisture, while winter fire ignitions are linked to the mass of volatile litter and atmospheric dryness.

  8. Deriving forest fire ignition risk with biogeochemical process modelling☆

    PubMed Central

    Eastaugh, C.S.; Hasenauer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate impacts the growth of trees and also affects disturbance regimes such as wildfire frequency. The European Alps have warmed considerably over the past half-century, but incomplete records make it difficult to definitively link alpine wildfire to climate change. Complicating this is the influence of forest composition and fuel loading on fire ignition risk, which is not considered by purely meteorological risk indices. Biogeochemical forest growth models track several variables that may be used as proxies for fire ignition risk. This study assesses the usefulness of the ecophysiological model BIOME-BGC's ‘soil water’ and ‘labile litter carbon’ variables in predicting fire ignition. A brief application case examines historic fire occurrence trends over pre-defined regions of Austria from 1960 to 2008. Results show that summer fire ignition risk is largely a function of low soil moisture, while winter fire ignitions are linked to the mass of volatile litter and atmospheric dryness. PMID:26109905

  9. Assessing fire impacts on the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lauren T; Bruce, Matthew J; Machunter, Josephine; Kohout, Michele; Krishnaraj, Saravanan Jangammanaidu; Aponte, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting the potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognize the myriad ways that fires influence the carbon balance, including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in southeastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤10 yr before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests. Relative to unburned forest, high-severity wildfire decreased short-term (five-year) carbon stability by significantly decreasing live tree carbon stocks and percentage stocks in live standing trees (reflecting elevated tree mortality), by increasing the percentage of live tree carbon in small trees (those vulnerable to the next fire), and by potentially increasing the probability of another fire through increased elevated fine fuel loads. In contrast, low-severity wildfire enhanced carbon stability by having negligible effects on aboveground stocks and indicators, and by significantly increasing carbon stocks in char and, in particular, soils, indicating pyrogenic carbon accumulation. Overall, recent preceding prescribed fire did not markedly influence wildfire effects on short-term carbon stability at stand scales. Despite wide confidence intervals around mean stock differences, indicating uncertainty about the magnitude of fire effects in these natural forests, our assessment highlights the need for active management of carbon assets in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests under contemporary fire regimes

  10. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  11. Prescribed fire and oak seedling development in an Appalachian forest

    Jacob Royse; Mary Arthur; David Loftis

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades considerable research has focused on the use of prescribed fire in oak-dominated forests with the management objective of promoting oak regeneration for future overstory dominance. These studies typically focus on the response of oak seedlings and saplings already in place when experimental prescribed fires are set because it is difficult to time...

  12. Fire ecology and bird populations in eastern deciduous forests

    Vanessa L. Artman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jeffrey D. Brawn; Jeffrey D. Brawn

    2005-01-01

    Eastern deciduous forests are located across the central portion of eastern North America and provide habitat for a wide diversity of bird species. The occurrence of fi re in the region has been associated with the presence of humans for over 10,000 yr. While pre-European fire regimes are poorly understood, fire is widely thought to have promoted and maintained large...

  13. Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

  14. Impact of forest fires on particulate matter and ozone levels during the 2003, 2004 and 2005 fire seasons in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, V; Miranda, A I; Carvalho, A; Schaap, M; Borrego, C; Sá, E

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to estimate the impact of forest fires on air pollution applying the LOTOS-EUROS air quality modeling system in Portugal for three consecutive years, 2003-2005. Forest fire emissions have been included in the modeling system through the development of a numerical module, which takes into account the most suitable parameters for Portuguese forest fire characteristics and the burnt area by large forest fires. To better evaluate the influence of forest fires on air quality the LOTOS-EUROS system has been applied with and without forest fire emissions. Hourly concentration results have been compared to measure data at several monitoring locations with better modeling quality parameters when forest fire emissions were considered. Moreover, hourly estimates, with and without fire emissions, can reach differences in the order of 20%, showing the importance and the influence of this type of emissions on air quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    PubMed

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  16. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure

    PubMed Central

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G.; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity. PMID:26919456

  17. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

    2014-02-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  18. Characterization of biomass burning aerosols from forest fire in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Y.; Iriana, W.; Okumura, M.; Lestari, P.; Tohno, S.; Akira, M.; Okuda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning (forest fire, wild fire) is a major source of pollutants, generating an estimate of 104 Tg per year of aerosol particles worldwide. These particles have adverse human health effects and can affect the radiation budget and climate directly and indirectly. Eighty percent of biomass burning aerosols are generated in the tropics and about thirty percent of them originate in the tropical regions of Asia (Andreae, 1991). Several recent studies have reported on the organic compositions of biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of South America and Africa, however, there is little data about forest fire aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia. It is important to characterize biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia because the aerosol properties vary between fires depending on type and moisture of wood, combustion phase, wind conditions, and several other variables (Reid et al., 2005). We have characterized PM2.5 fractions of biomass burning aerosols emitted from forest fire in Indonesia. During the dry season in 2012, PM2.5 aerosols from several forest fires occurring in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia were collected on quartz and teflon filters with two mini-volume samplers. Background aerosols in forest were sampled during transition period of rainy season to dry season (baseline period). Samples were analyzed with several analytical instruments. The carbonaceous content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC) of the aerosols was analyzed by a thermal optical reflectance technique using IMPROVE protocol. The metal, inorganic ion and organic components of the aerosols were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. There was a great difference of chemical composition between forest fire and non-forest fire samples. Smoke aerosols for forest fires events were composed of ~ 45 % OC and ~ 2.5 % EC. On the other hand, background aerosols for baseline periods were

  19. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  20. Climate change impacts on forest fires: the stakeholders' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Roussos, A.; Karali, A.; Hatzaki, M.; Xanthopoulos, G.; Chatzinikos, E.; Fyllas, N.; Georgiades, N.; Karetsos, G.; Maheras, G.; Nikolaou, I.; Proutsos, N.; Sbarounis, T.; Tsaggari, K.; Tzamtzis, I.; Goodess, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we present a synthesis of the presentations and discussions which arose during a workshop on 'Impacts of climate change on forest fires' held in September 2011 at the National Observatory of Athens, Greece in the framework of EU project CLIMRUN. At first, a general presentation about climate change and extremes in the Greek territory provided the necessary background to the audience and highlighted the need for data and information exchange between scientists and stakeholders through climate services within CLIMRUN. Discussions and presentations that followed linked climate with forest science through the use of a meteorological index for fire risk and future projections of fire danger using regional climate models. The current situation on Greek forests was also presented, as well as future steps that should be taken to ameliorate the situation under a climate change world. A time series analysis of changes in forest fires using available historical data on forest ecosystems in Greece was given in this session. This led to the topic of forest fire risk assessment and fire prevention, stating all actions towards sustainable management of forests and effective mechanisms to control fires under climate change. Options for a smooth adaptation of forests to climate change were discussed together with the lessons learned on practical level on prevention, repression and rehabilitation of forest fires. In between there were useful interventions on sustainable hunting and biodiversity protection and on climate change impacts on forest ecosystems dynamics. The importance of developing an educational program for primary/secondary school students on forest fire management was also highlighted. The perspective of forest stakeholders on climate change and how this change can affect their current or future activities was addressed through a questionnaire they were asked to complete. Results showed that the majority of the participants consider climate variability

  1. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompoulidou, Maria; Stefanidou, Alexandra; Grigoriadis, Dionysios; Dragozi, Eleni; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2016-08-01

    Efficient forest fire management is a key element for alleviating the catastrophic impacts of wildfires. Overall, the effective response to fire events necessitates adequate planning and preparedness before the start of the fire season, as well as quantifying the environmental impacts in case of wildfires. Moreover, the estimation of fire danger provides crucial information required for the optimal allocation and distribution of the available resources. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)—established by the Greek Forestry Service in collaboration with the Laboratory of Forest Management and Remote Sensing of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the International Balkan Center—aims to develop a series of modern products and services for supporting the efficient forest fire prevention management in Greece and the Balkan region, as well as to stimulate the development of transnational fire prevention and impacts mitigation policies. More specifically, NOFFi provides three main fire-related products and services: a) a remote sensing-based fuel type mapping methodology, b) a semi-automatic burned area mapping service, and c) a dynamically updatable fire danger index providing mid- to long-term predictions. The fuel type mapping methodology was developed and applied across the country, following an object-oriented approach and using Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery. The results showcase the effectiveness of the generated methodology in obtaining highly accurate fuel type maps on a national level. The burned area mapping methodology was developed as a semi-automatic object-based classification process, carefully crafted to minimize user interaction and, hence, be easily applicable on a near real-time operational level as well as for mapping historical events. NOFFi's products can be visualized through the interactive Fire Forest portal, which allows the involvement and awareness of the relevant stakeholders via the Public Participation GIS

  2. Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

  3. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  4. Acorn viability following prescribed fire in upland hardwood forests

    Katie Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Stan Zarnoch; Kris Connor

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of structure and function of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests is a focal issue of forest land managers in the eastern United States due to widespread regeneration failure and poor overstory recruitment of oaks, particularly on productive sites. Prescribed fire is increasingly used as a tool in oak ecosystem restoration, with the goal of reducing competition...

  5. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  6. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  7. Fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage

    Lucas E. Nave; Eric D. Vance; Christopher W. Swanston; Peter S. Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Temperate forest soils store globally significant amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Understanding how soil pools of these two elements change in response to disturbance and management is critical to maintaining ecosystem services such as forest productivity, greenhouse gas mitigation, and water resource protection. Fire is one of the principal disturbances acting...

  8. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 01: forest structure and fire hazard overview

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Many managers and policymakers guided by the National Environmental Policy Act process want to understand the scientific principles on which they can base fuel treatments for reducing the size and severity of wildfires. These Forest Structure and Fire Hazard fact sheets discuss how to estimate fire hazard, how to visualize fuel treatments, and how the role of...

  9. Impacts of fire exclusion and recent managed fire on forest structure in old growth Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests

    Brandon M. Collins; Richard G. Everett; Scott L. Stephens

    2011-01-01

    We re-sampled areas included in an unbiased 1911 timber inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service over a 4000 ha study area. Over half of the re-sampled area burned in relatively recent management- and lightning-ignited fires. This allowed for comparisons of both areas that have experienced recent fire and areas with no recent fire, to the same areas historically...

  10. Negligible influence of spatial autocorrelation in the assessment of fire effects in a mixed conifer forest

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Schwilk, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important feature of many forest ecosystems, although the quantification of its effects is compromised by the large scale at which fire occurs and its inherent unpredictability. A recurring problem is the use of subsamples collected within individual burns, potentially resulting in spatially autocorrelated data. Using subsamples from six different fires (and three unburned control areas) we show little evidence for strong spatial autocorrelation either before or after burning for eight measures of forest conditions (both fuels and vegetation). Additionally, including a term for spatially autocorrelated errors provided little improvement for simple linear models contrasting the effects of early versus late season burning. While the effects of spatial autocorrelation should always be examined, it may not always greatly influence assessments of fire effects. If high patch scale variability is common in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests, even following more than a century of fire exclusion, treatments designed to encourage further heterogeneity in forest conditions prior to the reintroduction of fire will likely be unnecessary.

  11. [Relationships of forest fire with lightning in Daxing' anling Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Li, Shuai

    2012-07-01

    Forest fire is an important factor affecting forest ecosystem succession. Recently, forest fire, especially forest lightning fire, shows an increasing trend under global warming. To study the relationships of forest fire with lightning is essential to accurately predict the forest fire in time. Daxing' anling Mountains is a region with high frequency of forest lightning fire in China, and an important experiment site to study the relationships of forest fire with lightning. Based on the forest fire records and the corresponding lightning and meteorological observation data in the Mountains from 1966 to 2007, this paper analyzed the relationships of forest fire with lightning in this region. In the period of 1966-2007, both the lightning fire number and the fired forest area in this region increased significantly. The meteorological factors affecting the forest lighting fire were related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, the forest lightning fire was significantly correlated with precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.489; at monthly scale, it had a significant correlation with air temperature, the correlation coefficient being 0.18. The relationship of the forest lightning fire with lightning was also related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, there was no significant correlation between them; at monthly scale, the forest lightning fire was strongly correlated with lightning and affected by precipitation; at daily scale, a positive correlation was observed between forest lightning fire and lightning when the precipitation was less than 5 mm. According to these findings, a fire danger index based on ADTD lightning detection data was established, and a forest lightning fire forecast model was developed. The prediction accuracy of this model for the forest lightning fire in Daxing' anling Mountains in 2005-2007 was > 80%.

  12. Remote sensing techniques in monitoring areas affected by forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.; Lazaridou, Maria A.

    2017-09-01

    Forest fire is a part of nature playing a key role in shaping ecosystems. However, fire's environmental impacts can be significant, affecting wildlife habitat and timber, human settlements, man-made technical constructions and various networks (road, power networks) and polluting the air with emissions harmful to human health. Furthermore, fire's effect on the landscape may be long-lasting. Monitoring the development of a fire occurs as an important aspect at the management of natural hazards in general. Among the used methods for monitoring, satellite data and remote sensing techniques can be proven of particular importance. Satellite remote sensing offers a useful tool for forest fire detection, monitoring, management and damage assessment. Especially for fire scars detection and monitoring, satellite data derived from Landsat 8 can be a useful research tool. This paper includes critical considerations of the above and concerns in particular an example of the Greek area (Thasos Island). This specific area was hit by fires several times in the past and recently as well (September 2016). Landsat 8 satellite data are being used (pre and post fire imagery) and digital image processing techniques are applied (enhancement techniques, calculation of various indices) for fire scars detection. Visual interpretation of the example area affected by the fires is also being done, contributing to the overall study.

  13. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  14. Natural and social factors influencing forest fire occurrence at a local spatial scale

    Maria Luisa Chas-Amil; Julia M. Touza; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Colin J. McClean

    2012-01-01

    Development of efficient forest fire policies requires an understanding of the underlying reasons behind forest fire ignitions. Globally, there is a close relationship between forest fires and human activities, i.e., fires understood as human events due to negligence (e.g., agricultural burning escapes), and deliberate actions (e.g., pyromania, revenge, land use change...

  15. Longleaf pine restoration in context comparisons of frequent fire forests

    Seth Bigelow; Michael C. Stambaugh; Joseph J. O' Brien; Andrew J. Larson; Michael A. Battaglia

    2018-01-01

    To see a frequent-fire forest burn for the first time is to experience a remarkable teat of nature. Most people are accustomed to the slow change of forests with the seasons, not the instantaneous conversion of green and brown plant mass to smoke and char. Yet to visit such a forest a week after it bums is to see bright green shoots emerging, highlighted against a...

  16. Effectiveness of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments For Controlling Wildfire Behavior in Piedmont Forests: A Simulation Study

    Helen H. Mohr; Thomas A. Waldrop; Sandra Rideout; Ross J. Phillips; Charles T. Flint

    2004-01-01

    The need for fuel reduction has increased in United States forests due to decades of fire exclusion. Excessive fuel buildup has led to uncharacteristically severe fires in areas with historically short-interval, low-to-moderate-intensity fire regimes. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study compared the impacts of three fuel-reduction treatments on numerous...

  17. Some environmental effects of forest fires in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Frank; Wendler, Gerd

    The high variability of burning conditions and fuels, found in Alaskan forest fires, produces an associated complex emission of particulate matter. Histological evidence of some large particles has been found in the forest fire plumes as well as aerosols resulting apparently from gas-to-particle conversion. Particles analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy dispersive techniques show large variability in both physical and chemical characteristics. Optical measurements show forest fire smoke affects atmospheric turbidity regionally. Turbidity values presented which were measured in the plume from a forest fire 400 km from Fairbanks show values in excess of those found for heavily polluted urban regions. The particulate matter analysis showing irregular shapes and highly varied chemical composition displays the difficulty in radiative transfer calculations due to the assumptions of Mie theory. The nature of the aerosol size concentrations (non-Junge power law distributions) found in forest fire plumes also violates the assumption necessary for application of Angstrom's classic method of defining the turbidity coefficient and wavelength exponent. Consequences of such particulate matter may affect the temperature structure of the atmosphere, radiation balance as well as visibility. In addition, the burnt over forest regions display a reduction of surface albedo and roughness parameter which will have prolonged influence on the heat exchange at the earth's surface.

  18. Fire behavior in northern Rocky Mountain forests

    J. S. Barrows

    1951-01-01

    Knowledge of fire behavior is an essential requirement for firefighters. Successful fire control operations depend, first of all, upon the ability of the protection forces to judge where and when fires will start and how they will behave once ignition takes place. Every member of the firefighting team from ranger to smokechaser must be able to make reliable estimates...

  19. Fire effects in northeastern forests: aspen.

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    Fire has been a natural component of the aspen ecosystem. Any fire in an established aspen stand will cause injury. Aspen is easily top-killed, but the roots remain viable. A fire's heat can stimulate sprout growth from these roots, aiding natural regeneration.

  20. Fire effects in northeastern forests: red pine.

    Cary Rouse

    1988-01-01

    Fire and red pine are closely associated. Fires can provide red pine with the mineral soil and freedom from competition it needs to become well established. Fire can also be used to control pests, increase tree growth, enhance aesthetics, and improve wildlife habitat.

  1. Miller Creek Demonstration Forest - a forest born of fire: A field guide

    Penelope A. Latham; Raymond C. Shearer; Kevin L. O' Hara

    1998-01-01

    Miller Creek, on the Flathead National Forest in northwest Montana, is a demonstration forest, showing up to 30 years of forest change after clearcutting and a wide range of fire treatments in 1967 and 1968. Differences in tree regeneration and vegetation development are explained for units that were clearcut and prescribed burned, clearcut and burned by wildfire,...

