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Sample records for early formed cumulates

  1. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  2. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  3. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  4. Triggering of major eruptions recorded by actively forming cumulates

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michael J.; Taylor, Rex N.; Gernon, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Major overturn within a magma chamber can bring together felsic and mafic magmas, prompting de-volatilisation and acting as the driver for Plinian eruptions. Until now identification of mixing has been limited to analysis of lavas or individual crystals ejected during eruptions. We have recovered partially developed cumulate material (‘live’ cumulate mush) from pyroclastic deposits of major eruptions on Tenerife. These samples represent “frozen” clumps of diverse crystalline deposits from all levels in the developing reservoir, which are permeated with the final magma immediately before eruptions. Such events therefore record the complete disintegration of the magma chamber, leading to caldera collapse. Chemical variation across developing cumulus crystals records changes in melt composition. Apart from fluctuations reflecting periodic influxes of mafic melt, crystal edges consistently record the presence of more felsic magmas. The prevalence of this felsic liquid implies it was able to infiltrate the entire cumulate pile immediately before each eruption. PMID:23066500

  5. 48 CFR 1553.232-74 - EPA Form 1900-10, Contractor's Cumulative Claim and Reconciliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232-74... EPA Form 1900-10 shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  6. 48 CFR 1553.232-74 - EPA Form 1900-10, Contractor's Cumulative Claim and Reconciliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232-74... EPA Form 1900-10 shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  7. 48 CFR 1553.232-74 - EPA Form 1900-10, Contractor's Cumulative Claim and Reconciliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232-74... EPA Form 1900-10 shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  8. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  9. Cumulative family risk predicts increases in adjustment difficulties across early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent families using four waves of annual longitudinal data (51% female youth). Risk factors in four family domains were examined: socioeconomic, parents' psychological realm, marital, and parenting. Cumulative family risk experienced while in 6th grade was associated concurrently with daughters' higher internalizing problems and with increased internalizing problems during early adolescence. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with sons' higher externalizing problems and with daughters' increased externalizing problems over time. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with lower grades and with declining grades over time for both daughters and sons. The number of risk domains also was associated with youths' adjustment difficulties during early adolescence, providing evidence that risk in two-parent families involves more than ineffective parenting. These findings suggest a critical need to provide strong support for families in reducing a variety of stressors across multiple family domains as their children traverse early adolescence.

  10. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  11. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  12. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined in a longitudinal sample (N = 438). Of interest was (a) continuity in use of the different arrangements, (b) whether the arrangements were additively and cumulatively associated with children’s externalizing behavior problems, and (c) whether predictive relations were accounted for by social-ecological (socioeconomic status, mothers’ employment status, marital status) and social-experiential (parenting quality, exposure to aggressive peers) factors. Correlations among overall amounts of care provided little evidence of cross-time continuity. Consistent with the cumulative risk perspective, Grade 1 self-care and Grade 6 unsupervised peer contact incrementally predicted Grade 6 externalizing problems. Most of the predictive associations were accounted for by family background and social relationship factors. PMID:20046544

  13. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  14. When Two Isn't Better than One: Predictors of Early Sexual Activity in Adolescence Using a Cumulative Risk Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age…

  15. [Early detection on the onset of scarlet fever epidemics in Beijing, using the Cumulative Sum].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yang, Peng; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Wang, Xiao-li; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Quan-yi

    2013-05-01

    Based on data related to scarlet fever which was collected from the Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System in Beijing from 2005 to 2011, to explore the efficiency of Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) in detecting the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. Models as C1-MILD (C1), C2-MEDIUM (C2) and C3-ULTRA (C3) were used. Tools for evaluation as Youden's index and detection time were calculated to optimize the parameters and optimal model. Data on 2011 scarlet fever surveillance was used to verify the efficacy of these models. C1 (k = 0.5, H = 2σ), C2 (k = 0.7, H = 2σ), C3 (k = 1.1, H = 2σ) appeared to be the optimal parameters among these models. Youden's index of C1 was 83.0% and detection time being 0.64 weeks, Youden's index of C2 was 85.4% and detection time being 1.27 weeks, Youden's index of C1 was 85.1% and detection time being 1.36 weeks. Among the three early warning detection models, C1 had the highest efficacy. Three models all triggered the signals within 4 weeks after the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. The early warning detection model of CUSUM could be used to detect the onset of scarlet fever epidemics, with good efficacy.

  16. Early mantle heterogeneities in the Réunion hotspot source inferred from highly siderophile elements in cumulate xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Bradley J.; Day, James M. D.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-08-01

    Ultramafic cumulate rocks form during intrusive crystallization of high-MgO magmas, incorporating relatively high abundances of compatible elements, including Cr and Ni, and high abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re). Here, we utilize a suite of cumulate xenoliths from Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion (Indian Ocean), to examine the mantle source composition of the Réunion hotspot using HSE abundances and Os isotopes. Dunite and wherlite xenoliths and associated lavas from the Piton de la Fournaise volcanic complex span a range of MgO contents (46 to 7 wt.%), yet exhibit remarkably homogeneous 187Os/188Os (0.1324 ± 0.0014, 2σ), representing the Os-isotopic composition of Réunion hotspot primary melts. A significant fraction of the xenoliths also have primitive upper-mantle (PUM) normalized HSE patterns with elevated Ru and Pd (PUM-normalized Ru/Ir and Pd/Ir of 0.8-6.3 and 0.2-7.2, respectively). These patterns are not artifacts of alteration, fractional crystallization, or partial melting processes, but rather require a primary magma with similar relative enrichments. Some highly olivine-phyric (>40 modal percent olivine) Piton de la Fournaise lavas also preserve these relative Ru and Pd enrichments, while others preserve a pattern that is likely related to sulfur saturation in evolved melts. The estimate of HSE abundances in PUM indicates high Ru/Ir and Pd/Pt values relative to carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrite meteorite groups. Thus, the existence of cumulate rocks with even more fractionated HSE patterns relative to PUM suggests that the Réunion hotspot samples a yet unrecognized mantle source. The origin of fractionated HSE patterns in Réunion melts may arise from sampling of a mantle source that experienced limited late accretion (<0.2% by mass) compared with PUM (0.5-0.8%), possibly involving impactors that were distinct from present-day chondrites, or limited core-mantle interactions. Given the

  17. High-Mg adakitic rocks and their complementary cumulates formed by crystal fractionation of hydrous mafic magmas in a continental crustal magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Sun, Min; Griffin, William L.; Wei, Ying; Ma, Liang; Yu, Xiaolu

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how adakitic magmas form is important for understanding the formation of the continental crust. Generating such high-Sr/Y rocks by crystal fractionation of basalts/basaltic andesites in magma chambers has been proposed in a wide range of tectonic settings. However, the complementary cumulates predicted by this scenario have rarely been observed. The late Triassic (~ 227 Ma) Ningcheng complex from the North China Craton is composed of a websterite - (Ol -/Hbl-) pyroxenite - gabbro unit and a quartz-diorite unit. They are interpreted as the products (cumulates and derivative melts, respectively) of fractionation from hydrous mafic magmas at mid- to lower-crustal pressures (4.9 ~ 8.3 kbar). The quartz diorites are high-Mg intermediate rocks with moderate SiO2 (57.0 ~ 62.9 wt%), high Mg# (> 49) and adakitic trace element signatures, such as high Sr (≥ 636 ppm) and light rare earth elements (REEs), low Y (≤ 17 ppm) and heavy REEs (Yb ≤ 1.8 ppm), lack of obvious Eu anomalies, and high Sr/Y (≥ 31) and La/Yb (≥ 24)). These adakitic signatures reflect differentiation of hydrous mantle-derived magmas in the deep crust, leaving behind a plagioclase-free residual solid assemblage in the early stages, which is represented by the coeval websterite-pyroxenite complex. This study therefore not only demonstrates that hydrous crystal fractionation is an important mechanism to form adakitic rocks, but also presents an example of a preserved fractionating system, i.e. high-Sr/Y rocks and their complementary cumulates. A geochemical comparison is made between representative adakitic rocks formed by fractionation of hydrous magmas and Archean TTGs. It is suggested that crystal fractionation is an efficient process for making Phanerozoic high Sr/Y rocks but was not responsible for the formation of Archean granitoids.

  18. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  19. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  20. Higher-order cumulants and spectral kurtosis for early detection of subterranean termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, Juan José González; Moreno Muñoz, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with termite detection in non-favorable SNR scenarios via signal processing using higher-order statistics. The results could be extrapolated to all impulse-like insect emissions; the situation involves non-destructive termite detection. Fourth-order cumulants in time and frequency domains enhance the detection and complete the characterization of termite emissions, non-Gaussian in essence. Sliding higher-order cumulants offer distinctive time instances, as a complement to the sliding variance, which only reveal power excesses in the signal; even for low-amplitude impulses. The spectral kurtosis reveals non-Gaussian characteristics (the peakedness of the probability density function) associated to these non-stationary measurements, specially in the near ultrasound frequency band. Contrasted estimators have been used to compute the higher-order statistics. The inedited findings are shown via graphical examples.

  1. Forming Disk Galaxies Early in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    What were galaxies like in the first 500 million years of the universe? According to simulations by Yu Feng (UC Berkeley) and collaborators, the earliest massive galaxies to form were mostly disk-shaped, rather than the compact clumps previously predicted. Early-Galaxy Models. Current models for galaxy formation predict that small perturbations in the distribution of matter in the early universe collapsed to form very compact, irregular, clumpy first galaxies. Observations support this: the furthest out that we've spotted disk-shaped galaxies is at z=3, whereas the galaxies we've observed from earlier times -- up to redshifts of z=8-10 -- are very compact. But could this be a selection effect, arising from the rarity of large galaxies in the early universe? Current surveys at high redshift have thus far only covered relatively small volumes of space, so it's not necessarily surprising that we haven't yet spotted any large disk galaxies. Similarly, numerical simulations of galaxy formation are limited in the size of the volume they can evolve, so resulting models of early galaxy formation also tend to favor compact clumpy galaxies over large disks. An Enormous Simulation. Pushing at these limitations, Feng and his collaborators used the Blue Waters supercomputer to carry out an enormous cosmological hydrodynamic simulation called BlueTides. In this simulation, they track 700 billion particles as they evolve in a volume of 400 comoving Mpc/h -- 40 times the volume of the largest previous simulation and 300 times the volume of the largest observational survey at these redshifts. What they find is that by z=8, a whopping 70% of the most massive galaxies (over 7 billion solar masses each) were disk-shaped, though they are more compact, gas-rich, and turbulent than present-day disk galaxies like the Milky Way. The way the most massive galaxies formed in the simulation also wasn't expected: rather than resulting from major mergers, they were built from smooth accretion

  2. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  3. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined. Correlations among overall amounts of care provided little evidence of cross-time continuity; grade 1 self-care and grade 6 unsupervised peer contact incrementally predicted grade 6 problems; and most predictive…

  4. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  5. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual’s cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity. PMID:25264393

  6. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  7. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  8. When two isn't better than one: predictors of early sexual activity in adolescence using a cumulative risk model.

    PubMed

    Price, Myeshia N; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-09-01

    This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age 13 to 15. The results indicate that, for girls, increased television viewing, low self-esteem, poor parental relationships, living in a non-intact household, higher levels of externalizing behavior (ADHD symptomology), low academic achievement, and parents with low education levels were associated with earlier sexual debut. For boys, advanced pubertal development, increased television viewing, higher rates of externalizing behaviors (ADHD and ODD symptoms), and poor parental relationships were associated with earlier sexual debut. As hypothesized, predictive power increases with the accumulation of these risks; girls are 1.56 times more likely to become sexually active with an increase of only one risk and boys are 1.90 times more likely. PMID:19636771

  9. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  10. Contested Cumulations:

    PubMed Central

    Pickstone, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The treatment of cancer through the twentieth century may be seen as the successive addition of modalities: first surgery; then radiotherapy, especially between the world wars; and then chemotherapy, from the 1960s. This paper explores some of the systematic differences between the modalities, and how these additions were negotiated in different countries, with different long-term consequences for the development of services and specialization. It focuses chiefly on the United Kingdom and the United States, the former exemplifying a centralized health polity, and the latter, liberal markets combined with large and crucial postwar inputs from government. The differences between health polities were especially important for interwar radiotherapy, which in its centralized form appeared as paradigmatic of the analytical/rationalizing mode in modern medicine. Chemotherapy exemplified a more inventive and experimentalist mode that became common after World War II, and that, through the practice of trials, shaped the new subprofession of medical oncology. The interactions of the modalities, at various levels, are modeled as contested cumulations showing strong path dependency. The paper ends by reviewing the present situation, especially for Britain, and by underlining the relevance of history. PMID:17369667

  11. Informational biopolymer structure in early living forms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.; Mclaughlin, P. J.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

    1972-01-01

    Some studies devoted to the search in various organisms for 'relics' of the biochemical nature of ancient organisms, preserved by the conservative nature of the evolutionary process in all living species, are reviewed. Investigations of five families of informational molecules constituting such 'relics' in very diverse organisms are reported. They include: cytochrome c, ferredoxin, trypsin, transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA), and 5S ribosomal RNA. It is shown that, even from these few informational molecules, some interesting inferences about early living organisms can be drawn.

  12. Volcanic processes on early-forming asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L.; Keil, K.

    2011-12-01

    A variety of meteorite groups represent samples of asteroids that formed while 26Al was still the dominant heat source in Solar System materials. These bodies differentiated to varying degrees beyond the temperature of FeNi-FeS melting, with sufficient silicate melting to allow metal core formation. The silicate melts segregated upward from the interiors to suffer various fates: intrusion at shallow levels, eruption onto the surface, or ejection into space in explosive eruptions in which the eruption speed exceeded the escape speed. These three styles of plutonic/volcanic activity were not mutually exclusive; their relative importance was a function of asteroid size and composition, with the major compositional factor being the total available volatile inventory. Much research has been concerned with whether silicate melts were extracted from the mantle during the period of mantle heating or while the mantle was cooling after reaching its peak temperature and degree of partial melting (a "magma ocean" stage). Traditionally, the relevant arguments have been based on the petrology and geochemistry of the meteorites sampling these bodies. Instead, we focus on the fluid dynamic aspects of eruption and intrusion processes and show how these impose additional limitations on various aspects of the igneous activity. For example, 40% melting of bodies the size of 4 Vesta (~250 km radius) and the Ureilite Parent Body (UPB, ~100 km radius) over the course of a 0.5 Ma heating period represent melt volume production rates of ~350 and 20 cubic meters per second, respectively, in each of what we demonstrate should have been ~4 volcanic provinces on each body. All differentiated asteroids must of necessity have had a surface layer ~10 km thick at sub-solidus temperatures controlled by conductive cooling. To erupt magma at the surface (or intrude magma at very shallow depth) through such a crust would have required the propagation of dikes within which the combination of dike width

  13. Northwest Africa 773: Lunar Mare Breccia with a Shallow-formed Olivine-Cumulate Component, Very-Low-Ti Heritage, and a KREEP Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Floss, C.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Northwest Africa 773 is one of the more unusual lunar meteorites found in recent years because it contains a prominent clast lithology, which appears to be an olivine-rich cumulate and because it is a very-low-Ti (VLT) mare breccia with relatively high incompatible-trace-element concentrations and LREE/HREE enrichment. A lunar origin was verified by Fagan and coworkers on the basis of noble-gas contents, oxygen isotopes, and mineral compositions. Fagan et al. described two lithologies: (1) heterolithic impact breccia with a regolith component and (2) cumulus olivine gabbronorite. Here, we refer to these as the breccia (Bx) lithology and the olivine-cumulate (OC) lithology. The impact breccia components are predominantly volcanic (basaltic), and, in this context, the occurrence of the cumulus lithology is especially significant: is it related to the volcanic components or does it represent a deep-seated rock entrained by the basaltic magma as it rose to the surface? Elevated incompatible-element concentrations with more or less KREEP-like inter-element ratios and very-low-Ti concentrations distinguish both lithologies of this meteorite from Apollo mare basalts. Here, we summarize key compositional information (bulk and mineral), especially related to the OC lithology, to show that it formed at shallow depth and comes from a VLT ultramafic precursor that mixed with a KREEP-like trace-element component deep in the crust or upper mantle.

  14. Form and Function in Early Clause-Combining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustigman, Lyle; Berman, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    The study characterizes developmental trends in early Hebrew clause-combining (CC) by analyzing the interplay between linguistic form and communicative function in different interactional settings. Analysis applied to all utterances produced by three children aged 2;0-3;0 who combined two or more clauses, either self-initiated or on the basis of…

  15. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  16. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  17. Early Triassic stromatolites as post-mass extinction disaster forms

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.K.; Bottjer, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    Aftermaths of mass extinctions have been thought to be characterized by relaxation of ecological constraints accompanied by increased prominence of opportunistic generalists. Such taxa, termed 'disaster forms,' have been shown to increase dramatically in range and abundance after several mass extinction events. The Cambrian-Ordovician stromatolite decline in normal-marine level-bottom environments has been explained as a direct or indirect consequence of increases in ecological constraints, such as greater levels of predation and/or bioturbation of microbial communities, caused by early Paleozoic benthic invertebrate evolution and diversification. Thus, one would predict that in post-Ordovician strata, stromatolites might appear in normal-marine level-bottom environments as disaster forms in the aftermaths of mass extinction particularly devastating to the benthic biota, such as during Early Triassic time. Mounded stromatolites are present in two beds (up to 1.5 m thick) of the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone Member (Moenkopi Formation) in the southwestern Spring Mountains of Nevada. Stromatolites from level-bottom normal-marine subtidal environments have also been described from other Lower Triassic strata in North America, Europe, and Asia. These stromatolites, unusual in level-bottom normal-marine settings, may have developed locally during the long aftermath (4-5 m.y.) of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction because of partial relaxation of the ecological constraints that typically restricted them from unstressed subtidal, normal-marine, level-bottom environments.

  18. Affiliation buffers stress: cumulative genetic risk in oxytocin–vasopressin genes combines with early caregiving to predict PTSD in war-exposed young children

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R; Vengrober, A; Ebstein, R P

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is shaped by the interaction between genetic vulnerability and early caregiving experiences; yet, caregiving has typically been assessed by adult retrospective accounts. Here, we employed a prospective longitudinal design with real-time observations of early caregiving combined with assessment of genetic liability along the axis of vasopressin–oxytocin (OT) gene pathways to test G × E contributions to PTSD. Participants were 232 young Israeli children (1.5–5 years) and their parents, including 148 living in zones of continuous war and 84 controls. A cumulative genetic risk factor was computed for each family member by summing five risk alleles across three genes (OXTR, CD38 and AVPR1a) previously associated with psychopathology, sociality and caregiving. Child PTSD was diagnosed and mother–child interactions were observed in multiple contexts. In middle childhood (7–8 years), child psychopathology was re-evaluated. War exposure increased propensity to develop Axis-I disorder by threefold: 60% of exposed children displayed a psychiatric disorder by middle childhood and 62% of those showed several comorbid disorders. On the other hand, maternal sensitive support reduced risk for psychopathology. G × E effect was found for child genetic risk: in the context of war exposure, greater genetic risk on the vasopressin–OT pathway increased propensity for psychopathology. Among exposed children, chronicity of PTSD from early to middle childhood was related to higher child, maternal and paternal genetic risk, low maternal support and greater initial avoidance symptoms. Child avoidance was predicted by low maternal support and reduced mother–child reciprocity. These findings underscore the saliency of both genetic and behavioral facets of the human affiliation system in shaping vulnerability to PTSD as well as providing an underlying mechanism of post-traumatic resilience. PMID:24618689

  19. {sup 137}Cs concentration in soil samples from an early survey of Hiroshima atomic bomb and cumulative dose estimation from the fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi

    1996-09-01

    Low background gamma-ray measurement has been performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs content in soil samples collected in a very early survey of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. These soil samples were collected just 3 d after the explosion within 5 km from the hypocenter and were not exposed to the global fallout from nuclear weapon tests. Out of 22 samples, {sup 137}Cs was detected for 11 samples, and their radionactivities ranged from 0.16-10.6mBq g{sup {minus}1} at the time of the measurement. A comparison of the {sup 137}Cs deposition with the rainfall area within Hiroshima city indicates that the rainfall area was wider than the previously proposed one. Cumulative exposure by the fallout has been estimated to be 0.31 mC kg{sup {minus}1} (0.12 R) 1.0 mC kg{sup {minus}1} (4 R) in the heavy fallout area. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  1. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  2. [Early diagnosis and prevention of severe forms of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Boldyriew, A I

    1976-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment are the basis of prevention of severe forms of epilepsy. In order to determine the beginning of the process the author studied 400 cases in which the duration of epilepsy ranged from several weeks to 3 years. The investigations demonstrated that epilepsy develops in subjects presenting certain premorbid symptoms and signs. The "epileptic process" develops frequently as a result of past infections and craniocerebral injuries followed by residual neurological signs and cerebrasthenia. Seizure attacks, if no additional releasing factors are present, are preceded by various clinically weakly expressed seizure phenomena. They include peculiar,very vivid dreams, sudden awakenings with partly obnubilated consciouness and a feeling of fear, abortive psychomotor and other seizure. The "microseizures" include also myoclonic twitches preceding sleep and during sleep, auras, brief viscerovegatative attacks, opercular symptoms, symptoms of dream-like states, twitches of isolated muscles without consciousness disturbances. In 44% of cases asthenic symptoms were present in connection with microseizures. They served as background for development long-standing irritative foci manifesting themselves clinically with sluggishness of thinking and affect and compulsive features. Presence of these microseizures may suggest epilepsy long before appearance of typical seizures and may be an indication to beginning of treatment which may prevent the development of severe epilepsy. The syndrome of seizure-like microsymptoms makes it possible to recognize the prodromal stage of epilepsy and to change our views on its sudden onset. PMID:1264328

  3. Northwest Africa 773: lunar mare breccia with a shallow-formed olivine-cumulate component, inferred very-low-Ti (VLT) heritage, and a KREEP connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Floss, Christine

    2003-12-01

    Lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 773 (herein referred to as NWA773) is a breccia composed predominantly of mafic volcanic components, including a prominent igneous clast lithology. The clast lithology is an olivine-gabbro cumulate, which, on the basis of mineral and bulk compositions, is a hypabyssal igneous rock related compositionally to volcanic components in the meteorite. The olivine-gabbro lithology exhibits cumulus textures and, in our largest section of it, includes some 48% olivine (Fo 64 to Fo 70, average Fo 67), 27% pigeonite (En 60Fs 24Wo 16 to En 67Fs 27Wo 6), 11% augite (En 50Fs 17Wo 33 to En 47Fs 13Wo 40), 2% orthopyroxene (En 70Fs 26Wo 4), 11% plagioclase (An 80 to An 94), and trace barian K-feldspar, ilmenite, Cr-spinel, RE-merrillite, troilite, and Fe-Ni metal. The Mg/Fe ratios of the mafic silicates indicate equilibration of Fe and Mg; however, the silicates retain compositional variations in minor and trace elements that are consistent with intercumulus crystallization. Accessory mineralogy reflects crystallization of late-stage residual melt. Both lithologies (breccia and olivine cumulate) of the meteorite have very-low-Ti (VLT) major-element compositions, but with an unusual trace-element signature compared to most lunar VLT volcanic compositions, i.e., relative enrichment in light REE and large-ion-lithophile elements, and greater depletion in Eu than almost all other known lunar volcanic rocks. The calculated composition of the melt that was in equilibrium with pyroxene and plagioclase of the cumulate lithology exhibits a KREEP-like REE pattern, but at lower concentrations. Melt of a composition calculated to have been in equilibrium with the cumulate assemblage, plus excess olivine, yields a major-element composition that is similar to known green volcanic glasses. One volcanic glass type from Apollo 14 in particular, green glass B, type 1, has a very low Ti concentration and REE characteristics, including extremely low Eu concentration

  4. Sequential Meta-Analysis to Determine the Sufficiency of Cumulative Knowledge: The Case of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, S.; Onghena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analysis has become a popular tool to statistically integrate results across studies in order to formulate more general conclusions on treatment effectiveness. Unfortunately, traditional meta-analytic applications fail to answer the question whether enough cumulative knowledge is available to draw convincing statistical conclusions. Leaving…

  5. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  6. The Structural Evolution of Forming and Early Stage Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaehnig, Karl; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2016-05-01

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (∼1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) Survey and the statistical analysis of the Angular Dispersion Parameter, δADP. We find statistically significant correlation between δADP and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters.

  7. THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF FORMING AND EARLY STAGE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jaehnig, Karl O.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: ndario@ufl.edu

    2015-01-10

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (∼1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray Survey and the statistical analysis of the angular dispersion parameter, δ{sub ADP,} {sub N}. We find statistically significant correlation between δ{sub ADP,} {sub N} and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters.

  8. Connecticut's New Comprehensive and Universal Early Childhood Health Assessment Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Angela A.; Whitney, Grace-Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    Health assessments are required for entrance into child care, Head Start, and preschool programs. However, state and federal screening and documentation mandates vary, and programs create their own forms for keeping required data on file. Inconsistent recording formats present challenges for primary care providers who must document each child's…

  9. The Structural Evolution of Forming and Early Stage Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaehnig, Karl O.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (~1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray Survey and the statistical analysis of the angular dispersion parameter, δADP, N. We find statistically significant correlation between δADP, N and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters.

  10. Leachates formed carbonates in ALH84001 and on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Grady, M. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Wright, I. P.

    2013-09-01

    Evidence abounds for liquid water existing on Mars prior to the late heavy bombardment (LHB) ~3.9 Ga ago and physicochemically interacting with rocks to form distinct geomorphological landforms and mineralogical alteration products (e.g. [3, 4, 8, 14]). ALH84001, the oldest (~4.5-4.1 Ga [11, 13]) known martian meteorite, contains secondary carbonate minerals formed on Mars ~3.9-4.0 Ga ago [5], roughly contemporaneous to the LHB. Recent isotopic evidence supports their formation at low temperature (~18 °C [9]) and also by fluids derived from aqueous weathering in the Noachian/Phyllosian, due to the elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the carbonates and bulk rock of ALH84001 [1].

  11. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  12. Overexpression of Plasmodium berghei ATG8 by Liver Forms Leads to Cumulative Defects in Organelle Dynamics and to Generation of Noninfectious Merozoites

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Christiane; Ehrenman, Karen; Mlambo, Godfree; Mishra, Satish; Kumar, Kota Arun; Sacci, John B.; Sinnis, Photini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmodium parasites undergo continuous cellular renovation to adapt to various environments in the vertebrate host and insect vector. In hepatocytes, Plasmodium berghei discards unneeded organelles for replication, such as micronemes involved in invasion. Concomitantly, intrahepatic parasites expand organelles such as the apicoplast that produce essential metabolites. We previously showed that the ATG8 conjugation system is upregulated in P. berghei liver forms and that P. berghei ATG8 (PbATG8) localizes to the membranes of the apicoplast and cytoplasmic vesicles. Here, we focus on the contribution of PbATG8 to the organellar changes that occur in intrahepatic parasites. We illustrated that micronemes colocalize with PbATG8-containing structures before expulsion from the parasite. Interference with PbATG8 function by overexpression results in poor development into late liver stages and production of small merosomes that contain immature merozoites unable to initiate a blood infection. At the cellular level, PbATG8-overexpressing P. berghei exhibits a delay in microneme compartmentalization into PbATG8-containing autophagosomes and elimination compared to parasites from the parental strain. The apicoplast, identifiable by immunostaining of the acyl carrier protein (ACP), undergoes an abnormally fast proliferation in mutant parasites. Over time, the ACP staining becomes diffuse in merosomes, indicating a collapse of the apicoplast. PbATG8 is not incorporated into the progeny of mutant parasites, in contrast to parental merozoites in which PbATG8 and ACP localize to the apicoplast. These observations reveal that Plasmodium ATG8 is a key effector in the development of merozoites by controlling microneme clearance and apicoplast proliferation and that dysregulation in ATG8 levels is detrimental for malaria infectivity. PMID:27353755

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

  14. Cumulative impact assessment: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects with potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  16. Overturn of magma ocean ilmenite cumulate layer: Implications for lunar magmatic evolution and formation of a lunar core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, P. C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    We explore a model for the chemical evolution of the lunar interior that explains the origin and evolution of lunar magmatism and possibly the existence of a lunar core. A magma ocean formed during accretion differentiates into the anorthositic crust and chemically stratified cumulate mantle. The cumulative mantle is gravitationally unstable with dense ilmenite cumulate layers overlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates with Fe/Mg that decreases with depth. The dense ilmenite layer sinks to the center of the moon forming the core. The remainder of the gravitationally unstable cumulate pile also overturns. Any remaining primitive lunar mantle rises to its level of neutral buoyancy in the cumulate pile. Perhaps melting of primitive lunar mantle due to this decompression results in early lunar Mg-rich magmatism. Because of its high concentration of incompatible heat producing elements, the ilmenite core heats the overlying orthopyroxene-bearing cumulates. As a conductively thickening thermal boundary layer becomes unstable, the resulting mantle plumes rise, decompress, and partially melt to generate the mare basalts. This model explains both the timing and chemical characteristics of lunar magmatism.

  17. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-01

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen.

  18. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  19. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Koshy; Zingade, Kshama

    2015-11-01

    Context. Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disruption of the companion galaxy. The interacting galaxies have high star formation rates and very blue optical colours. Galaxies with no companion could have undergone a minor merger in the recent past. Conclusions: The recent or ongoing interaction with a gas-rich neighbouring galaxy could be responsible for bringing cold gas to an otherwise passively evolving early-type galaxy. The sudden gas supply could trigger the star formation, eventually creating a blue early-type galaxy. The galaxies with ongoing tidal interaction are blue and star forming, thereby implying that blue early-type galaxies can exist even when the companion is on flyby so does not end up in a merger. Based on data compiled from Galaxy Zoo project, and the volunteers contribution are acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx

  20. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  1. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  2. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  3. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-11-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology.

  4. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-11-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology. PMID:15693527

  5. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his colleagues to its perfection in the 1950s, and then into the 1960s when it proliferated as different scientific instrument companies began marketing their own models of the cumulative recorder. With the rise of digital computers, the demise of the cumulative recorder as a scientific instrument was inevitable; however, the value of the cumulative record as a monitoring device to assess schedule control of behavior continues. The cumulative recorder remains, along with the operant conditioning chamber, an icon of Skinner's approach to psychology. PMID:15693527

  6. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  7. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-01

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen. PMID:21048759

  8. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  9. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Pedersen, Gunver K.

    2016-09-01

    During the early Cambrian, the Danish island Bornholm was situated on the northern edge of the continent Baltica with palaeolatitudes of about 35°S. An early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) transgression inundated large areas of Baltica including Bornholm creating shallow marine and coastline environments. During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal structures (medusoids) are present in the quarry, but due to the relative poor preservation of their fine-scale structures it is difficult to determine if the discoids represent true medusae imprints or inorganic structures. The preservation of the shallow-water bedforms as well as the possible medusae imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE-SW and facing a large ocean to the north.

  10. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  11. Early socio-communicative forms and functions in typical Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kaufmann, Walter E; Grossmann, Tobias; Einspieler, Christa

    2013-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by a developmental regression in motor and speech-language domains. There is, however, limited research on socio-communicative development of affected children before the onset of regression. We analyzed audio-video recordings made by parents of six 9- to 12-month old girls later diagnosed with typical RTT, applying the Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) to identify early communicative forms and functions. Each girl used at least one communicative form (e.g., body movement, eye gaze, or vocalizations) to gain attention and answer, but none were observed to make choices or request information. Varying numbers of children were observed to perform other communicative functions according to the IPCA including social convention, rejecting or requesting an object. Non-verbal forms (e.g., reaching, moving closer, eye contact, smiling) were more common than non-linguistic verbal forms (e.g., unspecified vocalizations, pleasure vocalizations, crying). (Pre-)linguistic verbal forms (e.g., canonical or variegated babbling, proto-words) were not used for communicative purposes. These data suggest that atypical developmental patterns in the socio-communicative domain are evident prior to regression in young individuals later diagnosed with RTT. PMID:23891731

  12. Early socio-communicative forms and functions in typical Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kaufmann, Walter E; Grossmann, Tobias; Einspieler, Christa

    2013-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by a developmental regression in motor and speech-language domains. There is, however, limited research on socio-communicative development of affected children before the onset of regression. We analyzed audio-video recordings made by parents of six 9- to 12-month old girls later diagnosed with typical RTT, applying the Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) to identify early communicative forms and functions. Each girl used at least one communicative form (e.g., body movement, eye gaze, or vocalizations) to gain attention and answer, but none were observed to make choices or request information. Varying numbers of children were observed to perform other communicative functions according to the IPCA including social convention, rejecting or requesting an object. Non-verbal forms (e.g., reaching, moving closer, eye contact, smiling) were more common than non-linguistic verbal forms (e.g., unspecified vocalizations, pleasure vocalizations, crying). (Pre-)linguistic verbal forms (e.g., canonical or variegated babbling, proto-words) were not used for communicative purposes. These data suggest that atypical developmental patterns in the socio-communicative domain are evident prior to regression in young individuals later diagnosed with RTT.

  13. The Wisconsin magmatic terrane: An Early Proterozoic greenstone-granite terrane formed by plate tectonic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Wisconsin magmatic terrane (WMT) is an east trending belt of dominantly volcanic-plutonic complexes of Early Proterozoic age (approx. 1850 m.y.) that lies to the south of the Archean rocks and Early Proterozoic epicratonic sequence (Marquette Range Supergroup) in Michigan. It is separated from the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup by the high-angle Niagara fault, is bounded on the south, in central Wisconsin, by Archean gneisses, is truncated on the west by rocks of the Midcontinent rift system, and is intruded on the east by the post-orogenic Wolf river batholith. The overall lithologic, geochemical, metallogenic, metamorphic, and deformational characteristics of the WMT are similar to those observed in recent volcanic arc terranes formed at sites of plate convergence. It is concluded that the WMT represents an evolved oceanic island-arc terrane accreated to the Superior craton in the Early Proterozoic. This conclusion is strengthened by the apparent absence of Archean basement from most of the WMT, and the recent recognition of the passive margin character of the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup.