  2. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    Theresa B. Jain; William A. Gould; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod; Leigh B. Lentile; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and...

  3. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests [Chinese version

    Theresa B. Jain; William A. Gould; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod; Leigh B. Lentile; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and...

  4. Effectiveness of Prescribed Fire as a Fuel Treatment in Californian Coniferous Forests

    Nicole M. Vaillant; JoAnn Fites-Kaufman; Scott L. Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Effective fire suppression for the past century has altered forest structure and increased fuel loads. Prescribed fire as a fuels treatment can reduce wildfire size and severity. This study investigates how prescribed fire affects fuel loads, forest structure, potential fire behavior, and modeled tree mortality at 80th, 90th, and 97.5th percentile fire weather...

  5. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  6. The influence of fire on lepidopteran abundance and community structure in forested habitats of eastern Texas

    D. Craig Rudolph; Charles A. Ely

    2000-01-01

    Transect surveys were used to examine the influence of fire on lepidopteran communities (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) in forested habitats in eastern Texas. Lepidopteran abundance was greater in pine forests where prescribed fire maintained an open mid- and understory compared to forests where fire had less impact on forest structure. Ahundance of nectar sources...

  7. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires

    Monica L. Bond; Rodney B. Siegel; Richard L. Hutto; Victoria A. Saab; Stephen A. Shunk

    2012-01-01

    Bond, Monica L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Hutto, Richard L.; Saab, Victoria A.; Shunk, Stephen A. 2012. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires. The Wildlife Professional. Winter 2012: 46-49. During the 2012 fire season from June through August, wildfires in the drought-stricken western and central United States burned more than 3.6 million acres of...

  8. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming

    Randerson, J.T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.G.; Chambers, S.D.; Jin, Y.; Hess, P.G.; Pfister, G.; Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Welp, L.R.; Chapin, F.S.; Harden, J.W.; Goulden, M.L.; Lyons, E.; Neff, J.C.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Zender, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ?? 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 ?? 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

  9. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming.

    PubMed

    Randerson, J T; Liu, H; Flanner, M G; Chambers, S D; Jin, Y; Hess, P G; Pfister, G; Mack, M C; Treseder, K K; Welp, L R; Chapin, F S; Harden, J W; Goulden, M L; Lyons, E; Neff, J C; Schuur, E A G; Zender, C S

    2006-11-17

    We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 +/- 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 +/- 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

  10. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the

  11. Edge fires drive the shape and stability of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Pellegrini, Adam F A; Bhat, Uttam; Redner, Sidney; Pacala, Stephen W; Berdahl, Andrew M

    2018-06-01

    In tropical regions, fires propagate readily in grasslands but typically consume only edges of forest patches. Thus, forest patches grow due to tree propagation and shrink by fires in surrounding grasslands. The interplay between these competing edge effects is unknown, but critical in determining the shape and stability of individual forest patches, as well the landscape-level spatial distribution and stability of forests. We analyze high-resolution remote-sensing data from protected Brazilian Cerrado areas and find that forest shapes obey a robust perimeter-area scaling relation across climatic zones. We explain this scaling by introducing a heterogeneous fire propagation model of tropical forest-grassland ecotones. Deviations from this perimeter-area relation determine the stability of individual forest patches. At a larger scale, our model predicts that the relative rates of tree growth due to propagative expansion and long-distance seed dispersal determine whether collapse of regional-scale tree cover is continuous or discontinuous as fire frequency changes. © 2018 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Thirty-Two Years of Forest Service Research at the Southern Forest Fire Laboratory in Macon, GA

    USDA Forest Service

    1991-01-01

    When completed in 1959, the Southern Forest Fire Laboratory was the world?s first devoted entirely to the study of forest fires, Since then the scientists at the Laboratory have: 1) performed basic and applied research on critical fire problems of national interest, 2) conducted special regional research on fire problems peculiar to the 13 Southern States, and 3)...

  13. MISR Images Forest Fires and Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images show forest fires raging in Montana and Hurricane Hector swirling in the Pacific. These two unrelated, large-scale examples of nature's fury were captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer(MISR) during a single orbit of NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2000.

    In the left image, huge smoke plumes rise from devastating wildfires in the Bitterroot Mountain Range near the Montana-Idaho border. Flathead Lake is near the upper left, and the Great Salt Lake is at the bottom right. Smoke accumulating in the canyons and plains is also visible. This image was generated from the MISR camera that looks forward at a steep angle (60 degrees); the instrument has nine different cameras viewing Earth at different angles. The smoke is far more visible when seen at this highly oblique angle than it would be in a conventional, straight-downward (nadir)view. The wide extent of the smoke is evident from comparison with the image on the right, a view of Hurricane Hector acquired from MISR's nadir-viewing camera. Both images show an area of approximately 400 kilometers (250 miles)in width and about 850 kilometers (530 miles) in length.

    When this image of Hector was taken, the eastern Pacific tropical cyclone was located approximately 1,100 kilometers (680 miles) west of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. The eye is faintly visible and measures 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter. The storm was beginning to weaken, and 24hours later the National Weather Service downgraded Hector from a hurricane to a tropical storm.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  14. The Zoning of Forest Fire Potential of Gulestan Province Forests Using Granular Computing and MODIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilzadeh Shadlouei, A.; Delavar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    There are many vegetation in Iran. This is because of extent of Iran and its width. One of these vegetation is forest vegetation most prevalent in Northern provinces named Guilan, Mazandaran, Gulestan, Ardebil as well as East Azerbaijan. These forests are always threatened by natural forest fires so much so that there have been reports of tens of fires in recent years. Forest fires are one of the major environmental as well as economic, social and security concerns in the world causing much damages. According to climatology, forest fires are one of the important factors in the formation and dispersion of vegetation. Also, regarding the environment, forest fires cause the emission of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases, smoke and dust into the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth temperature to rise up and are unhealthy to humans, animals and vegetation. In agriculture droughts are the usual side effects of these fires. The causes of forest fires could be categorized as either Human or Natural Causes. Naturally, it is impossible to completely contain forest fires; however, areas with high potentials of fire could be designated and analysed to decrease the risk of fires. The zoning of forest fire potential is a multi-criteria problem always accompanied by inherent uncertainty like other multi-criteria problems. So far, various methods and algorithm for zoning hazardous areas via Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial Information System (GIS) have been offered. This paper aims at zoning forest fire potential of Gulestan Province of Iran forests utilizing Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information System, meteorological data, MODIS images and granular computing method. Granular computing is part of granular mathematical and one way of solving multi-criteria problems such forest fire potential zoning supervised by one expert or some experts , and it offers rules for classification with the least inconsistencies. On the basis of the experts' opinion, 6 determinative

  15. Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

    2010-05-01

    The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis

  16. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  17. Strong Gradients in Forest Sensitivity to Climate Change Revealed by Dynamics of Forest Fire Cycles in the Post Little Ice Age Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Girardin, Martin P.; Gauthier, Sylvie; Ols, Clémentine; Ojal, John

    2017-10-01

    The length of the fire cycle is a critical factor affecting the vegetation cover in boreal and temperate regions. However, its responses to climate change remain poorly understood. We reanalyzed data from earlier studies of forest age structures at the landscape level, in order to map the evolution of regional fire cycles across Eastern North American boreal and temperate forests, following the termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA). We demonstrated a well-defined spatial pattern of post-LIA changes in the length of fire cycles toward lower fire activity during the 1800s and 1900s. The western section of Eastern North America (west of 77°W) experienced a decline in fire activity as early as the first half of the 1800s. By contrast, the eastern section showed these declines as late as the early 1900s. During a regionally fire-prone period of the 1910s-1920s, forests in the western section of Eastern boreal North America burned more than forests in the eastern section. The climate appeared to dominate over vegetation composition and human impacts in shaping the geographical pattern of the post-LIA change in fire activity. Changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns following the termination of the LIA, specifically changes in Arctic Oscillation and the strengthening of the Continental Polar Trough, were likely drivers of the regional fire dynamics.

  18. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  19. Forest diversity, climate change and forest fires in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Munir; Gucel, Salih; Kucuk, Mahir; Sakcali, Serdal

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the forest resources in Turkey in the light of published literature and summarises extensive fieldwork undertaken in the Mediterranean phytogeograhical region of Turkey. The issues of landscape change and the associated drivers are addressed and the threats to the forest diversity are considered. It notes the impacts of climate change and forest fires and attemepts have been made to put forth future options for sustainable forest development.

  20. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  1. Nitrogen balance along a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Ritala, Kaisa; Duan, Baoli; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change. Nitrogen (N) is a key determinant of carbon sequestration in boreal forests because the shortage of N limits tree growth. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year non stand-replacing fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Pinus sylvestris forests in Finland. Two years after the fire, total ecosystem N pool was 622 kg ha-1 of which 16% was in the vegetation, 8% in the dead biomass and 76% in the soil. 155 years after the fire, total N pool was 960 kg ha-1, with 27% in the vegetation, 3% in the dead biomass and 69% in the soil. This implies an annual accumulation rate of 2.28 kg ha-1 which was distributed equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in N pools were consistent with the computed N balance +2.11 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period. Nitrogen deposition was an important component of the N balance. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N input during the 155 post-fire years. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) and did not differ among post-fire age classes. The number and intensity of microbial genes involved in N cycling were lower at the site 60 years after fire compared to the youngest and the oldest sites indicating potential differences in soil N cycling processes. The results suggest that in sub-arctic pine forests, the non-stand-replacing, intermediate-severity fires decrease considerably N pools in biomass but changes in soil and total ecosystem N pools are slight. Current fire-return interval does not seem to pose a great threat to ecosystem productivity and N status in these sub-arctic forests.

  2. Nitrogen balance along a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Ritala, Kaisa; Duan, Baoli; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change. Nitrogen (N) is a key determinant of carbon sequestration in boreal forests because the shortage of N limits tree growth. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year non stand-replacing fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Pinus sylvestris forests in Finland. Two years after the fire, total ecosystem N pool was 622 kg ha-1 of which 16% was in the vegetation, 8% in the dead biomass and 76% in the soil. 155 years after the fire, total N pool was 960 kg ha-1, with 27% in the vegetation, 3% in the dead biomass and 69% in the soil. This implies an annual accumulation rate of 2.28 kg ha-1 which was distributed equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in N pools were consistent with the computed N balance +2.11 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period. Nitrogen deposition was an important component of the N balance. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N input during the 155 post-fire years. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) and did not differ among post-fire age classes. The number and intensity of microbial genes involved in N cycling were lower at the site 60 years after fire compared to the youngest and the oldest sites indicating potential differences in soil N cycling processes. The results suggest that in sub-arctic pine forests, the non-stand-replacing, intermediate-severity fires decrease considerably N pools in biomass but changes in soil and total ecosystem N pools are slight. Current fire-return interval does not seem to pose a great threat to ecosystem productivity and N status in these sub-arctic forests. PMID:28358884

  3. Assessment of fire effects based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data and a long-term fire mapping data set

    John D. Shaw; Sara A. Goeking; James Menlove; Charles E. Werstak

    2017-01-01

    Integration of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data with Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) data can provide new information about fire effects on forests. This integration allowed broad-scale assessment of the cover types burned in large fires, the relationship between prefire stand conditions and fire severity, and postfire stand conditions. Of the 42...

  4. Fire and fire surrogate study in the Sierra Nevada: evaluating restoration treatments at Blodgett Forest and Sequoia National Park

    Eric E. Knapp; Scott L. Stephens; James D. McIver; Jason J. Moghaddas; Jon E. Keeley

    2004-01-01

    Management practices have altered both the structure and function of forests throughout the United States. Some of the most dramatic changes have resulted from fire exclusion, especially in forests that historically experienced relatively frequent, low- to moderate-intensity fire regimes. In the Sierra Nevada, fire exclusion is believed to have resulted in widespread...

  5. Ecological consequences of alternative fuel reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests: the national fire and fire surrogate study

    J.D. McIver; C.J. Fettig

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Science features the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS), a niultisite, multivariate research project that evaluates the ecological consequences of prescribed fire and its mechanical surrogates in seasonally dry forests of the United States. The need for a comprehensive national FFS study stemmed from concern that information on...

  6. Contrasting spatial patterns in active-fire and fire-suppressed Mediterranean climate old-growth mixed conifer forests

    Danny L. Fry; Scott L. Stephens; Brandon M. Collins; Malcolm North; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Samantha J. Gill

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference...

  7. Large forest fires in Canada, 1959-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Mason, J. A.; Todd, J. B.; Bosch, E. M.; Wotton, B. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Flannigan, M. D.; Hirsch, K. G.; Logan, K. A.; Martell, D. L.; Skinner, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    A Large Fire Database (LFDB), which includes information on fire location, start date, final size, cause, and suppression action, has been developed for all fires larger than 200 ha in area for Canada for the 1959-1997 period. The LFDB represents only 3.1% of the total number of Canadian fires during this period, the remaining 96.9% of fires being suppressed while <200 ha in size, yet accounts for ˜97% of the total area burned, allowing a spatial and temporal analysis of recent Canadian landscape-scale fire impacts. On average ˜2 million ha burned annually in these large fires, although more than 7 million ha burned in some years. Ecozones in the boreal and taiga regions experienced the greatest areas burned, with an average of 0.7% of the forested land burning annually. Lightning fires predominate in northern Canada, accounting for 80% of the total LFDB area burned. Large fires, although small in number, contribute substantially to area burned, most particularly in the boreal and taiga regions. The Canadian fire season runs from late April through August, with most of the area burned occurring in June and July due primarily to lightning fire activity in northern Canada. Close to 50% of the area burned in Canada is the result of fires that are not actioned due to their remote location, low values-at-risk, and efforts to accommodate the natural role of fire in these ecosystems. The LFDB is updated annually and is being expanded back in time to permit a more thorough analysis of long-term trends in Canadian fire activity.

  8. Large forest fires in Canada, 1959-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Mason, J. A.; Todd, J. B.; Bosch, E. M.; Wotton, B. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Flannigan, M. D.; Hirsch, K. G.; Logan, K. A.; Martell, D. L.; Skinner, W. R.

    2003-01-01

    A Large Fire Database (LFDB), which includes information on fire location, start date, final size, cause, and suppression action, has been developed for all fires larger than 200 ha in area for Canada for the 1959-1997 period. The LFDB represents only 3.1% of the total number of Canadian fires during this period, the remaining 96.9% of fires being suppressed while <200 ha in size, yet accounts for ~97% of the total area burned, allowing a spatial and temporal analysis of recent Canadian landscape-scale fire impacts. On average ~2 million ha burned annually in these large fires, although more than 7 million ha burned in some years. Ecozones in the boreal and taiga regions experienced the greatest areas burned, with an average of 0.7% of the forested land burning annually. Lightning fires predominate in northern Canada, accounting for 80% of the total LFDB area burned. Large fires, although small in number, contribute substantially to area burned, most particularly in the boreal and taiga regions. The Canadian fire season runs from late April through August, with most of the area burned occurring in June and July due primarily to lightning fire activity in northern Canada. Close to 50% of the area burned in Canada is the result of fires that are not actioned due to their remote location, low values-at-risk, and efforts to accommodate the natural role of fire in these ecosystems. The LFDB is updated annually and is being expanded back in time to permit a more thorough analysis of long-term trends in Canadian fire activity.

  9. Absorption characteristics of forest fire particulate matter

    E.M. Patterson; Charles K. McMahon

    1984-01-01

    Abstract. Absorption properties of smokes from laboratory fires that represent prescription hums in the Southern states have been quantified to relate variations in measured absorption parameters to variation in fire conditions and to estimate emission factors for elemental carbon. Results showed significant differences in absorption of the smoke...

  10. Photochemical potential of forest fire smoke

    W. Henry Benner; Paul Urone; Charles K. McMahon; Paul Ryan

    1977-01-01

    A stainless steel laboratory chamber to hold the entire combustion products from a small scale pine needle fire was useful for measuring the photochemical activity of pine needle fire smoke. Particle size distributions indicated that the nucleation of small numbers of submicron particles was sufficient to increase the amount of light a plume would scatter. Artificial...

  11. Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

  12. Ecosystem Carbon Emissions from 2015 Forest Fires in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high). Results: Field measurements indicated that the loss of surface organic layers in boreal ecosystem fires is a major factor determining post-fire soil temperature changes, depth of thawing, and carbon losses from the mineral topsoil layer. Measurements in forest sites showed that soil temperature profiles to 30 cm depth at burned forest sites increased by an average of 8o - 10o C compared to unburned forest sites. Sampling and laboratory analysis indicated a 65% reduction in soil carbon content and a 58% reduction in soil nitrogen content in severely burned sample sites compared to soil mineral samples from nearby unburned spruce forests. Conclusions: Combined with nearly unprecedented forest areas severely burned in the Interior region of Alaska in 2015, total ecosystem fire emission of carbon to the atmosphere exceeded most previous estimates for the state.

  13. Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

    2008-05-01

    Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe.

  14. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of models to study forest fire behavior

    Wallace L. Fons

    1961-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has started a laboratory study with the ultimate objective of determining model laws for fire behavior. The study includes an examination of the effect of such variables as species of wood, density of wood, moisture content, size of fuel particle, spacing, dimensions of fuel bed, wind, and slope on the rate of spread of fire and the partition of...

  16. Forest fire damage appraisal procedures and tables fo the northeast

    A.W. Lindenmuth Jr.; J.J. Keetch; Ralph M. Nelson

    1951-01-01

    Forest fire control in the Northeast is a bigger and more responsible job than most people realize.  State , Federal, and other agencies cur­ rently spend some 6 millions of dollars in prevention  efforts and in sup­pressing the 15 or 16 thousand fires that burn each year. There is good reason, therefore, to deve lop better and more uniform method s of damage appraisal...

  17. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: Implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    White, Angela M.; Manley, Patricia N.; Tarbill, Gina; Richardson, T.L.; Russell, Robin E.; Safford, Hugh D.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire burned 1243 hectares of mixed conifer forest in South Lake Tahoe, California. We conducted avian point counts for the first 3 years following the fire in burned and unburned areas to investigate which habitat characteristics are most important for re-establishing or maintaining the native avian community in post-fire landscapes. We used a multi-species occurrence model to estimate how avian species are influenced by the density of live and dead trees and shrub cover. While accounting for variations in the detectability of species, our approach estimated the occurrence probabilities of all species detected including those that were rare or observed infrequently. Although all species encountered in this study were detected in burned areas, species-specific modeling results predicted that some species were strongly associated with specific post-fire conditions, such as a high density of dead trees, open-canopy conditions or high levels of shrub cover that occur at particular burn severities or at a particular time following fire. These results indicate that prescribed fire or managed wildfire which burns at low to moderate severity without at least some high-severity effects is both unlikely to result in the species assemblages that are unique to post-fire areas or to provide habitat for burn specialists. Additionally, the probability of occurrence for many species was associated with high levels of standing dead trees indicating that intensive post-fire harvest of these structures could negatively impact habitat of a considerable proportion of the avian community.

  18. Model gives a 3-month warning of Amazonian forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The widespread drought suffered by the Amazon rain forest in the summer of 2005 was heralded at the time as the drought of the century. Because of the dehydrated conditions, supplemented by slash and burn agricultural practices, the drought led to widespread forest fires throughout the western Amazon, a portion of the rain forest usually too lush to support spreading wildfires. Only 5 years later, the 2005 season was outdone by even more widespread drought, with fires decimating more than 3000 square kilometers of western Amazonian rain forest. Blame for the wildfires has been consistently laid on deforestation and agricultural practices, but a convincing climatological explanation exists as well. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047392, 2011)

  19. Relation of weather forecasts to the prediction of dangerous forest fire conditions

    R. H. Weidman

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of predicting dangerous forest-fire conditions, of course, is to reduce the great cost and damage caused by forest fires. In the region of Montana and northern Idaho alone the average cost to the United States Forest Service of fire protection and suppression is over $1,000,000 a year. Although the causes of forest fires will gradually be reduced by...

  20. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  1. Topographic and fire weather controls of fire refugia in forested ecosystems of northwestern North America

    Krawchuk, Meg A.; Haire, Sandra L.; Coop, Jonathan D.; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Whitman, Ellen; Chong, Geneva W.; Miller, Carol

    2016-01-01

    for seven study fires that burned in conifer-dominated forested landscapes of the Western Cordillera of Canada between 2001 and 2014. We fit nine models, each for distinct levels of fire weather and terrain ruggedness. Our framework revealed that the predictability and abundance of fire refugia varied among these environmental settings. We observed highest predictability under moderate fire weather conditions and moderate terrain ruggedness (ROC-AUC = 0.77), and lowest predictability in flatter landscapes and under high fire weather conditions (ROC-AUC = 0.63–0.68). Catchment slope, local aspect, relative position, topographic wetness, topographic convergence, and local slope all contributed to discriminating where refugia occur but the relative importance of these topographic controls differed among environments. Our framework allows us to characterize the predictability of contemporary fire refugia across multiple environmental settings and provides important insights for ecosystem resilience, wildfire management, conservation planning, and climate change adaptation.

  2. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels

    Dylan W. Schwilk; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James Mciver; John D. Bailey; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Richy J. Harrod; Jason J. Moghaddas; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood

    2009-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and fuels were evaluated from measurements taken before and after fuel reduction treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, and the combination of the two) at 12 Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) sites located in forests with a surface fire regime across the conterminous United States. To test the relative effectiveness of fuel reduction...

  3. Rule-based mapping of fire-adapted vegetation and fire regimes for the Monongahela National Forest

    Melissa A. Thomas-Van Gundy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler

    2007-01-01

    A rule-based approach was employed in GIS to map fire-adapted vegetation and fire regimes within the proclamation boundary of the Monongahela National Forest. Spatial analyses and maps were generated using ArcMap 9.1. The resulting fireadaptation scores were then categorized into standard fire regime groups. Fire regime group V (200+ yrs) was the most common, assigned...

  4. A multidisciplinary decision support system for forest fire crisis management.

    PubMed

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Sifakis, Nicolaos

    2004-02-01

    A wildland fire is a serious threat for forest ecosystems in Southern Europe affecting severely and irreversibly regions of significant ecological value as well as human communities. To support decision makers during large-scale forest fire incidents, a multidisciplinary system has been developed that provides rational and quantitative information based on the site-specific circumstances and the possible consequences. The system's architecture consists of several distinct supplementary modules of near real-time satellite monitoring and fire forecast using an integrated framework of satellite Remote Sensing, GIS, and RDBMS technologies equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The system may handle multiple fire ignitions and support decisions regarding dispatching of utilities, equipment, and personnel that would appropriately attack the fire front. The operational system was developed for the region of Penteli Mountain in Attika, Greece, one of the mountain areas in the country most hit by fires. Starting from a real fire incident in August 2000, a scenario is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Ellis Quinn

    Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer

  6. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: a management strategy for fire-adapted ecosystems.

    R.W. Mutch; S.F. Arno; J.K. Brown; C.E. Carlson; R.D. Ottmar; J.L. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    The fire-adapted forests of the Blue Mountains are suffering from a forest health problem of catastrophic proportions. Contributing to the decline of forest health are such factors as the extensive harvesting of the western larch and ponderosa pine overstory during the 1900s, attempted exclusion of fire from a fire-dependent ecosystem, and the continuing drought. The...

  7. Increasing resiliency in frequent fire forests: Lessons from the Sierra Nevada and western Australia

    Scott L. Stephens

    2014-01-01

    This paper will primarily focus on the management and restoration of forests adapted to frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes. These are the forest types that are most at risk from large, high-severity wildfires and in many regions their fire regimes are changing. Fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in some forests which can...

  8. Integrating remote sensing and terrain data in forest fire modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medler, Michael Johns

    Forest fire policies are changing. Managers now face conflicting imperatives to re-establish pre-suppression fire regimes, while simultaneously preventing resource destruction. They must, therefore, understand the spatial patterns of fires. Geographers can facilitate this understanding by developing new techniques for mapping fire behavior. This dissertation develops such techniques for mapping recent fires and using these maps to calibrate models of potential fire hazards. In so doing, it features techniques that strive to address the inherent complexity of modeling the combinations of variables found in most ecological systems. Image processing techniques were used to stratify the elements of terrain, slope, elevation, and aspect. These stratification images were used to assure sample placement considered the role of terrain in fire behavior. Examination of multiple stratification images indicated samples were placed representatively across a controlled range of scales. The incorporation of terrain data also improved preliminary fire hazard classification accuracy by 40%, compared with remotely sensed data alone. A Kauth-Thomas transformation (KT) of pre-fire and post-fire Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data produced brightness, greenness, and wetness images. Image subtraction indicated fire induced change in brightness, greenness, and wetness. Field data guided a fuzzy classification of these change images. Because fuzzy classification can characterize a continuum of a phenomena where discrete classification may produce artificial borders, fuzzy classification was found to offer a range of fire severity information unavailable with discrete classification. These mapped fire patterns were used to calibrate a model of fire hazards for the entire mountain range. Pre-fire TM, and a digital elevation model produced a set of co-registered images. Training statistics were developed from 30 polygons associated with the previously mapped fire severity. Fuzzy

  9. Lessons learned from prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forests of the southern Sierra Nevada

    Karen E. Bagne; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a commonly used management tool in fire-suppressed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, but effects of these fires on birds are largely unstudied. We investigated both direct and indirect impacts on breeding birds in ponderosa pine forests of the southern Sierra Nevada where fires were applied in the spring. Following...

  10. Reintroducing fire in regenerated dry forests following stand-replacing wildfire.

    David W. Peterson; Paul F. Hessburg; Brion Salter; Kevin M. James; Matthew C. Dahlgreen; John A. Barnes

    2007-01-01

    Prescribed fire use may be effective for increasing fire resilience in young coniferous forests by reducing surface fuels, modifying overstory stand structure, and promoting development of large trees of fire resistant species. Questions remain, however, about when and how to reintroduce fire in regenerated forests, and to what end. We studied the effects of spring...

  11. Proposed wildland fire amendment to the Coronado National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

    Sherry A. Tune; Erin M. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    The Coronado National Forest proposed amending its 1986 Land and Resource Management Plan to conform to the 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy. This Policy emphasizes fire’s essential role in maintaining natural ecosystems and allows a broader range of management options for wildland fires. Under the current Forest Plan, fires must be suppressed in areas...

  12. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jonathan C.B. Nesmith; MaryBeth Keifer; Eric E. Knapp; Alan Flint; Lorriane Flint

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after...

  13. Modeling of multi-strata forest fire severity using Landsat TM data

    Q. Meng; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Most of fire severity studies use field measures of composite burn index (CBI) to represent forest fire severity and fit the relationships between CBI and Landsat imagery derived differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) to predict and map fire severity at unsampled locations. However, less attention has been paid on the multi-strata forest fire severity, which...

  14. Post-fire surface fuel dynamics in California forests across three burn severity classes

    Bianca N. I. Eskelson; Vicente J. Monleon

    2018-01-01

    Forest wildfires consume fuel and are followed by post-fire fuel accumulation. This study examines post-fire surface fuel dynamics over 9 years across a wide range of conditions characteristic of California fires in dry conifer and hardwood forests. We estimated post-fire surface fuel loadings (Mg ha _1) from 191 repeatedly measured United States...

  15. Severity of an uncharacteristically large wildfire, the Rim Fire, in forests with relatively restored frequent fire regimes

    Jamie Lydersen; Malcolm North; Brandon M. Collins

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Rim Fire, originating on Forest Service land, burned into old-growth forests within Yosemite National Park with relatively restored frequent-fire regimes (¡Ý2 predominantly low and moderate severity burns within the last 35 years). Forest structure and fuels data were collected in the field 3-4 years before the fire, providing a rare chance to use pre-existing...

  16. Forest Fire Prevention Programs and Their Evaluation In U.S. Forest Service Region 8

    G. Richard Wetherill

    1982-01-01

    A telephone survey of all national forest ranger districts in Region 8 obtained data describing the status of forest fire prevention program evaluation. Out of the 396 programs being conducted on the 105 districts in the South, only one program had undergone any sort of systematic evaluation. Survey data indicate that ranger district prevention personnel are aware of...

  17. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  18. Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

    2013-03-01

    Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic δ13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

  19. Forest and Land Fire Prevention Through the Hotspot Movement Pattern Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmudi, T.; Kardono, P.; Hartanto, P.; Ardhitasari, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has experienced a great forest fire disaster in 2015. The losses incurred were enormous. But actually the incidence of forest and land fires occurs almost every year. Various efforts were made to cope with the fire disaster. The appearance of a hotspot becomes an early indication of the fire incident both location and time. By studying the location and time of the hotspot's appearance indicates that the hotspot has certain movement patterns from year to year. This study aims to show the pattern of movement of hotspots from year to year that can be used for the prevention of forest and land fires. The method used is time series analysis of land cover and hotspot distribution. The data used were land cover data from 2005 to 2016, hotspot data from 2005 to 2016. The location of this study is the territory of Meranti Kepulauan District. The results show that the highest hotspot is 425 hotspots occurs in the shrubs and bushes. From year to year, the pattern of hotspot movement occurs in the shrubs and bushes cover. The hotspot pattern follows the direction of unused land for cultivation and is dominated by shrubs. From these results, we need to pay more attentiont for the land with the cover of shrubs adjacent to the cultivated land.

  20. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  1. Fire management and carbon sequestration in Pine Barren Forests

    Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Michael Gallagher

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed burning is the major viable option that land managers have for reducing hazardous fuels and ensuring the regeneration of fire-dependent species in a cost-effective manner in Pine Barren ecosystems. Fuels management activities are directly linked to carbon (C) storage and rates of C sequestration by forests. To evaluate the effects of prescribed burning on...

  2. Where and when to measure forest fire danger

    G. Lloyd. Hayes

    1944-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study to determine the place, time, and number of measurements that should be made to obtain dependable ratings of "average-bad" fire conditions without an excessive number of stations or observations. The author concludes that under the conditions prevailing in the Priest River Experimental Forest in northern Idaho a...

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution patterns of forest fires in northern Mexico

    Gustavo Pérez-Verdin; M. A. Márquez-Linares; A. Cortes-Ortiz; M. Salmerón-Macias

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2000-2011 CONAFOR databases, a spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of forest fires in Durango, one of the most affected States in Mexico, was conducted. The Moran's index was used to determine a spatial distribution pattern; also, an analysis of seasonal and temporal autocorrelation of the data collected was completed. The geographically weighted...

  4. Do fire and insects interact in eastern forests?

    Lynne K. Rieske-Kinney

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of prescribed fire as a management strategy for manipulating forest-species composition generates questions regarding the effects on the arthropod community and the underlying processes in which arthropods play a dominant role, as well as its potential as a pest suppression strategy. Despite the apparent benefits of prescribed burning for...

  5. A balloon system for profiling smoke plumes from forest fires

    Paul W. Ryan; Charles D. Tangren; Charles K. McMahon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is directed to those interested in techniques for measuring emission rates and emission factors for forest fires and other open combustion sources. A source-sampling procedure that involved the use of a vertical array of lightweight, battery-operated instruments suspended from a helium-filled aerodynamic balloon is described. In this procedure, plume...

  6. Methods for assessing the impact of fire on forest recreation

    Henry J. Vaux; Philip D. Gardner; Thomas J. Mills

    1984-01-01

    Methods for assessing the impact of fire on forest recreation were studied in a literature search and an experiment. Contingent market valuation appeared the most promising. This direct, economic approach uses personal interviews and sets up a hypothetical market transaction in which values are estimated. In an illustrative application of this method, respondents were...

  7. Economic efficiency of fire management programs at six National Forests

    Dennis L. Schweitzer; Ernest V. Andersen; Thomas J. Mills

    1982-01-01

    Two components of fire management programs were analyzed at these Forests: Francis Marion (South Carolina), Huron-Manistee (Michigan), San Bernardino (California), Tonto (Arizona), and Deschutes and Willamette (Oregon). Initial attack and aviation operations were evaluated by the criterion of minimizing the program cost plus the net value change of resource outputs and...

  8. Restoring fire to mixed conifer forests in the Northern Cascades

    T. J. Leuschen

    1996-01-01

    Many of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mixed conifer stands in the Methow Valley of north-central Washington have developed understories of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga rnenziesii) as a result of fire exclusion. Most of the forest floor has not yet become cluttered with dead woody fuel. Instead, the live biomass has increased and...

  9. Impact of prescribed fire on understory and forest floor nutrients

    Walter A. Hough

    1981-01-01

    The impact of low-intensity prescribed fires on slash pine/saw-palmetto/gallberry understory and forest floor nutrients was estimated from measurements before and after burning. Highly significant correlations existed between weight loss of these fuel components and the weight loss of several elements. Energy loss was also highly correlated with forestfloor and...

  10. Managing composition of piedmont forests with prescribed fire

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Native Americans used frequent burning of forests in the South's Piedmont to maintain pine-dominated stands, to favor oak regeneration over other hardwoods, and to keep understories open. From 1950 to 1990, fire occurred rarely in the region, resulting in a gradual replacement of pines with hardwoods. More recently, however, prescribed burning has been used much...

  11. Dynamic analysis and pattern visualization of forest fires.

    PubMed

    Lopes, António M; Tenreiro Machado, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns.

  12. Dynamic Analysis and Pattern Visualization of Forest Fires

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

  13. Fire history in a southern Appalachian deciduous forest

    Norman L., Jr. Christensen; Kurt Fesenmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Because there are few long-term dendrochronological and lake sediment data for the southern Appalachians, little is known regarding the history of fire in this region's forests through the Holocene. Radio-carbon ages for 82 soil charcoal samples collected from local depositional sites along a topographic gradient from mixed hardwood (Liriodendron...

  14. Post-Disturbance Plant Community Dynamics following a Rare Natural-Origin Fire in a Tsuga canadensis Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Bryan D.; Holmes, Stacie A.; Webster, Christopher R.; Witt, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000–3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species. PMID:22928044

  15. [Forest fire risk assessment for China under different climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao Rui; Dai, Xuan; Wang, Ming Yu; Zhao, Feng Jun; Shu, Li Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest fire risk depends on the hazard factors, affected body, and hazard prevention and reduction ability. The integrated risk assessment is the foundation for developing scientific fire mana-gement policies and carrying out the forest fire prevention measures. A forest fire risk assessment model and index system were established based on the classic natural disaster risk model and available data, and the model was used to assess the forest fire risks in past and future. The future climate scenario data included outputs from five global climate models (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM and NorESM1-M) for RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5, respectively. Each component index of Fire Weather Index (FWI) system was calculated daily for each grid in 1987-2050 for the historical observations and future climate scenarios according to the maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, wind speed and daily precipitation. The results showed that areas with high and very high fire danger ratings in 1987-2010 accounted for 21.2% and 6.2%, respectively, which were distributed in Greater Xing'an Mountains and the Changbai Mountain area, most parts of Yunnan, and many fragment areas in southern China. The areas with high and very high burn possibilities were mainly distributed in the northeast and southwest region, accounting for 13.1% and 4.0%, respectively. Compared with the observation period, the areas with high and very high fire danger ratings in 2021-2050 would increase by 0.6%, 5.5%, 2.3%, and 3.5% under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5 respectively, and North China would show significant increase. The regions with high-risk forest fires would also increase due to climate change, with the most significant increase under RCP 8.5 scenario (+1.6%).