  14. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins. Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined. In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Two of these structures show a double-layer β-sheet organization, in agreement with the structure of amyloid fibrils as observed by x-ray diffraction; another two are mixtures of dimers and trimers. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides.

  15. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expressing vancomycin resistance early after adhesion to a metal surface.

    PubMed

    Sakimura, Toshiyuki; Kajiyama, Shiro; Adachi, Shinji; Chiba, Ko; Yonekura, Akihiko; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Miyamoto, Takashi; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Osaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM) resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs) before and after VCM administration, bacterial viability in biofilm was visually observed using the fluorescence staining method, and the viable bacterial count in biofilm was measured. The VCM concentration required to decrease BCR significantly compared with that of VCM-untreated bacteria was 4 μg/mL, even in the 0 hr group. In the 4 and 8 hr groups, VCM could not inhibit biofilm growth even at 1,024 μg/mL. In the 8 hr group, viable bacteria remained in biofilm at a count of 10(4) CFU even at a high VCM concentration (1,024 μg/mL). It was suggested that biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expresses resistance to VCM early after adhesion to a metal surface. Resistance increased over time after adhesion as the biofilm formed, and strong resistance was expressed 4-8 hours after adhesion.

  16. Influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in sediments of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Honglei; Xing, Meinan; Shao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Feng; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiongqiong; Yu, Dan; Yuan, Xuezhu; Yuan, Min

    2014-11-15

    The influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay was discussed in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations were: Al > Fe ≈ Ca > Mn > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. In vertical distribution, the forms of Cr and Pb were stable from the top to the bottom. However, the exchangeable forms and acid-extracted forms of Cd, Cu and Zn presented an obvious declining trend. The metals would be transformed to more stable forms during the early-diagenesis process. Further analysis found that early diagenesis can change the sedimentary environment, affecting pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), total dissolved solid (TDS) and the structure of organic matter (OM), all main factors influencing metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay.

  17. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  18. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  19. Duration dependence in migration behaviour: cumulative inertia versus stochastic change.

    PubMed

    Gordon, I R; Molho, I

    1995-12-01

    "In this paper a new theoretical framework and supporting empirical evidence on the relationship between movement probabilities and length of stay are presented. Individuals' evaluations of the relative value of alternative locations are assumed to evolve stochastically, with a possible tendency either to cumulative inertia or to cumulative stress. In general this yields a nonmonotonic duration function, with probabilities of movement starting at zero, rising and then falling--a pattern consistent with either cumulative tendency, or neither. A version of the model fitted to data on household movement intentions, from the U.K. General Household Survey, confirms the hypothesised form of this function and indicates a dominance of cumulative stress over cumulative inertia."

  20. Meteoric alteration of early formed dolomite during long-term subaerial exposure: Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M.; Dorobek, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomite from the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation in south central Montana has been petrographically and geochemically analyzed to constrain the effects of long-term subaerial exposure on the formation of well-ordered and stoichiometric dolomite. Samples from five measured stratigraphic sections were analyzed for stoichiometry and for carbon and oxygen isotope composition. Dolomite {delta}{sup 18}O values from all sections vary from {minus}11.2 to +7.5{per thousand}. {delta}{sup 13}C ratios vary from +0.4 to +5.5{per thousand} but are relatively consistent within individual sections. Stoichiometry of the dolomite varies from 49.9 to 55.7 mole % CaCO{sub 3}. Measured sections from the northern portion of the study area dominantly contain {sup 18}O-depleted dolomite (+0.8 to {minus}11 2{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O). The most {sup 18}O-depleted dolomite, however. typically occurs in the upper 100 m of these sections. These {sup 18}O-depleted dolomites have homogeneous {delta}{sup 13}C ratios and are stoichiometric. Dolomite from the upper 100 m of these sections predates early calcite cement and locally is calcitized or partially replaced by Fe-oxides. These data suggest that early formed dolomite may have been recrystallized by meteoric water under very high water-rock ratio conditions. Decreasing amounts of water-rock interaction with depth is suggested by more heterogeneous {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C ratios downsection. Measured sections in the southern portion of the field area contain greater amounts of {sup 18}O-enriched dolomite (+7.5 to -7.1{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O). Dolomite from these sections also has more heterogeneous {delta}{sup 13}C values and variable CaCO{sup 3} content. These data suggest that the dolomite probably has not been extensively altered and may more closely represent the original geochemistry of the early formed dolomite.

  1. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs

    2015-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  2. Early Mathematics Assessment: Validation of the Short Form of a Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie H.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in improving early mathematics curricula and instruction. Subsequently, there has also been a rise in demand for better early mathematics assessments, as most current measures are limited in their content and/or their sensitivity to detect differences in early mathematics development among young…

  3. A MISSING LINK IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE CUMULATIVE RECORDER

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in Tokyo, Japan, in 1952 at the behest of B. F. Skinner at Harvard University. Last used in research in the late 1960s, the cumulative recorder remained locked in a storage room until 2007, when it was found again. A historical context for the recorder is followed by a description of the recorder and a comparison between it and the commercially successful Gerbrands Model C-1 recorder. Labeled the Keio recorder, it is a testament to Skinner's persistence in developing a reliable means of quantifying the behavior of living organisms in real time. PMID:23008524

  4. Following the Water: the Evolution of Ice-forming Regions in the Early Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2006-01-01

    The abundances of water-vapor and water-ice during the first ten million years of the protoplanetary solar nebula are simulated using a new condensation/sublimation model. This study builds on a "snow line" model reported in ApJ 627 L153 (2005); it uses a simple phenomenological model where water vapor molecules evolve from solar atomic abundance and eventually condenses to ice at colder points in the nebula once the water-vapor partial pressure exceeds a value determined by the phase diagram for water. The synthesis of water vapor from elementary species is modeled with a chemical network consisting of about 400 species and 4000 reactions. The evolution of the icy zone (and its relative abundance of solid ice) is traced from a limited region in the early hotter disk to its final state at the time when the gas is expelled and a planetary system begins to form. Possible effects of this dynamic motion on disk chemistry and organic molecule formation are also described.

  5. Spiral-like star-forming patterns in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Breda, I.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Based on a combined analysis of SDSS imaging and CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, we report on the detection of faint (24 <μr mag/□″< 26) star-forming spiral-arm-like features in the periphery of three nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). These features are of considerable interest because they document the still ongoing inside-out growth of some local ETGs and may add valuable observational insight into the origin and evolution of spiral structure in triaxial stellar systems. A characteristic property of the nebular component in the studied ETGs, classified i+, is a two-radial-zone structure, with the inner zone that displays faint (EW(Hα) ≃ 1 Å) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) properties, and the outer one (3 Å

  6. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  7. Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  8. Multiple imputation methods for nonparametric inference on cumulative incidence with missing cause of failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjung; Dignam, James J.; Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric approach for cumulative incidence estimation when causes of failure are unknown or missing for some subjects. Under the missing at random assumption, we estimate the cumulative incidence function using multiple imputation methods. We develop asymptotic theory for the cumulative incidence estimators obtained from multiple imputation methods. We also discuss how to construct confidence intervals for the cumulative incidence function and perform a test for comparing the cumulative incidence functions in two samples with missing cause of failure. Through simulation studies, we show that the proposed methods perform well. The methods are illustrated with data from a randomized clinical trial in early stage breast cancer. PMID:25043107

  9. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  10. Cumulative Evaluations in Surface Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of four evaluation studies conducted to determine the need for and possible parameters of a "postinterstate" highway policy. How these studies sought to provide cumulative information for policy makers is discussed. They investigated the scope of problems, the federal role, cost issues, and technology. (SLD)

  11. Forming first-ranked early-type galaxies through hierarchical dissipationless merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanes, José M.; Perea, Jaime D.; Darriba, Laura; García-Gómez, Carlos; Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, Evangelia

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a computationally competitive N-body model of a previrialized aggregation of galaxies in a flat Λ cold dark matter Universe to assess the role of the multiple mergers that take place during the formation stage of such systems in the configuration of the remnants assembled at their centres. An analysis of a suite of 48 simulations of low-mass forming groups (Mtot,gr ˜ 1013 h-1 M⊙) demonstrates that the gravitational dynamics involved in their hierarchical collapse is capable of creating realistic first-ranked galaxies without the aid of dissipative processes. Our simulations indicate that the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) constitute a distinct population from other group members, sketching a scenario in which the assembly path of these objects is dictated largely by the formation of their host system. We detect significant differences in the distribution of Sérsic indices and total magnitudes, as well as a luminosity gap between BGGs and the next brightest galaxy that is positively correlated with the total luminosity of the parent group. Such gaps arise from both the grow of BGGs at the expense of lesser companions and the decrease in the relevance of second-ranked objects in equal measure. This results in a dearth of intermediate-mass galaxies which explains the characteristic central dip detected in their luminosity functions in dynamically young galaxy aggregations. The fact that the basic global properties of our BGGs define a thin mass Fundamental Plane strikingly similar to that followed by giant early-type galaxies in the local Universe reinforces confidence in the results obtained.

  12. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  13. Linguistically Diverse Children and Educators (Re)Forming Early Literacy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tamara Glupczynski; Falchi, Lorraine; Ghiso, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    The current context of increased accountability and the proliferation of skills-based literacy mandates at the early childhood level pose particular tensions for multilingual children and educators. In this article, we draw on data from two ethnographic studies to examine how educators and children negotiate the constraints of early childhood…

  14. Examining Different Forms of Implementation and in Early Childhood Curriculum Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Fleming, Kandace; Diamond, Karen; Lieber, Joan; Hanson, Marci; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Marquis, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine different approaches to assessing implementation in an early childhood curriculum research study. Early childhood teachers in 51 preschool classes located at nationally dispersed sites implemented the Children's School Success curriculum for a school year. Structural (proportion of curriculum delivered) and…

  15. Effects of Extreme Monsoon Precipitation on River Systems Form And Function, an Early Eocene Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.; Birgenheier, L.

    2013-12-01

    Here we document effects of extreme monsoon precipitation on river systems with mountainous drainage basin. We discuss the effects of individual extreme monsoon seasons, as well as long-term changes in Earth surface system's form and function. The dataset spans across 1000 m of stratigraphy across ca 200 km of Paleocene and Early Eocene river deposits. The excessive 3-dimensional outcrops, combined with our new Carbon isotope, ichnological and paleosols record allow reconstruction of long-term river system's evolution during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ca 56 million years ago, the transient global warming events during Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO) ca 53 to 51.5 million years ago, as well as the effects of highly peaked precipitation events during single monsoon seasons. On the single season scale, the increase in precipitation peakedness causes high discharge flooding events that remove large quantities of sediment from the drainage basin, due to stream erosion and landslide initiation. The initiation of landslides is especially significant, as the drainage basin is of high gradient, the monsoon intensification is accompanied by significant vegetation decline, as the monsoon cycle changes to multi-year droughts interrupted by extreme monsoon precipitation. These large discharge floods laden with sediment cause rapid deposition from high-velocity currents that resemble megaflood deposits in that they are dominated by high-velocity and high deposition rate sedimentary structures and thick simple depositional packages (unit bars). Such high deposition rates cause locally rapid channel bed aggradation and thus increase frequency of channel avulsions and cause catastrophic high-discharge terrestrial flooding events across the river basin. On long time scales, fluvial megafan systems, similar to those, e.g. in the Himalayan foreland, developed across the ca 200 km wide river basin, causing significant sediment aggradation and a landscape with high

  16. Cumulative life damage in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Ibler, Kristina; Jemec, Gregor B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative life damage is an old concept of considerable face validity, which has attracted more scientific interest in the fields of sociology and psychology than in medicine over the years. The research examines the interconnectivity of the many factors which shape the development of individuals or institutions over time. By focussing on time, context and process, life course research highlights the different effects seemingly similar events may have at different points in time and in different contexts. PMID:25386260

  17. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  18. Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kostić, Aleksandar; Gvozdenović, Vasilije; O'Connor, Patrick A.; Martín, Fermín Moscoso del Prado

    2013-01-01

    Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of spelling changes to affixed stems in semantically similar and dissimilar pairs differed. The present study exploits Serbian's bialphabetism, rich morphology, and homographic (form-identical) stems to replicate early effects of semantic similarity. Further, it incorporates a within-target manipulation of prime type and of alphabet such that alphabet of prime-target pairs matched in Exp.1a and alternated in Exp.1b. Importantly, no letter or phoneme changes occurred between stems of prime and target. Results reveal significant effects of semantic similarity that are comparable with and without alphabet alternation. Semantic effects in Serbian replicate almost exactly those in English (Feldman et al., 2009) and suggest that even early in the course of processing, morphemes are units of meaning as well as form. Results fail to support models of lexical processing that postulate sequential access to the morphological form and then the semantic aspects of words. PMID:22477336

  19. Mechanisms Controlling the Effects of Bevacizumab (Avastin) on the Inhibition of Early but Not Late Formed Corneal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hsiao-Sang; Lin, Chung-Tien; Chow, Lu-Ping; Chen, Chih-Ta; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of early and late subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab on the inhibition of corneal neovascularization (NV). Methods Corneal NV was induced by closed eye contact lens wear followed by a silk suture tarsorrhaphy in rabbits. Weekly subconjunctival injections of bevacizumab (5.0 mg) for 1 month were started immediately (early treatment group) or 1 month after induction of corneal NV with continuous induction (late treatment group). The severity of corneal NV was evaluated. Immunostaining was used to evaluate the intracorneal diffusion of bevacizumab, and the existence of pericytes and smooth muscle cells around the NV. The expression of AM-3K, an anti-macrophage antibody, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial apoptosis were also evaluated. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the expression level of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 on corneal epithelium and stroma in different groups. Results Early treatment with bevacizumab inhibited corneal NV more significantly than late treatment. Intracorneal diffusion of bevacizumab was not different among different groups. Immunostaining showed pericytes and smooth muscle cells around newly formed vessels as early as 2 weeks after induction. Immunostaining and Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 on corneal stroma increased significantly in no treatment groups and late treatment groups, but not in early treatment group. Bevacizumab significantly inhibited macrophage infiltration in the early but not late treatment group. Sporadic vascular endothelial apoptosis was found at 4 weeks in the late but not early treatment group. Conclusions Early but not late injection of bevacizumab inhibited corneal NV. Late injection of bevacizumab did not alter macrophage infiltration, and can't inhibit the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 on corneal vessels. The inhibition of corneal NV

  20. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  1. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  2. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Schneider, Tapio; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric flows are governed by the equations of fluid dynamics. These equations are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifest itself only weakly through interactions of nontrivial mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. Here we show how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. However, it does not capture important turbulent transport terms in the turbulence kinetic energy budget. Second, we study the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale waves, which are representative of waves seen in Earth's upper atmosphere. We demonstrate that a cumulant expansion truncated at second order (CE2) can capture the evolution of such waves and their nonlinear interaction with the mean flow in some circumstances, for example, when the wave amplitude is small enough or the planetary rotation rate is large enough. However, CE2 fails to capture the flow evolution when strongly nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions that generate small-scale filaments in surf zones around critical layers become important. Higher-order closures can capture these missing interactions. The results point to new ways in which the dynamics of turbulent boundary layers may be represented in climate models, and they illustrate different classes

  3. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  4. Books for Professionals. Knowledge of Children Forms a Basis for Early Childhood Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMath, Joan S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews two books about early childhood curriculum based on young children's developmental needs: "The Whole Child" (J. Hendrick) discusses inclusion of special needs children in the classroom and Piaget's theory of the emergence of thinking and reasoning skill; "Creative Experiences for Young Children" (Mimi Brodsky Chenfield) discusses Howard…

  5. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  6. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation for women with low levels of social support (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI = 1.07, 4.07) or optimism (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI = 1.04, 3.37). Our analyses suggest that early vulnerability combined with current anxiety symptoms in pregnancy confers risk for preterm birth. Coping resources may mitigate the effect of cumulative psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  7. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  8. The Amphiolite Layers In The Cumulate Gabbros, (Northern-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Sherlock, Sarah; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Marzoli, Andrea; Ulianov, Alexey; Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The Early-Middle Jurassic SSZ type dismembered ophiolite sequence, which is remnants of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, crop out in the accretionary complex around Tokat-Çamlıbel region (Northern Turkey). The main lithology of the ophiolite sequence are cumulate gabbros, isotropic gabbros and basalts. The amphibolite layers, which their thickness are up to 2 m, are observed in the cumulate gabbros. In this study, we aim to discuss a possible formation mechanism of the amphibolitic rocks in the cumulate gabbros, based on the field, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data. The cumulate gabbros (olivine-gabbro, gabbro-norite and gabbro) have generally well developed magmatic layers and they show cumulate texture. They are cross cut by pegmatite gabbros, dolerites and plagiogranite dikes. In terms of the mechanism of formation, the amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are different from dolerite, pegmatite gabbro and plagiogranite dikes crosscutting the cumulate gabbros. Although the cumulate gabbros, the mafic and felsic dikes have not undergone any metamorphism (except the hydrothermal metamorphism), the amphibolite layers show well developed foliation and banded structure. Moreover, field and petrographic observations showed that the amphibolitic rocks were highly subjected to shearing. The amphibolitic rocks are mainly composed of magnesio-hornblende + plagioclase (andesine), ± biotite and opaque minerals and they exhibit nematoblastic texture. The amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are crosscut by the plagiogranite dikes. The plagiogranites consist mainly of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals and they show granular texture. Undulose extinction and sub-grain formation in quartz minerals indicate to the presence of deformation phase affecting the plagiogranite dikes. LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon from plagiogranite dikes which is cross-cutting of the amphibolite layers, yielded Middle Jurassic ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating of

  9. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem.

  10. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  11. Microbial Diversity in the Early In Vivo-Formed Dental Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Heller, D.; Helmerhorst, E. J.; Gower, A. C.; Siqueira, W. L.; Paster, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mature dental biofilm composition is well studied, there is very little information on the earliest phase of in vivo tooth colonization. Progress in dental biofilm collection methodologies and techniques of large-scale microbial identification have made new studies in this field of oral biology feasible. The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal changes and diversity of the cultivable and noncultivable microbes in the early dental biofilm. Samples of early dental biofilm were collected from 11 healthy subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after removal of plaque and pellicle from tooth surfaces. With the semiquantitative Human Oral Microbiome Identification Microarray (HOMIM) technique, which is based on 16S rRNA sequence hybridizations, plaque samples were analyzed with the currently available 407 HOMIM microbial probes. This led to the identification of at least 92 species, with streptococci being the most abundant bacteria across all time points in all subjects. High-frequency detection was also made with Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Gemella haemolysans, Slackia exigua, and Rothia species. Abundance changes over time were noted for Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius (P = 0.02), Streptococcus mitis bv. 2 (P = 0.0002), Streptococcus oralis (P = 0.0002), Streptococcus cluster I (P = 0.003), G. haemolysans (P = 0.0005), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (P = 0.02). Among the currently uncultivable microbiota, eight phylotypes were detected in the early stages of biofilm formation, one belonging to the candidate bacterial division TM7, which has attracted attention due to its potential association with periodontal disease. PMID:26746720

  12. ALTERNATE PATCHED SPLICE FORMS ARE EXPRESSED IN A TISSUE SPECIFIC MANNER DURING EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is critical for embryonic patterning of nearly every organ system in the developing fetus and is highly conserved across phylogeny. We have previously characterized three alternate splice forms of the Ptc gene, including a novel Exon 1C isoform in the mouse, but...

  13. An early look at the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network explant pathology form data.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ann M; Edwards, Erick; Washburn, W Kenneth; Heimbach, Julie

    2016-06-01

    In April 2012, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) implemented an online explant pathology form for recipients of liver transplantation who received additional wait-list priority for their diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of the form was to standardize the data being reported to the OPTN, which had been required since 2002 but were submitted to the OPTN in a variety of formats via facsimile. From April 2012 to December 2014, over 4500 explant forms were submitted, allowing for detailed analysis of the characteristics of the explanted livers. Data from the explant pathology forms were used to assess agreement with pretransplant imaging. Explant data were also used to assess the risk of recurrence. Of those with T2 priority, 55.7% were found to be stage T2 on explant. Extrahepatic spread (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8; P < 0.01), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01), microvascular invasion (OR = 2.6; P < 0.01), macrovascular invasion (OR = 3.2; P < 0.01), and whether the Milan stage based on the number and size of tumors on the explant form was T4 (OR = 2.4; P < 0.01) were the strongest predictors of recurrence. In conclusion, this analysis confirms earlier findings that showed an incomplete agreement between pretransplant imaging and posttransplant pathology in terms of HCC staging, though the number of patients with both no pretransplant treatment and no tumor in the explant was reduced from 20% to <1%. In addition, several factors were identified (eg, tumor burden, age, sex, region, ablative therapy, alpha-fetoprotein, Milan stage, vascular invasion, satellite lesions, etc.) that were predictive of HCC recurrence, allowing for more targeted surveillance of high-risk recipients. Continued evaluation of these data will help shape future guidelines or policy recommendations. Liver Transplantation 22 757-764 2016 AASLD.

  14. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  15. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of an Inverted Early Gastric Cancer-Forming False Gastric Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-il; Lee, Sang-kil

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) that does not have any risk of lymph node or distant metastases. Here, we report a case of EGC resembling a diverticulum. Diverticular formation makes it difficult for endoscopists to determine the depth of invasion and to subsequently perform ESD. Because the false diverticulum does not have a muscular layer, this lesion can be treated with ESD. Our case was successfully treated with ESD. After ESD, the EGC was confined to the submucosal layer without vertical and lateral margin involvement. This is the first case in which ESD was successfully performed for a case of EGC that coexisted with a false gastric diverticulum. An additional, larger study is needed to determine the efficacy of ESD in various types of EGC, such as a false gastric diverticulum. PMID:26855930

  16. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous coal-forming plants of the Bureya Basin, Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markevich, V. S.; Bugdaeva, E. V.

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the composition of fossil palynomorphs from coals and clastic rocks of the Talyndzhan, Dublikan, Soloni, Chagdamyn, and Chemchuko formations of the Bureya coaliferous Basin revealed that the main coal-forming plants during the Talyndzhan and Dublikan time were represented by cyatheaceous ferns, plants similar to Pinaceae, and plants produced Ginkgocycadophytus pollen. In the Soloni time, the boggy plant communities were composed of dominant Cyatheaceae, subordinate Pinaceae, rare Gleichenaceae representatives, and Ginkgocycadophytus-producing plants. During the Chagdamyn time, the main coal-forming role belonged to gleicheniaceous ferns, bryophytes, and lycopsids, while the Chemchuko time was marked by the dominant contribution of Gleicheniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Ginkgocycadophytus, and plants close to Taxodiaceae to the coal formation.

  17. GABAergic interneurons form transient layer-specific circuits in early postnatal neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Anastasiades, Paul G.; Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Lickiss, Tom; Raffiq, Sayda; Kätzel, Dennis; Miesenböck, Gero; Butt, Simon J. B.

    2016-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play key roles in cortical circuits, yet little is known about their early connectivity. Here we use glutamate uncaging and a novel optogenetic strategy to track changes in the afferent and efferent synaptic connections of developing neocortical interneuron subtypes. We find that Nkx2-1-derived interneurons possess functional synaptic connections before emerging pyramidal cell networks. Subsequent interneuron circuit maturation is both subtype and layer dependent. Glutamatergic input onto fast spiking (FS), but not somatostatin-positive, non-FS interneurons increases over development. Interneurons of both subtype located in layers (L) 4 and 5b engage in transient circuits that disappear after the somatosensory critical period. These include a pathway mediated by L5b somatostatin-positive interneurons that specifically targets L4 during the first postnatal week. The innervation patterns of immature cortical interneuron circuits are thus neither static nor progressively strengthened but follow a layer-specific choreography of transient connections that differ from those of the adult brain. PMID:26843463

  18. Early regulative ability of the neuroepithelium to form cardiac neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Ezin, Akouavi M.; Sechrist, John W.; Zah, Angela; Bronner, Marianne; Fraser, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac neural crest (arising from the level of hindbrain rhombomeres 6–8) contributes to the septation of the cardiac outflow tract and the formation of aortic arches. Removal of this population after neural tube closure results in severe septation defects in the chick, reminiscent of human birth defects. Because neural crest cells from other axial levels have regenerative capacity, we asked whether the cardiac neural crest might also regenerate at early stages in a manner that declines with time. Accordingly, we find that ablation of presumptive cardiac crest at stage 7, as the neural folds elevate, results in reformation of migrating cardiac neural crest by stage 13. Fate mapping reveals that the new population derives largely from the neuroepithelium ventral and rostral to the ablation. The stage of ablation dictates the competence of residual tissue to regulate and regenerate, as this capacity is lost by stage 9, consistent with previous reports. These findings suggest that there is a temporal window during which the presumptive cardiac neural crest has the capacity to regulate and regenerate, but this regenerative ability is lost earlier than in other neural crest populations. PMID:21047505

  19. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight a few of the key findings of the recently completed National Research Council Study Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (NRC, 2010), and discuss their implications for planetary stewardship. A synthesis of published results shows that the single number which most characterizes the magnitude of the human imprint on the climate of the coming millennia is the net amount of carbon released as CO2 by fossil fuel burning and land use changes during the time over which humanity continues such activities. Details of emissions scenarios are not important; rather it is the net carbon released by the time the emissions have been brought to essentially zero that controls long-term climate changes. In this report, we estimate that global temperatures increase by about 1 degree for approximately every 570 Pg of carbon emitted. Each degree of global temperature change is associated with quantifiable impacts on human and natural systems, including loss of arctic sea ice, decreased productivity of several major food crops, decreased precipitation in dry regions, and increases in area burnt by wildfire. Furthermore, the long timescale of temperature changes due to cumulative carbon emissions entails a lock-in to many centuries of continued sea-level rise, as well as the possibility of substantial contributions to sea-level rise from both Greenland and the West-Antarctic ice sheet. Reductions in methane or other short-lived greenhouse gas emissions can be of benefit in mitigating the near term climate changes, but CO2 is unique among major greenhouse gases in its ability to disrupt climate on multi-millennial time scales. This implies a need for correspondingly special treatment of this gas in emissions control protocols, for example by setting targets for allowable cumulative carbon emissions over time. The authoring committee was composed of Susan Solomon, Chair, David Battisti, Scott

  20. Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driese, S.G.; Medaris, L.G.; Ren, M.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Langford, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  1. KMOS3D: Dynamical Constraints on the Mass Budget in Early Star-forming Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Genzel, Reinhard; Burkert, Andreas; Bandara, Kaushala; Beifiori, Alessandra; Belli, Sirio; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Ric; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh K.; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Mendel, J. Trevor; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Naab, Thorsten; Nelson, Erica J.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Seitz, Stella; Tacconi, Linda J.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wilman, David J.; Wuyts, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We exploit deep integral-field spectroscopic observations with KMOS/Very Large Telescope of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6\\lt z\\lt 2.6 to dynamically constrain their mass budget. Our sample consists of massive (≳ {10}9.8 {M}ȯ ) galaxies with sizes {R}e≳ 2 {kpc}. By contrasting the observed velocity and dispersion profiles with dynamical models, we find that on average the stellar content contributes {32}-7+8 % of the total dynamical mass, with a significant spread among galaxies (68th percentile range {f}{star}∼ 18 % {--}62 % ). Including molecular gas as inferred from CO- and dust-based scaling relations, the estimated baryonic mass adds up to {56}-12+17 % of the total for the typical galaxy in our sample, reaching ∼ 90 % at z\\gt 2. We conclude that baryons make up most of the mass within the disk regions of high-redshift star-forming disk galaxies, with typical disks at z\\gt 2 being strongly baryon-dominated within R e . Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed among the galaxies in our sample, larger than what can be accounted for by the formal uncertainties in their respective measurements. In both cases, the mass fractions correlate most strongly with measures of surface density. High-{{{Σ }}}{star} galaxies feature stellar mass fractions closer to unity, and systems with high inferred gas or baryonic surface densities leave less room for additional mass components other than stars and molecular gas. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, and 096.A-0025.

  2. Vowels, then consonants: Early bias switch in recognizing segmented word forms.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Léo-Lyuki; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The division of labor hypothesis proposed by Nespor, Peña, and Mehler (2003) postulates that consonants are more important than vowels in lexical processing (when learning and recognizing words). This consonant bias (C-bias) is supported by many adult and toddler studies. However, some cross-linguistic variation has been found in toddlerhood, and various hypotheses have been proposed to account for the origin of the consonant bias, which make distinct predictions regarding its developmental trajectory during the first year of life. The present study evaluated these hypotheses by investigating the consonant bias in young French-learning infants, a language in which a consistent consonant bias is reported from 11months of age onward. Accordingly, in a series of word form segmentation experiments building on the fact that both 6- and 8-month-old French-learning infants can segment monosyllabic words, we investigated the relative impact of consonant and vowel mispronunciations on the recognition of segmented word forms at these two ages. Infants were familiarized with passages containing monosyllabic target words and then tested in different conditions all including consonant and/or vowel mispronunciations of the target words. Overall, our findings reveal a consonant bias at 8months, but an opposite vowel bias at 6months. These findings first establish that the consonant bias emerges between 6 and 8months of age in French-learning infants. Second, we discuss the factors that might explain such a developmental trajectory, highlighting the possible roles of pre-lexical and phonological acquisition. PMID:27428809

  3. Forming Inner Ice-Rich Moons at Saturn from a Massive Early Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M.

    2014-11-01

    -motion resonances) as well as their tidal interaction with the planet. Implications for the origin and early dynamical evolution of Saturn’s inner moons will be discussed.

  4. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Peter J; Holowka, Nicholas B; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as "dorsal doming" are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2-5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  5. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Peter J.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L.

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as “dorsal doming” are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2–5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  6. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  7. Cumulative risk and child development.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Li, Dongping; Whipple, Sara Sepanski

    2013-11-01

    Childhood multiple risk factor exposure exceeds the adverse developmental impacts of singular exposures. Multiple risk factor exposure may also explain why sociodemographic variables (e.g., poverty) can have adverse consequences. Most research on multiple risk factor exposure has relied upon cumulative risk (CR) as the measure of multiple risk. CR is constructed by dichotomizing each risk factor exposure (0 = no risk; 1 = risk) and then summing the dichotomous scores. Despite its widespread use in developmental psychology and elsewhere, CR has several shortcomings: Risk is designated arbitrarily; data on risk intensity are lost; and the index is additive, precluding the possibility of statistical interactions between risk factors. On the other hand, theoretically more compelling multiple risk metrics prove untenable because of low statistical power, extreme higher order interaction terms, low robustness, and collinearity among risk factors. CR multiple risk metrics are parsimonious, are statistically sensitive even with small samples, and make no assumptions about the relative strengths of multiple risk factors or their collinearity. CR also fits well with underlying theoretical models (e.g., Bronfenbrenner's, 1979, bioecological model; McEwen's, 1998, allostasis model of chronic stress; and Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, & Schlomer's, 2009, developmental evolutionary theory) concerning why multiple risk factor exposure is more harmful than singular risk exposure. We review the child CR literature, comparing CR to alternative multiple risk measurement models. We also discuss strengths and weaknesses of developmental CR research, offering analytic and theoretical suggestions to strengthen this growing area of scholarship. Finally, we highlight intervention and policy implications of CR and child development research and theory. PMID:23566018

  8. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  9. A Photographic View of Cumulative Distribution Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows a concrete and easy recognizable view of a cumulative distribution function(cdf). Photograph views of the search tabs on dictionaries are used to increase students' understanding and facility with the concept of a cumulative distribution function. Projects for student investigations are also given. This motivation and view helps…

  10. Rethinking cumulative exposure in epidemiology, again.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach

    2015-01-01

    The use of cumulative exposure, the product of intensity and duration, has enjoyed great popularity in epidemiology of chronic diseases despite numerous known caveats in its interpretation. We briefly review the history of use of cumulative exposure in epidemiology and propose an alternative method for relating time-integrated exposures to health risks. We argue, as others before us have, that cumulative exposure metrics obscures the interplay of exposure intensity and duration. We propose to use a computationally simple alternative in which duration and intensity of exposure are modelled as a main effect and their interaction, cumulative exposure, only be added if there is evidence of deviation from this additive model. We also consider the Lubin-Caporaso model of interplay of exposure intensity and duration. The impact of measurement error in intensity on model selection was also examined. The value of this conceptualization is demonstrated using a simulation study and further illustrated in the context of respiratory health and occupational exposure to latex dust. We demonstrate why cumulative exposure has been so popular because the cumulative exposure metric per se gives a robust answer to the existence of an association, regardless of the underlying true mechanism of disease. Treating cumulative exposure as the interaction of main effects of exposure duration and intensity enables epidemiologists to derive more information about mechanism of disease then fitting cumulative exposure metric by itself, and without the need to collect additional data. We propose that the practice of fitting duration, intensity and cumulative exposure separately to epidemiologic data should lead to conceptualization of cumulative exposure as interaction of main effects of duration and intensity of exposure. PMID:25138292

  11. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Temi, Pasquale

    2009-12-20

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 mum) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 mum luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  12. Chinese and Korean characters engage the same visual word form area in proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.