  16. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural forest succession and fire history

    G. E. Gruell; W. C. Schmidt; S. F. Arno; W. J. Reich

    1999-01-01

    “Succession” is the term applied to a change or sequence of vegetation on a given site through time following disturbance. For example, a succession of plant communities that follows clearcutting with broadcast burning of slash might be (1) grass-forb, (2) shrubfield, (3) saplings and shrubs, (4) pole-size trees, (5) mature forest, and (6) old-growth forest. Succession...

  18. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010–2019), mid (2050–2059), and late (2090–2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8–48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink. PMID:28046079

  19. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    PubMed

    Hurteau, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019), mid (2050-2059), and late (2090-2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  20. Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  1. Aeolian Dust and Forest Fire Smoke in Urban Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2006-12-01

    Particles of aeolian dust and forest fire smoke are now regularly detected in urban air. Although dusts are common on the Asian Pacific Rim and forest fire smoke characteristic of South East Asia they also frequently detected elsewhere. In the past dust was treated as though it was fairly inert and reactions on the surface limited to the neutralizing ability of alkaline minerals. More recent work shows that that dust has a complex organic chemistry. Observations in China found fatty acids from urban areas (oleic acid and linoleic acid from cooking) on dust derived aerosols. The fatty acids and PAHs decreased sharply after dust storms, suggesting a role for dust in removal processes. When silica particles absorb unsaturated compounds they can react with ozone and release compounds such as formaldehyde. Particles from forest fires have a similarly complex chemistry and the acid-alkaline balance may vary depend on the balance of removal rates of alkaline materials (ammonia, potassium carbonate) and inorganic and organic acids. Airborne dust and forest fire soot can contain humic like substances (HULIS) either as primary material or as secondary oxidation products of the surface of soot. This paper will report on the role polluted air masses in the generation humic materials, particularly those that are surface active. These materials of high molecular weight oxygen rich organic compounds, which exhibit a range of properties of importance in aerosols: they can form complexes with metal ions and thus enhance their solubility, photosensitize the oxidation of organic compounds and lower the surface tension of aqueous aerosols. HULIS can be oxidized to form a range of simpler acids such as formic, acetic and oxalic acid. Dust and forest fire smoke particles have a different composition and size range to that of typical urban combustion particles, so it is likely that the health impacts will be different, yet current regulation often does not recognize any significant

  2. A feasibility study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Martin, T. Z.; Warren, J.

    1983-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service completed a feasibility study that examined the potential uses of advanced technology in forest fires mapping and detection. The current and future (1990's) information needs in forest fire management were determined through interviews. Analysis shows that integrated information gathering and processing is needed. The emerging technologies that were surveyed and identified as possible candidates for use in an end to end system include ""push broom'' sensor arrays, automatic georeferencing, satellite communication links, near real or real time image processing, and data integration. Matching the user requirements and the technologies yielded a ""strawman'' system configuration. The feasibility study recommends and outlines the implementation of the next phase for this project, a two year, conceptual design phase to define a system that warrants continued development.

  3. Impact of a drier Early-Mid-Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Mayle, Francis E; Power, Mitchell J

    2008-05-27

    This paper uses a palaeoecological approach to examine the impact of drier climatic conditions of the Early-Mid-Holocene (ca 8000-4000 years ago) upon Amazonia's forests and their fire regimes. Palaeovegetation (pollen data) and palaeofire (charcoal) records are synthesized from 20 sites within the present tropical forest biome, and the underlying causes of any emergent patterns or changes are explored by reference to independent palaeoclimate data and present-day patterns of precipitation, forest cover and fire activity across Amazonia. During the Early-Mid-Holocene, Andean cloud forest taxa were replaced by lowland tree taxa as the cloud base rose while lowland ecotonal areas, which are presently covered by evergreen rainforest, were instead dominated by savannahs and/or semi-deciduous dry forests. Elsewhere in the Amazon Basin there is considerable spatial and temporal variation in patterns of vegetation disturbance and fire, which probably reflects the complex heterogeneous patterns in precipitation and seasonality across the basin, and the interactions between climate change, drought- and fire susceptibility of the forests, and Palaeo-Indian land use. Our analysis shows that the forest biome in most parts of Amazonia appears to have been remarkably resilient to climatic conditions significantly drier than those of today, despite widespread evidence of forest burning. Only in ecotonal areas is there evidence of biome replacement in the Holocene. From this palaeoecological perspective, we argue against the Amazon forest 'dieback' scenario simulated for the future.

  4. Pattern and process of prescribed fires influence effectiveness at reducing wildfire severity in dry coniferous forests

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of three early season (spring) prescribed fires on burn severity patterns of summer wildfires that occurred 1–3 years post-treatment in a mixed conifer forest in central Idaho. Wildfire and prescribed fire burn severities were estimated as the difference in normalized burn ratio (dNBR) using Landsat imagery. We used GIS derived vegetation, topography, and treatment variables to generate models predicting the wildfire burn severity of 1286–5500 30-m pixels within and around treated areas. We found that wildfire severity was significantly lower in treated areas than in untreated areas and significantly lower than the potential wildfire severity of the treated areas had treatments not been implemented. At the pixel level, wildfire severity was best predicted by an interaction between prescribed fire severity, topographic moisture, heat load, and pre-fire vegetation volume. Prescribed fire severity and vegetation volume were the most influential predictors. Prescribed fire severity, and its influence on wildfire severity, was highest in relatively warm and dry locations, which were able to burn under spring conditions. In contrast, wildfire severity peaked in cooler, more mesic locations that dried later in the summer and supported greater vegetation volume. We found considerable evidence that prescribed fires have landscape-level influences within treatment boundaries; most notable was an interaction between distance from the prescribed fire perimeter and distance from treated patch edges, which explained up to 66% of the variation in wildfire severity. Early season prescribed fires may not directly target the locations most at risk of high severity wildfire, but proximity of these areas to treated patches and the discontinuity of fuels following treatment may influence wildfire severity and explain how even low severity treatments can be effective management tools in fire-prone landscapes.

  5. Spatio-temporal evolution of forest fires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mário G.; Parente, Joana

    2017-04-01

    A key issue in fire management is the ability to explore and try to predict where and when fires are more likely to occur. This information can be useful to understand the triggering factors of ignitions and for planning strategies to reduce forest fires, to manage the sources of ignition and to identify areas and frame period at risk. Therefore, producing maps displaying forest fires location and their occurrence in time can be of great help for accurately forecasting these hazardous events. In a fire prone country as Portugal, where thousands of events occurs each year, it is involved to drive information about fires over densities and recurrences just by looking at the original arrangement of the mapped ignition points or burnt areas. In this respect, statistical methods originally developed for spatio-temporal stochastic point processes can be employed to find a structure within these large datasets. In the present study, the authors propose an approach to analyze and visualize the evolution in space and in time of forest fires occurred in Portugal during a long frame period (1990 - 2013). Data came from the Portuguese mapped burnt areas official geodatabase (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests), which is the result of interpreted satellite measurements. The following statistical analyses were performed: the geographically-weighted summary statistics, to analyze the local variability of the average burned area; the space-time Kernel density, to elaborate smoothed density surfaces representing over densities of fires classed by size and on North vs South region. Finally, we emploied the volume rendering thecnique to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of these events into a unique map: this representation allows visually inspecting areas and time-step more affected from a high aggregation of forest fires. It results that during the whole investigated period over densities are mainly located in the northern regions, while in the

  6. Soil carbon in Australian fire-prone forests determined by climate more than fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Robert; Bradstock, Ross; Bedward, Michael; Morrison, R John

    2018-10-15

    Knowledge of global C cycle implications from changes to fire regime and climate are of growing importance. Studies on the role of the fire regime in combination with climate change on soil C pools are lacking. We used Bayesian modelling to estimate the soil % total C (% C Tot ) and % recalcitrant pyrogenic C (% RPC) from field samples collected using a stratified sampling approach. These observations were derived from the following scenarios: 1. Three fire frequencies across three distinctive climate regions in a homogeneous dry sclerophyll forest in south-eastern Australia over four decades. 2. The effects of different fire intensity combinations from successive wildfires. We found climate had a stronger effect than fire frequency on the size of the estimated mineral soil C pool. The largest soil C pool was estimated to occur under a wet and cold (WC) climate, via presumed effects of high precipitation, an adequate growing season temperature (i.e. resulting in relatively high NPP) and winter conditions sufficiently cold to retard seasonal soil respiration rates. The smallest soil C pool was estimated in forests with lower precipitation but warmer mean annual temperature (MAT). The lower precipitation and higher temperature was likely to have retarded NPP and litter decomposition rates but may have had little effect on relative soil respiration. Small effects associated with fire frequency were found, but both their magnitude and direction were climate dependent. There was an increase in soil C associated with a low intensity fire being followed by a high intensity fire. For both fire frequency and intensity the response of % RPC mirrored that of % C Tot : i.e. it was effectively a constant across all combinations of climate and fire regimes sampled. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Atmospheric turbulence observations in the vicinity of surface fires in forested environments

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi Bian; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; John L. Hom; Michael R. Gallagher

    2017-01-01

    Ambient and fire-induced atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of wildland fires can affect the behavior of those fires and the dispersion of smoke. The presence of forest overstory vegetation can further complicate the evolution of local turbulence regimes and their interaction with spreading fires and smoke plumes. Previous observational studies of wildland fire...

  8. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  9. Numerical study of propagation of forest fires in the presence of fire breaks using an averaged setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzaeva, S. I.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    The forest fires spread in the pine forests have been numerically simulated using a three-dimensional mathematical model. The model was integrated with respect to the vertical coordinate because horizontal sizes of forest are much greater than the heights of trees. In this paper, the assignment and theoretical investigations of the problems of crown forest fires spread pass the firebreaks were carried out. In this context, a study ( mathematical modeling) of the conditions of forest fire spreading that would make it possible to obtain a detailed picture of the change in the temperature and component concentration fields with time, and determine as well as the limiting condition of fire propagation in forest with these fire breaks.

  10. Multi-scale controls of historical forest-fire regimes: new insights from fire-scar networks

    Donald A. Falk; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Peter M. Brown; Calvin Farris; Peter Z. Fule; Donald McKenzie; Thomas W. Swetnam; Alan H. Taylor; Megan L. Van Horne

    2011-01-01

    Anticipating future forest-fire regimes under changing climate requires that scientists and natural resource managers understand the factors that control fire across space and time. Fire scars—proxy records of fires, formed in the growth rings of long-lived trees—provide an annually accurate window into past low-severity fire regimes. In western North America, networks...

  11. Post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean pine forest with historically low fire frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhk, Constanze; Götzenberger, Lars; Wesche, Karsten; Gómez, Pedro Sánchez; Hensen, Isabell

    2006-11-01

    Species of Mediterranean vegetation are known to regenerate directly after fire. The phenomenon of autosuccession (direct regeneration) has been found to be often combined with an increase of species richness during the first years after fire due to the high abundance of short-lived herbaceous plants facilitated by plentiful nutrients and light. The high degree of vegetation resilience, which is expressed in terms of autosuccession, has been explained by the selective pressure of fire in historic times. According to existing palaeoecological data, however, the Pinus halepensis forests in the Ricote Mountains (Province of Murcia, SE Spain) did not experience substantial fire impact before the presence of man nor are they especially fire-prone today. Therefore, we studied post-fire regeneration to find out if direct succession is present or if species from pre-fire vegetation are absent during the post-fire regeneration stages. Patterns of succession were deduced from observations made in sample plots on sites of a known regeneration age as well as in adjacent unburnt areas. The results of the vegetation analyses, including a Detrended Correspondence Analysis, indicate that Pinus halepensis forest regeneration after fire resembles autosuccession. As regards the presence of woody species, there is a high percentage similarity on north (83%) and south (70%) facing slopes during the first year after fire vs. reference areas which is due, for example, to direct regeneration of the resprouting Quercus coccifera or seeders like Pinus halepensis or Fumana laevipes. However, if herbaceous species are included in the comparison, the similarity on north-facing sites decreases (to 53%) with the presence of additional species, mainly ruderals like Anagallis arvensis or Reseda phyteuma, and even woody species on the burnt plots. This effect indicates "enhanced autosuccession", which was not found on south-facing sites where overall species richness was very high irrespective of

  12. The Fire and Fire Surrogates Study: Providing guidelines for fire in future forest watershed management decisions

    Carleton B. Edminster; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    As part of the 1998 Joint USDA/USDI Fire Science Program, the Fire and Fire Surrogates Study was proposed to establish and evaluate cross-comparisons of fuels treatment practices and techniques to reduce wildfire risk. This study evaluates prescribed fire, thinning, and various mechanical treatment methods for treating, removing, or using woody biomass. Site-specific...

  13. Longleaf pine adaptation to fire: is early height growth pattern critical to fire survival?

    G. Geoff Wang; Lauren S. Pile; Benjamin O. Knapp; Huifeng Hu

    2016-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are fire-dependent ecosystems because frequent surface fires prevent other species from being recruited into the canopy. The successful recruitment of longleaf pine has been attributed mainly to its unique fire adaptation – the grass stage. It is commonly believed that, while in the grass stage, longleaf pine seedlings...

  14. Fire exclusion as a disturbance in the temperate forests of the USA: examples from longleaf pine forests

    W. Keith Moser; Dale D. Wade

    2005-01-01

    Forest fires are a disturbance where the effects can range from benign to extreme devastation within a given ecosystem. The stage of stand development coupled with prior management dictates the amount and composition of potential fuels. Thus, fire policy exerts a strong influence on fire effects. Changes in cultural acceptance and use of tire typically drive fire...

  15. Prioritizing forest fuels treatments based on the probability of high-severity fire restores adaptive capacity in Sierran forests

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Matthew D. Hurteau; Robert M. Scheller; E. Louise Loudermilk

    2017-01-01

    In frequent fire forests of the western United States, a legacy of fire suppression coupled with increases in fire weather severity have altered fire regimes and vegetation dynamics. When coupled with projected climate change, these conditions have the potential to lead to vegetation type change and altered carbon (C) dynamics. In the Sierra Nevada, fuels...

  16. Fire on the early western landscape: An annotated record of wildland fires 1776-1900

    George E. Gruell

    1985-01-01

    Scientific and historical literature was searched for documented accounts of early fires in the '"interior West" - Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and eastern Oregon. One hundred and forty-five accounts of fires by 44 observers were found. The majority of accounts described fires in progress. A smaller proportion referred to burned areas...

  17. Forest Fires and Post - Fire Regeneration in Algeria Analysis with Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian forests are characterized by a particularly flammable material and fuel. The wind, the relief and the slope facilitates the propagation of fire. The use of remote sensing data multi-­dates, combined with other types of data of various kinds on the environment and forest burned, opens up interesting perspectives for the management of post-­fire regeneration. In this study the use of multi-­temporal remote sensing image Alsat-­1 and Landsat combined with other types of data concerning both background and burned down forest appears to be promising in evaluating and spatial and temporal effects of post fire regeneration. A spatial analysis taking into consideration the characteristics of the burned down site in the North West of Algeria, allowed to better account new factors to explain the regeneration and its temporal and spatial variation. We intended to show the potential use of remote sensing data from satellite ALSAT-­1, of spatial resolution of 32 m. . This approach allows showing the contribution of the data of Algerian satellite ALSAT in the detection and the well attended some forest fires in Algeria.

  18. Forest fuels, prescribed fire, and air quality

    J. Alfred Hall

    1972-01-01

    The combustion products (smoke) from forest wildfires or prescribed burns are often considered on a par with any other emission that might affect air quality. But enough is known about smoke from woody fuels to indicate that its importance is limited almost entirely to visibility obstruction, an effect that can be minimized by proper timing and preparation for burning...

  19. Multi-season climate synchronized forest fires throughout the 20th century, Northern Rockies, USA

    Penelope Morgan; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Carly E. Gibson

    2008-01-01

    We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12 070 086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the...

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of fire temperatures from prescribed fires in the mixed oak forests of southern Ohio

    Louis R. Iverson; Daniel Yaussy; Joanne Rebbeck; Todd Hutchinson; Robert Long; Brian McCarthy; Cynthia Riccardi; Anantha Prasad

    2003-01-01

    Prescribed surface fires are being investigated, in conjunction with thinning, as silvicultural tools for assisting in the regeneration of mixed oak forests in the Central Hardwoods Region. Fires were conducted on 2001 March 28 and 2001 April 4-5, respectively, at the Tar Hollow (TAR) and Zaleski (ZAL) State Forests, and at the Raccoon Ecological Management Area (REMA...