  13. Early-Childhood Social Reticence Predicts Brain Function in Preadolescent Youths During Distinct Forms of Peer Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Johanna M; Davis, Megan M; Shechner, Tomer; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Stoddard, Joel; Fox, Nathan A; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    Social reticence is expressed as shy, anxiously avoidant behavior in early childhood. With development, overt signs of social reticence may diminish but could still manifest themselves in neural responses to peers. We obtained measures of social reticence across 2 to 7 years of age. At age 11, preadolescents previously characterized as high (n = 30) or low (n = 23) in social reticence completed a novel functional-MRI-based peer-interaction task that quantifies neural responses to the anticipation and receipt of distinct forms of social evaluation. High (but not low) social reticence in early childhood predicted greater activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left and right insula, brain regions implicated in processing salience and distress, when participants anticipated unpredictable compared with predictable feedback. High social reticence was also associated with negative functional connectivity between insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region commonly implicated in affect regulation. Finally, among participants with high social reticence, negative evaluation was associated with increased amygdala activity, but only during feedback from unpredictable peers. PMID:27150109

  14. Life Course Associations between Victimization and Aggression: Distinctive and Cumulative Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2014-01-01

    The connections between early maltreatment and later aggression are well established in the literature, however gaps remain in our understanding of developmental processes. This study investigates the cascading life course linkages between victimization experiences from childhood through early adulthood and later aggressive behavior. The diverse, at-risk sample is of particular importance to child and adolescent specialists, as it represents highly vulnerable youth accessible through conventional school settings. In addition to direct pathways from proximal life periods, path analysis revealed significant indirect mediated pathways through which earlier life victimization contributes to aggressive behaviors in later life periods as well as revictimization. Multivariate regressions support theorized cumulative effects of multi-form victimization as well as distinct contributions of victimization domains (emotional, witnessing, physical, property, and sexual) in explaining aggressive behavior. Consistent with theorizing about the developmental impact of early maltreatment, results bolster the importance of interrupting pathways from victimization to revictimization and later aggression. Findings are evaluated in light of implications for early identification and prevention programming. PMID:26190900

  15. Life Course Associations between Victimization and Aggression: Distinct and Cumulative Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2014-01-01

    The connections between early maltreatment and later aggression are well established in the literature, however gaps remain in our understanding of developmental processes. This study investigates the cascading lifecourse linkages between victimization experiences from childhood through early adulthood andlater aggressive behavior. The diverse, at-risk sample is of particular importance to child and adolescent specialists, as it represents highly vulnerable youth accessible through conventional school settings. In addition to direct pathways from proximal life periods, path analysis revealed significant indirect mediated pathways through which earlier life victimizationcontributes to aggressive behaviors in later life periods as well as revictimization. Multivariateregressions support theorized cumulative effects of multi-form victimization as well as distinct contributions of victimization domains (emotional, witnessing, physical, property, and sexual) in explaining aggressive behavior.Consistent with theorizing about the developmental impact of early maltreatment, results bolster the importance of interrupting pathways from victimization to revictimization and later aggression. Findings are evaluated in light of implications for early identification and prevention programming. PMID:26190899

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  17. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The literature for creep to failure cumulative damage laws are reviewed. Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  18. An Early and Robust Activation of Caspases Heads Cells for a Regulated Form of Necrotic-like Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Martínez-Escardó, Laura; Granados-Colomina, Carla; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Casanelles, Elisenda; Ribas, Judit; Yuste, Victor J

    2015-08-21

    Apoptosis is triggered by the activation of caspases and characterized by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation (type II nuclear morphology). Necrosis is depicted by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane leakage, and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. Although considered as different cell death entities, there is an overlap between apoptosis and necrosis. In this sense, mounting evidence suggests that both processes can be morphological expressions of a common biochemical network known as "apoptosis-necrosis continuum." To gain insight into the events driving the apoptosis-necrosis continuum, apoptotically proficient cells were screened facing several apoptotic inducers for the absence of type II apoptotic nuclear morphologies. Chelerythrine was selected for further studies based on its cytotoxicity and the lack of apoptotic nuclear alterations. Chelerythrine triggered an early plasma membrane leakage without condensed chromatin aggregates. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity was compatible with a necrotic-like type of cell death. Biochemically, chelerythrine induced the activation of caspases. Moreover, the inhibition of caspases prevented chelerythrine-triggered necrotic-like cell death. Compared with staurosporine, chelerythrine induced stronger caspase activation detectable at earlier times. After using a battery of chemicals, we found that high concentrations of thiolic antioxidants fully prevented chelerythrine-driven caspase activation and necrotic-like cell death. Lower amounts of thiolic antioxidants partially prevented chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity and allowed cells to display type II apoptotic nuclear morphology correlating with a delay in caspase-3 activation. Altogether, these data support that an early and pronounced activation of caspases can drive cells to undergo a form of necrotic-like regulated cell death. PMID:26124276

  19. An Early and Robust Activation of Caspases Heads Cells for a Regulated Form of Necrotic-like Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Martínez-Escardó, Laura; Granados-Colomina, Carla; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Casanelles, Elisenda; Ribas, Judit; Yuste, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is triggered by the activation of caspases and characterized by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation (type II nuclear morphology). Necrosis is depicted by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane leakage, and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. Although considered as different cell death entities, there is an overlap between apoptosis and necrosis. In this sense, mounting evidence suggests that both processes can be morphological expressions of a common biochemical network known as “apoptosis-necrosis continuum.” To gain insight into the events driving the apoptosis-necrosis continuum, apoptotically proficient cells were screened facing several apoptotic inducers for the absence of type II apoptotic nuclear morphologies. Chelerythrine was selected for further studies based on its cytotoxicity and the lack of apoptotic nuclear alterations. Chelerythrine triggered an early plasma membrane leakage without condensed chromatin aggregates. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity was compatible with a necrotic-like type of cell death. Biochemically, chelerythrine induced the activation of caspases. Moreover, the inhibition of caspases prevented chelerythrine-triggered necrotic-like cell death. Compared with staurosporine, chelerythrine induced stronger caspase activation detectable at earlier times. After using a battery of chemicals, we found that high concentrations of thiolic antioxidants fully prevented chelerythrine-driven caspase activation and necrotic-like cell death. Lower amounts of thiolic antioxidants partially prevented chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity and allowed cells to display type II apoptotic nuclear morphology correlating with a delay in caspase-3 activation. Altogether, these data support that an early and pronounced activation of caspases can drive cells to undergo a form of necrotic-like regulated cell death. PMID:26124276

  20. Using exposomics to assess cumulative risks and promote health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; de la Rosa, Rosemarie; Daniels, Sarah I

    2015-12-01

    Under the exposome paradigm all nongenetic factors contributing to disease are considered to be 'environmental' including chemicals, drugs, infectious agents, and psychosocial stress. We can consider these collectively as environmental stressors. Exposomics is the comprehensive analysis of exposure to all environmental stressors and should yield a more thorough understanding of chronic disease development. We can operationalize exposomics by studying all the small molecules in the body and their influence on biological pathways that lead to impaired health. Here, we describe methods by which this may be achieved and discuss the application of exposomics to cumulative risk assessment in vulnerable populations. Since the goal of cumulative risk assessment is to analyze, characterize, and quantify the combined risks to health from exposures to multiple agents or stressors, it seems that exposomics is perfectly poised to advance this important area of environmental health science. We should therefore support development of tools for exposomic analysis and begin to engage impacted communities in participatory exposome research. A first step may be to apply exposomics to vulnerable populations already studied by more conventional cumulative risk approaches. We further propose that recent migrants, low socioeconomic groups with high environmental chemical exposures, and pregnant women should be high priority populations for study by exposomics. Moreover, exposomics allows us to study interactions between chronic stress and environmental chemicals that disrupt stress response pathways (i.e., 'stressogens'). Exploring the impact of early life exposures and maternal stress may be an interesting and accessible topic for investigation by exposomics using biobanked samples.

  1. Age-of-acquisition and cumulative frequency have independent effects.

    PubMed

    Moore, V; Valentine, T; Turner, J

    1999-10-26

    Lewis (1999) argued that effects of age of acquisition (AoA) are entirely attributable to cumulative frequency. He reported an instance-based model in which the number of instances of the stimulus stored in memory predicts reaction time. We note four aspects of the literature on AoA that cannot be explained by this instance-based approach. Firstly, an effect of AoA has been observed in the absence of an effect of frequency. Secondly, an effect of AoA has been observed when cumulative frequency has been controlled. Thirdly, the effect of AoA is dependent on task. Fourthly, the effect of word frequency is dependent on stimulus modality. Lewis reported an experiment in which participants make a decision based on identity-specific semantic information to celebrity faces to demonstrate an effect of the number of instances in memory, which he interpreted as an effect of AoA. We note that effects of AoA have been found in lexical and perceptual tasks, but to date all attempts to demonstrate an advantage for early-acquired items in semantic classification tasks have failed. We conclude that the effects of AoA cannot be attributed solely to the effects of cumulative frequency. PMID:10610297

  2. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  3. ZFP36L2 is required for self-renewal of early burst-forming unit erythroid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingbo; Prak, Lina; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Thiru, Prathapan; Flygare, Johan; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2013-07-01

    Stem cells and progenitors in many lineages undergo self-renewing divisions, but the extracellular and intracellular proteins that regulate this process are largely unknown. Glucocorticoids stimulate red blood cell formation by promoting self-renewal of early burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) progenitors. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L2 is a transcriptional target of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in BFU-Es and is required for BFU-E self-renewal. ZFP36L2 is normally downregulated during erythroid differentiation from the BFU-E stage, but its expression is maintained by all tested GR agonists that stimulate BFU-E self-renewal, and the GR binds to several potential enhancer regions of ZFP36L2. Knockdown of ZFP36L2 in cultured BFU-E cells did not affect the rate of cell division but disrupted glucocorticoid-induced BFU-E self-renewal, and knockdown of ZFP36L2 in transplanted erythroid progenitors prevented expansion of erythroid lineage progenitors normally seen following induction of anaemia by phenylhydrazine treatment. ZFP36L2 preferentially binds to messenger RNAs that are induced or maintained at high expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation and negatively regulates their expression levels. ZFP36L2 therefore functions as part of a molecular switch promoting BFU-E self-renewal and a subsequent increase in the total numbers of colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) progenitors and erythroid cells that are generated.

  4. Psychometrics Properties of Early Trauma Inventory Self Report – Short Form (ETISR-SR) for the Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L.; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims. PMID:24098478

  5. The structure and early evolution of massive star forming regions. Substructure in the infrared dark cloud SDC13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Zhang, Q.; Traficante, A.; Avison, A.; Jimenez-Serra, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Investigations into the substructure of massive star forming regions are essential for understanding the observed relationships between core mass distributions and mass distributions in stellar clusters, differentiating between proposed mechanisms of massive star formation. Aims: We study the substructure in the two largest fragments (i.e. cores) MM1 and MM2, in the infrared dark cloud complex SDC13. As MM1 appears to be in a later stage of evolution than MM2, comparing their substructure provides an insight in to the early evolution of massive clumps. Methods: We report the results of high resolution SMA dust continuum observations towards MM1 and MM2. Combining these data with Herschel observations, we carry out RADMC-3D radiative transfer modelling to characterise the observed substructure. Results: SMA continuum data indicates 4 sub-fragments in the SDC13 region. The nature of the second brightest sub-fragment (B) is uncertain as it does not appear as prominent at the lower MAMBO resolution or at radio wavelengths. Statistical analysis indicates that it is unlikely to be a background source, an AGB star, or the free-free emission of a HII region. It is plausible that B is a runaway object ejected from MM1. MM1, which is actively forming stars, consists of two sub-fragments A and C. This is confirmed by 70 μmHerschel data. While MM1 and MM2 appear quite similar in previous low resolution observations, at high resolution, the sub-fragment at the centre of MM2 (D) is much fainter than sub-fragment at the centre of MM1 (A). RADMC-3D models of MM1 and MM2 are able to reproduce these results, modelling MM2 with a steeper density profile and higher mass than is required for MM1. The relatively steep density profile of MM2 depends on a significant temperature decrease in its centre, justified by the lack of star formation in MM2. A final stellar population for MM1 was extrapolated, indicating a star formation efficiency typical of regions of core and cluster

  6. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  7. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  8. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  9. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cumulative Risks, Cumulative Promotive Factors, and Adolescent Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…

  10. Cumulative Heat Diffusion Using Volume Gradient Operator for Volume Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, K C; Wang, Lei; Kaufman, A

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a simple, yet powerful method called the Cumulative Heat Diffusion for shape-based volume analysis, while drastically reducing the computational cost compared to conventional heat diffusion. Unlike the conventional heat diffusion process, where the diffusion is carried out by considering each node separately as the source, we simultaneously consider all the voxels as sources and carry out the diffusion, hence the term cumulative heat diffusion. In addition, we introduce a new operator that is used in the evaluation of cumulative heat diffusion called the Volume Gradient Operator (VGO). VGO is a combination of the LBO and a data-driven operator which is a function of the half gradient. The half gradient is the absolute value of the difference between the voxel intensities. The VGO by its definition captures the local shape information and is used to assign the initial heat values. Furthermore, VGO is also used as the weighting parameter for the heat diffusion process. We demonstrate that our approach can robustly extract shape-based features and thus forms the basis for an improved classification and exploration of features based on shape.

  11. Form and function of early neolithic bifacial stone tools reflects changes in land use practices during the neolithization process in the levant.

    PubMed

    Yerkes, Richard W; Khalaily, Hamudi; Barkai, Ran

    2012-01-01

    For many, climate change is no longer recognized as the primary cause of cultural changes in the Near East. Instead, human landscape degradation, population growth, socioeconomic adjustments, and conflict have been proposed as the mechanisms that shaped the Neolithic Revolution. However, as Bar-Yosef noted, even if there is chronological correlation between climate changes and cultural developments, what is important is to understand how Neolithic societies dealt with these improving or deteriorating environments. Changes in bifacial stone tools provide a framework for examining some of these interactions by focusing on changing land use practices during the Neolithization process. The results of microwear analysis of 40 bifacial artifacts from early Pre-Pottery Neolithic (EPPNB) levels at Motza in the Judean hills document changes during the PPNA-PPNB transition at the onset of the Levantine Moist Period (ca. 8000 cal B.C.) when conditions for agriculture improved. EPPNB villagers added heavy-duty axes to a toolkit they had used for carpentry and began to clear forests for fields and grazing lands. Sustainable forest management continued for the duration of the PPN until the cumulative effects of tree-felling and overgrazing seem to have led to landscape degradation at end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC), when a cold, dry climatic anomaly (6600-6000 cal B.C.) may have accelerated the reduction of woodlands. Early PPNB components at sites like Motza, with data from nearly five millennia of Neolithic occupations, show how complex hunter-gatherers and early food producers were able to establish sustainable resource management systems even as climate changed, population increased, and social relations were redefined. PMID:22905133

  12. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  13. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  15. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A.

    2015-03-10

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.

  16. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT FOR QUANTITATIVE RESPONSE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Relative Potency Factor approach (RPF) is used to normalize and combine different toxic potencies among a group of chemicals selected for cumulative risk assessment. The RPF method assumes that the slopes of the dose-response functions are all equal; but this method depends o...

  17. Reading aloud: the cumulative lexical interference effect.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo; Saunders, Steven; Coltheart, Max

    2012-08-01

    Picture naming shows a cumulative semantic interference effect: Latency for naming a target picture increases as a function of the number of pictures semantically similar to the target that have previously been named (Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, & Cole-Virtue, Cognition 100:464-482, 2006). Howard and colleagues, and also Oppenheim, Dell, and Schwartz (Cognition 114:227-252, 2010), argued that this occurs because of the joint presence in the picture-naming system of three critical properties: shared activation, priming, and competition. They also discussed the possibility that whenever any cognitive system possesses these three properties, a cumulative similarity-based interference effect from repeated use of that cognitive system will occur. We investigated this possibility by looking for a cumulative lexical interference effect when the task is reading aloud: Will the latency of reading a target word aloud increase as a function of the number of words orthographically/phonologically similar to the target that have previously been read aloud? We found that this was so. This supports the general idea that cumulative similarity-based interference effects will arise whenever any cognitive system that possesses the three key properties of shared activation, priming, and competition is repeatedly used. PMID:22623265

  18. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. J.; Straight, M. R.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  19. Cumulative Intertrial Inhibition in Repeated Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the author examined visual search when the items remain visible across trials but the location of the target varies. Reaction times for inefficient search cumulatively increased with increasing numbers of repeated search trials, suggesting that inhibition for distractors carried over successive trials. This intertrial…

  20. Cumulative frequency distribution of past species extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of Sepkoski's compendium of the time ranges of 30,000+ taxa yields a mean duration of 28.4 ma for genera of fossil invertebrates. This converts to an average extinction rate of 3.5 percent per million years or about one percent every 286,000 years. Using survivorship techniques, these estimates can be converted to the species level, yielding a Phanerozoic average of one percent species extinction every 40,000 years. Variation in extinction rates through time is far greater than the null expectation of a homogeneous birth-death model and this reflects the well-known episodicity of extinction ranging from a few large mass extinctions to so-called background extinction. The observed variation in rates can be used to construct a cumulative frequency distribution of extinction intensity, and this distribution, in the form of a kill curve for species, shows the expected waiting times between extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction record and does not imply any cause or causes of extinction. The kill curve shows, among other things, that only about five percent of total species extinctions in the Phanerozoic were involved in the five largest mass extinctions. The other 95 percent were distributed among large and small events not normally called mass extinctions. As an exploration of the possibly absurd proposition that most past extinctions were produced by the effects of large-body impact, the kill curve for species was mapped on the comparable distribution for comet and asteroid impacts. The result is a curve predicting the species kill for a given size of impacting object (expressed as crater size). The results are reasonable in that impacts producing craters less than 30 km (diameter) cause negligible extinction but those producing craters 100-150 km (diameter) cause extinction of species in the range of 45

  1. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action. PMID:23145705

  2. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  3. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z = 3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Nicholas S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-08-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.0. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.3 at z ≳ 2. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.0{--}10.5, being a factor of ˜3–5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≲ 10. At {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )\\gt 10.5, red galaxies dominate the galaxy population at all redshift z < 3, either because they are quiescent (at late times) or dusty star-forming (in the early universe).

  4. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z = 3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Nicholas S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-08-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.0. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≳ 10.3 at z ≳ 2. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≳ 10.0{--}10.5, being a factor of ˜3-5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≲ 10. At {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )\\gt 10.5, red galaxies dominate the galaxy population at all redshift z < 3, either because they are quiescent (at late times) or dusty star-forming (in the early universe).

  5. Relationship between Cumulative BMI and Symptomatic, Psychosocial, and Medical Outcomes in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frankenburg, Frances R.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six, eight, and 10 years intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more obesity-related medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD. PMID:21838559

  6. Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.; Dourson, Michael L.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Price, Paul S.; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled “Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment” took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed. PMID:22345310

  7. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated. PMID:27450610

  8. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  9. Experimental approaches to studying cumulative cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Atkinson, Mark; Renner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cultural traditions often change in ways which increase efficiency and functionality. This process, widely referred to as cumulative cultural evolution, sees beneficial traits preferentially retained, and it is so pervasive that we may be inclined to take it for granted. However, directional change of this kind appears to distinguish human cultural traditions from behavioural traditions that have been documented in other animals. Cumulative culture is therefore attracting an increasing amount of attention within psychology, and researchers have begun to develop methods of studying this phenomenon under controlled conditions. These studies have now addressed a number of different questions, including which learning mechanisms may be implicated, and how the resulting behaviours may be influenced by factors such as population structure. The current article provides a synopsis of some of these studies, and highlights some of the unresolved issues in this field. PMID:27397972

  10. Cumulative Risk Disparities in Children's Neurocognitive Functioning: A Developmental Cascade Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Mark; Browne, Dillon T.; Plamondon, Andre; Daniel, Ella; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the role of cumulative social risk on children's theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) across early development. Further, we also tested a cascade model of development in which children's social cognition at 18 months was hypothesized to predict ToM and EF at age 4.5 through intermediary…

  11. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Index to NASA Tech Briefs lists the technological innovations derived from the U.S. space program and published during the period January through December 1968. A new five year cycle of cumulative indexes begins with this index. The main section is arranged in six categories: Electrical (Electronic); Physical Sciences (Energy Sources); Materials (Chemistry); Life Sciences; Mechanical; and Computer Programs.

  12. Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z. K.; Minear, J. T.

    2014-06-01

    The Mekong River, largely undeveloped prior to 1990, is undergoing rapid dam construction. Seven dams are under construction on the mainstem in China and 133 proposed for the Lower Mekong River and tributaries. We delineated nine distinct geomorphic regions, for which we estimated sediment yields based on geomorphic characteristics, tectonic history, and the limited sediment transport data available. We then applied the 3W model to calculate cumulative sediment trapping by these dams, accounting for changing trap efficiency over time and multiple dams on a single river system. Under a "definite future" scenario of 38 dams (built or under construction), cumulative sediment reduction to the Delta would be 51%. Under full build-out of all planned dams, cumulative sediment trapping will be 96%. That is, once in-channel stored sediment is exhausted, only 4% of the predam sediment load would be expected to reach the Delta. This scenario would have profound consequences on productivity of the river and persistence of the Delta landform itself, and suggests that strategies to pass sediment through/around dams should be explored to prevent the consequences of downstream sediment starvation.

  13. [Cumulative exposure to pesticide residues in food].

    PubMed

    Kostka, Grazyna; Urbanek-Olejnik, Katarzyna; Liszewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.

  14. High-Precision Nd Isotopes in Picrites from Hawaii and Iceland - No Evidence for an Early-Formed Enriched Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.; Debaille, V.

    2007-01-01

    New high-precision Nd isotope measurements have shown that the present-day Nd-142/Nd-144 for average chondrites is approximately 20 ppm lower than that for the terrestrial standard and all recent mantle-derived samples measured to date. One explanation for these differences is that an enriched missing reservoir with lower Nd-142/Nd-144 resides in the mantle to balance the bulk Earth to chondritic. Data from Archean Greenland rocks show anomalies in Nd-142/Nd-144 of up to 40 ppm higher than the proposed average for chondrites. This difference between the Archean Greenland rocks and present-day mantle-derived samples has been interpreted to result from remixing of an early-formed enriched reservoir into the convecting mantle during the Archean. If so, the implication from this is that remixing of the enriched reservoir largely shut down some time in the past such that it must at present reside in a region in the mantle that infrequently participates dynamically and leading to volcanism at the surface. Several studies have suggested that the missing reservoir may be present just above the coremantle boundary (CMB). Depending on the size of this reservoir it could potentially make up all of D or exist as distinct domains within it. If such a reservoir does exist, then mantle-derived samples from plume systems that are thought to come from the CMB may be the best opportunity to identify this component using high-precision Nd isotope measurements. To test this, picrites from Hawaii with coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 that has been proposed to be a signature of core-mantle interaction were measured on the JSC Triton for high-precision Nd-142/Nd-144. For comparison, picrites from Hawaii and Iceland that do not show coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 were measured. We have established an external precision for Nd-142/Nd-144 of 3.6 ppm (2 sigma) during the analytical campaign. The Iceland (n=5) and Hawaiian data (n=9) have Nd-142 ranging from -0.01 plus or minus 0

  15. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among HIV-infected Individuals in North America

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Lau, Bryan; Achenbach, Chad J.; Jing, Yuezhou; Althoff, Keri N.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Engels, Eric A.; Hessol, Nancy; Brooks, John T.; Burchell, Ann N.; Gill, M. John; Goedert, James J.; Hogg, Robert; Horberg, Michael A.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Korthuis, Phillip T.; Mathews, William C.; Mayor, Angel; Modur, Sharada P.; Napravnik, Sonia; Novak, Richard M.; Patel, Pragna; Rachlis, Anita R.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Willig, James H.; Justice, Amy C.; Moore, Richard D.; Dubrow, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is increasingly common among HIV patients given improved survival. Objective To examine calendar trends in cumulative cancer incidence and hazard rate by HIV status. Design Cohort study Setting North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design during 1996–2009 Patients 86,620 HIV-infected and 196,987 uninfected adults Measurements We estimated cancer-type-specific cumulative incidence by age 75 years by HIV status and calendar era, and examined calendar trends in cumulative incidence and hazard rates. Results Cumulative incidences (%) of cancer by age 75 (HIV+/HIV−) were: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), 4.4/0.01; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 4.5/0.7; lung, 3.4/2.8; anal, 1.5/0.1; colorectal, 1.0/1.5; liver, 1.1/0.4; Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 0.9/0.1; melanoma, 0.5/0.6; and oral cavity/pharyngeal, 0.8/0.8. Among HIV-infected subjects, we observed decreasing calendar trends in cumulative incidence and hazard rate for KS and NHL. For anal, colorectal and liver cancers, increasing cumulative incidence, but not hazard rate trends, were due to the decreasing mortality rate trend (−9% per year), allowing greater opportunity to be diagnosed with these cancer types. Despite decreasing hazard rate trends for lung, HL, and melanoma, we did not observe cumulative incidence trends due to the compensating effect of the declining mortality rate on cumulative incidence. Limitations Secular trends in screening, smoking, and viral co-infections were not evaluated. Conclusions Our analytic approach helped disentangle the effects of improved survival and changing cancer-specific hazard rates on cumulative incidence trends among HIV patients. Cumulative cancer incidence by age 75, approximating lifetime risk in HIV patients, may have clinical utility in this population. The high cumulative incidences by age 75 for KS, NHL, and lung cancer supports early and sustained ART and smoking cessation. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health PMID:26436616

  16. A Form of Perforant Path LTP Can Occur without ERK1/2 Phosphorylation or Immediate Early Gene Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Oswald; Huang, Fen; Guzowski, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulation paradigms that induce perforant path long-term potentiation (LTP) initiate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induce expression of a variety of immediate early genes (IEGs). These events are thought to be critical components of the mechanism for establishing the changes in synaptic efficacy that endure for hours or longer. Here we show that…

  17. I, Me, My and 'Name': Children's Early Systematizations of Forms, Meanings and Functions in Talk about the Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budwig, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Data drawn from videotapes of children aged 20 to 32 months were analyzed for patterns in the use of various self-reference forms at an age when children rarely refer to others compared to their use at an age when children more regularly refer to others as main participants. First, the distribution of the forms "I,""me,""my," other-reference, and…

  18. The cumulative influence of conflict on nursing home staff.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Anderson, James G; Anderson, Marilyn M; Suitor, J Jill; Pillemer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Nursing staff burnout is a significant challenge in the delivery of nursing home care. Using a representative sample of nursing staff working within the nursing home setting, our analysis addressed the influence of conflict with residents' families on the burnout experience of staff. Through the use of computer simulation modeling we were able to assess the cumulative effects of conflict between staff and families. Findings indicated that conflict with the residents' families increased both burnout and dissatisfaction among nursing staff. The burnout experience of nursing staff peaked with initial episodes of conflict, then leveled off as simulated conflict with family members continued. Because previous research has indicated that burnout tends to peak early in nurses' career cycle, the finding that initial episodes of conflict have a strong influence on nursing staff burnout highlights the importance of interpersonal conflict within nursing homes in both individual and institutional outcomes.

  19. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  20. Weighted comparison of two cumulative incidence functions with R-CIFsmry package.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we propose a class of flexible weight functions for use in comparison of two cumulative incidence functions. The proposed weights allow the users to focus their comparison on an early or a late time period post treatment or to treat all time points with equal emphasis. These weight functions can be used to compare two cumulative incidence functions via their risk difference, their relative risk, or their odds ratio. The proposed method has been implemented in the R-CIFsmry package which is readily available for download and is easy to use as illustrated in the example.

  1. [Recommendations for the analysis of cumulated data in antimicrobial susceptibility in health institutions].

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    Due to the great variability in antimicrobial resistance patterns, local reports of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data are necessary in every health center. The purpose is to guide clinical decisions and the early detection of patterns that allow preventive measures to avoid dissemination of resistant strains. The main objective of this guide is to provide recommendations for the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data and elaboration of a local report. Recommendations provided in this guide are based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document "Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data" (3). Key aspects related to information gathering and data processing, analysis and presentation are described.

  2. Comparative Genomics of Early-Diverging Mushroom-Forming Fungi Provides Insights into the Origins of Lignocellulose Decay Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Nagy, László G; Riley, Robert; Tritt, Andrew; Adam, Catherine; Daum, Chris; Floudas, Dimitrios; Sun, Hui; Yadav, Jagjit S; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Matsuura, Kenji; Barry, Kerrie; Labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Rita; Ohm, Robin A; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Shirouzu, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2016-04-01

    Evolution of lignocellulose decomposition was one of the most ecologically important innovations in fungi. White-rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes (mushrooms and relatives) are the most effective microorganisms in degrading both cellulose and lignin components of woody plant cell walls (PCW). However, the precise evolutionary origins of lignocellulose decomposition are poorly understood, largely because certain early-diverging clades of Agaricomycetes and its sister group, the Dacrymycetes, have yet to be sampled, or have been undersampled, in comparative genomic studies. Here, we present new genome sequences of ten saprotrophic fungi, including members of the Dacrymycetes and early-diverging clades of Agaricomycetes (Cantharellales, Sebacinales, Auriculariales, and Trechisporales), which we use to refine the origins and evolutionary history of the enzymatic toolkit of lignocellulose decomposition. We reconstructed the origin of ligninolytic enzymes, focusing on class II peroxidases (AA2), as well as enzymes that attack crystalline cellulose. Despite previous reports of white rot appearing as early as the Dacrymycetes, our results suggest that white-rot fungi evolved later in the Agaricomycetes, with the first class II peroxidases reconstructed in the ancestor of the Auriculariales and residual Agaricomycetes. The exemplars of the most ancient clades of Agaricomycetes that we sampled all lack class II peroxidases, and are thus concluded to use a combination of plesiomorphic and derived PCW degrading enzymes that predate the evolution of white rot. PMID:26659563

  3. Comparative Genomics of Early-Diverging Mushroom-Forming Fungi Provides Insights into the Origins of Lignocellulose Decay Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Nagy, László G; Riley, Robert; Tritt, Andrew; Adam, Catherine; Daum, Chris; Floudas, Dimitrios; Sun, Hui; Yadav, Jagjit S; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Matsuura, Kenji; Barry, Kerrie; Labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Rita; Ohm, Robin A; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Shirouzu, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2016-04-01

    Evolution of lignocellulose decomposition was one of the most ecologically important innovations in fungi. White-rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes (mushrooms and relatives) are the most effective microorganisms in degrading both cellulose and lignin components of woody plant cell walls (PCW). However, the precise evolutionary origins of lignocellulose decomposition are poorly understood, largely because certain early-diverging clades of Agaricomycetes and its sister group, the Dacrymycetes, have yet to be sampled, or have been undersampled, in comparative genomic studies. Here, we present new genome sequences of ten saprotrophic fungi, including members of the Dacrymycetes and early-diverging clades of Agaricomycetes (Cantharellales, Sebacinales, Auriculariales, and Trechisporales), which we use to refine the origins and evolutionary history of the enzymatic toolkit of lignocellulose decomposition. We reconstructed the origin of ligninolytic enzymes, focusing on class II peroxidases (AA2), as well as enzymes that attack crystalline cellulose. Despite previous reports of white rot appearing as early as the Dacrymycetes, our results suggest that white-rot fungi evolved later in the Agaricomycetes, with the first class II peroxidases reconstructed in the ancestor of the Auriculariales and residual Agaricomycetes. The exemplars of the most ancient clades of Agaricomycetes that we sampled all lack class II peroxidases, and are thus concluded to use a combination of plesiomorphic and derived PCW degrading enzymes that predate the evolution of white rot.

  4. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Dumas, Christophe; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), global annual mean temperature is warmer by 2-3 degree than pre-industrial. Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to be a 50% reduction compared to nowadays [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ~ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, there is already full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. How does Greenland ice sheet evolve from a half size to a glaciation level during 3 Ma - 2.5 Ma? Data show that there is a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process. In order to diagnose whether the ice sheet build-up is an abrupt event or a cumulative process, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables to investigate waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. To reach this goal, we use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014) which combines the evolution of CO2 concentration, orbital parameters and Greenland ice sheet sizes in an off-line way by interpolating snapshots simulations. Thanks to this new method, we can build a transient like simulation through asynchronous coupling between GCM and ice sheet model. With this method, we may consistently answer the question of the build-up of Greenland: abrupt or cumulative process.

  5. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  6. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2015-07-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.28 to 2.69 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  7. Exome sequencing identifies GCDH (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase) mutations as a cause of a progressive form of early-onset generalized dystonia.

    PubMed

    Marti-Masso, Jose Felix; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Makarov, Vladimir; López de Munain, Adolfo; Gorostidi, Ana; Bergareche, Alberto; Yoon, Seungtai; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2012-03-01

    Dystonias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders characterized by involuntary, sustained muscular contractions affecting one or more sites of the body, and abnormal postures. In this study, we describe an autosomal recessive family that presents with a progressive and early-onset form of generalized dystonia. The nuclear family consists of two healthy parents and two affected daughters. To elucidate the genetic causes underlying disease, whole-exome sequencing analysis was performed in one affected sibling, followed by validation, biochemical analyses and MRI brain imaging. A homozygous, disease-segregating mutation (p.Val400Met) was identified in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) gene at chromosome 19p13. The mutation, in an amino acid that is highly conserved among species, was absent in large number of neurologically normal individuals. Biochemical analyses demonstrated increased 3-hydroxy glutaric acid present in urine samples from both patients. MRI imaging revealed a T2 and flair hyperintense signal in lenticular nuclei with bilateral and symmetrical distribution. We conclude that both GCDH activity and GCDH mutation analysis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive forms of early-onset generalized dystonia and that mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism is one important pathway in the development of dystonia. As lysine restriction and L: -carnitine supplementation are important treatments for GCDH deficiency, identification of this deficiency in patients with progressive forms of early-onset generalized dystonia has potential treatment implications.

  8. Cumulative Advantage in an Egalitarian Country? Socioeconomic Health Disparities over the Life Course in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Liliya

    2016-06-01

    According to the cumulative advantage hypothesis, health gaps between socioeconomic groups widen with age. In the United States, studies have supported this hypothesis. Outside this context, evidence remains scarce. The present study tests the cumulative advantage hypothesis in Sweden, a society that contrasts sharply with the United States in terms of policies designed to reduce social disparities in health-related resources. I draw on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 9,412 person-years), spanning the period between 1991 and 2010. The results show that gaps in self-rated health increase from early to middle adulthood. This applies to differences between educational groups and between occupational classes. In older age, health gaps remain constant. Cross-cohort analyses reveal a rising importance of cumulative advantage between educational groups but not between occupational classes. I conclude that the forces of accumulation prevail even in one of the most egalitarian welfare states.