  1. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  2. A study of forest fire danger district division in Lushan Mountain based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jinxiang; Huang, Shu-E.; Zhong, Anjian; Zhu, Biqin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Lijun

    2009-09-01

    The study selected 9 factors, average maximum temperature, average temperature, average precipitation, average the longest days of continuous drought and average wind speed during fire prevention period, vegetation type, altitude, slope and aspect as the index of forest fire danger district division, which has taken the features of Lushan Mountain's forest fire history into consideration, then assigned subjective weights to each factor according to their sensitivity to fire or their fire-inducing capability. By remote sensing and GIS, vegetation information layer were gotten from Landsat TM image and DEM with a scale of 1:50000 was abstracted from the digital scanned relief map. Topography info. (elevation, slope, aspect) layers could be gotten after that. A climate resource databank that contained the data from the stations of Lushan Mountain and other nearby 7 stations was built up and extrapolated through the way of grid extrapolation in order to make the distribution map of climate resource. Finally synthetical district division maps were made by weighing and integrating all the single factor special layers,and the study area were divided into three forest fire danger district, include special fire danger district, I-fire danger district and II-fire danger district. It could be used as a basis for developing a forest fire prevention system, preparing the annual investment plan, allocating reasonably the investment of fire prevention, developing the program of forest fire prevention and handle, setting up forest fire brigade, leaders' decisions on forest fire prevention work.

  3. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Morton, D. C.; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; Collatz, G. J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km2 between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  4. Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Instituto de Meteorologia (IM). The main objective of this work is to analyze for possible relations between the PRFD and the Portuguese lightning database for the 2003 and 2005 extreme fire seasons. In particularly we were able to verify the forest fires labeled as "ignited by lightning" by comparing its location to the lightning discharges location database. Furthermore we have also investigated possible fire ignition by lightning discharges that have not yet been labeled in the PRFD by comparing daily data from both datasets.

  5. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.

    PubMed

    Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire

  6. Fire, Carbon and Climate Change in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannigan, M. D.; Amiro, B. D.; Logan, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Disturbances are the major stand-renewing agents for much of the circumboreal forest. In Canada, fire has received much of the attention in carbon cycle science because it affects about 3 million ha of Canadian forest annually, impacts air quality, and can threaten life, property and infrastructure. Fire affects the carbon balance through three processes. First, carbon and other greenhouse gases are emitted to the atmosphere during the combustion process. We estimate this to average about 27 Tg C/year in Canada over the past 40 years, which is close to 20% of industrial carbon emissions. However, in some years this can exceed 100 Tg C. Efforts are underway to estimate global fire activity and greenhouse gas emissions using observations, remote sensing and modelling. The second process is the decomposition of fire-killed vegetation. This forms a pool of coarse woody debris that can take decades to decompose, or can be quite rapid, depending on the post-fire environment. The third process is succession of vegetation following fire, a dynamic process that involves the interplay among species establishment and competition. Weather and climate affects all of these processes. Estimates of the future environment indicate that much of boreal Canada will experience warmer and drier conditions, although there will be regional differences and transient effects. The projections suggest that we may experience a doubling of area burned over the next century because of anthropogenic climate changes. This may have further implications to the global carbon budget by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This increase in fire activity may lead to a positive feedback cycle with the increased release of greenhouse gases. A run-away scenario is unlikely because young successional boreal vegetation often does not burn as readily and would limit the positive feedback cycle. Also, changes to the forest composition following fire increases surface albedo and alters the

  7. Fires in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest: Testing the Varying Constraints Hypothesis across a Regional Rainfall Gradient.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandita; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    The "varying constraints hypothesis" of fire in natural ecosystems postulates that the extent of fire in an ecosystem would differ according to the relative contribution of fuel load and fuel moisture available, factors that vary globally along a spatial gradient of climatic conditions. We examined if the globally widespread seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) can be placed as a single entity in this framework by analyzing environmental influences on fire extent in a structurally diverse SDTF landscape in the Western Ghats of southern India, representative of similar forests in monsoonal south and southeast Asia. We used logistic regression to model fire extent with factors that represent fuel load and fuel moisture at two levels-the overall landscape and within four defined moisture regimes (between 700 and1700 mm yr-1)-using a dataset of area burnt and seasonal rainfall from 1990 to 2010. The landscape scale model showed that the extent of fire in a given year within this SDTF is dependent on the combined interaction of seasonal rainfall and extent burnt the previous year. Within individual moisture regimes the relative contribution of these factors to the annual extent burnt varied-early dry season rainfall (i.e., fuel moisture) was the predominant factor in the wettest regime, while wet season rainfall (i.e., fuel load) had a large influence on fire extent in the driest regime. Thus, the diverse structural vegetation types associated with SDTFs across a wide range of rainfall regimes would have to be examined at finer regional or local scales to understand the specific environmental drivers of fire. Our results could be extended to investigating fire-climate relationships in STDFs of monsoonal Asia.

  8. Fires in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest: Testing the Varying Constraints Hypothesis across a Regional Rainfall Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nandita; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    The “varying constraints hypothesis” of fire in natural ecosystems postulates that the extent of fire in an ecosystem would differ according to the relative contribution of fuel load and fuel moisture available, factors that vary globally along a spatial gradient of climatic conditions. We examined if the globally widespread seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) can be placed as a single entity in this framework by analyzing environmental influences on fire extent in a structurally diverse SDTF landscape in the Western Ghats of southern India, representative of similar forests in monsoonal south and southeast Asia. We used logistic regression to model fire extent with factors that represent fuel load and fuel moisture at two levels—the overall landscape and within four defined moisture regimes (between 700 and1700 mm yr-1)—using a dataset of area burnt and seasonal rainfall from 1990 to 2010. The landscape scale model showed that the extent of fire in a given year within this SDTF is dependent on the combined interaction of seasonal rainfall and extent burnt the previous year. Within individual moisture regimes the relative contribution of these factors to the annual extent burnt varied—early dry season rainfall (i.e., fuel moisture) was the predominant factor in the wettest regime, while wet season rainfall (i.e., fuel load) had a large influence on fire extent in the driest regime. Thus, the diverse structural vegetation types associated with SDTFs across a wide range of rainfall regimes would have to be examined at finer regional or local scales to understand the specific environmental drivers of fire. Our results could be extended to investigating fire-climate relationships in STDFs of monsoonal Asia. PMID:27441689

  9. Observations of fire-induced turbulence regimes during low-intensity wildland fires in forested environments: implications for smoke dispersion

    Warren E. Heilman; Craig B. Clements; Daisuke Seto; Xindi Bian; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; John L. Hom

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity wildland fires occurring beneath forest canopies can result in particularly adverse local air-quality conditions. Ambient and fire-induced turbulent circulations play a substantial role in the transport and dispersion of smoke during these fire events. Recent in situ measurements of fire–atmosphere interactions during low-...

  10. Gis-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Forest Fire Risk Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, A. E.; Erdoğan, A.

    2017-11-01

    The forested areas along the coastal zone of the Mediterranean region in Turkey are classified as first-degree fire sensitive areas. Forest fires are major environmental disaster that affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems. Besides, forest fires result in important economic losses and even threaten human lives. Thus, it is critical to determine the forested areas with fire risks and thereby minimize the damages on forest resources by taking necessary precaution measures in these areas. The risk of forest fire can be assessed based on various factors such as forest vegetation structures (tree species, crown closure, tree stage), topographic features (slope and aspect), and climatic parameters (temperature, wind). In this study, GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method was used to generate forest fire risk map. The study was implemented in the forested areas within Yayla Forest Enterprise Chiefs at Dursunbey Forest Enterprise Directorate which is classified as first degree fire sensitive area. In the solution process, "extAhp 2.0" plug-in running Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in ArcGIS 10.4.1 was used to categorize study area under five fire risk classes: extreme risk, high risk, moderate risk, and low risk. The results indicated that 23.81 % of the area was of extreme risk, while 25.81 % was of high risk. The result indicated that the most effective criterion was tree species, followed by tree stages. The aspect had the least effective criterion on forest fire risk. It was revealed that GIS techniques integrated with MCDA methods are effective tools to quickly estimate forest fire risk at low cost. The integration of these factors into GIS can be very useful to determine forested areas with high fire risk and also to plan forestry management after fire.

  11. Prediction of forest fires occurrences with area-level Poisson mixed models.

    PubMed

    Boubeta, Miguel; Lombardía, María José; Marey-Pérez, Manuel Francisco; Morales, Domingo

    2015-05-01

    The number of fires in forest areas of Galicia (north-west of Spain) during the summer period is quite high. Local authorities are interested in analyzing the factors that explain this phenomenon. Poisson regression models are good tools for describing and predicting the number of fires per forest areas. This work employs area-level Poisson mixed models for treating real data about fires in forest areas. A parametric bootstrap method is applied for estimating the mean squared errors of fires predictors. The developed methodology and software are applied to a real data set of fires in forest areas of Galicia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests

    Harden, J.W.; Mack, M.; Veldhuis, H.; Gower, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

  13. Bispectral infrared forest fire detection and analysis using classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Jose M.; Melendez, Juan; de Castro, Antonio J.; Lopez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Infrared cameras are well established as a useful tool for fire detection, but their use for quantitative forest fire measurements faces difficulties, due to the complex spatial and spectral structure of fires. In this work it is shown that some of these difficulties can be overcome by applying classification techniques, a standard tool for the analysis of satellite multispectral images, to bi-spectral images of fires. Images were acquired by two cameras that operate in the medium infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. They provide simultaneous and co-registered images, calibrated in brightness temperatures. The MIR-TIR scatterplot of these images can be used to classify the scene into different fire regions (background, ashes, and several ember and flame regions). It is shown that classification makes possible to obtain quantitative measurements of physical fire parameters like rate of spread, embers temperature, and radiated power in the MIR and TIR bands. An estimation of total radiated power and heat release per unit area is also made and compared with values derived from heat of combustion and fuel consumption.

  14. Changing spatial patterns of stand-replacing fire in California conifer forests

    Jens T. Stevens; Brandon M. Collins; Jay D. Miller; Malcolm P. North; Scott L. Stephens

    2017-01-01

    Stand-replacing fire has profound ecological impacts in conifer forests, yet there is continued uncertainty over how best to describe the scale of stand-replacing effects within individual fires, and how these effects are changing over time. In forests where regeneration following stand-replacing fire depends on seed dispersal from surviving trees, the size and shape...

  15. Climate change, forests, fire, water, and fish: Building resilient landscapes, streams, and managers

    Charles Luce; Penny Morgan; Kathleen Dwire; Daniel Isaak; Zachary Holden; Bruce Rieman

    2012-01-01

    Fire will play an important role in shaping forest and stream ecosystems as the climate changes. Historic observations show increased dryness accompanying more widespread fire and forest die-off. These events punctuate gradual changes to ecosystems and sometimes generate stepwise changes in ecosystems. Climate vulnerability assessments need to account for fire in their...

  16. A presettlement fire history in an oak-pine forest near Basin Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    Fire scars from natural remnants of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in an oak-pine forest near Basin Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario, were dated using dendrochronological methods. A fire scar chronology was constructed from 28 dated fire scars on 26 pine remnants found in a 1 km2 area of this forest. From pith and outside ring...

  17. A review of the relationships between drought and forest fire in the United States

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Karin L. Riley; Yongqiang Liu; Charlie H. Luce

    2016-01-01

    The historical and presettlement relationships between drought and wildfire are well documented in North America, with forest fire occurrence and area clearly increasing in response to drought. There is also evidence that drought interacts with other controls (forest productivity, topography, fire weather, management activities) to affect fire intensity,...

  18. Effects of fire season on vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests

    Bryan T. Mudder; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; J. Drew Lanham; Ralph Costa

    2010-01-01

    Forest managers in the Southeastern United States are interested in the restoration of not only longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) trees, but also the characteristic forest structure and ground-layer vegetation of the longleaf pine ecosystem. Season of burn, fire intensity, and fire frequency are critical components of a fire regime that supports...

  19. Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests

    B.W. Butler; R.D. Ottmar; T.S. Rupp; R. Jandt; E. Miller; K. Howard; R. Schmoll; S. Theisen; R.E. Vihnanek; D. Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical (e.g., shearblading) and manual (e.g., thinning) fuel treatments have become the preferred strategy of many fire managers and agencies for reducing fire hazard in boreal forests. This study attempts to characterize the effectiveness of four fuel treatments through direct measurement of fire intensity and forest floor consumption during a single prescribed...

  20. The enigmatic fire regime of coast redwood forests and why it matters

    J. Morgan Varner; Erik S. Jules

    2017-01-01

    Of perhaps all forests in North America, the fire regime of coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) is most enigmatic. Widely considered a temperate rainforest, a large number of fire history studies depict a forest dominated by frequent surface fire regimes. Coast redwood also has a long list of traits that allow it to persist and...

  1. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on... statement for the continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands... 26667, Salt Lake City, UT 84126-0667. Comments may also be sent via e- mail to Fire[email protected

  2. Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change

    Mark W. Schwartz; Nathalie Butt; Christopher R. Dolanc; Andrew Holguin; Max A. Moritz; Malcolm P. North; Hugh D. Safford; Nathan L. Stephenson; James H. Thorne; Phillip J. van Mantgem

    2015-01-01

    Fire in high-elevation forest ecosystems can have severe impacts on forest structure, function and biodiversity. Using a 105-year data set, we found increasing elevation extent of fires in the Sierra Nevada, and pose five hypotheses to explain this pattern. Beyond the recognized pattern of increasing fire frequency in the Sierra Nevada since the late 20th century, we...

  3. Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting.

    PubMed

    Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G

    2015-01-01

    Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front.

  4. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  5. Targeting Forest Management through Fire and Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2013-04-01

    Forests deliver a number of ecosystem services, including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing and quantity of runoff can be altered, and the quality can be severely degraded. A modeling study for about 1500 km2 in the Upper Mokelumne River Watershed in California was conducted to determine the risk of wildfire and the associated potential sediment delivery should a wildfire occur, and to calculate the potential reduction in sediment delivery that might result from fuel reduction treatments. The first step was to predict wildfire severity and probability of occurrence under current vegetation conditions with FlamMap fire prediction tool. FlamMap uses current vegetation, topography, and wind characteristics to predict the speed, flame length, and direction of a simulated flame front for each 30-m pixel. As the first step in the erosion modeling, a geospatial interface for the WEPP model (GeoWEPP) was used to delineate approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons for the study area. The flame length values from FlamMap were then aggregated for each hillslope polygon to yield a predicted fire intensity. Fire intensity and pre-fire vegetation conditions were used to estimate fire severity (either unburned, low, moderate or high). The fire severity was combined with soil properties from the STATSGO database to build the vegetation and soil files needed to run WEPP for each polygon. Eight different stochastic climates were generated to account for the weather variability within the basin. A modified batching version of GeoWEPP was used to predict the first-year post-fire sediment yield from each hillslope and subwatershed. Estimated sediment yields ranged from 0 to more than 100 Mg/ha, and were typical of observed values. The polygons that generated the greatest amount of sediment or that were critical for reducing fire spread were identified, and these were "treated" by reducing the amount of fuel available for a wildfire. The erosion associated with

  6. Lightning and forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountain region

    H. T. Gisborne

    1926-01-01

    During the past 18 years lightning has caused 39 per cent of the forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountain district, which includes Montana, northern Idaho, and a small portion of northeastern Washington. For the seasons of 1924 and 1925 the figures are 51 per cent and 80 per cent, respectively. As long as such conditions prevail it should be of decided value to know...

  7. Fire in Siberian boreal forests -- implications for global climate and air quality

    Eduard P. Davidenko

    1998-01-01

    Boreal forests and woodlands comprise about 29 percent of the world's forest cover. About 70 percent of this forest is in Eurasia, mostly in the Russian Federation. Boreal forests contain about 45 percent of the world's growing stock and are an increasingly important part of global timber production. Fire impacts large areas of boreal forest annually in...

  8. Post-fire comparisons of forest floor and soil carbon, nitrogen, and mercury pools with fire severity indices

    Randy Kolka; Brian Sturtevant; Philip Townsend; Jessica Miesel; Peter Wolter; Shawn Fraver; Tom DeSutter

    2014-01-01

    Forest fires are important contributors of C, N, and Hg to the atmosphere. In the fall of 2011, a large wildfire occurred in northern Minnesota and we were able to quickly access the area to sample the forest floor and mineral soil for C, N, and Hg pools. When compared with unburned reference soils, the mean loss of C resulting from fire in the forest floor and the...

  9. Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Harvey, Neal R.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Theiler, James P.; Perkins, Simon J.; Young, Aaron C.; Szymanski, John J.

    2001-08-01

    Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence of extensive natural and man-made hazards. These conditions forced a reliance on remote sensing techniques for mapping and classifying the burn region. During and after the fire, remote-sensing data was acquired from a variety of aircraft-based and satellite-based sensors, including Landsat 7. We now report on the application of a machine learning technique, implemented in a software package called GENIE, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details of this automatic classification are compared to the manually produced burn classification, which was derived from field observations and manual interpretation of high-resolution aerial color/infrared photography.

  10. Landscape fragmentation, severe drought, and the new Amazon forest fire regime.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Ane A; Brando, Paulo M; Asner, Gregory P; Putz, Francis E

    2015-09-01

    Changes in weather and land use are transforming the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes in Amazonia, with important effects on the functioning of dense (i.e., closed-canopy), open-canopy, and transitional forests across the Basin. To quantify, document, and describe the characteristics and recent changes in forest fire regimes, we sampled 6 million ha of these three representative forests of the eastern and southern edges of the Amazon using 24 years (1983-2007) of satellite-derived annual forest fire scar maps and 16 years of monthly hot pixel information (1992-2007). Our results reveal that changes in forest fire regime properties differentially affected these three forest types in terms of area burned and fire scar size, frequency, and seasonality. During the study period, forest fires burned 15% (0.3 million ha), 44% (1 million ha), and 46% (0.6 million ha) of dense, open, and transitional forests, respectively. Total forest area burned and fire scar size tended to increase over time (even in years of average rainfall in open canopy and transitional forests). In dense forests, most of the temporal variability in fire regime properties was linked to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related droughts. Compared with dense forests, transitional and open forests experienced fires twice as frequently, with at least 20% of these forests' areas burning two or more times during the 24-year study period. Open and transitional forests also experienced higher deforestation rates than dense forests. During drier years, the end of the dry season was delayed by about a month, which resulted in larger burn scars and increases in overall area burned later in the season. These observations suggest that climate-mediated forest flammability is enhanced by landscape fragmentation caused by deforestation, as observed for open and transitional forests in the Eastern portion of the Amazon Basin.