  9. Cumulative Advantage in an Egalitarian Country? Socioeconomic Health Disparities over the Life Course in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Liliya

    2016-06-01

    According to the cumulative advantage hypothesis, health gaps between socioeconomic groups widen with age. In the United States, studies have supported this hypothesis. Outside this context, evidence remains scarce. The present study tests the cumulative advantage hypothesis in Sweden, a society that contrasts sharply with the United States in terms of policies designed to reduce social disparities in health-related resources. I draw on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 9,412 person-years), spanning the period between 1991 and 2010. The results show that gaps in self-rated health increase from early to middle adulthood. This applies to differences between educational groups and between occupational classes. In older age, health gaps remain constant. Cross-cohort analyses reveal a rising importance of cumulative advantage between educational groups but not between occupational classes. I conclude that the forces of accumulation prevail even in one of the most egalitarian welfare states. PMID:27284078

  10. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  11. The stability of the ilmenite-rich cumulates and its implications for structures in the lunar mantle and core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Parmentier, M.; Liang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A dense ilmenite-rich cumulate layer is suggested to exist at the base of the lunar mantle, caused by overturn after the lunar magma ocean fractional solidification. This ilmenite-rich cumulate layer is enriched in radioactive elements. It may ascend due to the progressively increasing of thermal buoyancy caused by the continuous radioactive heating. This rise-up of the ilmenite-rich cumulates is proposed to explain the lunar asymmetry and the transient lunar dynamo. On the other hand, the ilmenite-rich cumulates may sink to form a stable outer core surrounding a previously formed metallic core. The inversion of lunar free oscillation data indicates a density structure that may be more compatible with a metallic core surrounded by stable ilmenite-rich cumulates. Here, we investigate the stability of the ilmenite-rich cumulates at the base of the lunar mantle by a numerical convection model with a three-dimensional spherical geometry. The convection model investigates two modes of heating. The mixed heating mode has the internal heating from the ilmenite-rich cumulates and the basal heating from the core while the pure internal heating mode has no heating contribution from the core. These two possible heating modes are based on two different ideas for the lunar metallic core. The first one proposed that the lunar metallic core has been keeping cooling and hence heating the lunar mantle from below while the second idea suggested that the lunar metallic core is too small and can only heat the mantle in very short period of time. Our results show that the behavior of the ilmenite-rich cumulate layer depends on its strength and the heating modes of the lunar mantle. With a relatively large viscosity, the ilmenite-rich cumulate layer acts like a thermal blanket and forms a single upwelling as previous study demonstrated. However, with a small viscosity, the ilmenite-rich layer is much more stable because it is efficient for heat transport and will not accumulate much

  12. β-hairpin forms by rolling up from C-terminal: topological guidance of early folding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Enemark, Søren; Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2012-01-01

    That protein folding is a non-random, guided process has been known even prior to Levinthal's paradox; yet, guided searches, attendant mechanisms and their relation to primary sequence remain obscure. Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a β-hairpin with key sequence features similar to those of >13,000 β-hairpins in full proteins, we provide significant insights on the entire pre-folding dynamics at single-residue levels and describe a single, highly coordinated roll-up folding mechanism, with clearly identifiable stages, directing structural progression toward native state. Additional simulations of single-site mutants illustrate the role of three key residues in facilitating this roll-up mechanism. Given the many β-hairpins in full proteins with similar residue arrangements and since β-hairpins are believed to act as nucleation sites in early-stage folding dynamics of full proteins, the topologically guided mechanism seen here may represent one of Nature's strategies for reducing early-stage folding complexity.

  13. Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-early Tertiary ore-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time.

  14. The main early and late promoters of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 form unstable open complexes with sigma A-RNA polymerase that are stabilized by DNA supercoiling.

    PubMed

    Rojo, F; Nuez, B; Mencía, M; Salas, M

    1993-02-25

    Most Escherichia coli promoters studied so far form stable open complexes with sigma 70-RNA polymerase which have relatively long half-lives and, therefore, are resistant to a competitor challenge. A few exceptions are nevertheless known. The analysis of a number of promoters in Bacillus subtilis has suggested that the instability of open complexes formed by the vegetative sigma A-RNA polymerase may be a more general phenomenon than in Escherichia coli. We show that the main early and late promoters from the Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 form unstable open complexes that are stabilized either by the formation of the first phosphodiester bond between the initiating nucleoside triphosphates or by DNA supercoiling. The functional characteristics of these two strong promoters suggest that they are not optimized for a tight and stable RNA polymerase binding. Their high activity is probably the consequence of the efficiency of further steps leading to the formation of an elongation complex.

  15. Trajectories of Religious Coping from Adolescence into Early Adulthood: Their Form and Relations to Externalizing Problems and Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Panerai, Laura; Eggum, Natalie D.; Cohen, Adam B.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in religious coping and their relations to adolescents’ and young adults’ functioning. In 686 Italian youths, trajectories of religious coping were identified from age 16–17 years to age 22–23 years; cohorts of youths reported at three of the four assessments. Four trajectories of religious coping were identified: decreasing, low stable, high stable, and increasing. A decline in religious coping was associated with high levels of externalizing problems at age 16–17, whereas an increase in religious coping was associated with higher externalizing problems at ages 18–19 and 20–21 years, and with relatively high involvement with deviant peers. High stable religious copers were high in prosocial behavior at three ages; low stable religious copers were higher than people undergoing change in their religious coping from mid-adolescence into early adulthood. These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21682728

  16. Nontemplate-driven polymers: clues to a minimal form of organization closure at the early stages of living systems.

    PubMed

    Freire, Miguel Ángel

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of the first polymers played an essential role in the transition from the physicochemical to the biological domain, a perception that embodied many different world paradigms relying on only one primal polymer. However, biological complexity would have appeared with an increasing set of associated chemistries and molecular interactions of many different macromolecules. In agreement with this notion, here, the purpose is to focus specific attention on current knowledge of modern biochemistry of a set of widespread polymers likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor synthesized by nontemplate-driven reactions with references to their abiotic synthesis. The proposed overview describes the manner in which these polymers could have organized around two polymerization reaction cycles and integrated into a minimal organizational closure at the early stages of living systems, independently of template replication processes. This hypothesis could provide an alternative conceptual framework to evaluate a plausible scenario addressing the transition from nonliving to protocellular systems.

  17. Nontemplate-driven polymers: clues to a minimal form of organization closure at the early stages of living systems.

    PubMed

    Freire, Miguel Ángel

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of the first polymers played an essential role in the transition from the physicochemical to the biological domain, a perception that embodied many different world paradigms relying on only one primal polymer. However, biological complexity would have appeared with an increasing set of associated chemistries and molecular interactions of many different macromolecules. In agreement with this notion, here, the purpose is to focus specific attention on current knowledge of modern biochemistry of a set of widespread polymers likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor synthesized by nontemplate-driven reactions with references to their abiotic synthesis. The proposed overview describes the manner in which these polymers could have organized around two polymerization reaction cycles and integrated into a minimal organizational closure at the early stages of living systems, independently of template replication processes. This hypothesis could provide an alternative conceptual framework to evaluate a plausible scenario addressing the transition from nonliving to protocellular systems. PMID:25916275

  18. Effect of rf structure on cumulative beam breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Cooper, R.K.; Channell, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    We treat the effect of rf structure of a linac beam on cumulative beam breakup in the presence of external focusing. Starting with the difference equations of Helm and Loew, we derive two forms of an exact analytic solution for coasting beams: as a sum of products of Gegenbauer polynomials involving external focusing and rf structure, and as an integral involving these same parameters. The continuous-beam limit of Neil, Hall, and Cooper is obtained as the bunch separation goes to zero. An explicit solution is presented for the steady state, including modulation of the incoming displacement, showing both stable and unstable behavior with distance. Asymptotic amplitude expressions are derived for the transient solution, which can lead to even larger beam displacements. Approximate solutions also are obtained for accelerated and decelerated beams. Comparison with numerical simulations are presented.

  19. The Study of Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies in the Early Universe Through Far-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson

    In this thesis I use far-infrared (far-IR) observations performed by the Herschel Space Observatory to study dusty star-forming galaxies, which are believed to be the likely progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies. More specifically, I investigate the far-IR emission of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), analyze the near-IR imaging of Herschel-selected lensed galaxies, and investigate the rest-frame UV emission of HFLS3, a z = 6.34 Herschel-selected starburst.

  20. Early morphological processing is morphosemantic and not simply morpho-orthographic: A violation of form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; O’Connor, Patrick A.; del Prado Martín, Fermín Moscoso

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that a word’s orthographic form must be processed before its meaning becomes available. Some interpret the (null) finding of equal facilitation after semantically transparent and opaque morphologically related primes in early stages of morphological processing as consistent with this view. Recent literature suggests that morphological facilitation tends to be greater after transparent than after opaque primes, however. To determine whether the degree of semantic transparency influences parsing into a stem and a suffix (morphological decomposition) in the forward masked priming variant of the lexical decision paradigm, we compared patterns of facilitation between semantically transparent (e.g., coolant–cool) and opaque (e.g., rampant–ramp) prime–target pairs. Form properties of the stem (frequency, neighborhood size, and prime–target letter overlap), as well as related–unrelated and transparent–opaque affixes, were matched. Morphological facilitation was significantly greater for semantically transparent pairs than for opaque pairs. Ratings of prime–target relatedness predicted the magnitude of facilitation. The results limit the scope of form-then-meaning models of word recognition and demonstrate that semantic similarity can influence even early stages of morphological processing. PMID:19648453

  1. Erupted silicic cumulates in large ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.; Huber, C.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    If chemical diversity in igneous rocks is dominated by crystal-liquid separation in open-system magma reservoirs, a significant number of crystal accumulation zones must be preserved in the crust and upper mantle. Such cumulates are conspicuous in mafic lithologies (MOR, layered mafic intrusions, lower crustal arc sections), but have rarely been described and/or are controversial in the silicic upper crust. Although it is possible to recognize signs of crystal accumulations in plutonic exposures, the fact that these batholiths are typically: 1) at least several millions of years old, 2) multi-stage, 3) deformed and 4) biased towards the youngest intrusive episodes, some ambiguity remains in how to interpret geochemical and textural observations. We have chosen to explore large zoned ignimbrites, which represent an instantaneous evacuation of an upper crustal magma reservoir, to isolate potential crystal accumulation zones. Late-erupted, crystal-rich scoria with unusual chemistries (e.g., high Ba, Zr, Eu/Eu*) have been found in multiple examples of these zoned ignimbrites around the world, including the 900+ km3 Ammonia Tanks and Carpenter Ridge Tuffs, both erupted during the Tertiary magmatic flare-up in the Western USA. As already suggested for the 7700 BP Crater Lake ignimbrite, such crystal-rich scoria have mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that are most convincingly explained by accumulation of low temperature minerals as highly-evolved melt escapes upward and pools at the top of large crystalline mushes. To account for the eruption of such crystal-rich zones (technically uneruptible with >50vol% crystals), some melting of low-temperature mineral phases is required; evidence for resorption textures in sanidine and quartz is commonplace in these scoria. The presence of mafic enclaves and/or mingling textures in such scoria indicate that recharge from below ultimately drove melting of part of the mineral assemblage within the cumulate rootzone, while

  2. Cumulative Stress Pathophysiology in Schizophrenia as Indexed by Allostatic Load

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia has long been linked to stress and the influence of stress is important in all stages of the illness. Previous examinations of perceived stress and acute stress responses may not capture this longitudinal stress pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the cumulative negative effects of stress, indexed by allostatic load (AL), would be elevated in schizophrenia, and that the AL paradigm would be relevant to our understanding of pathophysiology in schizophrenia. Methods We assessed allostatic load in 30 patients with schizophrenia (SZ; mean age=33; 17 males) and 20 healthy controls (HC; mean age=35; 12 males) using 13cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers. Participants’ perceived stress over the past month; functional capacity and psychiatric symptoms were also measured. Results Controlling for age, SZ had significantly higher AL as compared to HC (p=0.007). Greater AL was present in both early course and chronic SZ, and was associated with reduced functional capacity (p=0.006) and more psychotic symptoms (p=0.048) in SZ. Current level of perceived stress was not significantly elevated in SZ or associated with AL in either group. Conclusions The higher AL found in SZ may reflect increased bodily “wear and tear”, possibly caused by more chronic stress exposure or maladaptive responses to stress over time, although additional research is required to differentiate these causes. The higher AL is similarly present in early and chronic SZ, suggesting primary maladaptive stress physiology rather than secondary effects from medications or chronic illness. PMID:26142568

  3. Intertemporal cumulative radiative forcing effects of photovoltaic deployments.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Seager, Thomas P; Chester, Mikhail V; Fraser, Matthew P

    2014-09-01

    Current policies accelerating photovoltaics (PV) deployments are motivated by environmental goals, including reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing electricity generated from fossil-fuels. Existing practice assesses environmental benefits on a net life-cycle basis, where displaced GHG emissions offset those generated during PV production. However, this approach does not consider that the environmental costs of GHG release during production are incurred early, while environmental benefits accrue later. Thus, where policy targets suggest meeting GHG reduction goals established by a certain date, rapid PV deployment may have counterintuitive, albeit temporary, undesired consequences. On a cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) basis, the environmental improvements attributable to PV might be realized much later than is currently understood, particularly when PV manufacturing utilizes GHG-intensive energy sources (e.g., coal), but deployment occurs in areas with less GHG-intensive electricity sources (e.g., hydroelectric). This paper details a dynamic CRF model to examine the intertemporal warming impacts of PV deployments in California and Wyoming. CRF payback times are longer than GHG payback times by 6-12 years in California and 6-11 years in Wyoming depending on the PV technology mix and deployment strategy. For the same PV capacity being deployed, early installations yield greater CRF benefits (calculated over 10 and 25 years) than installations occurring later in time. Further, CRF benefits are maximized when PV technologies with the lowest manufacturing GHG footprint (cadmium telluride) are deployed in locations with the most GHG-intensive grids (i.e., Wyoming).

  4. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093

  5. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts.

  6. The Ribosome-Sec61 Translocon Complex Forms a Cytosolically Restricted Environment for Early Polytopic Membrane Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa A; Bandyopadhyay, Anannya; Devaraneni, Prasanna K; Woodward, Josha; Rooney, LeeAnn; Yang, Zhongying; Skach, William R

    2015-11-27

    Transmembrane topology of polytopic membrane proteins (PMPs) is established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the ribosome Sec61-translocon complex (RTC) through iterative cycles of translocation initiation and termination. It remains unknown, however, whether tertiary folding of transmembrane domains begins after the nascent polypeptide integrates into the lipid bilayer or within a proteinaceous environment proximal to translocon components. To address this question, we used cysteine scanning mutagenesis to monitor aqueous accessibility of stalled translation intermediates to determine when, during biogenesis, hydrophilic peptide loops of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel are delivered to cytosolic and lumenal compartments. Results showed that following ribosome docking on the ER membrane, the nascent polypeptide was shielded from the cytosol as it emerged from the ribosome exit tunnel. Extracellular loops followed a well defined path through the ribosome, the ribosome translocon junction, the Sec61-translocon pore, and into the ER lumen coincident with chain elongation. In contrast, intracellular loops (ICLs) and C-terminalresidues exited the ribosome into a cytosolically shielded environment and remained inaccessible to both cytosolic and lumenal compartments until translation was terminated. Shielding of ICL1 and ICL2, but not the C terminus, became resistant to maneuvers that disrupt electrostatic ribosome interactions. Thus, the early folding landscape of polytopic proteins is shaped by a spatially restricted environment localized within the assembled ribosome translocon complex. PMID:26254469

  7. Electrical Muscle Stimulation: An Effective Form of Exercise and Early Mobilization to Preserve Muscle Strength in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Zervakis, Dimitrios; Tripodaki, Elli-Sophia; Apostolou, Kleovoulos; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Emmanouil; Mitsiou, Georgios; Tsimpouki, Dimitra; Routsi, Christina; Nanas, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This is a secondary analysis of previously published data to investigate the effects of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on strength of various muscle groups in critically ill patients. Methods. One hundred forty-two consecutive patients, with APACHE II score ≥ 13, were randomly assigned to the EMS or the control group. EMS sessions were applied daily on vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and peroneus longus of both lower extremities. Various muscle groups were evaluated with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength. Handgrip strength assessment was also employed. Results. Twenty four patients in the EMS group and 28 patients in the control group were finally evaluated. EMS patients achieved higher MRC scores than controls (P ≤ 0.05) in wrist flexion, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. Collectively, the EMS group performed higher (P < 0.01) in the legs and overall. Handgrip strength correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with the upper and lower extremities' muscle strength and the overall MRC scores. Conclusions. EMS has beneficial effects on the strength of critically ill patients mainly affecting muscle groups stimulated, while it may also affect muscle groups not involved presenting itself as a potential effective means of muscle strength preservation and early mobilization in this patient population. PMID:22545212

  8. Proliferative activity of preovulatory follicles and newly formed corpora lutea in cycling rats from late prooestrus to early oestrus

    PubMed Central

    GAYTÁN, FRANCISCO; BELLIDO, CARMEN; MORALES, CONCEPCIÓN; AGUILAR, ENRIQUE; SÁNCHEZ-CRIADO, JOSÉ EUGENIO

    1997-01-01

    Ovaries from adult cycling rats were studied from 1600 h on the day of prooestrus to 0700 h on the day of oestrus in order to relate the cyclic hormonal changes to the proliferative activity of preovulatory and postovulatory (i.e. newly-formed corpora lutea) follicles. Proliferative activity was studied by the immunohistochemical demonstration of DNA-incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The proliferative activity of granulosa cells (GC) in large preovulatory follicles showed a centripetal pattern and decreased during prooestrus, reaching a minimum at 2100 h. However, a proliferative wave was found in the GC of preovulatory follicles at 0200 h on the day of oestrus and in those of newly-formed corpora lutea at 0700 h on the day of oestrus. These results suggest that the granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles show maturational changes that followed a different pattern, depending on their location within the follicle, and that the proliferative wave found from 0200 to 0700 h on oestrus is important for the establishment of the number of steroidogenic cells in the cyclic corpus luteum. PMID:9418999

  9. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12-13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH.

  10. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B.; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12–13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH. PMID:26090360

  11. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12-13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH. PMID:26090360

  12. An analysis of the impact of diverse forms of childhood psychological maltreatment on emotional adjustment in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian

    2008-08-01

    Recent research has documented the long-term mental health consequences of childhood psychological maltreatment; however, this research is limited in that it typically fails to recognize the qualitative differences of the various behaviors labeled as psychological maltreatment. This study examines the predictive ability of caregiver terrorizing, degradation, ignoring, and isolating during childhood on the self-reported occurrence of anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a sample of 256 university students between the ages of 18 and 22. Witnessing violence and childhood physical abuse are included in the analyses. Simultaneous regression analyses reveal that different forms of maltreatment emerge as predictors of the variables of emotional adjustment. Terrorizing predicted anxiety and somatic concerns, ignoring predicted scores of depression and features of BPD, and degradation predicted BPD features only. Findings suggest psychological maltreatment is a multifaceted construct requiring further research to investigate the long-term impact of various subtypes. PMID:18556593

  13. Astrophysics. Multiple images of a highly magnified supernova formed by an early-type cluster galaxy lens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick L; Rodney, Steven A; Treu, Tommaso; Foley, Ryan J; Brammer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Kasper B; Zitrin, Adi; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Graur, Or; Filippenko, Alexei V; Jha, Saurabh W; Riess, Adam G; Bradac, Marusa; Weiner, Benjamin J; Scolnic, Daniel; Malkan, Matthew A; von der Linden, Anja; Trenti, Michele; Hjorth, Jens; Gavazzi, Raphael; Fontana, Adriano; Merten, Julian C; McCully, Curtis; Jones, Tucker; Postman, Marc; Dressler, Alan; Patel, Brandon; Cenko, S Bradley; Graham, Melissa L; Tucker, Bradley E

    2015-03-01

    In 1964, Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova whose light traversed multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens could be used to measure the rate of cosmic expansion. We report the discovery of such a system. In Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we have found four images of a single supernova forming an Einstein cross configuration around a redshift z = 0.54 elliptical galaxy in the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster. The cluster's gravitational potential also creates multiple images of the z = 1.49 spiral supernova host galaxy, and a future appearance of the supernova elsewhere in the cluster field is expected. The magnifications and staggered arrivals of the supernova images probe the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the galaxy and cluster lenses.

  14. Astrophysics. Multiple images of a highly magnified supernova formed by an early-type cluster galaxy lens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick L; Rodney, Steven A; Treu, Tommaso; Foley, Ryan J; Brammer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Kasper B; Zitrin, Adi; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Graur, Or; Filippenko, Alexei V; Jha, Saurabh W; Riess, Adam G; Bradac, Marusa; Weiner, Benjamin J; Scolnic, Daniel; Malkan, Matthew A; von der Linden, Anja; Trenti, Michele; Hjorth, Jens; Gavazzi, Raphael; Fontana, Adriano; Merten, Julian C; McCully, Curtis; Jones, Tucker; Postman, Marc; Dressler, Alan; Patel, Brandon; Cenko, S Bradley; Graham, Melissa L; Tucker, Bradley E

    2015-03-01

    In 1964, Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova whose light traversed multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens could be used to measure the rate of cosmic expansion. We report the discovery of such a system. In Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we have found four images of a single supernova forming an Einstein cross configuration around a redshift z = 0.54 elliptical galaxy in the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster. The cluster's gravitational potential also creates multiple images of the z = 1.49 spiral supernova host galaxy, and a future appearance of the supernova elsewhere in the cluster field is expected. The magnifications and staggered arrivals of the supernova images probe the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the galaxy and cluster lenses. PMID:25745167

  15. Early differential molecular response of a macrophage cell line to yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, E; Pitzurra, L; Puliti, M; Lanfrancone, L; Bistoni, F

    1992-01-01

    The dimorphic transition of Candida albicans from the yeast (Y-Candida) to the hyphal (H-Candida) form is a complex event; the relevance of this transition in fungal pathogenicity is still poorly understood. By using a cloned macrophage cell line (ANA-1), we questioned whether the interaction between macrophages and Y-Candida or H-Candida could affect specific cell functions, i.e., tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production. We found that ANA-1 macrophages selectively responded to H-Candida with increased tumor necrosis factor and downregulated lysozyme, as assessed by measurement of relative mRNA levels and secreted biological activities. The H-Candida-mediated effects were (i) dependent upon the ratio between ANA-1 macrophages and H-Candida, (ii) detectable after 1 h of coincubation, and (iii) accomplished without fungal ingestion. Conversely, Y-Candida, which was found inside the ANA-1 macrophages, did not affect tumor necrosis factor and lysozyme production, nor did it prevent the macrophage response to other stimuli. Overall, these results indicate that a macrophage can distinguish between Y-Candida and H-Candida and that only the latter is able to modulate specific functions. H-Candida is recognized and probably processed as an extracellular target. The possible implication of macrophages as autocrine and paracrine regulatory cells during Candida infections is discussed. Images PMID:1541557

  16. Modulation of the early pre- and post-nucleation stages of scale forming minerals by a commercial copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine; Ibañez-Velasco, Aurelia; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Mineral precipitation is a substantial hazard for multiple technological applications, leading frequently to the formation of thick scale deposits that can completely block fluid circulation in different industrial processes. Polymeric scale inhibitors are commonly used to mitigate or retard these unwanted mineral precipitation reactions. Here we study the mechanisms by which a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups (MASP), commonly used in the oil recovery industry, modulate the precipitation of two common scale forming minerals, calcite and barite. We found that MASP does not significantly affect the equilibrium of pre-nucleation aggregates in both systems, while it seems to prevent the aggregation of prenucleation associates by incomplete stabilization, thereby inhibiting (at least temporarily) the nucleation of a solid phase. Moreover, it influences polymorph selection in the CaCO3, as in the presence of this additive nucleation occurs at high supersaturation via amorphous calcium carbonate that later transform into calcite, while in control runs (i.e. no MASP present) the direct formation of vaterite is observed.

  17. Do patients with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules represent an early form of ARMC5-mediated bilateral macronodular hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Emms, Holly; Tsirou, Ioanna; Cranston, Treena; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Grossman, Ashley B

    2016-09-01

    Bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (BMAH) is a rare form of Cushing's syndrome characterised by the presence of bilateral secretory adrenal nodules and hypercortisolism. Familial studies support a genetic basis for BMAH, and the disease has been linked to mutations in ARMC5, a gene shown to have a tumour suppressor-like action in the development of adrenal nodules. This study aimed to investigate whether ARMC5 mutations play a role in the development of incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules. We investigated 39 patients with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal nodules >0.8 cm in diameter who underwent extensive biochemical testing to look for signs of subclinical hypercortisolism. Genomic DNA was analysed by Sanger sequencing, using primers targeted to ARMC5 transcripts. Of the 39 patients included in our study, three were identified as having variants in ARMC5. Two of these are unlikely to be clinically significant, but there is evidence that the third mutation, Chr16:g.31476122;c.1778G>C (p.Arg593Pro), may be pathogenic. Another variant, affecting the same amino-acid residue c.1777C>T (p.Arg593Trp), has been identified previously in two studies of BMAH patients, where it has been shown to segregate with disease in one BMAH family. This patient had biochemical evidence of hypercortisolism in the absence of overt Cushing's syndrome, and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy separated in time. The presence of a probably clinically significant mutation in ARMC5 in one patient with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas adds to the growing body of evidence in support of ARMC5 as a critical mediator of adrenal nodule development. In addition, the absence of significant ARMC5 mutations in 38 of our patients represents an important negative finding, demonstrating the degree of variability within the pathogenesis of adrenal nodule development. PMID:27306888

  18. Towards Greenland Glaciation: Cumulative or Abrupt Transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, N.; Ramstein, G.; Contoux, C.; Ladant, J. B.; Dumas, C.; Donnadieu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The insolation evolution [Laskar 2004] from 4 to 2.5 Ma depicts a series of three summer solstice insolation minima between 2.7 and 2.6 Ma, but there are other more important summer solstice minima notably around 3.82 and 3.05 Ma. On such a time span of more than 1 Ma, data shows that there are variations in the evolution of atmospheric CO2 concentration with a local maximum around 3 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011], before a decrease between 3 and 2.6 Ma. The latter, suggesting an abrupt ice sheet inception around 2.7 Ma, has been shown to be a major culprit for the full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2014, in review] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, with surviving ice during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process in the first place, which could further lead to full glaciation at 2.7 Ma. Through a new tri-dimensional interpolation method implemented within the asynchronous coupling between an atmosphere ocean general circulation model (IPSL-CM5A) and an ice sheet model (GRISLI), we investigate the transient evolution of Greenland ice sheet during the Pliocene to diagnose whether the ice sheet inception is an abrupt event or rather a cumulative process, involving waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. ReferencesBartoli, G., Hönisch, B., & Zeebe, R. E. (2011). Atmospheric CO2 decline during the Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. Paleoceanography, 26(4). Contoux C, Dumas C, Ramstein G, Jost A, Dolan A. M. (2014) Modelling Greenland Ice sheet inception and sustainability during the late Pliocene. (in review for Earth and Planetary Science Letters.).Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A. C. M., & Levrard, B. (2004). A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 428

  19. Asymptotic Normality Through Factorial Cumulants and Partition Identities

    PubMed Central

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Hitczenko, Paweł; López-Blázquez, Fernando; Rempała, Grzegorz; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments as do (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for ‘moments’ of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re-)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution. PMID:24591773

  20. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  1. Skull development during anuran metamorphosis: I. Early development of the first three bones to form--the exoccipital, the parasphenoid, and the frontoparietal.

    PubMed

    Hanken, J; Hall, B K

    1988-03-01

    In anuran amphibians, cranial bones typically first form at metamorphosis when they rapidly invest or replace the cartilaginous larval skull. We describe early development of the first three bones to form in the Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis--the parasphenoid, the frontoparietal, and the exoccipital--based on examination of serial sections. Each of these bones is fully differentiated by Gosner stage 31 (hindlimb in paddle stage) during premetamorphosis. This is at least six Gosner developmental stages before they are first visible in whole-mount preparations at the beginning of prometamorphosis. Thus, developmental events that precede and mediate the initial differentiation of these cranial osteogenic sites occur very early in metamorphosis--a period generally considered to lack significant morphological change. Subsequent development of these centers at later stages primarily reflects cell proliferation and calcified matrix deposition, possibly in response to increased circulating levels of thyroid hormone which are characteristic of later metamorphic stages. Interspecific differences in the timing of cranial ossification may reflect one or both of these phases of bone development. These results may qualify the use of whole-mount preparations for inferring the sequence and absolute timing of cranial ossification in amphibians.

  2. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  3. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  4. A Model of Evolution of Fault Structure in Porous Sandstone Reflecting the Effect of Geometric Irregularities Associated with Early-Formed Segment Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. W.; Johnson, B.

    2001-12-01

    We propose a model of the early evolution of the structure of strike-slip faults in porous sandstone based upon detailed maps of faults with small displacements (mm to decimeters) in the Hickory Sandstone in central Texas and the Navajo Sandstone near Moab, UT. We assume faults at a given site follow similar evolutionary paths and infer relative timing of formation of fault elements using cross cutting and high-angle abutment relationships. Faults consist of a network of hard-linked smaller segments. The number of fault segments varies along a fault and qualitatively become more numerous and preferentially clustered with increasing displacement. Lacunarity analyses and variograms of spatial density of fault segments quantitatively document the clustering of fault segments. Consistent with earlier work, we infer that faults evolve in the initial stage by linkage of an early-formed array of en echelon small faults that typically step opposite to the sense of shear. Linkage is by one of two geometrically and kinematically distinct linkage structures. With increasing fault displacement, new fault segments are preferentially added in close proximity to or within the early linkages. Accreted segments typically are arcuate and abut earlier segments at a high angle. Consequently, the spatial density of fault segments varies episodically along the fault. Early linkage structures represent geometric irregularities (roughness) along the evolving fault that we interpret to result in geometric stress concentrations that preferentially localize formation of new fault segments. This conceptual model does not demand the commonly assumed strain-hardening of the gouge of individual fault segments in order to explain the evolving complexity of fault structure with increasing displacement. The lack of an implied strain-hardening behavior is consistent with laboratory-scale fault development in porous sandstone.

  5. Remelting of cumulates as a process for producing chemical zoning in silicic tuffs: A comparison of cool, wet and hot, dry rhyolitic magma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ellis, B. S.; Ramos, F. C.; Starkel, W. A.; Boroughs, S.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-11-01

    We review petrological and geochemical features of silicic pyroclastic deposits of dominantly low to moderate (0-25%) crystallinity, and volumes in the range of 5-1000 km3, erupted from caldera volcanoes. Chemical gradients in zoned deposits with compositions near the water-saturated granite minimum, for example the Bishop and Bandelier Tuffs, are consistent with mineral/melt partitioning predicted from the observed phenocryst assemblages, and are inconsistent with mixing with more mafic magma. Smaller volume alkaline (phonolite and pantellerite) systems show similar behavior. In contrast, high-temperature ignimbrites of the 'Snake River'-type typically lack compositional zoning. Internal isotopic variations are weak or absent from whole rocks in both types of rhyolite, even in systems where associated volcanic rocks exhibit wide isotopic variation and strong contrasts exist between the isotopic compositions of mantle and crust. An exception to this is 87Sr/86Sr variations in high-silica rhyolite systems, where Sr has been depleted to subchondritic concentrations and is exceptionally sensitive to open-system processes. Both types of ignimbrite commonly contain crystal aggregates, interpreted as fragments of cumulate mush. In zoned systems, these aggregates exhibit evidence for partial resorption of early-formed crystals. We infer that chemical zoning is a near closed-system process and propose that it arises through melting of cognate cumulate mush beneath a crystal-poor body of melt due to heating by invading mafic or intermediate magma with little mass transfer to the eruptible magma. If the crystal mush is fusible (e.g. dominated by sanidine + quartz), part of it melts to yield mobile, water-poor rhyolite that pools at the interface between the mush and overlying rhyolitic liquid. This new, eruptible melt has a cumulate composition and is thus less evolved than the original supernatant melt lens. The result is a chemically zoned crystal-poor rhyolitic magma

  6. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  7. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    PubMed

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies. PMID:26173268

  8. SEVIRI Cloud mask by Cumulative Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, M. G.; Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Venafra, S.; Liuzzi, G.

    2015-09-01

    In the context of cloud detection for satellite observations we want to use the method of Cumulative Discriminant Analysis (CDA) as a tool to distinguish between clear and cloudy sky applied to Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data. The methodology is based on the choice of several statistics related to the cloud properties, whose correlation has been analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results have been compared with the SEVIRI reference cloud mask provided by the European Centre for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT), in order to find suitable thresholds able to discriminate between clear or cloudy conditions. We trained the statistics on a selected region, the Basilicata area, located in the south of Italy, in different periods of the year 2012, in order to take into account the seasonal variability. Moreover we separated land and sea surface and distinguished between day-time or night-time. The validation of thresholds, obtained through SEVIRI observations analysis, shows a good agreement with the reference cloud mask.

  9. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children.

  10. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  11. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A special bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (80) through NASA SP-7037 (91) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Special Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics (AIAA) and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  12. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  13. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  14. NGC 3801 caught in the act: a post-merger star-forming early-type galaxy with AGN-jet feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hota, Ananda; Rey, Soo-Chang; Kang, Yongbeom; Kim, Suk; Matsushita, Satoki; Chung, Jiwon

    2012-05-01

    In the current models of galaxy formation and evolution, AGN feedback is crucial to reproduce galaxy luminosity function, colour-magnitude relation and M•-σ relation. However, whether AGN feedback can indeed expel and heat up significant amount of cool molecular gas and consequently quench star formation is yet to be demonstrated observationally. Only in four cases so far (Cen A, NGC 3801, NGC 6764 and Mrk 6), X-ray observations have found evidences of jet-driven shocks heating the ISM. We chose the least explored galaxy NGC 3801, and present the first ultraviolet imaging and stellar population analysis of this galaxy from GALEX data. We find this merger-remnant early-type galaxy to have an intriguing spiral wisp of young star-forming regions (age ranging from 100 to 500 Myr). Taking clues from dust/PAH, H I and CO emission images, we interpret NGC 3801 to have a kinematically decoupled core or an extremely warped gas disc. From the HST data, we also show evidence of ionized gas outflow similar to that observed in H I and molecular gas (CO) data, which may have caused the decline of star formation leading to the red optical colour of the galaxy. However, from these panchromatic data, we interpret that the expanding shock shells from the young (˜2.4 Myr) radio jets are yet to reach the outer gaseous regions of the galaxy. It seems we observe this galaxy at a rare stage of its evolutionary sequence where post-merger star formation has already declined and new powerful jet feedback is about to affect the gaseous star-forming outer disc within the next 10 Myr, to further transform it into a red-and-dead early-type galaxy.