  11. Reintroducing fire into a ponderosa pine forest with and without cattle grazing: understory vegetation response

    Becky K. Kerns; Michelle Buonopane; Walter G. Thies; Christine. Niwa

    2011-01-01

    Reestablishing historical fire regimes is a high priority for North American coniferous forests, particularly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. These forests are also used extensively for cattle (Bos spp.) grazing. Prescribed fires are being applied on or planned for millions of hectares of these forests to reduce...

  12. Role of fire in restoration of a ponderosa pine forest, Washington

    Richy J. Harrod; Richard W. Fonda; Mara K. McGrath

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests in the Eastern Cascades of Washington support dense, overstocked stands in which crown fires are probable, owing to postsettlement sheep grazing, logging, and fire exclusion. In 1991, the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests began to apply long-term management techniques to reverse postsettlement changes in ponderosa pine forests. For 9 years, the...

  13. Defining old growth for fire-adapted forests of the Western United States

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Daniel Binkley; Peter Z. Fule; Johnson Marlin; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2007-01-01

    There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1) forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup-plant succession-that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees...

  14. Carbon tradeoffs of restoration and provision of endangered species habitat in a fire-maintained forest

    Katherine L. Martin; Matthew D. Hurteau; Bruce A. Hungate; George W. Koch; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle and are increasingly viewed as tools for mitigating climate change. Natural disturbances, such as fire, can reduce carbon storage. However, many forests and dependent species evolved with frequent fire as an integral ecosystem process. We used a landscape forest simulation model to evaluate the effects of...

  15. The effects of forest fires on the stand history of New Jersey's pine region

    S. Little

    1946-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the effects of forest fires in the Pine Region of New Jersey. It is not the result of any one research project, but the combined result of research and observations. Its purpose is to acquaint foresters and others having some knowledge of forestry and conservation with the importance of forest fires and the part they have...

  16. Shrub seed banks in mixed conifer forests of northern California and the role of fire in regulating abundance

    Eric E. Knapp; Phillip C. Weatherspoon; Carl N. Skinner

    2012-01-01

    Understory shrubs play important ecological roles in forests of the western US, but they can also impede early tree growth and lead to fire hazard concerns when very dense. Some of the more common genera (Ceanothus, Arctostaphylos, and Prunus) persist for long periods in the seed bank, even in areas where plants have been...

  17. Avian response to fire in pine–oak forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park following decades of fire suppression

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Fire suppression in southern Appalachian pine–oak forests during the past century dramatically altered the bird community. Fire return intervals decreased, resulting in local extirpation or population declines of many bird species adapted to post-fire plant communities. Within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, declines have been strongest for birds inhabiting xeric pine–oak forests that depend on frequent fire. The buildup of fuels after decades of fire suppression led to changes in the 1996 Great Smoky Mountains Fire Management Plan. Although fire return intervals remain well below historic levels, management changes have helped increase the amount of fire within the park over the past 20 years, providing an opportunity to study patterns of fire severity, time since burn, and bird occurrence. We combined avian point counts in burned and unburned areas with remote sensing indices of fire severity to infer temporal changes in bird occurrence for up to 28 years following fire. Using hierarchical linear models that account for the possibility of a species presence at a site when no individuals are detected, we developed occurrence models for 24 species: 13 occurred more frequently in burned areas, 2 occurred less frequently, and 9 showed no significant difference between burned and unburned areas. Within burned areas, the top models for each species included fire severity, time since burn, or both, suggesting that fire influenced patterns of species occurrence for all 24 species. Our findings suggest that no single fire management strategy will suit all species. To capture peak occupancy for the entire bird community within xeric pine–oak forests, at least 3 fire regimes may be necessary; one applying frequent low severity fire, another using infrequent low severity fire, and a third using infrequently applied high severity fire.

  18. Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in U.S. fire-prone forests.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Joseph B; Kennedy, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Management in fire-prone ecosystems relies widely upon application of prescribed fire and/or fire surrogate (e.g., forest thinning) treatments to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Recently, published literature examining wildlife response to fire and fire management has increased rapidly. However, none of this literature has been synthesized quantitatively, precluding assessment of consistent patterns of wildlife response among treatment types. Using meta-analysis, we examined the scientific literature on vertebrate demographic responses to burn severity (low/moderate, high), fire surrogates (forest thinning), and fire and fire surrogate combined treatments in the most extensively studied fire-prone, forested biome (forests of the United States). Effect sizes (magnitude of response) and their 95% confidence limits (response consistency) were estimated for each species-by-treatment combination with two or more observations. We found 41 studies of 119 bird and 17 small-mammal species that examined short-term responses (< or =4 years) to thinning, low/moderate- and high-severity fire, and thinning plus prescribed fire; data on other taxa and at longer time scales were too sparse to permit quantitative assessment. At the stand scale (<50 ha), thinning and low/moderate-severity fire demonstrated similar response patterns in these forests. Combined thinning plus prescribed fire produced a higher percentage of positive responses. High-severity fire provoked stronger responses, with a majority of species possessing higher or lower effect sizes relative to fires of lower severity. In the short term and at fine spatial scales, fire surrogate forest-thinning treatments appear to effectively mimic low/moderate-severity fire, whereas low/moderate-severity fire is not a substitute for high-severity fire. The varied response of taxa to each of the four conditions considered makes it clear that the full range of fire-based disturbances (or their surrogates) is

  19. Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests

    Scott L. Stephens; Jason J. Moghaddas; Carl Edminster; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Michael Harrington; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James D. McIver; Kerry Metlen; Carl N. Skinner; Andrew Youngblood

    2009-01-01

    Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to...

  20. Boreal ditched forest and peatland are more vulnerable to forest fire than unditched areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Granath, Gustav; Landahl, Anna; Fölster, Jens

    2016-04-01

    During summer of 2014 the largest wildfire in Swedish modern history occurred. The fire was ignited in a forest close to the Swedish town Sala and incinerated a total of 14 000 ha. The frequency of wildfires is expected to increase, due to effects of climate change such as increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the summer months. Wildfires can have a considerable impact on aquatic ecosystems and previous studies of wildfires have shown elevated concentrations of nutrients, cat- and anions. The area of the fire mainly consists of forestland, peatland and lakes and has been affected by acidification and intensive forestry. To assess the fire severity and the effects on the water chemistry, the fire severity were analyzed and classified using aerial phtographs and high resolution LIDAR data. The analysis indicated that increased fire intensity caused increased fire severity and that drained forested areas were more vulnerable to fire than undrained peatland. Measurements of water chemistry were conducted at nine streams and ten lakes inside the affected area. At two sites sensors for multiple parameters were deployed. During the initial three months of the post-fire period large peaks of ammonia-N and sulphate were observed in the streams and in a majority of the lakes while DOC was suppressed. In one stream Gärsjöbäcken the median concentrations of ammonia-N were 79 times higher after the fire. Due to nitrification the elevated concentrations of ammonia-N-nitrogen caused elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen. The initial peak of sulphate caused a drop in ANC but after the peak had past ANC increased due to elevated concentrations of base cations. Correlation analysis of fire severity and water chemistry indicated that the maximum concentrations of ammonia-N increased with severely burned canopies in drained forested peatlands and in scorched open peatland. In a future climate with increased dry spells extensive ditching operations in

  1. Linking complex forest fuel structure and fire behavior at fine scales

    EL Loudermilk; Joseph O' Brien; RJ Mitchell; JK Hiers; WP Cropper; S Grunwald; J Grego; J Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Improved fire management of savannas and open woodlands requires better understanding of the fundamental connection between fuel heterogeneity, variation in fire behaviour and the influence of fire variation on vegetation feedbacks. In this study, we introduce a novel approach to predicting fire behaviour at the submetre scale, including measurements of forest...

  2. Fire in Ghana's dry forest: Causes, frequency, effects and management interventions

    Sandra Opoku Agyemang; Michael Muller; Victor Rex Barnes

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the number of fires, area burned, causes and seasonality of fires over a ten year period from 2002-2012 and investigates different fire management strategies and their effectiveness in the Afram headwaters forest reserve in Ghana. Data were collected from interviews of stakeholders in two communities adjacent to the reserve, and from 2002-2012 fire...

  3. Soil, fire, water, and wind: how the elements conspire in the forest context

    Ralph E.J. Boerner

    2006-01-01

    Reviews our current understanding of the impact of fires typical of eastern oak forests on soil properties, soil organisms, and water quality. Most oak ecosystem fires are dormant-season fires whose intensity falls at the low end of the range of wildland fires. Direct heating of the mineral soil generally is minor except where accumulations of woody debris smolder for...

  4. Fire frequency effects on fuel loadings in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province

    Francisco J. Escobedo; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Florentino Garza

    2001-01-01

    Loadings of downed woody fuels in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province are heavier on sites in southeastern Arizona with low fire frequencies and lower on sites in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, with high fire frequencies. Low fire frequencies in southeastern Arizona are attributed largely to past land uses and the fire suppression policies of land management...

  5. Madrean pine-oak forest in Arizona: altered fire regimes, altered communities

    Andrew M. Barton

    2005-01-01

    In Madrean pine-oak forests in the Chiricahua Mountains, surface fire favors pines, which exhibit high top-survival, but resprouting allows oaks to rebound during inter-fire periods. These patterns plus age structure and radial growth data suggest that frequent presettlement surface fire maintained open stands, promoted a high pine:oak ratio, and excluded less fire...

  6. FireWorks curriculum featuring ponderosa, lodgepole, and whitebark pine forests

    Jane Kapler Smith; Nancy E. McMurray

    2000-01-01

    FireWorks is an educational program for students in grades 1-10. The program consists of the curriculum in this report and a trunk of laboratory materials, specimens, and reference materials. It provides interactive, hands-on activities for studying fire ecology, fire behavior, and the influences of people on three fire-dependent forest types - Pinus ponderosa...

  7. High-severity fire: Evaluating its key drivers and mapping its probability across western US forests

    Sean A. Parks; Lisa M. Holsinger; Matthew H. Panunto; W. Matt Jolly; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Gregory K. Dillon

    2018-01-01

    Wildland fire is a critical process in forests of the western United States (US). Variation in fire behavior, which is heavily influenced by fuel loading, terrain, weather, and vegetation type, leads to heterogeneity in fire severity across landscapes. The relative influence of these factors in driving fire severity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we explore the...

  8. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: implications for weeds and vegetation structure

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2012-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or helispots) potentially causes both short- and longterm...

  9. Aerial wildland firefighting resources in fire suppression activities: an example USDA Forest Service

    A. González-Cabán

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires are a significant social problem affecting millions of people worldwide and causing major economic impacts at all levels. In the US, the severe fires of 1910 in Idaho and Montana galvanized a fire policy excluding fire from the ecosystem by the U.S.Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS). Fire management policy changed in 1935, 1978,1995, and 2001....

  10. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  11. Evaluation of the composite burn index for assessing fire severity in Alaskan black spruce forests

    Eric S. Kasischke; Merritt R. Turetsky; Roger D. Ottmar; Nancy H.F. French; Elizabeth E. Hoy; Evan S. Kane

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of the composite burn index (CBI) for estimating fire severity in Alaskan black spruce forests by comparing data from 81 plots located in 2004 and 2005 fire events. We collected data to estimate the CBI and quantify crown damage, percentage of trees standing after the fire, depth of the organic layer remaining after the fire, depth of burning...

  12. Fire and vegetation dynamics in the Cross Timbers forests of south-central North America

    Steve W. Hallgren; Ryan D. DeSantis; Jesse A. Burton

    2012-01-01

    The vegetation of the Cross Timbers forests was maintained for thousands of years by fire; the historic fire return interval was likely 1 to 10 years. Fire suppression over the past century led to a doubling of stand basal area, increased diversity of tree species, reduced dominance of oak, and increased mesic species intolerant of fire. Dendrochronological studies...

  13. Satellite Analysis of the Severe 1987 Forest Fires in Northern China and Southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  14. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  15. Increment-borer methods for determining fire history in coniferous forests

    Stephen W. Barrett; Stephen F. Arno

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of increment borers for interpreting fire history in coniferous forests. These methods are intended for use in wildernesses, parks, and other natural areas where sawing cross-sections from fire-scarred trees is prohibited.

  16. Effects of periodic fire on composition and long-term dynamics of Arkansas upland hardwood forests

    Martin A. Spetich

    2005-01-01

    Prescribed fire (at historic periodic fire frequencies) is seen as an important but little understood tool in the assortment of management techniques that could help restore oak to Arkansas upland hardwood forests and facilitate the maintenance of these keystone species.

  17. Ten-Year Analysis of the Forest Fire Smoke in the Russian Far East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-25

    factor when we monitor the environmental pollution by wide distribution of fire smoke. We examined the relation among the forest fire, smoke, and precipitation, and showed the importance role of precipitation.

  18. Quantifying black carbon deposition over the Greenland ice sheet from forest fires in Canada: BC DEPOSITION FROM FOREST FIRES

    SciT

    Thomas, J. L.; Polashenski, C. M.; Soja, A. J.

    We identify an important Black Carbon (BC) aerosol deposition event that was observed in snow stratigraphy and dated to between 27 July 2013 – 2 August 2013. This event comprises a significant portion (~60%) of total deposition over a 10 month period (July 2013 – April 2014). Here we link this event to forest fires burning in Canada during summer 2013 using modeling and remote sensing tools. Aerosols were detected by both the CALIOP and MODIS instruments during transport between Canada and Greenland, confirming that this event involved emissions from forest fires in Canada. We use high-resolution regional chemical transportmore » mod-eling (WRF-Chem) combined with high-resolution fire emissions (FINNv1.5) to study aerosol emissions, transport, and deposition during this event. The model accurately captures the timing of the BC deposition event and shows that the major contribution to deposition during this event is emissions originating from fires in Canada. However, the model under-predicts aerosol deposition compared to measurements at all sites by a factor of 2–100. Under-prediction of modeled BC deposition originates from uncertainties in fire emissions combined with uncertainties in aerosol scavenging by clouds. This study suggests that it is possible to describe the transport of an exceptional smoke event on regional and continental scales. Improvements in model descriptions of precipitation scavenging and emissions from wildfires are needed to correctly predict deposition, which is critical for determining the climate impacts of aerosols that originate from fires.« less

  19. Fire history of Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Lewis and Clark National Forest

    Stephen W. Barrett

    1993-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia) forests in the northern Rocky Mountains have experienced substantial variation in presettlement fire patterns (Arno 1976, Sneck 1977, Arno 1980, Romme 1982, Romme and Despain 1989, Barrett and Arno 1991, Barrett et a1. 1991, Barrett [in prep]). On relatively productive habitat types at lower elevations, short- to...

  20. Fire regimes approaching historic norms reduce wildfire-facilitated conversion from forest to non-forest

    Ryan B. Walker; Jonathan D. Coop; Sean A. Parks; Laura Trader

    2018-01-01

    Extensive high-severity wildfires have driven major losses of ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests in the southwestern United States, in some settings catalyzing enduring conversions to nonforested vegetation types. Management interventions to reduce the probability of stand-replacing wildfire have included mechanical fuel treatments, prescribed fire, and wildfire...

  1. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR

    Ruiliang Pu; Zhanqing Li; Peng Gong; Ivan Csiszar; Robert Fraser; Wei-Min Hao; Shobha Kondragunta; Fuzhong Weng

    2007-01-01

    Fires in boreal and temperate forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have been surveyed extensively by U.S. and Canadian forest services, most fire records are limited to seasonal statistics without information on temporal evolution and spatial expansion. Such dynamic information is crucial for modeling fire...

  2. Summer moisture of forest fire fuels in Oregon and Washington in 1948 and previous years.

    William G. Morris

    1948-01-01

    The forest fire season of 1948 in Oregon and Washington was regarded by fire suppression agencies as the most favorable for many years. The number of fires started and area burned were, in general, less than for many years. On the national forests the number of fires was the least since 1912 and the acreage burned was the least ever recorded. Was this primarily due to...

  3. Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests

    Wood, S.A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.B.; McGuire, A.D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

  4. Fuel Treatment Effects on Water Use Efficiency in Western Pine Forests Under Fire Suppression Evaluated Using Tree Ring Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Belmecheri, S.; Harris, L. B.

    2016-12-01

    We identified variation on water use efficiency interpreted from carbon 13 in tree ring cellulose in dense ponderosa pines forests in Washington and Arizona. Historically, these forests burned every decade until fires were suppressed beginning in the early twentieth century. The reduction in fire caused large increases in forest density and forest biomass and potential for intense fire. Forests with hazardous fuels are common in the western United States and these types of forests are treated with mechanical thinning and mechanical thinning and burning to reduce hazardous fuels and fire intensity. At each site we extracted tree ring samples from five trees in each treatment type and a control to identify the effects of fuel treatment of concentration of carbon 13 in tree ring cellulose. Water use efficiency as measured by carbon 13 increased after fuel treatments. Treatment effects were larger for the mechanical plus burn treatment than for the mechanical treatment in each study area compared to the control stands Our results suggest that fuel treatments reduce sensitivity of tree growth to climate and increase water use efficiency. Since tree ring carbon 13 is related to plant productivity, carbon 13 in tree rings can be used as a metric of change in ecosystem function for evaluating fuel treatments.