  15. Assessing the Role of Current and "Cumulative" Exposure in Simultaneous Bilingual Acquisition: The Case of Dutch Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of amount of current and "cumulative" exposure in bilingual development and ultimate attainment by exploring the extent to which simultaneous bilingual children's knowledge of grammatical gender is affected by current and previous amount of exposure, including in the early years. Elicited production and…

  16. Cumulative emission budgets and their implications: the case for SAFE carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Myles; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David; Mason, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The risk of dangerous long-term climate change due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions is predominantly determined by cumulative emissions over all time, not the rate of emission in any given year or commitment period. This has profound implications for climate mitigation policy: emission targets for specific years such as 2020 or 2050 provide no guarantee of meeting any overall cumulative emission budget. By focusing attention on short-term measures to reduce the flow of emissions, they may even exacerbate the overall long-term stock. Here we consider how climate policies might be designed explicitly to limit cumulative emissions to, for example, one trillion tonnes of carbon, a figure that has been estimated to give a most likely warming of two degrees above pre-industrial, with a likely range of 1.6-2.6 degrees. Three approaches are considered: tradable emission permits with the possibility of indefinite emission banking, carbon taxes explicitly linked to cumulative emissions and mandatory carbon sequestration. Framing mitigation policy around cumulative targets alleviates the apparent tension between climate protection and short-term consumption that bedevils any attempt to forge global agreement. We argue that the simplest and hence potentially the most effective approach might be a mandatory requirement on the fossil fuel industry to ensure that a steadily increasing fraction of fossil carbon extracted from the ground is artificially removed from the active carbon cycle through some form of sequestration. We define Sequestered Adequate Fraction of Extracted (SAFE) carbon as a source in which this sequestered fraction is anchored to cumulative emissions, increasing smoothly to reach 100% before we release the trillionth tonne. While adopting the use of SAFE carbon would increase the cost of fossil energy much as a system of emission permits or carbon taxes would, it could do so with much less explicit government intervention. We contrast this proposal

  17. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. PMID:26443679

  18. A Transition in the Cumulative Reaction Rate of Two Species Diffusion with Bimolecular Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Harihar; Arshadi, Masoud

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion and bimolecular reaction between two initially separated reacting species is a prototypical small-scale description of reaction induced by transverse mixing. It is also relevant to diffusion controlled transport regimes as encountered in low-permeability matrix blocks in fractured media. In previous work, the reaction-diffusion problem has been analyzed as a Stefan problem involving a distinct moving boundary (reaction front), which predicts that front motion scales as √t, and the cumulative reaction rate scales as 1/√t-. We present a general non-dimensionalization of the problem and a perturbation analysis to show that there is an early time regime where the cumulative reaction rate scales as √t- rather than 1/√t. The duration of this early time regime (where the cumulative rate is kinetically rather than diffusion controlled) depends on the rate parameter, in a manner that is consistently predicted by our non-dimensionalization. We also present results on the scaling of the reaction front width. We present numerical simulations in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media to demonstrate the limited influence of heterogeneity on the behavior of the reaction-diffusion system. We illustrate applications to the practical problem of in-situ chemical oxidation of TCE and PCE by permanganate, which is employed to remediate contaminated sites where the DNAPLs are largely dissolved in the rock matrix.

  19. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood.

  20. New precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol in grape juice: thiol-forming potential and kinetics during early stages of must fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Michael J; Benkwitz, Frank; Frost, Andy; Colonna-Ceccaldi, Benoît; Gardner, Richard C; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-17

    Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), are key aroma impact compounds in many young white wines, especially of the variety Sauvignon blanc (SB). Although great effort has been invested to identify their precursors in recent years, the origin of the majority of 3MH and 3MHA generated during wine fermentation still cannot be explained. Here we demonstrate that supplying an external source of hydrogen sulfide to grape juice hugely increases its thiol-forming potential. We further describe the discovery of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as an additional new thiol precursor and demonstrate that it possesses, together with (E)-2-hexenal, an immense thiol-forming potential during fermentation. Both C6-compounds are extremely rapidly metabolized by yeast during the first hours after inoculation, even under commercial conditions, and can be interconverted during this phase depending on their initial concentration in the grape juice. Spiking grape juice with additional acetaldehyde greatly enhanced the (E)-2-hexen-1-ol to (E)-2-hexenal conversion rate. Delaying the metabolization of the two unsaturated C6-thiol precursors by yeast, at the same time as increasing hydrogen sulfide production early in fermentation, opens up a great opportunity to tap into this enormous potential 3MH and 3MHA source in grape juice and extends the possibility of thiol production to other non-grape-based alcoholic beverages as well.

  1. Cosmic Reionization and Early Star-forming Galaxies: A Joint Analysis of New Constraints from Planck and the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Dunlop, James S.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss new constraints on the epoch of cosmic reionization and test the assumption that most of the ionizing photons responsible arose from high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Good progress has been made in charting the end of reionization through spectroscopic studies of z ≃ 6-8 QSOs, gamma-ray bursts, and galaxies expected to host Lyα emission. However, the most stringent constraints on its duration have come from the integrated optical depth, τ, of Thomson scattering to the cosmic microwave background. Using the latest data on the abundance and luminosity distribution of distant galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we simultaneously match the reduced value τ =0.066+/- 0.012 recently reported by the Planck collaboration and the evolving neutrality of the intergalactic medium with a reionization history within 6≲ z≲ 10, thereby reducing the requirement for a significant population of very high redshift (z\\gg 10) galaxies. Our analysis strengthens the conclusion that star-forming galaxies dominated the reionization process and has important implications for upcoming 21 cm experiments and searches for early galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. Petrogenetic and Geotectonic Study of Early Formed (Triassic?) Volcanics in Ophiolitic Complexes in Central Greece: Examples from Koziakas, Othris, Iti and Kallidromo Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, P.; Magganas, A.; Pomonis, P.; Karipi, S.; Tsikouras, B.

    2009-04-01

    The early formed volcanics occurring in ophiolitic complexes in Central Greece are suggested to be mostly of Triassic age. They occur within Triassic sedimentary sequences as well as in mélange formations, being interpreted to be parts of the Pindos Ocean, which formed after breakup of a Gondwana continental margin. In the studied regions of Koziakas, Othris, Iti and Kallidromo the volcanic rocks consist mainly of pillow lavas with extreme variable geochemical affinities (alkaline, tholeiitic and calc-alkaline) and in rare cases ultramafic lavas. The igneous sequence is complemented by another wide compositional range rocks consisting of wehrlites, mafic subvolcanic rocks (picrites, transitional boninites, dolerites) and pyroclastic tuffs compositionally intermediate to felsic. The alkaline lavas are present in Othris in close association with tholeiitic pillow lavas and within mélange formations in the regions of Koziakas, Iti and Kallidromo. In the Triassic formations of Othris most of the igneous rocks are represented by pillow lavas which are mainly tholeiitic, ranging in composition from E-MORB (most lavas) to IAT types. Similar E-MORB volcanic rocks are not present in Koziakas, Iti and Kallidromo regions. The calc-alkaline lavas have a broad composition which varies from basaltic to trachyandesitic and felsic. They occur sandwiched between middle Triassic sedimentary formations in Koziakas, in melange formations in central Othris, while they are missing in Iti and Kallidromo. The ultramafic lavas, which are accompanied by picrites, transitional boninites and dolerites, are found in Othris only, intruding the E-MORB pillow lavas. Geochemical and mineralogical data evaluation as well as petrogenetic modelling show the formation of the studied compositionally wide, unusual rock association can be explained through complex and multistage events, which have taken place in a rift- and subduction-related geotectonic environment of the Pindos Ocean in Middle

  3. Poor Child Health, Family Capital and Cumulative Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of health and social stratification can be enriched by testing tenets of cumulative inequality theory that emphasize how the accumulation of inequality is dependent on the developmental stage being considered; the duration and stability of poor health; and the family resources available to children. I analyze longitudinal data from the British National Child Development Study (N=9,252) to ask: 1) if child health is a source of cumulative inequality in academic achievement; 2) whether this relationship depends on the timing and duration of poor health; and 3) whether trajectories are sensitive to levels of family capital. The results suggest that the relationship between health and academic achievement emerges very early in life and persists, and that whether we observe shrinking or widening inequality as children age depends on when we measure their health, and whether children have access to compensatory resources. PMID:25926564

  4. Role of olivine cumulates in destabilizing the flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Denlinger, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The south flank of Kilauea Volcano is unstable and has the structure of a huge landslide; it is one of at least 17 enormous catastrophic landslides shed from the Hawaiian Islands. Mechanisms previously proposed for movement of the south flank invoke slip of the volcanic pile over seafloor sediments. Slip on a low friction de??collement alone cannot explain why the thickest and widest sector of the flank moves more rapidly than the rest, or why this section contains a 300 km3 aseismic volume above the seismically defined de??collement. It is proposed that this aseismic volume, adjacent to the caldera in the direction of flank slip, consists of olivine cumulates that creep outward, pushing the south flank seawards. Average primary Kilauea tholeiitic magma contains about 16.5 wt.% MgO compared with an average 10 wt.% MgO for erupted subaerial and submarine basalts. This difference requires fractionation of 17 wt.% (14 vol.%) olivine phenocrysts that accumulate near the base of the magma reservoir where they form cumulates. Submarine-erupted Kilauea lavas contain abundant deformed olivine xenocrysts derived from these cumulates. Deformed dunite formed during the tholeiitic shield stage is also erupted as xenoliths in subsequent alkalic lavas. The deformation structures in olivine xenocrysts suggest that the cumulus olivine was densely packed, probably with as little as 5-10 vol.% intercumulus liquid, before entrainment of the xenocrysts. The olivine cumulates were at magmatic temperatures (>1100??C) when the xenocrysts were entrained. Olivine at 1100??C has a rheology similar to ice, and the olivine cumulates should flow down and away from the summit of the volcano. Flow of the olivine cumulates places constant pressure on the unbuttressed seaward flank, leading to an extensional region that localizes deep intrusions behind the flank; these intrusions add to the seaward push. This mechanism ties the source of gravitational instability to the caldera complex and deep

  5. Early BMP, Wnt and Ca(2+)/PKC pathway activation predicts the bone forming capacity of periosteal cells in combination with calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Bolander, Johanna; Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Schrooten, Jan; Lambrechts, Dennis; Roberts, Scott J; Luyten, Frank P

    2016-04-01

    The development of osteoinductive calcium phosphate- (CaP) based biomaterials has, and continues to be, a major focus in the field of bone tissue engineering. However, limited insight into the spatiotemporal activation of signalling pathways has hampered the optimisation of in vivo bone formation and subsequent clinical translation. To gain further knowledge regarding the early molecular events governing bone tissue formation, we combined human periosteum derived progenitor cells with three types of clinically used CaP-scaffolds, to obtain constructs with a distinct range of bone forming capacity in vivo. Protein phosphorylation together with gene expression for key ligands and target genes were investigated 24 hours after cell seeding in vitro, and 3 and 12 days post ectopic implantation in nude mice. A computational modelling approach was used to deduce critical factors for bone formation 8 weeks post implantation. The combined Ca(2+)-mediated activation of BMP-, Wnt- and PKC signalling pathways 3 days post implantation were able to discriminate the bone forming from the non-bone forming constructs. Subsequently, a mathematical model able to predict in vivo bone formation with 96% accuracy was developed. This study illustrates the importance of defining and understanding CaP-activated signalling pathways that are required and sufficient for in vivo bone formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the reliability of mathematical modelling as a tool to analyse and deduce key factors within an empirical data set and highlight its relevance to the translation of regenerative medicine strategies. PMID:26901484

  6. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  7. Quantification of cumulated physical fatigue at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Pichot, Vincent; Bourin, Emmanuelle; Roche, Frédéric; Garet, Martin; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Duverney, David; Antoniadis, Anestis; Lacour, Jean-René; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2002-11-01

    Quantification of physical fatigue remains a challenge. We hypothesized that its effects on central autonomic nervous system activity could be explored for such a quantification. To test this relationship, we prospectively measured central autonomic nervous activity through nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in six French garbage collectors, aged 32.1+/-4.3 years, twice a week during 3 consecutive weeks of work, and during the following week of rest. Eight healthy sedentary males formed a control group. HRV indices were calculated by applying standard temporal domain and wavelet transform analyses to standard ECG recordings. During the 3 consecutive weeks of work, there was a significantly progressive decrease in HRV indices, particularly pNN50 (-34.2%, P<0.05), as well as the high (-33.3%, P<0.05) and low (-22.2%, P<0.01) frequency components of wavelet transform, while there was an increase, although non-significant, of the ratio of low to high frequencies (9.1%). During the resting period, there was a significant recovery of HRV indices, notably of its high (50.0%, P<0.05) and low (28.6%, P<0.05) frequency components. No such changes occurred in the control group. A central signature of cumulated physical fatigue can thus be detected and quantified through nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity. Its characteristics are those of a progressive parasympathetic withdrawal.

  8. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  9. ALH84001, a cumulate orthopyroxenite member of the Martian meteorite clan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1994-01-01

    ALH84001, originally classified as a diogenite, is a coarse-grained, cataclastic, orthopyroxenite meteorite related to the martian (SNC) meteorites. The orthopyroxene is relatively uniform in composition, with a mean composition of Wo3.3En69.4Fs27.3. Minor phases are euhedral to subhedral chromite and interstitial maskelynite, An31.1Ab63.2Or5.7, with accessory augite, Wo42.2En45.1Fs12.7, apatite, pyrite and carbonates, Cc11.5Mg58.0Sd29.4Rd1.1. The pyroxenes and chromites in ALH84001 are similar in composition to these phases in EETA79001 lithology a megacrysts but are more homogeneous. Maskelynite is similar in composition to feldspars in the nakhlites and Chassigny. Two generations of carbonates are present, early (pre-shock) strongly zoned carbonates and late (post-shock) carbonates. The high Ca content of both types of carbonates indicates that they were formed at moderately high temperature, possibly approximately 700 C. ALH84001 has a slightly LREE-depleted pattern with La 0.67x and Lu 1.85x CI abundances and with a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Sm 0.56x CI). The uniform pyroxene composition is unusual for martian meteorites, and suggests that ALH84001 cooled more slowly than did the shergottites, nakhlites of Chassigny. The nearly monomineralic composition, coarse-grain size, homogeneous orthopyroxene and chromite compositions, the interstitial maskelynite and apatite, and the REE pattern suggest that ALH84001 is a cumulate orthopyroxenite containing minor trapped, intercumulus material.

  10. THE UVJ SELECTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: SEPARATING EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE GALAXIES AND ISOLATING EDGE-ON SPIRALS

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-04-01

    We utilize for the first time Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging to examine the structural properties of galaxies in the rest-frame U - V versus V - J diagram (i.e., the UVJ diagram) using a sample at 0.6 < z < 0.9 that reaches a low stellar mass limit (log M/M{sub Sun} >10.25). The use of the UVJ diagram as a tool to distinguish quiescent galaxies from star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is becoming more common due to its ability to separate red quiescent galaxies from reddened SFGs. Quiescent galaxies occupy a small and distinct region of UVJ color space and we find most of them to have concentrated profiles with high Sersic indices (n > 2.5) and smooth structure characteristic of early-type systems. SFGs populate a broad but well-defined sequence of UVJ colors and are comprised of objects with a mix of Sersic indices. Interestingly, most UVJ-selected SFGs with high Sersic indices also display structure due to dust and star formation typical of the n < 2.5 SFGs and late-type systems. Finally, we find that the position of an SFG on the sequence of UVJ colors is determined to a large degree by the mass of the galaxy and its inclination. Systems that are closer to edge-on generally display redder colors and lower [O II]{lambda}3727 luminosity per unit mass as a consequence of the reddening due to dust within the disks. We conclude that the two main features seen in UVJ color space correspond closely to the traditional morphological classes of early- and late-type galaxies.

  11. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  12. Tools to Assess Community-Based Cumulative Risk and Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple agents and stressors can interact in a given community to adversely affect human and ecological conditions. A cumulative risk assessment (CRA) analyzes, characterizes, and potentially quantifies the effects from multiple stressors, which include chemical agents (for exam...

  13. Ab initio X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, F.; Rehr, J. J.; Rossner, H. H.; Krappe, H. J.

    2006-03-01

    Theoretical calculations of vibrational effects in x-ray absorption spectra typically employ semi-phenomenological models, e.g. empirical force constants or correlated Debye or Einstein models. Instead we introduce an efficient and generally applicable ab initio approach based on electronic structure calculations of the dynamical matrix together with the Lanczos recursion algorithm [1] and relations between the cumulants. The approach yields 1) the thermal expansion coefficients (first cumulant of the vibrational distribution function); 2) correlated Debye-Waller factors (second cumulants) and 3) anharmonic contributions (third cumulants). Results are presented for crystalline (Cu, Au, Ge, GaAs) and molecular (GeCl4, C6H6) systems. Our results for the Debye-Waller factors agree well with experiment. [1]H.J. Krappe and H.H. Rossner, Phys. Rev. B70, 104102 (2004).

  14. Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial, reflect increased interest in consideratio of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop co...

  15. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  16. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  17. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aeronautical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA-SP-7037(184) through NASA-SP-7037(195) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  18. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  19. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p < 0.05). In hierarchical regression analyses, total cumulative stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  20. Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography, 1982 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (145) through NASA SP-7037 (156) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  1. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (197) through NASA SP-7037 (208) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  2. Aeronautical engineering: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037(210) through NASA SP-7037(221) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number indexes.

  3. A cumulative index to Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulated index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037(132) through NASA SP-7037(143) of Aeronautical Engineering: A continuing bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, and report number indexes.

  4. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-01-01

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution. PMID:12737666

  5. Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D

    2003-04-22

    Many animals use tools but only humans are generally considered to have the cognitive sophistication required for cumulative technological evolution. Three important characteristics of cumulative technological evolution are: (i) the diversification of tool design; (ii) cumulative change; and (iii) high-fidelity social transmission. We present evidence that crows have diversified and cumulatively changed the design of their pandanus tools. In 2000 we carried out an intensive survey in New Caledonia to establish the geographical variation in the manufacture of these tools. We documented the shapes of 5550 tools from 21 sites throughout the range of pandanus tool manufacture. We found three distinct pandanus tool designs: wide tools, narrow tools and stepped tools. The lack of ecological correlates of the three tool designs and their different, continuous and overlapping geographical distributions make it unlikely that they evolved independently. The similarities in the manufacture method of each design further suggest that pandanus tools have gone through a process of cumulative change from a common historical origin. We propose a plausible scenario for this rudimentary cumulative evolution.

  6. The Parent Magmas of the Cumulate Eucrites: A Mass Balance Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    The cumulate eucrite meteorites are gabbros that are related to the eucrite basalt meteorites. The eucrite basalts are relatively primitive (nearly flat REE patterns with La approx. 8-30 x CI), but the parent magmas of the cumulate eucrites have been inferred as extremely evolved (La to greater than 100 x CI). This inference has been based on mineral/magma partitioning, and on mass balance considering the cumulate eucrites as adcumulates of plagioclase + pigeonite only; both approaches have been criticized as inappropriate. Here, mass balance including magma + equilibrium pigeonite + equilibrium plagiociase is used to test a simple model for the cumulate eucrites: that they formed from known eucritic magma types, that they consisted only of magma + crystals in chemical equilibrium with the magma, and that they were closed to chemical exchange after the accumulation of crystals. This model is tested for major and Rare Earth Elements (REE). The cumulate eucrites Serra de Mage and Moore County are consistent, in both REE and major elements, with formation by this simple model from a eucrite magma with a composition similar to the Nuevo Laredo meteorite: Serra de Mage as 14% magma, 47.5% pigeonite, and 38.5% plagioclase; Moore County as 35% magma, 37.5% pigeonite, and 27.5% plagioclase. These results are insensitive to the choice of mineral/magma partition coefficients. Results for the Moama cumulate eucrite are strongly dependent on choice of partition coefficients; for one reasonable choice, Moama's composition can be modeled as 4% Nuevo Laredo magma, 60% pigeonite, and 36% plagioclase. Selection of parent magma composition relies heavily on major elements; the REE cannot uniquely indicate a parent magma among the eucrite basalts. The major element composition of Y-791195 can be fit adequately as a simple cumulate from any basaltic eucrite composition. However, Y-791195 has LREE abundances and La/Lu too low to be accommodated within the model using any basaltic

  7. Chemical modeling constraints on Martian surface mineralogies formed in an early, warm, wet climate, and speculations on the occurrence of phosphate minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian; Debraal, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive lesion development in early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Imaida, K; Ogawa, K; Hesegawa, R; Shirai, T; Tatematsu, M

    1993-12-01

    The development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive lesions in the rat liver, from single cells to foci, and their locations within liver lobules were examined by a combined stereological approach for calculation of three-dimensional (3-D) data and by 3-D computer graphics for reconstruction of lesions. Two weeks after initiation with diethylnitrosamine, the rats were divided into two groups. Animals in group 1 were given 2-acetylaminofluorene, and animals in group 2 were given basal diet for 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed at week 3. The GST-P-positive single cells increased in number per liver after PH in group 1, but not in group 2, where a plateau level was maintained. The number of GST-P-positive foci per liver in group 2 also reached an almost constant low value after 4 weeks. In contrast, foci in group 1 increased greatly after PH. A 3-D reconstruction, performed with a computer graphics system using up to 180 sections at 10 microns intervals, revealed the single cells to be distributed at random. Those that grew into foci were also not preferentially localized in any particular zone of the hepatic lobule. When foci within the same lobule came into contact, they underwent fusion. The present results thus indicate that only a small proportion of GST-P-positive single cells develops into foci, and that their growth is independent of zonal factors within individual lobules in early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Probing Early Galaxy Growth and Dusty Star-Forming Systems Across Diverse Environments in the 28 deg2 Herschel/Stripe82/HETDEX Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Rebecca; Jogee, Shardha; Watson, Nicholas; Viero, Marco; Weinzirl, Tim; Yorke, Harold W.; Finkelstein, Steven; Papovich, Casey; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Meg

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, we will embark on an unprecedented study of how a million galaxies grow their stars and dark matter halos over a large a huge comoving volume (0.5 Gpc^3) in the cosmic web at the critical epoch (z~1.9 - 3.5), where cosmic star formation and black hole activity peak, and proto-clusters start to collapse. This study is enabled by the powerful synergy of six photometric and spectroscopic surveys, which are providing Herschel SPIRE, Spitzer IRAC, NEWFIRM K-band, DECam ugriz, and XMM X-ray imaging data, along with optical spectroscopic data from HETDEX over a very large-area (28 sq. deg.) in the Stripe82/HETDEX field. In this poster, we illustrate the power of these combined datasets and focus on studying dusty, star-forming systems (DSFSs) identified with the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS). Using the 250, 350, and 500 micron SPIRE data over our 28 sq. deg. field, we identify a number of possible high redshift (z > 4) DSFSs which will be prime candidates for follow-up observations. We discuss their properties and possible association with galaxies and quasars detected at X-ray, IR, optical, and UV wavelengths. We present examples of SED fits to DSFSs to constrain their star formation rates, redshifts and dust properties, and discuss broader implications for galaxy growth at early cosmic times. We acknowledge support from NSF grant AST-1413652 andthe JPL/NASA SURP Program.

  10. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC‑1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8–2.5 K TtC‑1.

  11. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  12. Diogenites as asteroidal cumulates: Insights from orthopyroxene major and minor element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, G. W.; Papike, J. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Shearer, C. K.

    1994-09-01

    Diogenites appear to be cumulates formed from one or more igneous reservoirs in the interior of asteroid 4 Vesta. Magmatism in this parent body gave rise to a series of related lithologies designated howardites, eucrites, and diogenites or "HED." Eucrites are pigeonite/plagioclase basalts, and diogenites are orthopyroxenites. Howardites are brecciated mixtures of eucrites and diogenites. The major objective of this paper is to characterize the major and minor element chemistry of orthopyroxene in diogenites and to interpret these data in terms of a petrogenetic model. This study, which involves interpretation of ~ 1,200 high-quality electron microprobe analyses, demonstrates that the systematics of Ca, Fe, and Mg in orthopyroxene were largely reset by reaction with melt and by subsolidus exchange. However, the systematics of the minor elements Al, Cr, and Ti still effectively record their igneous history. Aluminum and Ti are highly correlated with the incompatible trace elements (e.g. Yb, Y) and thus are useful fractionation indicators. As many as twenty of the twenty-three diogenites studied may have formed from one igneous system based on Al, Cr, and Ti systematics in orthopyroxene. The Al content of the orthopyroxene in the twenty diogenites forms the basis for a fractionation sequence with Peckelsheim the least fractionated and LEW 88008 the most fractionated. Roda and Manegaon, and possibly ALHA77256, fall off the main compositional trends and may belong to different melt systems. The coupled substitutions that incorporate Al, Cr, and Ti into the orthopyroxene crystal structure are VICr 3+- IVAl 3+, VIAl 3+- VIAl 3+, and VITi 4+-2 IVAl 3+. The dominant substitutional couple in the early stages of crystallization is VICr 3+- IVAl 3+ while VIAl 3+- IVAl 3+ is dominant in the late stages. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the coupled substitutions for minor elements when assessing the appropriate mineral/melt partition coefficients (D

  13. Gravity, light and plant form.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, R P

    1997-06-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.

  14. Gravity, light and plant form.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, R P

    1997-06-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity. PMID:11541207

  15. Gravity, light and plant form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hangarter, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.

  16. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (<0.56 wt.%). These include hydroandradites (Avg. Adr85.0Grs14.5Prp11.9Sps0.5Uv1.0), hydrogrossulars (Avg. Adr14.4Grs75.7Prp14.3Sps0.9Uv0.6) and mixed series phases between hydroandradite and hydrogrossular end-members (Avg. Adr46.4Grs47.0Prp9.3Sps0.6Uv0.4). Formation of hydroandradite probably occurred at the expense of hydrogrossular under lower temperatures. Small sized calcite amygdales and veinlets were occasionally formed in a subsequent phase. Ultramafic lavas from the region of Neraida have experienced carbonation. They were intensely penetrated by secondary calcitic veins forming remarkable infiltrating structures. Apart from the predominant calcite, the Neraida ultramafics also include small sized hydroandradites (Avg. Adr93.7Grs1.3Prp4.8Sps0.0Uv2.3). Whole-rock chemistry data show that rodingitization resulted in restricted enrichment of Ca, as well as depleting silica and alkalies. The hydrogarnet-bearing ultramafics display subparallel REE patterns, with slightly enriched LREE (4.1-8.9×CN) and flat HREE patterns (2.3-5.5×CN) [(La/Yb)CN =1.2-1.8]. Compared to non

  17. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56–61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the

  18. Chasing the Origin of Viruses: Capsid-Forming Genes as a Life-Saving Preadaptation within a Community of Early Replicators.

    PubMed

    Jalasvuori, Matti; Mattila, Sari; Hoikkala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Virus capsids mediate the transfer of viral genetic information from one cell to another, thus the origin of the first viruses arguably coincides with the origin of the viral capsid. Capsid genes are evolutionarily ancient and their emergence potentially predated even the origin of first free-living cells. But does the origin of the capsid coincide with the origin of viruses, or is it possible that capsid-like functionalities emerged before the appearance of true viral entities? We set to investigate this question by using a computational simulator comprising primitive replicators and replication parasites within a compartment matrix. We observe that systems with no horizontal gene transfer between compartments collapse due to the rapidly emerging replication parasites. However, introduction of capsid-like genes that induce the movement of randomly selected genes from one compartment to another rescues life by providing the non-parasitic replicators a mean to escape their current compartments before the emergence of replication parasites. Capsid-forming genes can mediate the establishment of a stable meta-population where parasites cause only local tragedies but cannot overtake the whole community. The long-term survival of replicators is dependent on the frequency of horizontal transfer events, as systems with either too much or too little genetic exchange are doomed to succumb to replication-parasites. This study provides a possible scenario for explaining the origin of viral capsids before the emergence of genuine viruses: in the absence of other means of horizontal gene transfer between compartments, evolution of capsid-like functionalities may have been necessary for early life to prevail.

  19. APEX/SABOCA observations of small-scale structure of infrared-dark clouds . I. Early evolutionary stages of star-forming cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Sarah E.; Henning, Thomas; Beuther, Henrik

    2013-11-01

    Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) harbor the early phases of cluster and high-mass star formation and are comprised of cold (~20 K), dense (n > 104 cm-3) gas. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of IRDCs is dominated by the far-infrared and millimeter wavelength regime, and our initial Herschel study examined IRDCs at the peak of the SED with high angular resolution. Here we present a follow-up study using the SABOCA instrument on APEX which delivers 7.8″ angular resolution at 350 μm, matching the resolution we achieved with Herschel/PACS, and allowing us to characterize substructure on ~0.1 pc scales. Our sample of 11 nearby IRDCs are a mix of filamentary and clumpy morphologies, and the filamentary clouds show significant hierarchical structure, while the clumpy IRDCs exhibit little hierarchical structure. All IRDCs, regardless of morphology, have about 14% of their total mass in small scale core-like structures which roughly follow a trend of constant volume density over all size scales. Out of the 89 protostellar cores we identified in this sample with Herschel, we recover 40 of the brightest and re-fit their SEDs and find their properties agree fairly well with our previous estimates (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 19 K). We detect a new population of "cold cores" which have no 70 μm counterpart, but are 100 and 160 μm-bright, with colder temperatures (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 16 K). This latter population, along with SABOCA-only detections, are predominantly low-mass objects, but their evolutionary diagnostics are consistent with the earliest starless or prestellar phase of cores in IRDCs. Based on observations carried out with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

  1. Cumulant t-expansion for strongly correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic nonperturbative scheme is implemented to calculate the ground state energy for a wide class of strongly correlated fermion models. The scheme includes: (a) a method of automatic calculations of the cumulants of the model Hamiltonian, (b) a method of the ground state energy calculation from these cumulants using the t-expansion proposed by Horn and Weinstein (1984) [9] with new procedure of its extrapolation to t → ∞. As an example of application of the scheme all cumulants up to the 8-th order for spinless fermion model are calculated exactly, and converging sequences of approximations to the ground state energy are obtained for one-, two- and three-dimensional versions of the model.

  2. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  3. Policy considerations for using cumulative carbon emissions as a guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, J.

    2014-12-01

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) relates peak global-mean temperature increase to the total amount of carbon emissions emitted to the atmosphere. The simplicity of this concept invites to use it for climate policy guidance. However, besides a policy's effectiveness to limit long-term anthropogenic climate change, a multitude of other aspects play a role for policymakers. In this session I will summarize my work on costs of limiting cumulative carbon emissions to a particular emission budget over a certain time frame and technology dependencies of these costs. Furthermore, I will look at possible co-benefits of limiting cumulative carbon emissions and discuss how mitigation of short-lived climate forcers can influence emission budgets of carbon dioxide consistent with a particular temperature limit.

  4. Wick polynomials and time-evolution of cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukkarinen, Jani; Marcozzi, Matteo

    2016-08-01

    We show how Wick polynomials of random variables can be defined combinatorially as the unique choice, which removes all "internal contractions" from the related cumulant expansions, also in a non-Gaussian case. We discuss how an expansion in terms of the Wick polynomials can be used for derivation of a hierarchy of equations for the time-evolution of cumulants. These methods are then applied to simplify the formal derivation of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation in the kinetic scaling limit of the discrete nonlinear Schödinger equation (DNLS) with suitable random initial data. We also present a reformulation of the standard perturbation expansion using cumulants, which could simplify the problem of a rigorous derivation of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation by separating the analysis of the solutions to the Boltzmann-Peierls equation from the analysis of the corrections. This latter scheme is general and not tied to the DNLS evolution equations.

  5. Validity of Clinically Derived Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index for the lower limbs and evaluate its construct validity for discriminating relevant groups and predictive validity for predicting global postural control over time. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based cohort. Participants InCHIANTI (“Invecchiare in Chianti” or aging in the Chianti area) study participants (N=960; age, 21–91y, 51.8% women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was derived from baseline performance on clinical tests of pressure sensitivity, vibration sensitivity, proprioception, and graphesthesia. Global postural control was assessed using Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test, time to complete 5 repeated chair stands, and fast walking speed, at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Results In participants without neurologic conditions (n=799), the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly different in age groups classified by decades (P<.001). Compared with participants without prevalent conditions, the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly higher in persons with diabetes (P=.017), peripheral arterial disease (P=.006), and a history of stroke (P<.001). In the overall population (N=960), in the fully adjusted multiple regression models, the Cumulative Somato-sensory Impairment Index independently predicted deterioration in FICSIT scores (P=.002), time for 5 repeated chair stands (P<.001), and fast gait speed (P=.003) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index is a valid measure that detects relevant group differences in lower limb somatosensory impairment and is an independent predictor of decline in postural control over 3 years. PMID:20159126

  6. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  7. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  8. LANDSAT 1 cumulative US standard catalog, 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  9. Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2011-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

  10. Steps and Pips in the History of the Cumulative Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This…

  11. 42 CFR 457.560 - Cumulative cost-sharing maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cumulative cost-sharing maximum. 457.560 Section 457.560 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  12. 42 CFR 457.560 - Cumulative cost-sharing maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cumulative cost-sharing maximum. 457.560 Section 457.560 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  13. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK

    Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2
    1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2Department of...

  14. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  15. Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk…

  16. 1980 Cumulative Supplement, "Higher Education and the Law".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    A 1980 cumulative supplement to the basic text, "Higher Education and the Law," is presented. Contents include: edited reports of five United States Supreme Court cases, important lower court cases, regulations and reports; and citations to numerous law review articles, additional cases, and other secondary sources. The following broad topics are…

  17. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132

  18. Aeronautical Engineering: A cumulative index to the 1980 issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system. Abstracts for the entries cited appeared in issues 119 through 130 of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography (NASA SP-7037). Subject, personal author, corporate author, contract number, and report/accession number indexes are provided.

  19. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  20. HESI EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of inp...

  1. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  2. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454039

  3. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Modeling of cumulative ash curve in hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of cumulative ash curves (CAC) is very important for evaluation of milling quality of wheat and blending different millstreams for specific applications. The aim of this research was to improve analysis of CAC. Five hard red spring wheat genotype composites from two regions were milled on...

  5. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  6. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  7. Trace elements in minerals from mafic and ultramafic cumulates of the central Sierra de Valle Fértil, Famatinian arc, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Tiepolo, Massimo; Walker, Barry A.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.

    2016-01-01

    Trace element abundances in constituent minerals from mafic and ultramafic rocks of a deep arc crustal section are studied to observe their abundance and distribution. Five cumulate rocks were selected from a sequence that consists of pyroxene hornblende peridotite, olivine hornblende gabbronorite, pyroxene hornblende gabbronorite, hornblende gabbronorite, gabbro and anorthosite. Solid/liquid partition coefficients calculated with the equilibrium distribution model indicate that Cr, Ni, Co, Zn and V are highly compatible with an olivine-dominated mineral assemblage from the mafic and ultramafic cumulates. The compatibility of Ti and Sc would be dependent on the stability of clinopyroxene, amphibole and oxides in the magmatic system. With few exceptions, the other trace elements are incompatible with the minerals that form the cumulate. At most half the mass of Sr carried by a primitive arc magma could be stored in anorthite-rich plagioclase from the mafic cumulates. Magmatic amphibole fractionates Y, middle and heavy REE from other incompatible elements during crystal accumulation of mafic cumulates. In contrast, late magmatic to subsolidus amphibole has no effect on the differentiation of a primitive arc magma. In fact, the trace element variability of amphibole and clinopyroxene is easily related to different stages of magmatic evolution within the cumulate pile. The results presented here are helpful for modelling other cases of arc magma petrogenesis where the cumulate rocks with dominant mafic assemblages are not exposed.

  8. Lack of Cumulative Toxicity Associated With Cabazitaxel Use in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bracarda, Sergio; Gasparro, Donatello; Gernone, Angela; Messina, Caterina; Zagonel, Vittorina; Puglia, Livio; Bosso, Davide; Dondi, Davide; Sonpavde, Guru; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; De Placido, Sabino; Buonerba, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cabazitaxel provided a survival advantage compared with mitoxantrone in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer refractory to docetaxel. Grade 3 to 4 (G3–4) neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were relatively frequent in the registrative XRP6258 Plus Prednisone Compared to Mitoxantrone Plus Prednisone in Hormone Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer (TROPIC) trial, but their incidence was lower in the Expanded Access Program (EAP). Although cumulative doses of docetaxel are associated with neuropathy, the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel is unknown. In this retrospective review of prospectively collected data, the authors assessed “per cycle” incidence and predictors of toxicity in the Italian cohort of the EAP, with a focus on the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel. The study population consisted of 218 Italian patients enrolled in the cabazitaxel EAP. The influence of selected variables on the most relevant adverse events identified was assessed using a Generalized Estimating Equations model at univariate and multivariate analysis. “Per cycle” incidence of G 3 to 4 neutropenia was 8.7%, whereas febrile neutropenia was reported in 0.9% of cycles. All events of febrile neutropenia occurred during the first 3 cycles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher prior dose of cabazitaxel was associated with decreased odds of having G3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86–0.93; P < 0.01), febrile neutropenia (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.81; P < 0.01) and G3 to 4 anemia (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86–1; P = 0.07). Patients with a body surface area >2 m2 presented increased odds of having G 3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86–1; P = 0.07), but decreased odds of having G3 to 4 anemia. Among the toxicities assessed, the authors did not identify any that appeared to be associated with a higher number of cabazitaxel cycles delivered. Prior cumulative dose was

  9. Universal cumulants of the current in diffusive systems on a ring.

    PubMed

    Appert-Rolland, C; Derrida, B; Lecomte, V; van Wijland, F

    2008-08-01

    We calculate exactly the first cumulants of the integrated current and of the activity (which is the total number of changes of configurations) of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a ring with periodic boundary conditions. Our results indicate that for large system sizes the large deviation functions of the current and of the activity take a universal scaling form, with the same scaling function for both quantities. This scaling function can be understood either by an analysis of Bethe ansatz equations or in terms of a theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics or on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio, and Landim. PMID:18850801

  10. Cumulative beam breakup in linear accelerators with random displacement of cavities and focusing elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen

    2004-04-09

    A formalism presented in a previous paper for the analysis of cumulative beam breakup with arbitrary time dependence of the beam current [J. R. Delayen, Phys. Rev. ST Accel Beams 6, 084402 (2003)] is applied to the problem of beam breakup in the presence of random displacements of cavities and focusing elements. A closed-form solution is obtained and is applied to the behavior of a single bunch and to the steady-state and transient behavior of dc beams and beams composed of point-like bunches.

  11. Measurement of cumulative-neutron and cumulative-proton spectra in 1-GeV proton-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, V.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Makarov, M.M.; Nelyubin, V.V.; Naberezhnov, A.A.; Sulimov, V.V.; Uvarov, L.N.

    1982-11-20

    A comparative study has been made of the spectra of cumulative neutrons and protons produced at an angle of 114/sup 0/ in collisions of 1-GeV protons with /sup 9/Be and /sup 12/C nuclei. The slope parameters of the inclusive neutron spectra are similar to those of the proton spectra.

  12. Further Evidence for Geochemical Diversity, and Possible Bimodality, Among Cumulate Eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1992-07-01

    monomict. The pyroxene is uniformly Mg-rich (opx mg = 68), yet diogenitic px is not present. No Ce anomaly was detected. If lunar standards can be applied to eucrites, our RNAA siderophile result for Au gives a marginal indication of "pristinity": [Au] = 2.5 X 10^-4 times CI; also [Re] = 4.3 X 10^-4 times CI, but [Ir] = 7.4 X 10^-4 times CI (possibly linked to the unusually mafic nature of this rock). Like Binda and the mildly accumulative Pomozdino, LEW87002 appears to be the product of a melt along the moderate-mg, high- ITE "Stannem Trend." Collectively, these samples suggest that cumulate eucrites formed from parent melts more diverse than the known noncumulate eucrites. The data also hint at a geochemical bimodality for the parent melts, reminiscent of the bimodality among ancient lunar cumulates, which show a paradoxical tendency for high-mg cumulates to be more ITE-rich than low-mg cumulates. The same basic mechanism might be responsible: later melts are more directly linked to the high-mg mantle, but tend to be contaminated by mixing with residual melts left over from the slightly older Nuevo Laredo Trend linked cumulates. References: Delaney J. S. (1988) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XX, 236-237. Mittlefehldt D. W. and Lindstrom M. M. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 77-87. Takeda H., Tagai T., and Graham A. (1988) Thirteenth Symp. Ant. Mets. (Tokyo), pp. 142-144. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows cumulate and cumulate-like eucrites and possible parent melt compositions.

  13. Cause-specific cumulative incidence estimation and the fine and gray model under both left truncation and right censoring.

    PubMed

    Geskus, Ronald B

    2011-03-01

    Summary The standard estimator for the cause-specific cumulative incidence function in a competing risks setting with left truncated and/or right censored data can be written in two alternative forms. One is a weighted empirical cumulative distribution function and the other a product-limit estimator. This equivalence suggests an alternative view of the analysis of time-to-event data with left truncation and right censoring: individuals who are still at risk or experienced an earlier competing event receive weights from the censoring and truncation mechanisms. As a consequence, inference on the cumulative scale can be performed using weighted versions of standard procedures. This holds for estimation of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function as well as for estimation of the regression parameters in the Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazards model. We show that, with the appropriate filtration, a martingale property holds that allows deriving asymptotic results for the proportional subdistribution hazards model in the same way as for the standard Cox proportional hazards model. Estimation of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function and regression on the subdistribution hazard can be performed using standard software for survival analysis if the software allows for inclusion of time-dependent weights. We show the implementation in the R statistical package. The proportional subdistribution hazards model is used to investigate the effect of calendar period as a deterministic external time varying covariate, which can be seen as a special case of left truncation, on AIDS related and non-AIDS related cumulative mortality.

  14. Cumulative Use of Strong Anticholinergic Medications and Incident Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Hubbard, Rebecca; Walker, Rod; Yu, Onchee; Crane, Paul; Larson, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many medications have anticholinergic effects. The general view is that anticholinergic-induced cognitive impairment is reversible upon medication discontinuation. However, a few studies suggest that anticholinergic medications may be associated with increased dementia risk. OBJECTIVE To examine whether cumulative anticholinergic medication use is associated with a higher risk of incident dementia. DESIGN Prospective population-based cohort study using data from the Adult Changes in Thought Study. SETTING Group Health, an integrated health-care delivery system, Seattle, Washington PARTICIPANTS 3,434 participants aged 65 and older with no dementia at study entry. Initial recruitment occurred between 1994 and 1996 or 2000 and 2003. Beginning in 2004, continuous replacement for deaths occurred. All participants received follow-up every two years. EXPOSURE Using computerized pharmacy dispensing data, cumulative anticholinergic exposure was defined as the total standardized daily doses (TSDD) dispensed in the past 10 years. The most recent 12 months of use was excluded to avoid use related to prodromal symptoms. Cumulative exposure was time-varying. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease using standard diagnostic criteria. Statistical analyses used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for demographic, health behaviors and health status including comorbidities. RESULTS The most common anticholinergic drug classes used were tricyclic antidepressants, first generation antihistamines and bladder antimuscarinics. Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 797 participants (23%) developed dementia (637 developed Alzheimer’s). A 10-year cumulative dose-response relationship was observed for both dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (test for trend, p<0.001). For dementia, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cumulative anticholinergic use was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74-1.16) for 1-90 TSDD; 1.19 (CI, 0.94-1.51) for

  15. Can a Horse Be a Donkey? Semantic and Form Interference Effects in Translation Recognition in Early and Late Proficient and Nonproficient Spanish-Catalan Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Pilar; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Guasch, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the developmental aspect of the revised hierarchical model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) concerning the access to the conceptual store from the second language (L2). We manipulated the level of proficiency and age of L2 acquisition. We tested Spanish-Catalan bilinguals (49 early proficient bilinguals, 28 late proficient…

  16. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  17. Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam; Sims, Scott; Brownell, Marni; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994-2005 and Manitoba 1998-2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR=1.5, CI:1.4-1.5) and Manitoba (HR=1.5, CI:1.5-1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (<3years of age) who entered care spending an increasing proportion of their early years in care. Whilst Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care, over time in Western Australia children have been entering care at a younger age and spending more time in care. These latter factors contribute to an increased burden on the out-of-home care system. Manitoba had over five times greater cumulative incidence than WA, however risk factors for entry to out-of-home care were consistent in both countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for entry to out-of-home care can inform targeted support and prevention programs.

  18. Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam; Sims, Scott; Brownell, Marni; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994-2005 and Manitoba 1998-2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR=1.5, CI:1.4-1.5) and Manitoba (HR=1.5, CI:1.5-1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (<3years of age) who entered care spending an increasing proportion of their early years in care. Whilst Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care, over time in Western Australia children have been entering care at a younger age and spending more time in care. These latter factors contribute to an increased burden on the out-of-home care system. Manitoba had over five times greater cumulative incidence than WA, however risk factors for entry to out-of-home care were consistent in both countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for entry to out-of-home care can inform targeted support and prevention programs. PMID:27521764

  19. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  20. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollett, Joshua W.; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-08-01

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H2, LiH, and N2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F2, mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional.

  1. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs 1963-1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. These briefs emphasize information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines and are issued to encourage commercial application. This Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs lists those published from 1963 through 1969. The main listing is divided into six categokies: Electrical (Electronic), Physical Sciences (Energy Sources), Materials (Chemistry), Life Sciences, Mechanical, and Computer Programs.

  2. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    PubMed

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  3. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  4. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  5. Cumulative Reconstructor: fast wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Extremely Large Telescopes.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor (CuRe) is a new direct reconstructor for an optical wavefront from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements. In this paper, the algorithm is adapted to realistic telescope geometries and the transition from modified Hudgin to Fried geometry is discussed. After a discussion of the noise propagation, we analyze the complexity of the algorithm. Our numerical tests confirm that the algorithm is very fast and accurate and can therefore be used for adaptive optics systems of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  6. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  7. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  8. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  9. Diagnostic of stellar magnetic fields with cumulative circular polarisation profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2015-08-01

    Information about stellar magnetic field topologies is obtained primarily from high-resolution circular polarisation (Stokes V) observations. Because of their generally complex morphologies, the stellar Stokes V profiles are usually interpreted with elaborate inversion techniques such as Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI). Here we further develop a new method for interpreting circular polarisation signatures in spectral lines using cumulative Stokes V profiles (anti-derivative of Stokes V). This method is complimentary to ZDI and can be applied to validate the inversion results or when the available observational data are insufficient for an inversion. Based on the rigorous treatment of polarised line formation in the weak-field regime, we show that, for rapidly rotating stars, the cumulative Stokes V profiles contain information about the spatially resolved longitudinal magnetic field density. Rotational modulation of these profiles can be employed for a simple, qualitative characterisation of the stellar magnetic field topologies. We apply this diagnostic method to the archival observations of the weak-line T Tauri star V410 Tau and Bp He-strong star HD 37776. We show that the magnetic field in V410 Tau is dominated by an azimuthal component, in agreement with the ZDI map that we recover from the same data set. For HD 37776 the cumulative Stokes V profile variation indicates the presence of multiple regions of positive and negative field polarity. This behaviour agrees with the ZDI results, but contradicts the popular hypothesis that the magnetic field of this star is dominated by an axisymmetric quadrupolar component.

  10. Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds: A hydrologic and regulatory dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Robert N.; Miller, Taylor O.

    1981-03-01

    Because of the nature of watersheds, the hydrologic and erosional impacts of logging and related road-building activities may move offsite, affecting areas downslope and downstream from the operation. The degree to which this occurs depends on the interaction of many variables, including soils, bedrock geology, vegetation, the timing and size of storm events, logging technology, and operator performance. In parts of northwestern California, these variables combine to produce significant water quality degradation, with resulting damage to anadromous fish habitat. Examination of recent aerial photographs, combined with a review of public records, shows that many timber harvest operations were concentrated in a single 83 km2 watershed in the lower Klamath River Basin within the past decade. The resulting soil disturbance in this case seems likely to result in cumulative off-site water quality degradation in the lower portion of the Basin. In California, both state and federal laws require consideration of possible cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. In spite of recent reforms that have given the state a larger role in regulating forest practices on private land, each timber harvest plan is still evaluated in isolation from other plans in the same watershed. A process of collaborative state-private watershed planning with increased input of geologic information offers the best long-term approach to the problem of assessing cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. Such a reform could ultimately emerge from the ongoing water quality planning process under Section 208 of the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  11. Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne.

    PubMed

    Allen, Myles R; Frame, David J; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Meinshausen, Malte; Meinshausen, Nicolai

    2009-04-30

    Global efforts to mitigate climate change are guided by projections of future temperatures. But the eventual equilibrium global mean temperature associated with a given stabilization level of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remains uncertain, complicating the setting of stabilization targets to avoid potentially dangerous levels of global warming. Similar problems apply to the carbon cycle: observations currently provide only a weak constraint on the response to future emissions. Here we use ensemble simulations of simple climate-carbon-cycle models constrained by observations and projections from more comprehensive models to simulate the temperature response to a broad range of carbon dioxide emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission is better constrained than the warming response to a stabilization scenario. Furthermore, the relationship between cumulative emissions and peak warming is remarkably insensitive to the emission pathway (timing of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide are likely to be more robust to scientific uncertainty than emission-rate or concentration targets. Total anthropogenic emissions of one trillion tonnes of carbon (3.67 trillion tonnes of CO(2)), about half of which has already been emitted since industrialization began, results in a most likely peak carbon-dioxide-induced warming of 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, with a 5-95% confidence interval of 1.3-3.9 degrees C.

  12. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  13. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  14. Early Risk, Attention, and Brain Activation in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…

  15. Social organization and the evolution of cumulative technology in apes and hominins.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Gauri R; Tennie, Claudio; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-07-01

    Culturally supported accumulation (or ratcheting) of technological complexity is widely seen as characterizing hominin technology relative to that of the extant great apes, and thus as representing a threshold in cultural evolution. To explain this divide, we modeled the process of cultural accumulation of technology, which we defined as adding new actions to existing ones to create new functional combinations, based on a model for great ape tool use. The model shows that intraspecific and interspecific variation in the presence of simple and cumulative technology among extant orangutans and chimpanzees is largely due to variation in sociability, and hence opportunities for social learning. The model also suggests that the adoption of extensive allomaternal care (cooperative breeding) in early Pleistocene Homo, which led to an increase in sociability and to teaching, and hence increased efficiency of social learning, was enough to facilitate technological ratcheting. Hence, socioecological changes, rather than advances in cognitive abilities, can account for the cumulative cultural changes seen until the origin of the Acheulean. The consequent increase in the reliance on technology could have served as the pacemaker for increased cognitive abilities. Our results also suggest that a more important watershed in cultural evolution was the rise of donated culture (technology or concepts), in which technology or concepts was transferred to naïve individuals, allowing them to skip many learning steps, and specialization arose, which allowed individuals to learn only a subset of the population's skills.

  16. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  17. Age-of-acquisition effects in reading aloud: tests of cumulative frequency and frequency trajectory.

    PubMed

    Zevin, Jason D; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have reported that the age at which a word is learned affects skilled reading. This age-of-acquisition effect is potentially important for theories of reading and learning. The effect has been difficult to pin down, however, because the age at which a word is learned is correlated with many other lexical properties. Zevin and Seidenberg (2002) analyzed these phenomena, using connectionist models that distinguished between cumulative frequency (the total number of times a word is experienced) and frequency trajectory (the distribution of these experiences over time). The models prompted a reevaluation of the empirical literature on this topic. The present research tested and confirmed three behavioral predictions derived from these models. First, cumulative frequency has an impact on skilled word naming, more so than standard measures of frequency derived from such norms as those of Kucera and Francis (1967). Second, frequency trajectory affects age of acquisition: The timing of exposure to words affects how rapidly they are learned. However, frequency trajectory does not affect skilled reading aloud, because the consistencies in mapping between spelling and sound eventually wash out the effects of early differences in frequency of exposure. Thus, in skilled performance, the timing of exposure to words is less important than the amount of exposure. The results clarify the conditions under which age-dependent learning effects occur in reading aloud. PMID:15078042

  18. Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates: Implications for Cumulative Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kim R.; Wood, Brian M.; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%–29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  19. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  20. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986.

    PubMed

    Roy, A C; Powers, J V

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms. PMID:11537410

  1. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture. PMID:25047714

  2. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  3. Modeling the cumulative genetic risk for multiple sclerosis from genome-wide association data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurologic disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Results from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have substantially lengthened the list of disease loci and provide convincing evidence supporting a multifactorial and polygenic model of inheritance. Nevertheless, the knowledge of MS genetics remains incomplete, with many risk alleles still to be revealed. Methods We used a discovery GWAS dataset (8,844 samples, 2,124 cases and 6,720 controls) and a multi-step logistic regression protocol to identify novel genetic associations. The emerging genetic profile included 350 independent markers and was used to calculate and estimate the cumulative genetic risk in an independent validation dataset (3,606 samples). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was implemented to compare clinical characteristics of individuals with various degrees of genetic risk. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis was done using the DAVID functional annotation tool, the GO Tree Machine, and the Pathway-Express profiling tool. Results In the discovery dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk (P-Hat) was 0.903 and 0.007 in the case and control groups, respectively, together with 79.9% classification sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. The identified profile shows a significant enrichment of genes involved in the immune response, cell adhesion, cell communication/signaling, nervous system development, and neuronal signaling, including ionotropic glutamate receptors, which have been implicated in the pathological mechanism driving neurodegeneration. In the validation dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk was 0.59 and 0.32 in the case and control groups, respectively, with classification sensitivity 62.3% and specificity 75.9%. No differences in disease progression or T2-lesion volumes were observed among four levels of predicted genetic risk groups (high, medium, low, misclassified). On the other

  4. Cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Banasiak, Ursula; Hamey, Paul Y; Sebestyen, Istvan; Moretto, Angelo

    2008-08-15

    There is increasing need to address the potential risks of combined exposures to multiple residues from pesticides in the diet. The available evidence suggests that the main concern is from dose addition of those compounds that act by the same mode of action. The possibility of synergy needs to be addressed on a case-by-case basis, where there is a biologically plausible hypothesis that it may occur at the levels of residues occurring in the diet. Cumulative risk assessment is a resource-intense activity and hence a tiered approach to both toxicological evaluation and intake estimation is recommended, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently published such a proposal. Where assessments have already been undertaken by some other authority, full advantage should be taken of these, subject of course to considerations of quality and relevance. Inclusion of compounds in a cumulative assessment group (CAG) should be based on defined criteria, which allow for refinement in a tiered approach. These criteria should include chemical structure, mechanism of pesticidal action, target organ and toxic mode of action. A number of methods are available for cumulating toxicity. These are all inter-related, but some are mathematically more complex than others. The most useful methods, in increasing levels of complexity and refinement, are the hazard index, the reference point index, the Relative Potency Factor method and physiologically based toxicokinetic modelling, although this last method would only be considered should a highly refined assessment be necessary. Four possible exposure scenarios are of relevance for cumulative risk assessment, acute and chronic exposure in the context of maximum residue level (MRL)-setting, and in relation to exposures from the actual use patterns, respectively. Each can be addressed either deterministically or probabilistically. Strategies for dealing with residues below the limit of detection, limit of quantification or limit

  5. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve F.; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  6. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  7. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California.

    PubMed

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to "restore" pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill. PMID:18810527

  8. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:22124490

  9. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  10. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  11. Feature analysis and primary causes of pre-flood season "cumulative effect" of torrential rain over South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Qu-cheng; Wang, Qi-guang; Qiao, Shao-bo; Feng, Guo-lin

    2016-10-01

    When persistent rainfall occurs frequently over South China, meso-scale and micro-scale synoptic systems persist and expand in space and time and eventually form meso-scale and long-scale weather processes. The accumulation of multiple torrential rain processes is defined as a "cumulative effect" of torrential rain (CETR) event. In this paper, daily reanalysis datasets collected by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) during 1979-2014 are used to study the anomalous features and causes of heavy CETR events over South China. The results show that there is a significant difference in the spatial distribution of the heavy CETR events. Based on the center position of the CETR, the middle region displayed middle-region-heavy CETR events while the western region displayed west-region-heavy CETR events. El Niño events in the previous period (December, January, February, March (DJFM)) are major extra-forcing factors of middle-region-heavy CETR events, which is beneficial for the continuous, anomalous Philippine Sea anticyclone and strengthens the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), extending it more westward than normal. The primary water vapor source for precipitation in middle-region-heavy CETR events is the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean. The major extra-forcing factor of a west-region-heavy CETR is the negative anomaly in the southern Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) during the previous period (DJFM). This factor is beneficial for strengthening the cross-equatorial flow and westerly winds from the Bay of Bengal to the South China Sea (SCS) and early SCS summer monsoon onset. The primary water vapor source of precipitation in the west-region-heavy CETR is the southern TIO.

  12. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... to consider available information concerning the cumulative effects on human health resulting from... used to further refine the very conservative nature of this cumulative risk assessment. DATES: Comments... stakeholders including environmental, human health, farm worker, and agricultural advocates; the...

  13. Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds: a hydrologic and regulatory dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, R.M.; Miller, T.O.

    1981-03-01

    Because of the nature of watersheds, the hydrologic and erosional impacts of logging and related road-building activities may move offsite, affecting areas downslope and downstream from the operation. The degree to which this occurs depends on the interaction of many variables, including soils, bedrock geology, vegetation, the timing, and size of storm events, logging technology, and operator performance. In parts of northwestern California, these variables combine to produce significant water quality degradation, with resulting damage to anadromous fish habitat. Examination of recent aerial photographs, combined with a review of public records, shows that many timber harvest operations were concentrated in a single 83 sq km watershed in the lower Klamath River Basin within the past decade. The resulting soil disturbance in this case seems likely to result in cumulative off-site water quality degradation in the lower portion of the Basin. In California, both state and federal laws require consideration of possible cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. In spite of recent reforms that have given the state a larger role in regulating forest practices on private land, each timber harvest plan is still evaluated in isolation from other plans in the same watershed. A process of collaborative state-private watershed planning with increased input of geologic information offers the best long-term approach to the problem of assessing cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. Such a reform could ultimately emerge from the ongoing water quality planning process under Section 208 of the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (Refs. 51).

  14. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that

  15. Quasi-linear theory via the cumulant expansion approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The cumulant expansion technique of Kubo was used to derive an intergro-differential equation for f , the average one particle distribution function for particles being accelerated by electric and magnetic fluctuations of a general nature. For a very restricted class of fluctuations, the f equation degenerates exactly to a differential equation of Fokker-Planck type. Quasi-linear theory, including the adiabatic assumption, is an exact theory for this limited class of fluctuations. For more physically realistic fluctuations, however, quasi-linear theory is at best approximate.

  16. Canadian and international EIA frameworks as they apply to cumulative effects

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, Robert

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents a brief history of the development of cumulative effects, the current requirements in North America and elsewhere in the world, challenges at the project level, thoughts on how emerging concepts of strategic environmental assessment and regional assessment may offer means to improve the examination of cumulative effects and offers suggestions for current and future needs in cumulative effects assessment.

  17. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  18. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  19. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on...

  20. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... platform for cumulative fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your...

  1. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  2. The Compaction of Ultramafic Cumulates in Layered Intrusions - Time and Length Scales (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Manoochehri, S.

    2013-12-01

    growth exponent n of 3.1(3) (for olivine) indicate that diffusion controlled Ostwald ripening is the dominant crystal growth mechanism. The experimentally calibrated compaction relationship, combined with a linear scaling for grain size as appropriate for reaction-controlled pressure solution creep, allows calculation of formation times of natural adcumulates. A single layer of olivine adcumulate of 1/2 m thickness with 70-75 vol% olivine at the base (as observed in Rhum), would have typical formation times of 0.4-3 yrs for grain sizes of 2-10 mm, comparing favourably with characteristic cooling times of sills. If a >20 m thick series of cumulate layers pressurizes a base layer with the porosity still filled by a melt, then compaction proceeds to the compaction limit within a few years. To understand the thickness of a simultaneously compacting (layered) crystal pile, (paleo)-porosity gradients determined from incompatible trace elements can be employed when combined with modelled characteristic cooling times. In layered mafic intrusions where cumulates are deposited from a large magma chamber, compaction zones of several tens to hundreds of meter may form adcumulates with porosities in the order of 5%. In conclusion, gravitation driven chemical compaction is feasible for dense mafic minerals in basaltic magmas, in particular in large layered intrusions. The limiting factor appears to be rather the supply of crystals then the time necessary for compaction.

  3. The Dynamics of Cumulative Step Size Adaptation on the Ellipsoid Model.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hans-Georg; Hellwig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of the [Formula: see text]-Evolution Strategy (ES) with cumulative step size adaptation (CSA) on the ellipsoid model is investigated using dynamic systems analysis. At first a nonlinear system of difference equations is derived that describes the mean value evolution of the ES. This system is successively simplified to finally allow for deriving closed-form solutions of the steady state behavior in the asymptotic limit case of large search space dimensions. It is shown that the system exhibits linear convergence order. The steady state mutation strength is calculated, and it is shown that compared to standard settings in [Formula: see text] self-adaptive ESs, the CSA control rule allows for an approximately [Formula: see text]-fold larger mutation strength. This explains the superior performance of the CSA in non-noisy environments. The results are used to derive a formula for the expected running time. Conclusions regarding the choice of the cumulation parameter c and the damping constant D are drawn.

  4. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.). PMID:25963760

  5. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... It typically begins during the early-adult years. Juvenile arthritis — arthritis that is diagnosed before age 16. The most common form of juvenile arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, affects between 30,000 and ...

  6. Effect of cumulative bortezomib dose on survival in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone in the phase III VISTA study.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María Victoria; Richardson, Paul G; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Palumbo, Antonio; Anderson, Kenneth C; Shi, Hongliang; Elliott, Jennifer; Dow, Edward; van de Velde, Helgi; Niculescu, Liviu; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-04-01

    This analysis, using data from the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) arm of the Phase III VISTA study, investigated whether increased cumulative bortezomib dose could improve overall survival (OS) in transplant-ineligible patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Median cumulative bortezomib dose received by the 340 patients was 39 mg/m(2); this was selected as the cut-off for defining the dose groups to be compared for OS. Patient characteristics were well balanced between dose groups except for age. OS was significantly longer in the higher (≥39 mg/m(2)) versus lower (<39 mg/m(2)) cumulative bortezomib dose group (median 66.3 vs. 46.2 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.533, P < 0.0001; age-adjusted HR 0.561, P = 0.0002). To overcome confounding effects of early discontinuations/deaths, which were more common in the lower cumulative dose group (27 vs. 4% of patients discontinued due to adverse events (AEs) in the lower and higher cumulative dose groups, respectively), a landmark analysis was conducted at 180 days, eliminating patients who died or discontinued before this time from the analysis. OS from this landmark remained significantly longer in the higher dose group (median 60.4 vs. 50.3 months; HR 0.709, P = 0.0372). Thus, higher cumulative bortezomib dose, reflecting prolonged treatment duration and/or dose intensity, appears associated with improved OS. Approaches to achieve higher cumulative doses could include subcutaneous bortezomib administration, dose/schedule modifications, continuing therapy in responding patients, and proactive AE management.

  7. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  8. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  9. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lau, Amy G; Fan, Bo; Ford, Lisa; Greenberg, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database) and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23) and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17). The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. PMID:27536060

  10. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lau, Amy G; Fan, Bo; Ford, Lisa; Greenberg, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database) and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23) and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17). The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. PMID:27536060

  11. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  12. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  13. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation.

    PubMed

    Hollett, Joshua W; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-08-28

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H2, LiH, and N2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F2, mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional. PMID:27586903

  14. Correlation functions and cumulants in elliptic flow analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill L.

    2003-04-01

    We consider various methods of flow analysis in heavy ion collisions and compare experimental data on corresponding observables to the predictions of our saturation model proposed earlier [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413]. We demonstrate that, due to the nature of the standard flow analysis, azimuthal distribution of particles with respect to reaction plane determined from the second order harmonics should always be proportional to cos2( φ- ΨR) independent of the physical origin of particle correlations (flow or non-flow). The amplitude of this distribution is always physical and proportional to v2. Two-particle correlations analysis is, therefore, a more reliable way of extracting the shape of physical azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate that two-particle correlation functions generated in our minijet model of particle production [Nucl. Phys. A 708 (2002) 413] are in good agreement with the data reported by PHENIX. We discuss the role of non-flow correlations in the cumulant flow analysis and demonstrate using a simple example that if the flow is weak, higher order cumulants analysis does not significantly reduce the contribution of non-flow correlations to elliptic flow observable v2 in RHIC data.

  15. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  16. The Cumulative Effect of Vacuum Radiation on Particle Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jean E.

    2010-12-22

    The action principle can predict the trajectories of a system of particles as determined by the dynamical forces acting on them. However, its predictions do not include the results of quantum fluctuations in the coordinates of the particles. It is proposed that quantum fluctuations shift the particles from one dynamical trajectory to another and that the change in action due to a root mean square shift in an individual coordinate is the same, regardless of which coordinate is shifted. This assumption, together with the uncertainty principle, implies that the cumulative effect of changes in energy and momentum varies as t{sup -1/2}, where t is time, so that these quantities tend to be conserved. However, the cumulative effect of changes in spatial coordinate varies as t{sup 1/2}, so this coordinate shows a Brownian drift over time. An example is given in which this stochastic drift, with its characteristic t{sup 1/2} dependence, could be experimentally observed at the beginning of a highly collimated particle beam.

  17. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  18. Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

  19. The role of side-chain interactions in the early steps of aggregation: Molecular dynamics simulations of an amyloid-forming peptide from the yeast prion Sup35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gsponer, Jörg; Haberthür, Urs; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2003-04-01

    Understanding the early steps of aggregation at atomic detail might be crucial for the rational design of therapeutics preventing diseases associated with amyloid deposits. In this paper, aggregation of the heptapeptide GNNQQNY, from the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35, was studied by 20 molecular dynamics runs for a total simulation time of 20 μs. The simulations generate in-register parallel packing of GNNQQNY -strands that is consistent with x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared data. The statistically preferred aggregation pathway does not correspond to a purely downhill profile of the energy surface because of the presence of enthalpic barriers that originate from out-of-register interactions. The parallel -sheet arrangement is favored over the antiparallel because of side-chain contacts; in particular, stacking interactions of the tyrosine rings and hydrogen bonds between amide groups. No ordered aggregation was found in control simulations with the mutant sequence SQNGNQQRG in accord with experimental data and the strong sequence dependence of aggregation.

  20. Accumulating Research: A Systematic Account of How Cumulative Meta-Analyses Would Have Provided Knowledge, Improved Health, Reduced Harm and Saved Resources

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Mike; Brice, Anne; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Background “Cumulative meta-analysis” describes a statistical procedure to calculate, retrospectively, summary estimates from the results of similar trials every time the results of a further trial in the series had become available. In the early 1990s, comparisons of cumulative meta-analyses of treatments for myocardial infarction with advice promulgated through medical textbooks showed that research had continued long after robust estimates of treatment effects had accumulated, and that medical textbooks had overlooked strong, existing evidence from trials. Cumulative meta-analyses have subsequently been used to assess what could have been known had new studies been informed by systematic reviews of relevant existing evidence and how waste might have been reduced. Methods and Findings We used a systematic approach to identify and summarise the findings of cumulative meta-analyses of studies of the effects of clinical interventions, published from 1992 to 2012. Searches were done of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Methodology Register and Science Citation Index. A total of 50 eligible reports were identified, including more than 1,500 cumulative meta-analyses. A variety of themes are illustrated with specific examples. The studies showed that initially positive results became null or negative in meta-analyses as more trials were done; that early null or negative results were over-turned; that stable results (beneficial, harmful and neutral) would have been seen had a meta-analysis been done before the new trial; and that additional trials had been much too small to resolve the remaining uncertainties. Conclusions This large, unique collection of cumulative meta-analyses highlights how a review of the existing evidence might have helped researchers, practitioners, patients and funders make more informed decisions and choices about new trials over decades of research. This would have led to earlier uptake of effective interventions in practice, less

  1. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

    PubMed

    Germer, Juliane; Mann, Karlheinz; Wörheide, Gert; Jackson, Daniel John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges) hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM), and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify.

  2. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

    PubMed

    Germer, Juliane; Mann, Karlheinz; Wörheide, Gert; Jackson, Daniel John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges) hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM), and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia's aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into "head" and "stalk" regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify. PMID:26536128

  3. The Skeleton Forming Proteome of an Early Branching Metazoan: A Molecular Survey of the Biomineralization Components Employed by the Coralline Sponge Vaceletia Sp.

    PubMed Central

    Wörheide, Gert; Jackson, Daniel John

    2015-01-01

    The ability to construct a mineralized skeleton was a major innovation for the Metazoa during their evolution in the late Precambrian/early Cambrian. Porifera (sponges) hold an informative position for efforts aimed at unraveling the origins of this ability because they are widely regarded to be the earliest branching metazoans, and are among the first multi-cellular animals to display the ability to biomineralize in the fossil record. Very few biomineralization associated proteins have been identified in sponges so far, with no transcriptome or proteome scale surveys yet available. In order to understand what genetic repertoire may have been present in the last common ancestor of the Metazoa (LCAM), and that may have contributed to the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, we have studied the skeletal proteome of the coralline demosponge Vaceletia sp. and compare this to other metazoan biomineralizing proteomes. We bring some spatial resolution to this analysis by dividing Vaceletia’s aragonitic calcium carbonate skeleton into “head” and “stalk” regions. With our approach we were able to identify 40 proteins from both the head and stalk regions, with many of these sharing some similarity to previously identified gene products from other organisms. Among these proteins are known biomineralization compounds, such as carbonic anhydrase, spherulin, extracellular matrix proteins and very acidic proteins. This report provides the first proteome scale analysis of a calcified poriferan skeletal proteome, and its composition clearly demonstrates that the LCAM contributed several key enzymes and matrix proteins to its descendants that supported the metazoan ability to biocalcify. However, lineage specific evolution is also likely to have contributed significantly to the ability of disparate metazoan lineages to biocalcify. PMID:26536128

  4. Syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation with marked hypotonia in early life, severe mental handicap, and difficult adult behavior maps to Xp22.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gillian; Gedeon, Agi; Kerr, Bronwyn; Bennett, Rachael; Mulley, John; Partington, Michael

    2003-03-15

    An X-linked recessive syndromic form of mental retardation is described in a family in which 10 males in four generations were affected. The main manifestations were severe to profound intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia in childhood, delayed walking, and difficult, aggressive behavior. There was a moderate reduction both in occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) and height and a similar facial appearance, triangular in shape with a high forehead, prominent ears, and a small pointed chin. Linkage analysis located the gene at Xp22 with maximum lod scores of 4.8 at theta = 0.0 for markers mapping between the closest recombination points at DXS7104 and DXS418. The physical length of this region is approximately 6 Mb. Mutations in the GRPR gene and M6b genes were excluded by sequence analysis. Nearby genes in which mutations are known to be associated with mental retardation (RPS6KA3, STK9, and VCXA, B and C), were excluded by position.

  5. EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Gwanjeong; Saito, Masao; Kurono, Yasutaka; Myers, Philip C.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of millimeter to sub-millimeter observations of CO, HCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HCO{sup +} lines in the dense molecular cloud L328, which harbors L328-IRS, a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO). Our analysis of the line width finds that {sup 13}CO and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines are broadened right over the smallest sub-core S2 where L328-IRS is located, while they are significantly narrower in other regions of L328. Thus, L328-IRS has a direct association with the sub-core. CO observations show a bipolar outflow from this VeLLO with an extent of ∼0.08 pc. The outflow momentum flux and efficiency are much less than those of low-mass protostars. The most likely mass accretion rate (∼3.6 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) inferred from the analysis of the CO outflow is an order of magnitude smaller than the canonical value for a protostar. If the main accretion lasts during the typical Class 0 period of a protostar, L328-IRS will accrete the mass of a brown dwarf, but not that of a star. Given that its envelope mass is small (∼0.09 M{sub ☉}) and 100% star formation rate is unlikely, we suggest that L328-IRS is likely a proto-brown dwarf. Inward motions are found in global scale in the L328 cloud and its sub-cores with a typical infall speed found in starless cores. L328 is found to be fairly well isolated from other nearby clouds and seems to be forming three sub-cores simultaneously through a gravitational fragmentation process. Altogether, these all leave L328-IRS as the best example supporting the idea that a brown dwarf forms like a normal star.

  6. Morphology, microstructure, crystallography, and chemistry of distinct CaCO3 deposits formed by early recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Gilis, Melany; Meibom, Anders; Alexander, Duncan; Grauby, Olivier; Stolarski, Jarosław; Baronnet, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Scleractinian corals begin their biomineralization process shortly after larval settlement with the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) structures at the interface between the larval tissues and the substrate. The newly settled larvae exert variable degrees of control over this skeleton formation, providing an opportunity to study a range of biocarbonate structures, some of which are transient and not observed in adult coral skeletons. Here we present a morphological, structural, crystallographic, and chemical comparison between two types of aragonite deposits observed during the skeletal development of 2-days old recruits of Pocillopora damicornis: (1) Primary septum and (2) Abundant, dumbbell-like structures, quasi-randomly distributed between initial deposits of the basal plate and not present in adult corals-At the mesoscale level, initial septa structures are formed by superimposed fan-shaped fasciculi consisting of bundles of fibers, as also observed in adult corals. This organization is not observed in the dumbbell-like structures. However, at the ultrastructural level there is great similarity between septa and dumbbell components. Both are composed of <100 nm granular units arranged into larger single-crystal domains.Chemically, a small difference is observed between the septae with an average Mg/Ca ratio around 11 mmol/mol and the dumbbell-like structures with ca. 7 mmol/mol; Sr/Ca ratios are similar in the two structures at around 8 mmol/mol-Overall, the observed differences in distribution, morphology, and chemistry between septa, which are highly conserved structures fundamental to the architecture of the skeleton, and the transient, dumbbell-like structures, suggest that the latter might be formed through less controlled biomineralization processes. Our observations emphasize the inherent difficulties involved in distinguishing different biomineralization pathways based on ultrastructural and crystallographical observations. PMID:26193820

  7. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  8. Comparison of Phonic Analysis and Whole Word-Reading on First Graders' Cumulative Words Read and Cumulative Reading Rate: An Extension in Examining Instructional Effectiveness and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidgall, Melissa; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of three word-reading interventions on cumulative number of words read accurately and cumulative learning rate. Participants were six first graders who needed intensive intervention services. Alternating treatment designs were used to compare the effects of interspersal drill, a…

  9. The Relationship Between Amphibole Cumulates and Adakite Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.

    2009-12-01

    Amphibole, while uncommon as a primary fractioning phase is increasingly recognized as a key constituent in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. Fractional crystallization of water-saturated arc magmas in the lower crust can yield substantial volumes amphibole cumulates that, depending on the pressure of crystallization, may also contain garnet. Fractionation of this higher pressure assemblage has been invoked as a possible mechanism in the production adakite magmas. The origin of adakites, defined by their heavy REE and Y depletion and Sr enrichments, have vigorously debated since their re-discovery in Panama two decades ago. In addition to widespread modern adakitic volcanism, the Panamanian portion of the Central American Arc preserves the magmatic record of arc development in close spatial association with younger magmatism. Late-Oligocene hypabyssal crystal-rich andesites from Cerro Patacon are preserved near the Panama Canal region. These contain nodules of amphibole cumulates, and may be used to examine the amphibole-fractionation model for adakite origin. The cumulate nodules are ~6 cm in diameter and are almost entirely composed of 5-10mm amphibole crystals (dominantly ferri-tschermakite), and are accompanied in the host andesites by amphibole phenocrysts, antecrysts and megacryts. Cerro Patacon andesites have REE concentrations that plot at the most depleted end of the array defined by similarly differentiated (58-60% SiO2) Central American Arc magmas, and exhibit a distinctive depletion in the middle REE. These geochemical and petrographic observations strongly support significant amphibole fractionation during formation of the Cerro Patacon andesite. Sr/Y which is used as a geochemical tool for discriminating adakites from other arc magams, is transitional in the Cerro Patcon andesites. However La/Yb is within the range for ‘normal’ arc magmas and shows that amphibole fractionation alone is insufficient to generate adakite magmas - some garnet

  10. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-02-15

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  11. Cumulative impacts on wetlands: Linking scientific assessments and regulatory alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lyndon C.; Gosselink, James G.

    1988-09-01

    This article is an extension and application of Preston and Bedford (1988), especially as relevant to bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests of the southeastern United States. The most important cumulative effects in BLH forests result from incremental forest loss (nibbling) and from synergisms resulting from this nibbling. Present regulatory procedures are ineffective in preventing incremental forest loss because of the focus on permit site evaluation, rather than on large landscapes. Three examples are given to illustrate the need for a landscape focus. This perspective requires preplanning or goal-setting to establish the desired conditions to be maintained in the regulated landscape unit. Spatial and temporal scales are of particular concern for landscape impact assessment. Natural drainage basins of about 106 ha, as identified in U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic units, appear to appropriate spatial units: they have fairly natural boundaries, are of sufficient size to support populations of large, wide-ranging mammals, and are compatible with existing maps and databases. Time scales should be sufficiently long to include recovery of wetland ecosystems from human perturbations. In practice, available data sets limit analysis to no longer than 50 yr. Eight indicators of landscape integrity are identified, based on generally available long-term data sets. Linking technical information concerning cumulative effects on landscapes to the evaluation of cumulative impacts in regulatory programs (i.e., goal-setting) is a serious issue that can benefit from precedents found in the field of epidemiology, and in the establishment of clean air and clean water standards. We suggest that reference data sets must be developed, relating BLH function to structure (forest area). These can be used to set goals for individual watersheds, based on their present conditions and the magnitude and type of perceived development pressures. Thus the crucial steps in establishing a successful

  12. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  13. Cumulative Haploinsufficiency and Triplosensitivity Drive Aneuploidy Patterns to Shape the Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Davoli, Teresa; Xu, Andrew Wei; Mengwasser, Kristen E.; Sack, Laura M.; Yoon, John C.; Park, Peter J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneuploidy has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer for over 100 years, yet no general theory to explain the recurring patterns of aneuploidy in cancer has emerged. Here we develop Tumor Suppressor and Oncogene (TUSON) Explorer, a computational method that analyzes the patterns of mutational signatures in tumors and predicts the likelihood that any individual gene functions as a tumor suppressor (TSG) or oncogene (OG). By analyzing >8200 tumor-normal pairs we provide statistical evidence suggesting many more genes possess cancer driver properties than anticipated, forming a continuum of oncogenic potential. Integrating our driver predictions with information on somatic copy number alterations, we find that the distribution and the potency of TSGs (STOP genes), OGs and essential genes (GO genes) on chromosomes can predict the complex patterns of aneuploidy and copy number variation characteristic of cancer genomes. We propose that the cancer genome is shaped through a process of cumulative haploinsufficiency and triplosensitivity. PMID:24183448

  14. The Chassigny meteorite - A cumulate dunite with hydrous amphibole-bearing melt inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floran, R. J.; Prinz, M.; Hlava, P. F.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Chassigny meteorite, an iron-rich dunite (Fo 68), is a moderately shocked olivine achondrite or chassignite with features indicative of a cumulate origin with some subsolidus annealing. The evidence that the meteorite experienced shock pressures of approximately 150-200 kbar is described. Kaersutitic amphibole, found only in melt inclusions, represents the first extraterrestrial occurence of hydrous amphibole and the first meteoritic amphibole type other than fluorichterite. Fractionation data indicate that Chassigny formed under relatively more oxidizing conditions than most other achondrites, which implies that its parental melt could not have been directly derived from a chondritic composition in a simple single-stage process. Similarities and differences with the Brachina meteorite, the only other meteorite of the Chassigny type, are considered.

  15. Cumulative Interference to Aircraft Radios from Multiple Portable Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative interference effects from portable electronic devices (PEDs) located inside a passenger cabin are conservatively estimated for aircraft radio receivers. PEDs' emission powers in an aircraft radio frequency band are first scaled according to their locations' interference path loss (IPL) values, and the results are summed to determine the total interference power. The multiple-equipment-factor (MEF) is determined by normalizing the result against the worst case contribution from a single device. Conservative assumptions were made and MEF calculations were performed for Boeing 737's Localizer, Glide-slope, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, and Very High Frequency Communication radio systems where full-aircraft IPL data were available. The results show MEF for the systems to vary between 10 and 14 dB. The same process was also used on the more popular window/door IPL data, and the comparison show the multiple-equipment-factor results came within one decibel (dB) of each other.

  16. X-boson cumulant approach to the periodic Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.; Foglio, M. E.

    2002-07-01

    The periodic Anderson model can be studied in the limit U=∞ by employing the Hubbard X operators to project out the unwanted states. We had already studied this problem by employing the cumulant expansion with the hybridization as perturbation, but the probability conservation of the local states (completeness) is not usually satisfied when partial expansions like the ``chain approximation'' (CHA) are employed. To rectify this situation, we modify the CHA by employing a procedure that was used in the mean-field approximation of Coleman's slave-boson method. Our technique reproduces the features of that method in its region of validity, but avoids the unwanted phase transition that appears in the same method both when μ>>Ef at low T and for all values of the parameters at intermediate temperatures. Our method also has a dynamic character that is absent from the mean-field slave-boson method.

  17. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  18. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  19. Cumulative Benefit Analysis for Ranking Risk Reduction Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Leverenz, Fred L.; Aysa Jimenez, Julio

    2007-04-25

    The Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study approach, and other similar methods, are very effective ways to qualitatively identify a comprehensive set of accident scenarios for a facility. If these analyses are modified to incorporate a simple system for evaluating relative risk, such as an order-of-magnitude scoring system, the resultant study can be a very powerful input to developing risk reduction strategies. By adding the concept of Risk Reduction Worth evaluations for all accident Causes, Safeguards, and proposal Action Items, an analyst can then formulate a strategy to select the minimal set of risk reduction actions that maximizes risk reduction. One strategy for doing this involves the iterative evaluation of RRW after postulation of risk reduction actions, until the residual risk reaches a tolerable value, termed Cumulative Risk Benefit Analysis. This concept was developed for the evaluation of a set of pipeline pumping stations, and provided valuable insight into how to reduce risk in a sensible, prioritized fashion.

  20. Near-Field Source Localization Using a Special Cumulant Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Han; Wei, Gang

    A new near-field source localization algorithm based on a uniform linear array was proposed. The proposed algorithm estimates each parameter separately but does not need pairing parameters. It can be divided into two important steps. The first step is bearing-related electric angle estimation based on the ESPRIT algorithm by constructing a special cumulant matrix. The second step is the other electric angle estimation based on the 1-D MUSIC spectrum. It offers much lower computational complexity than the traditional near-field 2-D MUSIC algorithm and has better performance than the high-order ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB).

  1. Ultrasonic assessment of cumulative internal damage in filled polymers (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Knollman, G.C.; Martinson, R.H.; Bellin, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    An ultrasonic technique previously developed for studying dewetting and cumulative internal damage in filled polymers, such as solid rocket propellents, has been improved. The previous theoretical treatment is here expanded to include internal vacuoles of general spheroidal (rather than spherical) shape. Experimental measurements of sound speed and attenuation in a solid propellant material are utilized together with the modified theoretical model to calculate the internal damage parameters of effective vacuole size and number density as functions of applied uniaxial tensile strain. Results obtained from the model near the point of material failure are in excellent agreement with those provided by independent microscopic observations made on several rupture surfaces of propellant samples stressed to failure.

  2. The Nakhla Martian Meteorite is a Cumulate Igenous Rock. Comment on "Glass-Bearing Inclusions in Nakhla (SNC Meteorite) Augite: Heterogeneously Trapped Phases"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    All the properties of the Nakhla Martian meteorite suggest that it is a cumulate igneous rock, formed from a basaltic parental magma. Anomalous magmatic inclusions in Nakhla s augite grains can be explained by disequilibrium processes during crystal growth, and have little significance in the geological history of the meteorite.

  3. Data analysis techniques: a tool for cumulative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lalloué, Benoît; Monnez, Jean-Marie; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal, Wahida; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is subject to environmental exposures from various sources, with negative health impacts (air, water and soil contamination, noise, etc.or with positive effects (e.g. green space). Studies considering such complex environmental settings in a global manner are rare. We propose to use statistical factor and cluster analyses to create a composite exposure index with a data-driven approach, in view to assess the environmental burden experienced by populations. We illustrate this approach in a large French metropolitan area. The study was carried out in the Great Lyon area (France, 1.2 M inhabitants) at the census Block Group (BG) scale. We used as environmental indicators ambient air NO2 annual concentrations, noise levels and proximity to green spaces, to industrial plants, to polluted sites and to road traffic. They were synthesized using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA), a data-driven technique without a priori modeling, followed by a Hierarchical Clustering to create BG classes. The first components of the MFA explained, respectively, 30, 14, 11 and 9% of the total variance. Clustering in five classes group: (1) a particular type of large BGs without population; (2) BGs of green residential areas, with less negative exposures than average; (3) BGs of residential areas near midtown; (4) BGs close to industries; and (5) midtown urban BGs, with higher negative exposures than average and less green spaces. Other numbers of classes were tested in order to assess a variety of clustering. We present an approach using statistical factor and cluster analyses techniques, which seem overlooked to assess cumulative exposure in complex environmental settings. Although it cannot be applied directly for risk or health effect assessment, the resulting index can help to identify hot spots of cumulative exposure, to prioritize urban policies or to compare the environmental burden across study areas in an epidemiological framework.

  4. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children.

  5. Contribution of locally grown foods in cumulative exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Lobscheid, Agnes B; Maddalena, Randy L; McKone, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    Both laboratory and field studies confirm the importance of vegetation for scavenging semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from the atmosphere and a number of exposure studies have found that the dietary pathway is often a significant contributor to cumulative exposure for these chemicals. However, little information exists on the atmospheric source-to-dietary intake linkage for SVOCs. Because of higher SVOC emissions to urban regions, this linkage is particularly important for foods that are grown, distributed and consumed in or near urban regions. The food pathway can also contribute to dietary exposure for populations that are remote from a pollutant source if the pollutants can migrate to agricultural regions and subsequently to the agricultural commodities distributed to that population. We use available data, the characteristic travel distance, and the CalTOX multimedia model framework to assess the contribution of local sources of food to cumulative SVOC intake. Based on published concentration data for foods, our exposure calculations indicate that the potential intake through ingestion can be up to 1000 times that of inhalation for certain persistent SVOCs. We use the population-based intake fraction (iF) to determine how SVOC intake can vary among food commodities and exposure pathways, and to determine the contribution of airborne emitted SVOCs to the diet in the Northern Hemisphere. We focus on three representative multimedia SVOCs-benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The approach presented here provides a useful framework and starting point for source-to-intake assessments for the ambient air-to-dietary exposure pathway.

  6. Incompatible Land Uses and the Topology of Cumulative Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Smith, C. Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general “mountain range” running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  7. Scenario Dependence of the Climate Response to Cumulative Carbon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasting, J. P.; Dunne, J. P.; Shevliakova, E.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to relate future warming to past cumulative carbon emissions independent of the emissions pathway is desirable from both scientific understanding and climate policy perspectives. The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) has been used to argue for a lack of committed future warming based on past carbon emissions. Additional studies have also demonstrated that the cessation of carbon emissions results in either a stabilization or a decrease in global mean surface air temperature. Experiments that demonstrate these principles have been based primarily on scenarios where atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase exponentially - thus obscuring the uncertainties in the differing climate and carbon cycle response to varying pathways of carbon emissions. In an alternative approach, we explore the robustness of these findings by forcing a coupled climate-carbon-cycle Earth System Model (ESM) with differing linear rates of carbon emissions (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 PgC/yr). We quantify the scenario dependence of heat and carbon partitioning in the coupled Earth system. At the time of CO2 doubling, we find that the difference in TCRE across the 5 emissions rates from a single ESM (NOAA GFDL-ESM2G) represents approximately 1/3 of the range of TCRE from the suite of C4MIP models and 1/5 of the range from the CMIP5 models. After imposing zero emissions at the time of CO2 doubling in the 5 and 25 PgC/yr experiments, we found even greater uncertainty in TCRE after 200 years. TCRE, while useful for benchmarking models, is less robust on policy-making timescales. In the case of zero emissions, the climate-carbon-cycle system, as represented by GFDL-ESM2G, responds differently based on past rates and timescales of carbon emissions.

  8. Origin of strongly reversed rims on plagioclase in cumulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.; Nolan, Kathleen M.

    1984-06-01

    Narrow reversed rims on plagioclase are ubiquitous in troctolites and olivine gabbros of the Kiglapait intrusion and may be a common feature of all such cumulates. The rims occur at plag/plag, plag/ol, and less strongly at plag/aug grain boundaries. They are optically obvious at ΔAn < 10 mol.% and can reach ΔAn = 32 mol.% or more. In parallel, K/Na drops sharply. Although ubiquitous from sample to sample, the reversed rims are only locally present at grain boundaries even for the same pair of crystals in contact; they are prominent in linear networks suggesting the last trace of intercumulus liquid. A subsolidus origin is ruled out by the absence of reactants at plag/plag and plag/ol boundaries and by the local rather than pervasive development of rims. The rims are required to grow from intercumulus liquid, in which the partition of An component between crystals and liquid increases with the trapped augite component of the liquid. Calculations from published experimental data show that ΔAn > 30 can easily be achieved by such a process. It is also probable that the trapped liquid is part of an An-rich boundary layer generated by solute rejection during adcumulus growth. The ability of the rims to sustain steep K/Na gradients despite a long subsolidus cooling history proves that the K sbnd Na exchange rate is vanishingly small over a geologic time scale in An-rich feldspar, suggesting that at low K content the potassium is site-bound to the tetrahedral Al/Si distribution. Reversed rims therefore provide important information on diffusion limits as well as on the late-stage solidification history of plagioclase-rich cumulates. Moreover, they demonstrate that plagioclase geothermometry cannot be divorced from effects of liquid composition and structure as monitored, for example, by augite content.

  9. Spectroscopic detections of C III] λ1909 Å at z ≃ 6-7: a new probe of early star-forming galaxies and cosmic reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Richard, Johan; Charlot, Stéphane; Clément, Benjamin; Ellis, Richard; Siana, Brian; Robertson, Brant; Schenker, Matthew; Gutkin, Julia; Wofford, Aida

    2015-06-01

    Deep spectroscopic observations of z ≳ 6.5 galaxies have revealed a marked decline with increasing redshift in the detectability of Ly α emission. While this may offer valuable insight into the end of the reionization process, it presents a challenge to the detailed spectroscopic study of bright photometrically-selected distant sources now being found via deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and particularly those highly magnified sources viewed through foreground lensing clusters. In this paper, we demonstrate the validity of a new way forward via the detection of an alternative diagnostic line, C III] λ1909 Å, seen in spectroscopic exposures of a star-forming galaxy at zLyα = 6.029. We also report tentative detection of C III] λ1909 Å in a galaxy at zLyα = 7.213. The former 3.3σ detection is based on a 3.5 h XShooter spectrum of a bright (J125 = 25.2) gravitationally-lensed galaxy behind the cluster Abell 383. The latter 2.8σ detection is based on a 4.2 h MOSFIRE spectra of one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxies, GN-108036, with J140 = 25.2. Both targets were chosen for their continuum brightness and previously-known redshift (based on Ly α), ensuring that any C III] emission would be located in a favourable portion of the near-infrared sky spectrum. Since the availability of secure Ly α redshifts significantly narrows the wavelength range where C III] is sought, this increases confidence in these, otherwise, low-signal-to-noise ratio detections. We compare our C III] and Ly α equivalent widths in the context of those found at z ≃ 2 from earlier work and discuss the motivation for using lines other than Ly α to study galaxies in the reionization era.

  10. Serratia marcescens ShlA pore-forming toxin is responsible for early induction of autophagy in host cells and is transcriptionally regulated by RcsB.

    PubMed

    Di Venanzio, Gisela; Stepanenko, Tatiana M; García Véscovi, Eleonora

    2014-09-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in a wide variety of ambient niches and interacts with an ample range of hosts. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it has increased its clinical incidence in recent years, being responsible for life-threatening nosocomial infections. S. marcescens produces numerous exoproteins with toxic effects, including the ShlA pore-forming toxin, which has been catalogued as its most potent cytotoxin. However, the regulatory mechanisms that govern ShlA expression, as well as its action toward the host, have remained unclear. We have shown that S. marcescens elicits an autophagic response in host nonphagocytic cells. In this work, we determine that the expression of ShlA is responsible for the autophagic response that is promoted prior to bacterial internalization in epithelial cells. We show that a strain unable to express ShlA is no longer able to induce this autophagic mechanism, while heterologous expression of ShlA/ShlB suffices to confer on noninvasive Escherichia coli the capacity to trigger autophagy. We also demonstrate that shlBA harbors a binding motif for the RcsB regulator in its promoter region. RcsB-dependent control of shlBA constitutes a feed-forward regulatory mechanism that allows interplay with flagellar-biogenesis regulation. At the top of the circuit, activated RcsB downregulates expression of flagella by binding to the flhDC promoter region, preventing FliA-activated transcription of shlBA. Simultaneously, RcsB interaction within the shlBA promoter represses ShlA expression. This circuit offers multiple access points to fine-tune ShlA production. These findings also strengthen the case for an RcsB role in orchestrating the expression of Serratia virulence factors.

  11. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  12. Accretion and differentiation of the terrestrial planets with implications for the compositions of early-formed Solar System bodies and accretion of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Young, E. D.; de Vries, J.; Nimmo, F.; Palme, H.; Frost, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    close to the Sun, at <0.9-1.2 AU, are highly reduced and those from beyond this distance are increasingly oxidized. Reasonable concentrations of H2O in Earth's mantle are obtained when bodies originating from beyond 6-7 AU contain 20 wt% water ice (icy bodies that originated between the snow line and this distance did not contribute to Earth's accretion because they were swept up by Jupiter and Saturn). In the six models examined, water is added to the Earth mainly after 60-80% of its final mass has accreted. The compositional evolution of the mantles of Venus and Mars are also constrained by the model. The FeO content of the martian mantle depends critically on the heliocentric distance at which the Mars-forming embryo originated. Finally, the Earth's core is predicted to contain 8-9 wt% silicon, 2-4 wt% oxygen and 10-60 ppm hydrogen, whereas the martian core is predicted to contain low concentrations (<1 wt%) of Si and O.

  13. Repeated exposure to high-frequency spanking and child externalizing behavior across the first decade: a moderating role for cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-12-01

    This study used the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to examine the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting on child externalizing behavior across the first decade of life, and a moderating role for cumulative ecological risk. Maternal report of harsh parenting, defined as high frequency spanking, was assessed at age 1, 3, 5, and 9, along with child externalizing at age 9 (N=2,768). Controlling for gender, race, maternal nativity, and city of residence, we found a cumulative risk index to significantly moderate the effects of repeated harsh parenting on child behavior, with the effects of repeated high-frequency spanking being amplified for those experiencing greater levels of cumulative risk. Harsh parenting, in the form of high frequency spanking, remains a too common experience for children, and results demonstrate that the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting across the first decade are amplified for those children already facing the most burden.

  14. 48 CFR 1532.170 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Forms. 1532.170 Section 1532.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING... Reconciliation, at 1553.232-74, shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  15. 48 CFR 1532.170 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forms. 1532.170 Section 1532.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING... Reconciliation, at 1553.232-74, shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  16. 48 CFR 1532.170 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forms. 1532.170 Section 1532.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING... Reconciliation, at 1553.232-74, shall be used for an accounting of the cumulative charges and costs for...

  17. Hydride affinities of cumulated, isolated, and conjugated dienes in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2008-11-01

    The hydride affinities (defined as the enthalpy changes in this work) of 15 polarized dienes [five phenyl sulfone substituted allenes (1a), the corresponding five isolated dienes (1b), and the corresponding five conjugated dienes (1c)] in acetonitrile solution were determined by titration calorimetry for the first time. The results display that the hydride affinity scales of the 15 dienes in acetonitrile range from -71.6 to -73.9 kcal/mol for 1a, from -46.2 to -49.7 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -45.0 to -46.5 kcal/mol for 1c, which indicates that the hydride-obtaining abilities of the cumulated dienes (1a) are not only much larger than those of the corresponding conjugated dienes (1c) but also much larger than those of the corresponding isolated dienes (1b). The hydrogen affinities of the 15 dienes as well as the hydrogen affinities and the proton affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile were also evaluated by using relative thermodynamic cycles according to Hess's law. The results show that (i) the hydrogen affinities of the neutral dienes 1 cover a range from -44.5 to -45.6 kcal/mol for 1a, from -20.4 to -21.4 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -17.3 to -18.5 kcal/mol for 1c; (ii) the hydrogen affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile cover a range from -40.6 to -47.2 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -21.6 to -29.6 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -10.0 to -15.4 kcal/mol for 1c(-*); (iii) the proton affinities of the 15 1a(-*) in acetonitrile cover a range from -97.0 to -100.6 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -77.8 to -83.4 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -66.2 to -68.9 kcal/mol for 1c(-*). The main reasons for the great difference between the cumulated dienes and the corresponding isolated and conjugated dienes in the hydride affinity, hydrogen affinity, and proton affinity have been examined. It is evident that these experimental results should be quite valuable to facilitate the elucidation of the origins of the especially high

  18. Microgranitoid enclaves in the felsic Looanga monzogranite, New England Batholith, Australia: Pressure quench cumulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. H.; Shaw, S. E.

    2014-06-01

    Sparse microgranitoid enclaves (MGE) in the leucocratic I-type Looanga monzogranite near Bendemeer, N.S.W. Australia, range from microdiorite to micromonzogranite and all have fine to medium grainsize igneous microstructures. The enclaves that vary from SiO2 53 to 69 wt.% are all less silicic than the host monzogranite (71-76 wt.%). Although compositionally diverse, the enclaves and host monzogranite pluton share a common mineralogy of quartz, oligoclase, ferro-edenitic hornblende, iron-rich (mg ~ 35) biotite, fluor-apatite and ± K-feldspar. Except for the core of one double enclave, the enclaves have the same 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio as the host pluton. A characteristic of the enclaves is high MnO/(MnO + MgO + FeO) ratios with MnO abundances of the more mafic enclaves up to 0.8 wt.%, higher than any common magma. The enclaves have a wide range of Na2O/K2O ratios (0.5 to 2.8) and, in common with the host pluton, contain hornblendes with Na2O/K2O ratios varying from 1.5 to 2.3. The hornblendes in two enclaves have lower Na2O/K2O ratios than their host enclave, making it unlikely that the hornblende could have crystallised from a melt of the same composition as these enclaves. Chemically and mineralogically the more mafic enclaves have characteristics expected of cumulates formed from a magma of similar composition as the host pluton, in that they contain the same minerals but are enriched in the near-liquidus phases (hornblende, plagioclase and biotite) and depleted in the near-solidus phases (quartz and K-feldspar). Except for some minor replacement of pyroxene by hornblende the minerals do not show microstructural evidence of being made over from other minerals. It is argued that the mineral chemistry of these enclaves is also a primary feature rather than the result of mineralogical equilibration with the host monzogranite magma. The two most felsic enclaves are medium-grained monzogranites (SiO2 68 and 70 wt.%) and are considered to be compositionally little

  19. CDF-XL: computing cumulative distribution functions of reaction time data in Excel.

    PubMed

    Houghton, George; Grange, James A

    2011-12-01

    In experimental psychology, central tendencies of reaction time (RT) distributions are used to compare different experimental conditions. This emphasis on the central tendency ignores additional information that may be derived from the RT distribution itself. One method for analysing RT distributions is to construct cumulative distribution frequency plots (CDFs; Ratcliff, Psychological Bulletin 86:446-461, 1979). However, this method is difficult to implement in widely available software, severely restricting its use. In this report, we present an Excel-based program, CDF-XL, for constructing and analysing CDFs, with the aim of making such techniques more readily accessible to researchers, including students (CDF-XL can be downloaded free of charge from the Psychonomic Society's online archive). CDF-XL functions as an Excel workbook and starts from the raw experimental data, organised into three columns (Subject, Condition, and RT) on an Input Data worksheet (a point-and-click utility is provided for achieving this format from a broader data set). No further preprocessing or sorting of the data is required. With one click of a button, CDF-XL will generate two forms of cumulative analysis: (1) "standard" CDFs, based on percentiles of participant RT distributions (by condition), and (2) a related analysis employing the participant means of rank-ordered RT bins. Both analyses involve partitioning the data in similar ways, but the first uses a "median"-type measure at the participant level, while the latter uses the mean. The results are presented in three formats: (i) by participants, suitable for entry into further statistical analysis; (ii) grand means by condition; and (iii) completed CDF plots in Excel charts.

  20. Enhanced Cumulative Sum Charts for Monitoring Process Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Abujiya, Mu’azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes. PMID:25901356

  1. Discerning mechanistically rewired biological pathways by cumulative interaction heterogeneity statistics.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Travis B; Nguyen, Hien H; Said, Joseph I; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Jinfa; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Changes in response of a biological pathway could be a consequence of either pathway rewiring, changed input, or a combination of both. Most pathway analysis methods are not designed for mechanistic rewiring such as regulatory element variations. This limits our understanding of biological pathway evolution. Here we present a Q-method to discern whether changed pathway response is caused by mechanistic rewiring of pathways due to evolution. The main innovation is a cumulative pathway interaction heterogeneity statistic accounting for rewiring-specific effects on the rate of change of each molecular variable across conditions. The Q-method remarkably outperformed differential-correlation based approaches on data from diverse biological processes. Strikingly, it also worked well in differentiating rewired chaotic systems, whose dynamics are notoriously difficult to predict. Applying the Q-method on transcriptome data of four yeasts, we show that pathway interaction heterogeneity for known metabolic and signaling pathways is indeed a predictor of interspecies genetic rewiring due to unbalanced TATA box-containing genes among the yeasts. The demonstrated effectiveness of the Q-method paves the way to understanding network evolution at the resolution of functional biological pathways. PMID:25921728

  2. Can density cumulant functional theory describe static correlation effects?

    PubMed

    Mullinax, J Wayne; Sokolov, Alexander Yu; Schaefer, Henry F

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the performance of density cumulant functional theory (DCT) for capturing static correlation effects. In particular, we examine systems with significant multideterminant character of the electronic wave function, such as the beryllium dimer, diatomic carbon, m-benzyne, 2,6-pyridyne, twisted ethylene, as well as the barrier for double-bond migration in cyclobutadiene. We compute molecular properties of these systems using the ODC-12 and DC-12 variants of DCT and compare these results to multireference configuration interaction and multireference coupled-cluster theories, as well as single-reference coupled-cluster theory with single, double (CCSD), and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. For all systems the DCT methods show intermediate performance between that of CCSD and CCSD(T), with significant improvement over the former method. In particular, for the beryllium dimer, m-benzyne, and 2,6-pyridyne, the ODC-12 method along with CCSD(T) correctly predict the global minimum structures, while CCSD predictions fail qualitatively, underestimating the multireference effects. Our results suggest that the DC-12 and ODC-12 methods are capable of describing emerging static correlation effects but should be used cautiously when highly accurate results are required. Conveniently, the appearance of multireference effects in DCT can be diagnosed by analyzing the DCT natural orbital occupations, which are readily available at the end of the energy computation.

  3. Femtosecond writing of depressed cladding waveguides in strongly cumulative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, Mikhail A.; Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.

    2015-05-01

    We proposed a novel approach for direct femtosecond inscription of waveguides. It consisted in formation of cladding with reduced refractive index in fused silica. Depressed cladding was based on peripheral regions of individually written neighbored tracks, which should be inscribed in strongly cumulative regime. It was shown, that due to shot time interval between femtosecond laser pulses and relatively slow thermal diffusion, the exposed focal region surrounds by significantly wide cladding with reduced refracted index. Based on proposed approach we demonstrated depressed cladding waveguide inscription in fused silica using emission directly from commercially available femtosecond oscillator without correcting optical systems and second harmonic generation. It was shown, that the new approach provides formation of easily adjustable single mode waveguides with desired mode field diameter. Such depressed cladding waveguides exploit both advantages of fused silica material and depressed cladding geometry. We also verified our suggestion by experiment and inscribed depressed cladding waveguides with two different mode field diameters at similar femtosecond pulse characteristics. The obtained structures provided low propagation losses and good coupling with Gaussian mode. The waveguides supported propagation of both polarizations with nearly identical characteristics. Obtained experimental results were in good agreement with numerical simulation.

  4. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  5. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  6. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  7. Cumulative Activation of Voltage-Dependent KVS-1 Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Patricio; Garst-Orozco, Jonathan; Baban, Beravan; de Santiago-Castillo, Jose Antonio; Covarrubias, Manuel; Salkoff, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we reveal the existence of a novel use-dependent phenomenon in potassium channels, which we refer to as cumulative activation (CA). CA consists of an increase in current amplitude in response to repetitive depolarizing step pulses to the same potential. CA persists for up to 20 s and is similar to a phenomenon called “voltage-dependent facilitation” observed in some calcium channels. The KVS-1 K+ channel, which exhibits CA, is a rapidly activating and inactivating voltage-dependent potassium channel expressed in chemosensory and other neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unusual in being most closely related to the Shab (Kv2) family of potassium channels, which typically behave like delayed rectifier K+ channels in other species. The magnitude of CA depends on the frequency, voltage, and duration of the depolarizing step pulse. CA also radically changes the activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel, suggesting that the channel may undergo a physical modification in a use-dependent manner; thus, a model that closely simulates the behavior of the channel postulates the existence of two populations of channels, unmodified and modified. Use-dependent changes in the behavior of potassium channels, such as CA observed in KVS-1, could be involved in functional mechanisms of cellular plasticity such as synaptic depression that represent the cellular basis of learning and memory. PMID:18199775

  8. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2016-09-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary ({LDB}). We computed almost 12 000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_ȯ by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross sections, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy element mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, αML). As a first step, we investigated the effect of varying all these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input physics/chemical abundances/parameters that affect the {LDB} age, without making any a priori assumption of independence among each other. Such an approach allowed us to build the cumulative error stripe which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical {LDB} age. The error stripe ranges from about 5-15 % for αML = 1.00, and it slightly reduces to about 5-10 % for a solar calibrated αML. About 40 % of the total error stripe is due to the uncertainty in the adopted initial chemical composition.

  9. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  10. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, onboard the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume of the so-called "Postlaunch Series" serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 5 sections including an errata, an addendum, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes.

  11. Soil test phosphorus and cumulative phosphorus budgets in fertilized grassland.

    PubMed

    Messiga, Aimé Jean; Ziadi, Noura; Jouany, Claire; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Suomela, Raija; Sinaj, Sokrat; Bélanger, Gilles; Stroia, Ciprian; Morel, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the linearity of relationships between soil test P (STP) and cumulative phosphorus (P) budget using data from six long-term fertilized grassland sites in four countries: France (Ercé and Gramond), Switzerland (Les Verrières), Canada (Lévis), and Finland (Maaninka and Siikajoki). STP was determined according to existing national guidelines. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the presence of deflection points in the relationships. Deflection points with (x, y) coordinates were observed everywhere but Maaninka. Above the deflection point, a significant linear relationship was obtained (0.33 < r (2) < 0.72) at four sites, while below the deflection point, the relationship was not significant, with a negligible rate of STP decrease. The relationship was not linear over the range of STP encountered at most sites, suggesting a need for caution when using the P budget approach to predict STP changes in grasslands, particularly in situations of very low P fertilization. Our study provides insights and description of a tool to improve global P strategies aimed at maintaining STP at levels adequate for grassland production while reducing the risk of P pollution of water.

  12. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  13. Can density cumulant functional theory describe static correlation effects?

    PubMed

    Mullinax, J Wayne; Sokolov, Alexander Yu; Schaefer, Henry F

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the performance of density cumulant functional theory (DCT) for capturing static correlation effects. In particular, we examine systems with significant multideterminant character of the electronic wave function, such as the beryllium dimer, diatomic carbon, m-benzyne, 2,6-pyridyne, twisted ethylene, as well as the barrier for double-bond migration in cyclobutadiene. We compute molecular properties of these systems using the ODC-12 and DC-12 variants of DCT and compare these results to multireference configuration interaction and multireference coupled-cluster theories, as well as single-reference coupled-cluster theory with single, double (CCSD), and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. For all systems the DCT methods show intermediate performance between that of CCSD and CCSD(T), with significant improvement over the former method. In particular, for the beryllium dimer, m-benzyne, and 2,6-pyridyne, the ODC-12 method along with CCSD(T) correctly predict the global minimum structures, while CCSD predictions fail qualitatively, underestimating the multireference effects. Our results suggest that the DC-12 and ODC-12 methods are capable of describing emerging static correlation effects but should be used cautiously when highly accurate results are required. Conveniently, the appearance of multireference effects in DCT can be diagnosed by analyzing the DCT natural orbital occupations, which are readily available at the end of the energy computation. PMID:26575548

  14. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  15. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinser, J.A.; Roesler, H.; Furrer, T.; Gruetter, D.Z.; Zimmermann, H. )

    1989-12-01

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9 yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases.

  16. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  17. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  18. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  19. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every 6 months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  20. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A Three-Part Cumulative Update of the 1998 Edition of the NASA Thesaurus. Supplement 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus Supplement is a cumulative update to the 1998 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA/SP-1998-7501). The Supplement, published every six months, includes all new terms and associated hierarchies added since the cutoff for the 1998 edition (December 1997). Parts 1 and 2 (Hierarchical Listing and Rotated Term Display) correspond to Volumes 1 and 2 of the 1998 printed edition. Definitions are included in Part 1; uppercase/lowercase forms are provided in both Parts 1 and 2. Part 3 is a list of deletions or changes to valid terms.

  1. Disaggregation of primitive cumulates in the Skuggafjöll eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neave, D.; Maclennan, J.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are significant limitations in using genetic terms, such as phenocryst and xenocryst, when describing macrocrysts carried by magmas. Despite being largely out of equilibrium with their carrier melt, zoned macrocrysts bring with them a record of their past crystallisation. Furthermore, macrocrysts may have resided in crystal mushes or cumulates prior to being entrained into melts and carried to the surface during eruptions. These entrained macrocrysts can therefore provide insights into the development of plutonic rocks within magmatic plumbing systems paused at the moment of disaggregation. Diverse petrologic observations are therefore required to disentangle the volcanic and plutonic processes operating during the assembly of phyric magmas. Here we present the results of an integrated study performed on glassy pillow basalts from the subglacial Skuggafjöll eruption in the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland. Olivine and plagioclase compositions are strongly bimodal with peaks at Fo86 and Fo80 and An88 and An75 respectively. Both QEMSCAN* and SEM imaging indicate that the most forsteritic and anorthitic compositions are found in the cores of large macrocrysts and are texturally associated with one another, forming a primitive macrocryst population. The lowest forsterite and anorthite contents are present in rims of large macrocrysts and in smaller macrocrysts, which are associated clinopyroxene, forming an evolved macrocryst population. Calculations using published mineral-melt equilibrium models indicate that the evolved population is in equilibrium with the groundmass glass composition. The relationship between the primitive population and the evolved, equilibrium population was investigated using combined whole rock geochemistry and point counting systematics for samples with 5-46 modal % macrocryst contents. Highly incompatible trace element concentrations (e.g. Ce, Zr) correlate negatively with the mass fraction of macrocrysts. Regression lines

  2. Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

    2004-12-01

    Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its

  3. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the Hāna and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  4. Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV-1 and SIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Smith, Anthony J.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Southern, Peter J.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Burton, Gregory F.; Silvestri, Guido; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2011-01-01

    The hallmark of HIV-1 and SIV infections is CD4+ T cell depletion. Both direct cell killing and indirect mechanisms related to immune activation have been suggested to cause the depletion of T cells. We have now identified a mechanism by which immune activation-induced fibrosis of lymphoid tissues leads to depletion of naive T cells in HIV-1 infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The T regulatory cell response to immune activation increased procollagen production and subsequent deposition as fibrils via the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and chitinase 3-like-1 activity in fibroblasts in lymphoid tissues from patients infected with HIV-1. Collagen deposition restricted T cell access to the survival factor IL-7 on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network, resulting in apoptosis and depletion of T cells, which, in turn, removed a major source of lymphotoxin-β, a survival factor for FRCs during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. The resulting loss of FRCs and the loss of IL-7 produced by FRCs may thus perpetuate a vicious cycle of depletion of T cells and the FRC network. Because this process is cumulative, early treatment and antifibrotic therapies may offer approaches to moderate T cell depletion and improve immune reconstitution during HIV-1 infection. PMID:21393864

  5. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  6. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO® UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  7. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  8. Toward computational cumulative biology by combining models of biological datasets.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations-for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database.

  9. Toward Computational Cumulative Biology by Combining Models of Biological Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations—for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database. PMID:25427176

  10. Cumulative head impact burden in high school football.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Eckner, James T; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec(2) and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines.

  11. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  12. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  13. Settling and compaction of olivine in basaltic magmas: an experimental study on the time scales of cumulate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Max W.; Forien, Melanie; Solferino, Giulio; Bagdassarov, Nickolai

    2012-12-01

    mechanism. The above relationship, combined with a linear scaling for grain size as appropriate for reaction-controlled pressure solution creep, allows calculation of formation times of adcumulates. If chemical compaction is dissolution-reprecipitation limited, then single layers of natural olivine adcumulates of ½ m thickness with 70-75 vol % olivine at the base (as observed in the Rhum layered intrusion) would have typical formation times of 0.4-3 years for grain sizes of 2-10 mm. This time scale compares favourably with characteristic cooling times of sills. If a greater than 20-m-thick series of cumulate layers pressurizes a base layer with the porosity still filled by a melt, then compaction proceeds to the compaction limit within a few years. It can thus be expected that in layered mafic intrusions where cumulates are continuously deposited from a large magma chamber and which characteristic cooling times of more than decades, a compaction zone of several tens of metres forms with adcumulates only maintaining porosities in the order of 5 %. In conclusion, gravitational settling and gravitation-driven chemical compaction are feasible cumulate-forming processes for dense mafic minerals in basaltic magmas and in particular in large layered intrusions.

  14. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cumulative Finals on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Maya M.; Brack, Amy S. Badura; Finken, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the benefits of cumulative and noncumulative finals on students' short- and long-term course material retention. In Experiment 1, we examined results from course content exams administered immediately after course finals. Course sections including cumulative finals had higher content exam scores than sections…

  15. 12 CFR 7.2006 - Cumulative voting in election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cumulative voting in election of directors. 7.2006 Section 7.2006 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2006 Cumulative voting in election of directors....

  16. 12 CFR 7.2006 - Cumulative voting in election of directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cumulative voting in election of directors. 7.2006 Section 7.2006 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2006 Cumulative voting in election of directors....

  17. 76 FR 82296 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... established in the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69726) (FRL-8888-9). In that notice, the Agency announced the availability of EPA's cumulative risk assessment for the pyrethroids. Based on this...

  18. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  19. The Application of the Cumulative Logistic Regression Model to Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the performances of the linear regression model and the cumulative logit model was performed on a…

  20. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  1. 43 CFR 46.115 - Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of past actions in the... Environmental Quality § 46.115 Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects. When... Memorandum on Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis” dated June 24, 2005, or...

  2. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your platform because of the results...

  3. The Validity of the SAT for Predicting Cumulative Grade Point Average by College Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in New Orleans, LA in April 2011. The current study examined the differential validity of the SAT for predicting cumulative GPA through the second-year of college by college major, as well as the differential prediction of cumulative GPA by college major among…

  4. College Students' Memory for Unannounced Cumulative Items on the Final Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Lola; Templeton, Jenny; Conner, Timothy W., II; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been much published research on the benefits of distributed practice (Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2006) and the testing effect (Eisenkraemer, Jaeger, & Stein, 2013), very few studies are available regarding cumulative testing in college courses. Those available show a benefit to cumulative testing (Lawrence,…

  5. Ten-Year Cumulative Author Index Volume 2001, 36(1) through 2010, 45(4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Hassert, Silva

    2011-01-01

    This cumulative author index was developed as a service for the readership of Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities. It was prepared as a resource for scholars wishing to access the 391 articles published in volumes 36-45 of this journal. It also serves as a timely supplement to the 25-year (1966-1990) cumulative author…

  6. Asymptotic growth of cumulative and regenerative beam break-up instabilities in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    1988-06-01

    It is found that the asymptotic growth of the cumulative beam break up instability is independent of the focusing magnetic field, according to the model of Panofsky and Bander. The analysis is extended to include the transition from the cumulative to the regenerative type, both in the presence and absence of a focusing magnetic field.

  7. A multimethodological analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic load among rural children.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-09-01

    This study merged two theoretical constructs: cumulative risk and allostatic load. Physical (crowding, noise, housing quality) and psychosocial (child separation, turmoil, violence) aspects of the home environment and personal characteristics (poverty, single parenthood, maternal highschool dropout status) were modeled in a cumulative risk heuristic. Elevated cumulative risk was associated with heightened cardiovascular and neuroendocrine parameters, increased deposition of body fat, and a higher summary index of total allostatic load. Previous findings that children who face more cumulative risk have greater psychological distress were replicated among a sample of rural children and shown to generalize to lower perceptions of self-worth. Prior cumulative risk research was further extended through demonstration of self-regulatory behavior problems and elevated learned helplessness. PMID:12952404

  8. Time-Integrated Fluorescence Cumulant Analysis and Its Application in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Singer, Robert H.; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2014-01-01

    Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis (TIFCA) is a data analysis technique for fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) that extracts information from the cumulants of the integrated fluorescence intensity. It is the first exact theory that describes the effect of sampling time on FFS experiment. Rebinning of data to longer sampling times helps to increase the signal/noise ratio of the experimental cumulants of the photon counts. The sampling time dependence of the cumulants encodes both brightness and diffusion information of the sample. TIFCA analysis extracts this formation by fitting the cumulants to model functions. Generalization of TIFCA to multicolor FFS experiment is straightforward. Here, we present an overview of the theory, its implementation, as well as the benefits and requirements of TIFCA. The questions of why, when, and how to use TIFCA will be discussed. We give several examples of practical applications of TIFCA, particularly focused on measuring molecular interaction in living cells. PMID:23276537

  9. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  10. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Midlife Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Cumulative Disadvantage Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of cumulative disadvantage mechanisms across the life course in the production of racial and ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms at midlife, including the early life exposure to health risk factors, the persistent exposure to health risk factors, and varying mental health returns to health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. Using data from the over-40 health module of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort, this study uses regression decomposition techniques to attend to differences in the composition of health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups, differences by race and ethnicity in the association between depressive symptoms and health risk factors, and how these differences combine within racial and ethnic groups to produce group-specific levels of—and disparities in—depressive symptoms at midlife. While the results vary depending on the groups being compared across race/ethnicity and gender, the study documents how racial and ethnic mental health disparities at midlife stem from life course processes of cumulative disadvantage through both unequal distribution and unequal associations across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:26047842

  12. Cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb waves for ageing behavior study of modified-HP austenite steel.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yanxun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2011-12-01

    The cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb wave has been performed to study the precipitation kinetics and microvoid initiation of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel during the ageing process. Ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy materials have been done at 1223 K and 1173 K for different degradation time intervals and air cooled. The results show that the normalized acoustic nonlinearity of Lamb wave increases with the formation of fine precipitates at the early stage of ageing till about 1000 h and keeps as a plateau with the precipitates dynamic balance for a long-term ageing, and then decreases gradually at the final holding time with the coarsening of precipitates and initiation of microvoids. The results also show that the variation of nonlinear Lamb wave follows the same trend as that of hardness in materials. Therefore, the cumulative second-harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves has been found to be strongly sensitive to the precipitates behavior and microstructure evolution during the thermal ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel.

  13. The impact of early sulfur saturation and calc-crustal contamination on ore-forming process in the Posan mafic-ultramafic complex: Derived from the shallow depleted mantle, Beishan region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lü, Xinbiao; Liu, Yanrong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yuegao; Ruan, Banxiao; Adam, Munir Mohammed Abdalla

    2016-03-01

    The Posan ultramafic intrusion is one of the ~280 Ma Pobei mafic-ultramafic complexes located in the Beishan rift, on the northeastern margin of the Tarim Craton. Given that three finished drill holes reveal less economic mineralization, it is necessary to understand the ore potential of this little ultramafic intrusion. Detailed fieldwork shows that it is comprised of five stages of magma events. Among them, stages I, II and III are the mafic bodies dominated by gabbro, gabbronorite and olivine gabbro, and stages IV and V are the ultramafic bodies characterized by layered intrusions. Theoretically, the Posan ultramafic intrusion meets the first requirement of ore mineralization because of its high MgO contents (14.76%) of the parental magma. Moreover, the low Ni content (less than 1900 ppm) in olivine and the paragenesis of sulfides and spinel demonstrate that the Posan intrusion experienced early sulfur saturation before or during the fractional crystallization of spinel and olivine. This part of the sulfide, which may contain Ni-Cu or PGE mineralization, deserves to be the focus of future work. In stage IV, the continuous decrease of Ni contents in olivine with the fractional crystallization, the calc-crustal contamination (irregular distributed plagioclase, high Th/Yb ratios, Nb and Zr depletion and K, Rb, Ba, U, Th and Pb enrichment) instead of sulfur-rich crustal contamination, and the high level of oxygen fugacity (+2.1 < fO2QFM < +3.0) result in no obvious disseminated sulfides created in this stage. A clinopyroxene TiO2-Alz diagram confirms that the Beishan mafic-ultramafic complexes were formed in a rift-related circumstance rather than the arc-related cumulus. Low TiO2/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios reflect that the Beishan complexes were derived from the shallow depleted mantle without garnet. Considering the temporal and spatial relationship of the Tarim large igneous province and the large numbers of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Beishan region, it is

  14. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2011-07-01

    For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. PMID:21511684

  15. The spontaneous formation of stereotypes via cumulative cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas; Hutchison, Jacqui; Slessor, Gillian; Urquhart, James; Cunningham, Sheila J; Smith, Kenny

    2014-09-01

    All people share knowledge of cultural stereotypes of social groups--but what are the origins of these stereotypes? We examined whether stereotypes form spontaneously as information is repeatedly passed from person to person. As information about novel social targets was passed down a chain of individuals, what initially began as a set of random associations evolved into a system that was simplified and categorically structured. Over time, novel stereotypes emerged that not only were increasingly learnable but also allowed generalizations to be made about previously unseen social targets. By illuminating how cognitive and social factors influence how stereotypes form and change, these findings show how stereotypes might naturally evolve or be manipulated.

  16. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    measurements during hardware motion and contact. While performing dynamic testing of an active docking system, researchers found that the data from the motion platform, test hardware and two external measurement systems exhibited frame offsets and rotational errors. While the errors were relatively small when considering the motion scale overall, they substantially exceeded the individual accuracies for each component. After evaluating both the static and dynamic measurements, researchers found that the static measurements introduced significantly more error into the system than the dynamic measurements even though, in theory, the static measurement errors should be smaller than the dynamic. In several cases, the magnitude of the errors varied widely for the static measurements. Upon further investigation, researchers found the larger errors to be a consequence of hardware alignment issues, frame location and measurement technique whereas the smaller errors were dependent on the number of measurement points. This paper details and quantifies the individual and cumulative errors of the docking system and describes methods for reducing the overall measurement error. The overall quality of the dynamic docking tests for flight hardware verification was improved by implementing these error reductions.

  17. Symmetric cumulants and event-plane correlations in Pb + Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has recently measured the correlations between amplitudes of anisotropic flow in different Fourier harmonics, referred to as symmetric cumulants. We derive approximate relations between symmetric cumulants involving v4 and v5 and the event-plane correlations measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The validity of these relations is tested using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations. The corresponding results are in better agreement with the ALICE data than existing hydrodynamic predictions. We make quantitative predictions for three symmetric cumulants which have not yet been measured.

  18. Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Checking Fine and Gray Subdistribution Hazards Model with Cumulative Sums of Residuals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums of residuals, which validate the model in three aspects: (1) proportionality of hazard ratio, (2) the linear functional form and (3) the link function. For each assumption testing, we provide a p-values and a visualized plot against the null hypothesis using a simulation-based approach. We also consider an omnibus test for overall evaluation against any model misspecification. The proposed tests perform well in simulation studies and are illustrated with two real data examples. PMID:25421251

  20. Igneous inclusions from ordinary chondrites: High temperature cumulates and a shock melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1994-12-01

    We report microprobe, instrumental neutron activation analysis, and radiochemical neutron activation analysis data for three large igneous inclusions in the Yamato (Y-)75097, Y-793241, and Y-794046 ordinary chondrites. The inclusions in the first two chondrites are troctolitic cumulates that have undergone appreciable reactions with their hosts either during emplacement and/or cooling. Olivine-spinel Fe-Mg exchange pairs in these two inclusions record equilibration temperatures of about 710 C, and these temperatures are similar to those exhibited by mineral pairs in the Y-75097 and Y-793241 hosts. The inclusion in Y-794046 is texturally unique, consisting of fine-grained, randomly distributed olivines, coarse (approximately 2 mm) fascicular pyroxene laths, and angular pockets of maskelynite/plagioclase feldspar. The phase compositions are readily interpreted as having resulted from extremely rapid, essentially isochemical cooling to temperatures less than 1000 C of a melt with an initial temperature greater than 1670 C. We suggest that this igneous inclusion formed in-situ by shock.

  1. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas H; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496-509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray's model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums of residuals, which validate the model in three aspects: (1) proportionality of hazard ratio, (2) the linear functional form and (3) the link function. For each assumption testing, we provide a p-values and a visualized plot against the null hypothesis using a simulation-based approach. We also consider an omnibus test for overall evaluation against any model misspecification. The proposed tests perform well in simulation studies and are illustrated with two real data examples.

  2. Adult learning and social inequalities: Processes of equalisation or cumulative disadvantage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2015-08-01

    Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.

  3. Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: The cumulative role of victimization.

    PubMed

    Nam, Boyoung; Hilimire, Matthew; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between depression and psychotic experiences, but little is known about what drives this co-occurrence. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure to trauma and bullying may strengthen the relation between depression and psychotic experiences. A total of 799 college students completed self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences, depression, bullying, and sexual trauma. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences, as well as interactions. Approximately 20% of respondents reported a history of being bullied, and 7% reported exposure to childhood sexual trauma. There was a significant direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences. The association between depression and psychotic experiences was significantly stronger among respondents who were victims of both bullying and sexual violence compared to those who experienced either exposure alone, or who were not exposed to either form of victimization. These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to trauma and victimization may contribute to the co-occurrence of depression and psychotic experiences. History of victimization should be assessed among individuals with depressive symptoms to improve treatment plans and outcomes. PMID:27498154

  4. Young cumulate complex beneath Veniaminof caldera, Aleutian arc, dated by zircon in erupted plutonic blocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Sison, T.W.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska Peninsula, provides an opportunity to relate Quaternary volcanic rocks to a coeval intrusive complex. Veniaminof erupted tholeiitic basalt through dacite in the past ???260 k.y. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks, ejected 3700 14C yr B.P. in the most recent caldera-forming eruption, are fragments of a shallow intrusive complex of cumulate mush and segregated vapor-saturated residual melts. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.6 ?? 2.7 ka, 5+11/-10 ka, and 10.2 ?? 4.0 ka (2??) for zircon in two granodiorites and a diorite, respectively. Sparse zircons from two gabbros give 238-230Th model ages of 36 ?? 8 ka and 26 ?? 7 ka. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite crystallized in the presence of late magmatic aqueous fluid. Although historic eruptions have been weakly explosive Strombolian fountaining and small lava effusions, the young ages of plutonic blocks, as well as late Holocene dacite pumice, are evidence that the intrusive complex remains active and that evolved magmas can segregate at shallow levels to fuel explosive eruptions. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: The cumulative role of victimization.

    PubMed

    Nam, Boyoung; Hilimire, Matthew; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between depression and psychotic experiences, but little is known about what drives this co-occurrence. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure to trauma and bullying may strengthen the relation between depression and psychotic experiences. A total of 799 college students completed self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences, depression, bullying, and sexual trauma. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences, as well as interactions. Approximately 20% of respondents reported a history of being bullied, and 7% reported exposure to childhood sexual trauma. There was a significant direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences. The association between depression and psychotic experiences was significantly stronger among respondents who were victims of both bullying and sexual violence compared to those who experienced either exposure alone, or who were not exposed to either form of victimization. These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to trauma and victimization may contribute to the co-occurrence of depression and psychotic experiences. History of victimization should be assessed among individuals with depressive symptoms to improve treatment plans and outcomes.

  6. Real-time cumulant approach for inelastic losses in x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Curtis, J. B.

    Intrinsic inelastic losses in core level x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), and x-ray photo-emission spectra (XPS), arise from excitations of the system due to the sudden creation or annihilation of a deep core hole. Additional extrinsic losses arise during the propagation of the photoelectron, and interference processes are also important. These excitations are reflected in the satellite peaks observed in XPS. Formally the distribution of these excitations are described in terms of the core-hole spectral function, which can be calculated in terms of the core-hole Green's function represented in exponential form. Here we discuss an approach for calculating the exponent, or cumulant in terms of local density fluctuations via real-space, real-time time-dependent density functional theory. The role of extrinsic and interference terms is also discussed. Our method is illustrated in calculations of XAS and XPS for number of systems, including weakly correlated as well as d- and f-electron materials. Supported by DOE BES Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623.

  7. Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takashi; Sato, Hiaki; Ouchida, Mamoru; Utsunomiya, Atae; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although cancers have been thought to be predominantly driven by acquired genetic changes, it is becoming clear that microenvironment-mediated epigenetic alterations play important roles. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenomenon in human cancers as well as malignant lymphoma/leukemia. Tumor suppressor genes become frequent targets of aberrant hypermethylation in the course of gene-silencing due to the increased and deregulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The purpose of this article is to review the current status of knowledge about the contribution of cumulative epigenetic abnormalities of the host genes after microbial and virus infection to the crisis and progression of malignant lymphoma/leukemia. In addition, the relevance of this knowledge to malignant lymphoma/leukemia assessment, prevention and early detection will be discussed. PMID:24212629

  8. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  9. CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants, addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

  10. In situ weathering vs eolian additions to soils: A proposed solution from lava tubes and cumulic soils, Owens Valley, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    Lafarge, D.W.; Burke, R.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Natural dust traps in the form of open conduits to lava tubes, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cone depressions, and range-front half grabens create favorable environments for the accumulation of eolian materials through extended periods of geologic time. The radiometrically dated basalt flows in the Big Pine Lava Field, CA provide minimum and maximum constraining dates for accumulation rates of such eolian materials, which are also added, at least partially, to regional soils developed on moraines and alluvial fans. 1.2 meters of well sorted silts to fine sands are located within a lava tube formed in a flow emanating from the northern cone of the Stooges Range along the range front of the Inyo Mountains. This non-basaltic material records a minimum eolian accumulation rate of 4.8 mm/ka, whereas a somewhat thicker section in the subaerially exposed collapsed portion of the tube system suggests an accumulation rate of 8.0 mm/ka. Across Owens Valley along the Sierra Nevada range front, a cumulic soil described to a depth of 363+ cm is formed in a geomorphically youthful half graben near Crater Mountain (CM). This site records a bimodal particle size distribution of eolian silts and coarse sands, with locally derived very coarse sands and fine pebble gravels from juxtaposed granitic bedrock. Two plausible explanations for the cumulic, bimodal nature of the soil, with accompanying clay bulges are: (1) episodic sources for eolian dust induced by desiccation of pluvial Owens Lake, which would be in phase with Pleistocene climatic changes; or (2) continual input of the eolian component with episodic additions of the coarse-grained granitic materials brought about by periods of tectonism along the Sierra Nevada range front fault, thus not related to paleoclimate. Prevailing southerly winds suggested for times of peak dust availability, and the model of soil forming intervals proposed by Chadwick and Davis (1990) favor the first of these two explanations for the CM.

  11. Increasing Interaction of Alkaline Magmas with Lower Crustal Gabbroic Cumulates over the Evolution of Mt. Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schrader, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field at the southeastern edge of the Colorado Plateau, New Mexico erupted diverse alkaline magmas from ~3.8 to 1.5 Ma (Crumpler, 1980; Perry et al., 1990). The earliest eruptions include high silica topaz rhyolites of Grants Ridge (plagioclase, quartz, biotite) and Si-under saturated basanites and trachytes at Mt Taylor stratovolcano. Mt. Taylor was later constructed of stacks of thick, trachyandesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that were subsequently eroded into a ~4-km across amphitheatre opening toward the southeast. Early Mt. Taylor rhyolitic lavas exposed within the amphitheatre contain quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite (± sanidine) phenocrysts. Later cone-building trachydacite to trachyandesite lavas are crystal-rich with plagioclase and augite megacrysts (± hornblende, ± quartz) and record an overall trend of decreasing SiO2 with time. The last eruptions ~1.5 Ma from the stratovolcano (Perry et al. 1990) produced thick (>70 m), viscous lava flows that contain up to 50% zoned plagioclase phenocrysts. While SiO2 decreased among the silicic magmas, the degree of silica saturation increased among peripheral basaltic magmas from basanite to ne-normative hawaiite to hy-normative basalts. Evidence of increasing crustal contamination within the basalts includes zoned plagioclase megacrysts, augite and plagioclase cumulate texture xenoliths with accompanying xenocrysts. These textures within the basalts combined with abundant, complex plagioclase among the cone-building silicic magmas imply interaction and mixing with gabbroic cumulate mush in the lower crust beneath Mt. Taylor Volcano. Contemporaneous basanitic to trachytitc volcanism in the northern part of the volcanic field at Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) was more widely distributed, smaller volume, and produced mainly aphyric magmas. The lower crustal gabbroic cumulates either do not extend northward beneath Mesa Chivato, or they were not accessed by lower magma flux rate

  12. The spontaneous formation of stereotypes via cumulative cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas; Hutchison, Jacqui; Slessor, Gillian; Urquhart, James; Cunningham, Sheila J; Smith, Kenny

    2014-09-01

    All people share knowledge of cultural stereotypes of social groups--but what are the origins of these stereotypes? We examined whether stereotypes form spontaneously as information is repeatedly passed from person to person. As information about novel social targets was passed down a chain of individuals, what initially began as a set of random associations evolved into a system that was simplified and categorically structured. Over time, novel stereotypes emerged that not only were increasingly learnable but also allowed generalizations to be made about previously unseen social targets. By illuminating how cognitive and social factors influence how stereotypes form and change, these findings show how stereotypes might naturally evolve or be manipulated. PMID:25052829

  13. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory.

    PubMed

    Dannefer, Dale

    2003-11-01

    Age and cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory have obvious logical, theoretical, and empirical connections, because both are inherently and irreducibly related to the passage of time. Over the past 15 years, these connections have resulted in the elaboration and application of the cumulative advantage-disadvantage perspective in social gerontology, especially in relation to issues of heterogeneity and inequality. However, its theoretical origins, connections, and implications are not widely understood. This article reviews the genesis of the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective in studies of science, its initial articulation with structural-functionalism, and its expanding importance for gerontology. It discusses its intellectual relevance for several other established theoretical paradigms in sociology, psychology, and economics. On the basis of issues deriving from these perspectives and from the accumulating body of work on cumulative advantage and disadvantage, I identify several promising directions for further research in gerontology.

  14. A cumulative index to the 1976 issues of a continuing bibliography on Aerospace Medicine and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 151 through 162 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  16. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 177 through 188 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology is presented. The bibliography includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  17. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: the Case of Radon and Smoking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case exam...

  18. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 99 through 110 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 138 through 149 of AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY: A CONTINUING BIBLIOGRAPHY. It includes three indexes -- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1982 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 229 through 240 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.