  5. The Ring of Fire: The Effects of Slope upon Pattern Formation in Simulated Forest Fire Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillo, Robin; Manz, Niklas

    We report about spreading fire fronts under sloped conditions using the general cellular automaton model and data from physical scaled-down experiments. Punckt et al. published experimental and computational results for planar systems and our preliminary results confirmed the expected speed-slope dependence of fire fronts propagating up or down the hill with a cut-off slope value above which no fire front can exist. Here we focus on two fascinating structures in reaction-diffusion systems: circular expanding target pattern and rotating spirals. We investigated the behaviors of both structures with varied values for the slope of the forest and the homogeneity of the trees. For both variables, a range of values was found for which target pattern or spiral formation was possible.

  6. Initial tree regeneration responses to fire and thinning treatments in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, USA

    Harold S.J. Zald; Andrew N. Gray; Malcolm North; Ruth A. Kern

    2008-01-01

    Fire is a driver of ecosystem patterns and processes in forests globally, but natural fire regimes have often been altered by decades of active fire management. Following almost a century of fire suppression, many Western U.S. forests have greater fuel levels, higher tree densities, and are now dominated by fire-sensitive, shade-tolerant species. These fuel-loaded...

  7. A dendrochronology based fire history of Jeffry pine-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

    Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

    2003-01-01

    Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were...

  8. Sensor data monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Thanos, Konstantinos Georgios; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the sensor monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection which has been developed in the context of the AF3 Advanced Forest Fire Fighting European FP7 research project, adopted specifically in the OCULUS-Fire control and command system and tested during a firefighting field test in Greece with prescribed real fire, generating early-warning detection alerts and notifications. For this purpose and in order to improve the reliability of the fire detection system, a two-level fusion scheme is developed exploiting a variety of observation solutions from air e.g. UAV infrared cameras, ground e.g. meteorological and atmospheric sensors and ancillary sources e.g. public information channels, citizens smartphone applications and social media. In the first level, a change point detection technique is applied to detect changes in the mean value of each measured parameter by the ground sensors such as temperature, humidity and CO2 and then the Rate-of-Rise of each changed parameter is calculated. In the second level the fire event Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function is determined for each ground sensor using Fuzzy-logic theory and then the corresponding mass values are combined in a decision level fusion process using Evidential Reasoning theory to estimate the final fire event probability.

  9. Do one percent of the forest fires cause ninety-nine percent of the damage? Forest Science

    David Strauss; Larry Bednar; Romain Mees

    1989-01-01

    A relatively small number of forest fires are responsible for a very high proportion of the total damage. The proportion due to the fraction p of largest fires, when plotted against p, is a measure of variability of fire sizes that is especially sensitive to the important extreme events. We find the theoretical form of the plot for several commonly used distributions...

  10. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  11. Changes to Cretaceous surface fire behaviour influenced the spread of the early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Hudspith, Victoria A

    2017-02-01

    Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour. Variations in ignition, driven by weedy angiosperms alone, were found to have been a less important feedback to changes in Cretaceous fire activity than previously estimated. Our model estimates suggest that fires in shrub and fern understories had significantly greater fireline intensities than those fuelled by conifer litter or weedy angiosperms, and whilst fern understories supported the most rapid fire spread, angiosperm shrubs delivered the largest amount of heat per unit area. The higher fireline intensities predicted by the models led to estimates of enhanced scorch of the gymnosperm canopy and a greater chance of transitioning to crown fires. Therefore, changes in fire behaviour driven by the addition of new Cretaceous fuel groups may have assisted the angiosperm expansion. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G; McIntire, Eliot J B

    2017-01-01

    Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly overestimate the

  13. PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

  14. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  15. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  16. Improving the Interoperability of Disaster Models: a Case Study of Proposing Fireml for Forest Fire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Wang, F.; Meng, Q.; Li, Z.; Liu, B.; Zheng, X.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a new standardized data format named Fire Markup Language (FireML), extended by the Geography Markup Language (GML) of OGC, to elaborate upon the fire hazard model. The proposed FireML is able to standardize the input and output documents of a fire model for effectively communicating with different disaster management systems to ensure a good interoperability. To demonstrate the usage of FireML and testify its feasibility, an adopted forest fire spread model being compatible with FireML is described. And a 3DGIS disaster management system is developed to simulate the dynamic procedure of forest fire spread with the defined FireML documents. The proposed approach will enlighten ones who work on other disaster models' standardization work.

  17. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G.; McIntire, Eliot J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly overestimate the

  18. Comparing Effects of Climate Warming, Fire, and Timber Harvesting on a Boreal Forest Landscape in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaona; He, Hong S.; Wu, Zhiwei; Liang, Yu; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Forest management under a changing climate requires assessing the effects of climate warming and disturbance on the composition, age structure, and spatial patterns of tree species. We investigated these effects on a boreal forest in northeastern China using a factorial experimental design and simulation modeling. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model (LANDIS) to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: climate (current and expected future), fire regime (current and increased fire), and timber harvesting (no harvest and legal harvest). Simulations indicate that this forested landscape would be significantly impacted under a changing climate. Climate warming would significantly increase the abundance of most trees, especially broadleaf species (aspen, poplar, and willow). However, climate warming would have less impact on the abundance of conifers, diversity of forest age structure, and variation in spatial landscape structure than burning and harvesting. Burning was the predominant influence in the abundance of conifers except larch and the abundance of trees in mid-stage. Harvesting impacts were greatest for the abundance of larch and birch, and the abundance of trees during establishment stage (1–40 years), early stage (41–80 years) and old- growth stage (>180 years). Disturbance by timber harvesting and burning may significantly alter forest ecosystem dynamics by increasing forest fragmentation and decreasing forest diversity. Results from the simulations provide insight into the long term management of this boreal forest. PMID:23573209

  19. Comparing effects of climate warming, fire, and timber harvesting on a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaona; He, Hong S; Wu, Zhiwei; Liang, Yu; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    Forest management under a changing climate requires assessing the effects of climate warming and disturbance on the composition, age structure, and spatial patterns of tree species. We investigated these effects on a boreal forest in northeastern China using a factorial experimental design and simulation modeling. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model (LANDIS) to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: climate (current and expected future), fire regime (current and increased fire), and timber harvesting (no harvest and legal harvest). Simulations indicate that this forested landscape would be significantly impacted under a changing climate. Climate warming would significantly increase the abundance of most trees, especially broadleaf species (aspen, poplar, and willow). However, climate warming would have less impact on the abundance of conifers, diversity of forest age structure, and variation in spatial landscape structure than burning and harvesting. Burning was the predominant influence in the abundance of conifers except larch and the abundance of trees in mid-stage. Harvesting impacts were greatest for the abundance of larch and birch, and the abundance of trees during establishment stage (1-40 years), early stage (41-80 years) and old- growth stage (>180 years). Disturbance by timber harvesting and burning may significantly alter forest ecosystem dynamics by increasing forest fragmentation and decreasing forest diversity. Results from the simulations provide insight into the long term management of this boreal forest.

  20. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Cardoso Pereira, José Miguel; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change - Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 - projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4-28 times more forest in 2080-2100 than during 1990-2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9-5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  1. Mixed-severity fire fosters heterogeneous spatial patterns of conifer regeneration in a dry conifer forest

    Sparkle L. Malone; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mike A. Battaglia; Marin E. Chambers; Jose M. Iniguez; Carolyn H. Sieg

    2018-01-01

    We examined spatial patterns of post-fire regenerating conifers in a Colorado, USA, dry conifer forest 11-12 years following the reintroduction of mixed-severity fire. We mapped and measured all post-fire regenerating conifers, as well as all other post-fire regenerating trees and all residual (i.e., surviving) trees, in three 4-ha plots following the 2002 Hayman Fire...

  2. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  3. Management of forest fires to maximize carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forests

    SciT

    Guggenheim, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines opportunities for applying prescribed burning strategies to forest stands to enhance net carbon sequestration and compared prescribed burning strategies with more conventional forestry-based climate change mitigation alternatives, including fire suppression and afforestation. Biomass burning is a major contributor to greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. Biomass burning has increased by 50% since 1850. Since 1977, the annual extent of burning in the northern temperate and boreal forests has increased dramatically, from six- to nine-fold. Long-term suppression of fires in North America, Russia, and other parts of the world has led to accumulated fuel load and an increasemore » in the destructive power of wildfires. Prescribed burning has been used successfully to reduce the destructiveness of wildfires. However, across vast areas of Russia and other regions, prescribed burning is not a component of forest management practices. Given these factors and the sheer size of the temperate-boreal carbon sink, increasing attention is being focused on the role of these forests in mitigating climate change, and the role of fire management strategies, such as prescribed burning, which could work alongside more conventional forestry-based greenhouse gas offset strategies, such as afforestation.« less

  4. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Forests, people, fire: Integrating the sciences to build capacity for an “All Lands” approach to forest restoration

    Marie Oliver; Susan Charnley; Thomas Spies; Jeff Kline; Eric White

    2017-01-01

    Interest in landscape-scale approaches to fire management and forest restoration is growing with the realization that these approaches are critical to maintaining healthy forests and protecting nearby communities. However, coordinated planning and action across multiple ownerships have been elusive because of differing goals and forest management styles among...

  6. Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests

    Stephens, S.L.; Moghaddas, J.J.; Edminster, C.; Fiedler, C.E.; Haase, S.; Harrington, M.; Keeley, J.E.; Knapp, E.E.; Mciver, J.D.; Metlen, K.; Skinner, C.N.; Youngblood, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we report the effects of Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) forest stand treatments on fuel load profiles, potential fire behavior, and fire severity under three weather scenarios from six western U.S. FFS sites. This replicated, multisite experiment provides a framework for drawing broad generalizations about the effectiveness of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments on surface fuel loads, forest structure, and potential fire severity. Mechanical treatments without fire resulted in combined 1-, 10-, and 100-hour surface fuel loads that were significantly greater than controls at three of five FFS sites. Canopy cover was significantly lower than controls at three of five FFS sites with mechanical-only treatments and at all five FFS sites with the mechanical plus burning treatment; fire-only treatments reduced canopy cover at only one site. For the combined treatment of mechanical plus fire, all five FFS sites with this treatment had a substantially lower likelihood of passive crown fire as indicated by the very high torching indices. FFS sites that experienced significant increases in 1-, 10-, and 100-hour combined surface fuel loads utilized harvest systems that left all activity fuels within experimental units. When mechanical treatments were followed by prescribed burning or pile burning, they were the most effective treatment for reducing crown fire potential and predicted tree mortality because of low surface fuel loads and increased vertical and horizontal canopy separation. Results indicate that mechanical plus fire, fire-only, and mechanical

  7. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  8. Fire-induced Carbon Emissions and Regrowth Uptake in Western U.S. Forests: Documenting Variation Across Forest Types, Fire Severity, and Climate Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, George James; Vanderhoof, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The forest area in the western United States that burns annually is increasing with warmer temperatures, more frequent droughts, and higher fuel densities. Studies that examine fire effects for regional carbon balances have tended to either focus on individual fires as examples or adopt generalizations without considering how forest type, fire severity, and regional climate influence carbon legacies. This study provides a more detailed characterization of fire effects and quantifies the full carbon impacts in relation to direct emissions, slow release of fire-killed biomass, and net carbon uptake from forest regrowth. We find important variations in fire-induced mortality and combustion across carbon pools (leaf, live wood, dead wood, litter, and duff) and across low- to high-severity classes. This corresponds to fire-induced direct emissions from 1984 to 2008 averaging 4 TgC/yr and biomass killed averaging 10.5 TgC/yr, with average burn area of 2723 sq km/yr across the western United States. These direct emission and biomass killed rates were 1.4 and 3.7 times higher, respectively, for high-severity fires than those for low-severity fires. The results show that forest regrowth varies greatly by forest type and with severity and that these factors impose a sustained carbon uptake legacy. The western U.S. fires between 1984 and 2008 imposed a net source of 12.3 TgC/yr in 2008, accounting for both direct fire emissions (9.5 TgC/yr) and heterotrophic decomposition of fire-killed biomass (6.1 TgC yr1) as well as contemporary regrowth sinks (3.3 TgC/yr). A sizeable trend exists toward increasing emissions as a larger area burns annually.

  9. Forest fires caused by lightning activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Benali, Akli; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe have been causing in the last decades extensive economic and ecological losses and, even human casualties (e.g. Pereira et al., 2011). According to statistics provided by the EC-JRC European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) for Europe, the years of 2003 and 2007 represent the most dramatic fire seasons since the beginning of the millennium, followed by the years 2005 and 2012. These extreme years registered total annual burned areas for Europe of over 600.000 ha, reaching 800.000 ha in 2003. Over Iberia and France, the exceptional fire seasons registered in 2003 and 2005 were coincident respectively with one of the most severe heatwaves (Bastos et al., 2014) and droughts of the 20th century (Gouveia et al., 2009). On the other hand, the year 2007 was very peculiar as the area of the Peloponnese was struck by a severe winter drought followed by a subsequent wet spring, being also stricken by three heat heaves during summer and played a major role increasing the susceptibility of the region to wildfires (Gouveia et al., 2016). Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by natural factors such as lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia. In contrast, Mediterranean countries such as Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant uncertainties remain for the triggering mechanism for the majority of fires registered in the catalog, since they were cataloged without a likely cause. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2002-2009, with the original data provided by the National forestry Authority; 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Portuguese Institute for Sea

  10. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  11. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    PubMed

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e.g., time-since-fire effects) is influenced by other fire regime attributes and (2) the severity of the most recent fire overrides the effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Empirical data on vegetation structure were collected from 540 sites distributed across central and eastern Victoria, Australia. Linear mixed models were used to examine these hypotheses and determine the relative influence of fire and environmental attributes on vegetation structure. Fire history measures, particularly time since fire, affected several vegetation attributes including ground and canopy strata; others such as low and sub-canopy vegetation were more strongly influenced by environmental characteristics like rainfall. There was little support for the hypothesis that post-fire succession is influenced by fire history attributes other than time since fire; only canopy regeneration was influenced by another variable (fire type, representing severity). Our capacity to detect an overriding effect of the severity of the most recent fire was limited by a consistently weak effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Overall, results suggest the primary way that fire affects vegetation structure in foothill forests is via attributes of the most recent fire, both its severity and time since its occurrence; other attributes of fire regimes (e.g., fire interval, frequency) have less influence. The strong effect of environmental drivers, such as rainfall and

  12. Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  13. Alaska’s changing fire regime - Implications for the vulnerability of its boreal forests

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Verbyla, David L.; Rupp, T. Scott; McGuire, A. David; Murphy, Karen A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, Paul A.; Calef, Monika; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska’s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha·year–1 burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from human-ignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska’s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska’s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  14. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado

    Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire...

  15. Synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in Southern California

    Chenjie Huang; Y.L. Lin; M.L. Kaplan; Joseph J.J. Charney

    2009-01-01

    This study has employed both observational data and numerical simulation results to diagnose the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in southern California. A three-stage process is proposed to illustrate the coupling of the synoptic-scale forcing that is evident from the observations,...

  16. Engaging communities in post-fire restoration: forest treatments and community-agency relations after the Cerro Grande fire

    Robert L. Ryan; Elisabeth M. Hamin

    2006-01-01

    Our research provides advice to managers in their work in post-fire forest rehabilitation based on focus groups and interviews in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, community after the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. We address two key issues: how different restoration efforts compare to natural revegetation from the public?s perspective, and how to effectively communicate with...

  17. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor

  18. Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and in so doing can mitigate the effects of climate change. Fire is a natural disturbance process in many forest systems that releases carbon back to the atmosphere. In dry temperate forests, fires historically burned with greater frequency and lower severity than they do today. Frequent fires consumed fuels on the forest floor and maintained open stand structures. Fire suppression has resulted in increased understory fuel loads and tree density; a change in structure that has caused a shift from low- to high-severity fires. More severe fires, resulting in greater tree mortality, have caused a decrease in forest carbon stability. Fire management actions can mitigate the risk of high-severity fires, but these actions often require a trade-off between maximizing carbon stocks and carbon stability. We discuss the effects of fire on forest carbon stocks and recommend that managing forests on the basis of their specific ecologies should be the foremost goal, with carbon sequestration being an ancillary benefit. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory tract deposition efficiencies: evaluation of effects from smoke released in the Cerro Grande forest fire.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Aden, J; Scott, B R

    2002-01-01

    Forest-fire smoke inhaled by humans can cause various health effects. This smoke contains toxic chemicals and naturally occurring radionuclides. In northern New Mexico, a large wildfire occurred in May 2000. Known as the Cerro Grande Fire, it devastated the town of Los Alamos and damaged Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Residents were concerned about the possible dissemination of radionuclides from LANL via smoke from the fire. To evaluate potential health effects of inhaling radionuclides contained in the smoke from the Cerro Grande Fire, it was first necessary to evaluate how much smoke would deposit in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory-tract deposition efficiencies of airborne forest-fire smoke for persons of different ages exposed while inside their homes. Potential non-radiological health effects of a forest fire are reviewed. The deposition efficiencies presented can be used to evaluate in-home smoke deposition in the respiratory tract and expected radionuclide intake related to forest fires. The impact of smoke exposure on firemen fighting a forest fire is quantitatively discussed and compared. They primarily inhaled forest-fire smoke while outdoors where the smoke concentration was much higher than inside. Radionuclides released at the LANL site via the Cerro Grande Fire were restricted to naturally occurring radionuclides from burning trees and vegetation. Radiation doses from inhaled airborne radionuclides to individuals inside and outside the Los Alamos area were likely very small.

  20. Response of northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to prescribed fires in eastern Kentucky forests

    Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox; Luke E. Dodd; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire is becoming a common management tool for restoring forests of North America; however, effects of prescribed fire on forest-dwelling bats remain unclear. During 2006 and 2007, we monitored prey availability, diet, foraging behavior, and roost selection of adult female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) before and after 2 prescribed...

  1. Civic Ecology Education and Resilient Societies: A Survey of Forest Fires in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaspiliou, Konstantina; Skanavis, Constantina; Giannoulis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Forest fires, as all natural disasters, have the potential to seriously affect both the environment and the social structure of a local community. Unlike some of the natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornados and tsunamis which are unpredictable, the phenomenon of forest fires could be easily predicted and controlled, since the causes are…

  2. The fire research program at the Silas Little Experimental Forest, New Lisbon, New Jersey

    Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Michael Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we document the development and current research efforts of the fire research program at the Silas Little Experimental Forest of the Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey. The 450,000-ha (1.1 million-acre) Pinelands National Reserve contains some of the most challenging fuel types for wildland fire...

  3. Drainage and Agriculture Impacts onf Fire Frequency in a Southern Illinois Forested Bottomland.

    John L. Nelson; Charles M. Ruffner; John W. Groninger; Ray A. Souter

    2008-01-01

    Postsettlement (1909–2003) fire history of a forested bottomland in the Mississippi Embayment of southern Illinois, USA, was determined using fire-scar analysis. The study area is a forested bottomland hardwood site, with remnant pockets of the dominant presettlement bald cypress – tupelo (1919, with agricultural clearing and abandonment varying throughout the...

  4. Kanawha State Forest, WV: Wildland fire fuel load assessment and geospatial distribution

    Adele Fenwick; Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy

    2014-01-01

    Fire has become a major concern along the wildland-urban interface (WUI), and there is increased awareness that fires could result in serious damage to people and property in residential areas occurring in forested landscapes. Part of the long-term strategy the West Virginia Division of Forestry outlined in the 2010 West Virginia Statewide Forest Resource Assessment...

  5. Multicentury fire and forest histories at 19 sites in Utah and eastern Nevada

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Peter M. Brown; Stanley G. Kitchen; Marc H. Weber

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to provide site-specific fire and forest histories from Utah and eastern Nevada that can be used for land management or additional research. We systematically sampled fire scars and tree-recruitment dates across broad gradients in elevation and forest type at 13 sites in Utah and 1 in eastern Nevada to characterize spatial and temporal variation in...

  6. Modeling relationships among 217 fires using remote sensing of burn severity in southern pine forests

    Sparkle L. Malone; Leda N. Kobziar; Christina L. Staudhammer; Amr Abd-Elrahman

    2011-01-01

    Pine flatwoods forests in the southeastern US have experienced severe wildfires over the past few decades, often attributed to fuel load build-up. These forest communities are fire dependent and require regular burning for ecosystem maintenance and health. Although prescribed fire has been used to reduce wildfire risk and maintain ecosystem integrity, managers are...

  7. Effects of multiple fires on the structure of southwestern Washington forests

    Andrew N. Gray; Jerry F. Franklin

    1997-01-01

    Fire frequcncy, intensity, and size can influence the nature of forest development, with potentially profound effects on ecosystem processes and the abundance of native species. The effect of an intense wildfire and subsequent severe fires within a short period (reburns) on forest establishment, composition, and structure was examined in the 16,000 ha Siouxon Creek...

  8. Effects of Prescribed Fire on Live Trees and Snags in Eastside Pine Forests in California

    William F. Laudenslayer

    1997-01-01

    Snags are important to forests because they contribute to the developinent, maintenance, and productivity of' soils and provide habitat for an array of life fornls. Historically, fire has played an irnportant role in shaping the composition and structure of many forests in the western IJnited States and fire is now being reintroduced to restore the natural process...

  9. Forest fires and smoke - impacts on air quality and human health in the USA

    Charles K. McMahon

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. Scientific and regulatory interest in the air quality impacts of forest fire smoke (both prescribed and wildfires) followed the implementation of the 1970 Clean Air Act amendments. Attention on forest fires became more focused as a series of new amendments were enacted to protect the air quality and visibility of "natural" areas...

  10. A synoptic climatology for forest fires in the NE US and future implications for GCM simulations

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; Yiqiang Wu; J.Y. Zhu

    1994-01-01

    We studied surface-pressure patterns corresponding to reduced precipitation, high evaporation potential, and enhanced forest-fire danger for West Virginia, which experienced extensive forest-fire damage in November 1987. From five years of daily weather maps we identified eight weather patterns that describe distinctive flow situations throughout the year. Map patterns...

  11. A five-year record of lightning storms and forest fires

    H. T. Gisborne

    1931-01-01

    According to the records compiled by the supervisors of the national forests in the northern Rocky Mountain region, lightning has been responsible for a greater number of fires, more burned area, more damage, and more expense of suppression in this territory than all other causes of forest fires combined. Smokers, campers, brush burners, incendiarists, lumbering...

  12. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LiDAR in Amazonia

    Luciane Sato; Vitor Gomes; Yosio Shimabukuro; Michael Keller; Egidio Arai; Maiza dos-Santos; Irving Brown; Luiz Aragão

    2016-01-01

    Fire is one of the main factors directly impacting Amazonian forest biomass and dynamics. Because of Amazonia’s large geographical extent, remote sensing techniques are required for comprehensively assessing forest fire impacts at the landscape level. In this context, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) stands out as a technology capable of retrieving direct...

  13. Drought, tree mortality, and wildfire in forests adapted to frequent fire

    Scott L Stephens; Brandon M Collins; Christopher J Fettig; Mark A Finney; Chad M Hoffman; Eric E Knapp; Malcolm P North; Hugh Safford; Rebecca B Wayman

    2018-01-01

    Massive tree mortality has occurred rapidly in frequent-fire-adapted forests of the Sierra Nevada, California. This mortality is a product of acute drought compounded by the long-established removal of a key ecosystem process: frequent, low- to moderate-intensity fire. The recent tree mortality has many implications for the future of these forests and the ecological...

  14. Prescribed fire applications: Restoring ecological structure and process in ponderosa pine forests

    Michael G. Harrington

    1996-01-01

    The decision to include the fire process as part of a restoration treatment for a particular forest site is most logically made in conjunction with the decision for a silvicultural treatment. In other words, forest managers do not typically wait to visually or quantitatively evaluate the post harvest site before deciding whether or not to apply fire. Each phase of the...

  15. Joint simulation of regional areas burned in Canadian forest fires: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach

    Steen Magnussen

    2009-01-01

    Areas burned annually in 29 Canadian forest fire regions show a patchy and irregular correlation structure that significantly influences the distribution of annual totals for Canada and for groups of regions. A binary Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) is constructed for the purpose of joint simulation of regional areas burned in forest fires. For each year the MCMC...

  16. An overview of the fire and fuels extension to the forest vegetation simulator

    Sarah J. Beukema; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Werner A. Kurz; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2000-01-01

    The Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) has been developed to assess the risk, behavior, and impact of fire in forest ecosystems. This extension to the widely-used stand-dynamics model FVS simulates the dynamics of snags and surface fuels as they are affected by stand management (of trees or fuels), live tree growth and mortality,...

  17. Geographic variation in mixed-conifer forest fire regimes in California

    Beaty R. Matthew; Taylor Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent research from California on geographic variability in mixed conifer(MC) forest fire regimes. MC forests are typically described as having experienced primarilyfrequent, low to moderate severity burns prior to fire suppression that created a mosaic ofvegetation patches with variable structure. Research...

  18. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  19. Impacts of the Canadian forest fires on atmospheric mercury and carbonaceous particles in Northern New York.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Huang, Jiaoyan; Zananski, Tiffany J; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2010-11-15

    The impact of Canadian forest fires in Quebec on May 31, 2010 on PM(2.5), carbonaceous species, and atmospheric mercury species was observed at three rural sites in northern New York. The results were compared with previous studies during a 2002 Quebec forest fire episode. MODIS satellite images showed transport of forest fire smoke from southern Quebec, Canada to northern New York on May 31, 2010. Back-trajectories were consistent with this regional transport. During the forest fire event, as much as an 18-fold increase in PM(2.5) concentration was observed. The concentrations of episode-related OC, EC, BC, UVBC, and their difference (Delta-C), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were also significantly higher than those under normal conditions, suggesting a high impact of Canadian forest fire emissions on air quality in northern New York. PBM, RGM, and Delta-C are all emitted from forest fires. The correlation coefficient between Delta-C and other carbonaceous species may serve as an indicator of forest fire smoke. Given the marked changes in PBM, it may serve as a more useful tracer of forest fires over distances of several hundred kilometers relative to GEM. However, the Delta-C concentration changes are more readily measured.

  20. Continuing fire regimes in remote forests of Grand Canyon National Park

    Peter Z. Fule; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Margaret H. Moore

    2000-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests in which frequent fire regimes continue up to the present would be invaluable points of reference for assessing natural ecological attributes. A few remote forests on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park come close to this ideal: never-harvested, distant from human communities and fire suppression resources, and with several low-intensity...

  1. Comparing the effectiveness of thinning and prescribed fire for modifying structure in dry coniferous forests

    Richy J. Harrod; Nicholas A. Povak; David W. Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Forest thinning and prescribed fires are the main practices used by managers to address concerns over ecosystem degradation and severe wildland fire potential in dry forests of the Western United States. There is some debate, however, about treatment effectiveness in meeting management objectives as well as their ecological consequences. This study assesses the...

  2. The Lick Creek Demonstration - Forest Renewal Through Partial Harvest and Fire

    Benjamin Zamora; Melinda Martin

    2006-01-01

    The Lick Creek Demonstration Site on the Pomeroy Ranger District, Umatilla National Forest, is a Joint Fire Science Program sponsored project to create a demonstration of the effects of fuels management on forest health. The project was initiated in 2001 and involved the integration of two levels of partial harvest with prescribed fire, a burn only treatment and an...

  3. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  4. Restoring oak forest, woodlands and savannahs using modern silvicultural analogs to historic cultural fire regimes

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Callie J. Schweitzer; Michael C. Stambaugh; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak savannahs, woodlands and forests that were dominant vegetation types throughout the region. In the past century, once abundant savannahs and woodlands have become scarce due to conversion to agriculture, or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. In addition, the...

  5. Climate and forest fires in Montana and northern Idaho, 1909-1919

    J. A. Larsen; C. C. Delavan

    1922-01-01

    The present report is a result of the study of the relation between climate and forest fires in Montana and northern Idaho. This region is designated as District I of the United States Forest Service. The data used are the weather records of the United States Weather Bureau for the regular and cooperative stations, and the detail fire reports of the United States...

  6. Fire endurance research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    R. H. White

    1990-01-01

    Fire endurance research activities and facilities at the FPL concern the ability of a wood member or assembly to withstand the effects of fire while acting as a fire barrier and supporting a load. Fire endurance is generally concerned with the post-flashover portion of the fire. The importance of fire endurance in fire safety is reflected in building code requirements...

  7. Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations

  8. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciT

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotopemore » plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak

  9. Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.

    PubMed

    Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

    2013-09-01

    Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests.

  10. Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

    2008-12-01

    The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire

  11. Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    evolution of the fire spread. We present and discuss the application of the CA model to the "Tavira wildfire" in which approximately 24,800ha were burned. The event took place in summer 2012, between July 18 and 21, and spread in the Tavira and São Brás de Alportel municipalities of Algarve, a province in the southern coast of Portugal. [1] DaCamara et. al. (2014), International Journal of Wildland Fire 23. [2] Amraoui et. al. (2013), Forest Ecology and Management 294. [3] Alexandridis et. al. (2008), Applied Mathematics and Computation 204.

  12. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-05-27

    The only fully coupled land-atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10-20cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings, and (ii) that species that were common in any of the four burn treatments (unburned, once-, twice- and thrice-burned) were often rare or entirely absent in other burn treatments. We conclude that episodic wildfires can lead to drastic changes in forest structure and composition, with cascading shifts in forest composition following each additional fire event. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the validity of the savannization paradigm.

  13. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha−1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥56%) in large patches (≥10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

  14. Contrasting spatial patterns in active-fire and fire-suppressed Mediterranean climate old-growth mixed conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Fry, Danny L; Stephens, Scott L; Collins, Brandon M; North, Malcolm P; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha(-1), and occupied 27-46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11-20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥ 56%) in large patches (≥ 10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Fire Frequency and Severity on Forests in the Northwestern United States

    Busing, Richard T.; Solomon, Allen M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a model of forest dynamics (FORCLIM) and actual forest survey data to demonstrate the effects of various fire regimes on different forest types in the Pacific Northwest. We examined forests in eight ecoregions ranging from wet coastal forests dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii and other tall conifers to dry interior forests dominated by Pinus ponderosa. Fire effects simulated as elevated mortality of trees based on their species and size did alter forest structure and species composition. Low frequency fires characteristic of wetter forests (return interval >200 yr) had minor effects on composition. When fires were severe, they tended to reduce total basal area with little regard to species differences. High frequency fires characteristic of drier forests (return interval <30 yr) had major effects on species composition and on total basal area. Typically, they caused substantial reductions in total basal area and shifts in dominance toward highly fire tolerant species. With the addition of fire, simulated basal areas averaged across ecoregions were reduced to levels approximating observed basal areas.

  16. Forest fires and PM10 pollution: the March 2012 case in Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Carracedo Martín, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the largest sources of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and other pollutants at regional scale. They significantly impact on local air quality and human health, even far from their original sources. March 2012 was one of the largest fire activity late winter and early spring seasons across northern Spain and Portugal. Official statistics from the Spanish and Portuguese authorities show that, during that month, approximately 35.000 ha were burned, representing the top March season in Cantabria (N. Spain) and the northern distritos of Portugal since 1981, most of them occurring in the mountainous areas, as depicted from the FIRMS database (https://firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/). At the same time, an analysis of the pollution data (Airbase dataset; http://www.eea.europa.eu/) show an increase in PM10 average values and exceedences of the limit values across the same area simultaneously or immediately after the main fire activity episodes. A comprehensive analysis of this fire and pollution event was undertaken to analyze the possible contribution of forest fires and other sources of PM10 to the high levels of this pollutant at ground level. Besides statistics of fire activity, satellite "hot spots" and ground level pollution data, we have included in our analysis meteorological records (synoptic stations, upper air soundings), backtrajectories (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) and dust forecast models (https://www.bsc.es/earth-sciences/mineral-dust/catalogo-datos-dust). The results show a good agreement between the spatial and temporal variability of the levels of PM10 and the direction of the pollution plumes downwind the forest fires. The activity was mostly concentrated during 3 events, the first one between February 25th to March 3rd; the second spanning from 10th to 17th, and the last one, the most severe of the three, at the end of March. The climatological background was favourable, because most of the

  17. Soils of Mountainous Forests and Their Transformation under the Impact of Fires in Baikal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.

    2018-04-01

    Data on postpyrogenic dynamics of soils under mountainous taiga cedar ( Pinus sibirica) and pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests and subtaiga-forest-steppe pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests in the Baikal region are analyzed. Ground litter-humus fires predominating in this region transform the upper diagnostic organic soil horizons and lead to the formation of new pyrogenic organic horizons (Opir). Adverse effects of ground fires on the stock, fractional composition, and water-physical properties of forest litters are shown. Some quantitative parameters of the liquid and solid surface runoff in burnt areas related to the slope gradient, fire intensity, and the time passed after the fire are presented. Pyrogenic destruction of forest ecosystems inevitably induces the degradation of mountainous soils, whose restoration after fires takes tens of years. The products of soil erosion from the burnt out areas complicate the current situation with the pollution of coastal waters of Lake Baikal.

  18. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires must be considered a natural factor in Mediterranean ecosystems, but the changes in land use in the last six decades have altered its natural regime making them an ongoing environmental problem. Some big forest fires (> 500 has) also have a great socio-economical impact on human population. Our research team has experience of 20 years studying the effects of forest fires on soil properties, their recovery after fire and the impact of some post-fire management treatments. In this work we want to show our experience of how to transfer part of our knowledge to society after two catastrophic events of forest fires in the Alicante Province (E Spain). Two big forest fires: one in "Sierra de Mariola (Alcoi)" and other in "Montgó Natural Park (Javea-Denia)" occurred in in July 2012 and September 2014 respectivelly, and as consequence a great impact was produced on the populations of nearby affected villages. Immediatelly, some groups were formed through social networks with the aim of trying to help recover the affected areas as soon as possible. Usually, society calls for early reforestation and this preassure on forest managers and politicians can produce a response with a greater impact on fire-affected area than the actual fire. The soil is a fragile ecosystem after forest fire, and the situation after fire can vary greatly depending on many factors such as fire severity, previous history of fire in the area, soil type, topography, etc. An evaluation of the site to make the best decision for recovery of the area, protecting the soil and avoiding degradation of the ecosystem is necessary. In these 2 cases we organized some field activities and conferences to give society knowledge of how soil is affected by forest fires, and what would be the best post-fire management depending on how healthy the soil is and the vegetation resilience after fire and our expectations for a natural recovery. The application of different types of mulch in vulnerable areas, the

  19. Prescribed fires are not created equal: fire season and severity effects in ponderosa pine forests of the southern Blue Mountains.

    Jonathan Thompson

    2006-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, forest managers on the Malheur National Forest were concerned about their prescribed fire program. Although they have only a few weeks of acceptable conditions available in the spring and fall, they were worried that spring-season prescribed burning might be exacerbating black stain root disease and having negative effects on understory plants.

  20. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas