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Sample records for early gamma-ray burst

  1. The Early Life Of A Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.; Willingale, D.

    2006-09-01

    We present results for 100 gamma-ray bursts observed promptly by the Swift satellite. Combining the early gamma-ray and X-ray data from the BAT and XRT, we show that although individual GRBs can display complex light curves, including a variety of decay phases and flares, their early emission can be described by a relatively simple combination of central engine activity and the interaction of a relativistic jet with the surrounding environment. We also discuss the later fading, which in the optical/IR has traditionally been explained as a jet-break. The Swift data reveal many bursts have a relatively early break in their X-ray light curves contradicting the standard jet break model derived from optical data. We discuss the implications of this for GRB jet models and for using GRBs as standard candles.

  2. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region.

  3. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  4. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  7. The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: Early Views into Black-hole Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) in the 1960's and early 1970's, and the characteristics of GRBs. Theoretical predictions and explanations are reviewed. The first observation of a GRB by the Beppo-SAX is discussed, and then the need develop a Gamma Ray Burst detector with a larger field of view, that has rapid follow-up capabilities and has the ability to rapidly get localized positions to the ground. The Swift instruments (i.e., the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT)) are shown and described. The scenario for observing of GRBs is reviewed. Many charts of the some of the GRBs data and GRB spectra are shown.

  8. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  9. Structure in the early afterglow light curve of the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Makoto; Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Monard, Berto; Nogami, Daisaku; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Sugie, Atsushi; Takahashi, Susumu

    2003-06-19

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are energetic explosions that for 0.01-100 s are the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Observations of the early evolution of afterglows are expected to provide clues about the nature of the bursts, but their rapid fading has hampered such studies; some recent rapid localizations of bursts have improved the situation. Here we report an early detection of the very bright afterglow of the burst of 29 March 2003 (GRB030329). Our data show that, even early in the afterglow phase, the light curve shows unexpectedly complicated structures superimposed on the fading background.

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  12. Swift and Fermi observations of the early afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst 090510

    DOE PAGES

    De Pasquale, M.

    2010-01-14

    Here, we present the observations of GRB090510 performed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the Swift observatory. In a GeV range, we detected a bright, short burst that shows an extended emission. Furthermore, its optical emission initially rises, a feature so far observed only in long bursts, while the X-ray flux shows an initial shallow decrease, followed by a steeper decay. This exceptional behavior enables us to investigate the physical properties of the gamma-ray burst outflow, poorly known in short bursts. Here, we discuss internal and external shock models for the broadband energy emission of this object.

  13. Early optical emission from the gamma-ray burst of 4 October 2002.

    PubMed

    Fox, D W; Yost, S; Kulkarni, S R; Torii, K; Kato, T; Yamaoka, H; Sako, M; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Price, P A; Berger, E; Soderberg, A M; Djorgovski, S G; Barth, A J; Pravdo, S H; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Lipkin, Y; Mauch, T; Harrison, C; Buttery, H

    2003-03-20

    Observations of the long-lived emission--or 'afterglow'--of long-duration gamma-ray bursts place them at cosmological distances, but the origin of these energetic explosions remains a mystery. Observations of optical emission contemporaneous with the burst of gamma-rays should provide insight into the details of the explosion, as well as into the structure of the surrounding environment. One bright optical flash was detected during a burst, but other efforts have produced negative results. Here we report the discovery of the optical counterpart of GRB021004 only 193 seconds after the event. The initial decline is unexpectedly slow and requires varying energy content in the gamma-ray burst blastwave over the course of the first hour. Further analysis of the X-ray and optical afterglow suggests additional energy variations over the first few days.

  14. A Search for Early High-Energy Afterglows in BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this project was to perform a detailed search for the early high-energy afterglow component of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE GRB data archive. GRBs are believed to be the product of shock waves generated in a relativistic outflow from the demise of extremely massive stars and/or binary neutron star mergers. The outflow undeniably encounters the ambient medium of the progenitor object and another shock wave is set up. A forward shock propagates into the medium and a reverse shock propagates through the ejecta. This "external" shock dissipates the kinetic energy of the ejecta in the form of radiation via synchrotron losses and slows the outflow eventually to a non-relativistic state. Radiation from the forward external shock is therefore expected to be long-lived, lasting days, weeks, and even months. This radiation is referred to as the 'afterglow'.

  15. A Morphological Analysis of Gamma-Ray Burst Early-optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Wang, Xiang-Gao; Mészáros, Peter; Zhang, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the external shock model of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, we perform a morphological analysis of the early-optical light curves to directly constrain model parameters. We define four morphological types, i.e., the reverse shock-dominated cases with/without the emergence of the forward shock peak (Type I/Type II), and the forward shock-dominated cases without/with νm crossing the band (Type III/IV). We systematically investigate all of the Swift GRBs that have optical detection earlier than 500 s and find 3/63 Type I bursts (4.8%), 12/63 Type II bursts (19.0%), 30/63 Type III bursts (47.6%), 8/63 Type IV bursts (12.7%), and 10/63 Type III/IV bursts (15.9%). We perform Monte Carlo simulations to constrain model parameters in order to reproduce the observations. We find that the favored value of the magnetic equipartition parameter in the forward shock ({ɛ }B{{f}}) ranges from 10-6 to 10-2, and the reverse-to-forward ratio of ɛB ({{R}}B) is about 100. The preferred electron equipartition parameter {ɛ }{{e}}{{r},{{f}}} value is 0.01, which is smaller than the commonly assumed value, e.g., 0.1. This could mitigate the so-called “efficiency problem” for the internal shock model, if ɛe during the prompt emission phase (in the internal shocks) is large (say, ˜0.1). The preferred {{R}}B value is in agreement with the results in previous works that indicate a moderately magnetized baryonic jet for GRBs.

  16. Gamma-ray burst models.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  17. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  18. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  19. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  20. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

  3. Gamma-ray Burst Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.

    2011-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays occurring at cosmological distances. GRB was discovered by Vela satellite in 1967. The discovery of afterglows in 1997 made it possible to measure the GRBs' redshifts and confirmed the cosmological origin. GRB cosmology includes utilizing long GRBs as standard candles to constrain the dark energy and cosmological parameters, measuring the high-redshift star formation rate (SFR), probing the metal enrichment history of the universe, dust, quantum gravity, etc. The correlations between GRB observables in the prompt emission and afterglow phases were discovered, so we can use these correlations as standard candles to constrain the cosmological parameters and dark energy, especially at high redshifts. Observations show that long GRBs may be associated with supernovae. So long GRBs are promising tools to measure the high-redshift SFR. GRB afterglows have a smooth continuum, so the extraction of IGM absorption features from the spectrum is very easy. The information of metal enrichment history and reionization can be obtained from the absorption lines. In this thesis, we investigate the high-redshift cosmology using GRBs, called GRB cosmology. This is a new and fast developing field. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In the first chapter, we introduce the progress of GRB studies. First we introduce the progress of GRB studies in various satellite eras, mainly in the Swift and Fermi eras. The fireball model and standard afterglow model are also presented. In chapter 2, we introduce the standard cosmology model, astronomical observations and dark energy models. Then progress on the GRB cosmology studies is introduced. Some of my works including what to be submitted are also introduced in this chapter. In chapter 3, we present our studies on constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy using latest observations. We use SNe Ia, GRBs, CMB, BAO, the X-ray gas mass fraction in clusters and the linear

  4. Gamma-ray burst theory after Swift.

    PubMed

    Piran, Tsvi; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2007-05-15

    Afterglow observations in the pre-Swift era confirmed to a large extend the relativistic blast wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Together with the observations of properties of host galaxies and the association with (type Ic) SNe, this has led to the generally accepted collapsar origin of long GRBs. However, most of the afterglow data was collected hours after the burst. The X-ray telescope and the UV/optical telescope onboard Swift are able to slew to the direction of a burst in real time and record the early broadband afterglow light curves. These observations, and in particular the X-ray observations, resulted in many surprises. While we have anticipated a smooth transition from the prompt emission to the afterglow, many observed that early light curves are drastically different. We review here how these observations are changing our understanding of GRBs.

  5. ASTRONOMY: Neighborhood Gamma Ray Burst Boosts Theory.

    PubMed

    Schilling, G

    2000-07-07

    Titanic explosions that emit powerful flashes of energetic gamma rays are one of astronomy's hottest mysteries. Now an analysis of the nearest gamma ray burst yet detected has added weight to the popular theory that they are expelled during the death throes of supermassive stars.

  6. ADP study of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Don Q.; Wang, John C. L.; Heuter, Geoffry J.; Graziani, Carlo; Loredo, Tom; Freeman, Peter

    1991-01-01

    This grant supported study of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts through analysis of Ginga and HEAO-1 archival data, and modeling of the results in terms of radiation transfer calculations of cyclotron scattering in a strong magnetic field. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer code with which we are able to calculate the expected properties of cyclotron scattering lines in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts was developed. The extensive software necessary in order to carry out fits of these model spectra to gamma-ray burst spectral data, including folding of the model spectra through the detector response functions was also developed. Fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB880205 were completed and fits to Ginga satellite data on burst GB870303 are being carried out. These fits have allowed us to test our software, as well as to garner new scientific results. This work has demonstrated that cyclotron resonant scattering successfully accounts for the locations, strengths, and widths of the observed line features in GB870303 and GB880205. The success of the model provides compelling evidence that these gamma-ray bursts come from strongly magnetic neutron stars and are galactic in origin, resolving longstanding controversies about the nature and distance of the burst sources. These results were reported in two papers which are in press in the proceedings of the Taos Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts, and in a paper submitted for publication.

  7. Probing Cosmic Dust of the Early Universe through High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. L.; Li, Aigen

    2009-01-01

    We explore the extinction properties of the dust in the distant universe through the afterglows of high-redshifted gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on the "Drude" model which, unlike previous studies, does not require a prior assumption of template extinction laws. We select GRB 070802 at z ≈ 2.45 (which shows clear evidence for the 2175 Å extinction bump) and GRB 050904 at z ≈ 6.29, the second most distant GRB observed to date. We fit their afterglow spectra to determine the extinction of their host galaxies. We find that (1) their extinction curves differ substantially from that of the Milky Way and the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (which were widely adopted as template extinction laws in the literature); (2) the 2175 Å extinction feature appears to be also present in GRB 050904 at z ≈ 6.29; and (3) there does not appear to be strong evidence for the dependence of dust extinction on redshifts. The inferred extinction curves are closely reproduced in terms of a mixture of amorphous silicate and graphite, both of which are expected supernova condensates and have been identified in primitive meteorites as presolar grains originating from supernovae (which are considered as the main source of dust at high-z).

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Characteristics and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, W. J.; Zitouni, H.; Guessoum, N.

    2017-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the universe. They have remained the object of intense research ever since their discovery was declassified in the early 1970s. Several space-borne missions have been dedicated to their study, including the Compton Gamma-Ray Burst Observatory (CGRO) in the 1990s and the current Swift and Fermi satellites. However, despite several decades of focused research, the precise mechanisms behind these enigmatic explosions have not been fully established. In the first part of this paper, we review what is currently known about GRBs. This includes: GRB light-curves and spectra; the different progenitor models, i.e., the "collapsar" and "merger" models; and the afterglow characteristics, including external shocks and the surrounding medium. In the second part of the paper, we present our work, which focuses on utilizing GRBs as cosmological probes. GRBs are ideal cosmological tools, because they have been observed to great distances (redshifts up to z = 9.4) and their radiation is unencumbered by any intervening dust. Although GRBs are not standard candles, the discovery of several energy and luminosity correlations, like the Amati relation which correlates the intrinsic spectral peak energy, Ep,i to the equivalent isotropic energy, Eiso , has ushered in a new era in which GRBs are used to investigate cosmological issues like the star formation rate and the value of the matter-density parameter, ΩM.

  9. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Blumenthal, G.; Brock, M.

    1994-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic ad the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the bursts cannot be excluded.

  10. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  11. Prompt Optical Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Carl; Balsano, Richard; Barthelmy, Scott; Bloch, Jeff; Butterworth, Paul; Casperson, Don; Cline, Tom; Fletcher, Sandra; Frontera, Fillippo; Gisler, Galen; Heise, John; Hills, Jack; Hurley, Kevin; Kehoe, Robert; Lee, Brian; Marshall, Stuart; McKay, Tim; Pawl, Andrew; Piro, Luigi; Szymanski, John; Wren, Jim

    2000-03-01

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure simultaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A search for optical counterparts to six GRBs with localization errors of 1 deg2 or better produced no detections. The earliest limiting sensitivity is mROTSE>13.1 at 10.85 s (5 s exposure) after the gamma-ray rise, and the best limit is mROTSE>16.0 at 62 minutes (897 s exposure). These are the most stringent limits obtained for the GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. Consideration of the gamma-ray fluence and peak flux for these bursts and for GRB 990123 indicates that there is not a strong positive correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.

  12. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Buffington, Andrew; Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul; Smith, Aaron C.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R approx. 10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  13. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    years, the look-back time indicates that the explosion took place around the time our own galaxy, the Milky Way, was formed and at least 6,000 million years before the solar system was born. GRB 000131 and other gamma-ray bursts are believed to have taken place in remote galaxies. However, due to the huge distance, it has not yet been possible to see the galaxy in which the GRB 000131 event took place (the "host" galaxy). From the observed fading of the afterglow it is possible to estimate that the maximum brightness of this explosion was at least 10,000 times brighter than the host galaxy. Future studies of gamma-ray bursts The present team of astronomers has now embarked upon a detailed study of the surroundings of GRB 000131 with the VLT. A main goal is to observe the properties of the host galaxy. From the observations of about twenty optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts identified until now, it is becoming increasingly clear that these very rare events are somehow related to the death of massive, short-lived stars . But despite the accumulating amount of excellent data, the details of the mechanism that leads to such dramatic explosions still remain a puzzle to astrophysicists. The detection and present follow-up observations of GRB 000131 highlight the new possibilities for studies of the extremely distant (and very early) Universe, now possible by means of gamma-ray bursts. When observed with the powerful instruments at a large ground-based telescope like the VLT, this incredibly bright class of cosmological objects may throw light on the fundamental processes of star formation in the infant universe. Of no less interest is the opportunity to analyse the chemical composition of the gas clouds at the epoch galaxies formed, by means of the imprints of the corresponding absorption lines on the afterglow spectrum. Waiting for the opportunity In this context, it would be extremely desirable to obtain very detailed (high-dispersion) spectra of the afterglow of a

  14. The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift mission: scheduled for launch in early 2004: is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to: 1) determine the origin of GFU3s; 2) classify GRBs and search for new types; 3) study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and 4) use GRBs to study the early universe out to z greater than 10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector that will detect bursts, calculate 1-4 arcmin positions: and trigger autonomous spacecraft slews; a narrow-field X-ray telescope that will give 5 arcsec positions and perform spectroscopy in the 0.2 to 10 keV band; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope that will operate in the 170-600 nm band and provide 0.3 arcsec positions and optical finding charts. Redshift determinations will be made for most bursts. In addition to the primary GRB science, the mission will perform a hard X-ray survey to a sensitivity of approx. 1 mCrab (approx. 2 x l0(exp -11) erg/sq cm s in the 15-150 keV band), more than an order of magnitude better than HEAO A-4. A flexible data and operations system will allow rapid follow-up observations of all types of high-energy transients. with rapid data downlink and uplink available through the NASA TDRSS system. Swift transient data will be rapidly distributed to the astronomical community and all interested observers are encouraged to participate in follow-up measurements. A Guest Investigator program

  15. Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Robert; Akerlof, Karl; Balsano, Richard; Barthelmy, Scott; Bloch, Jeff; Butterworth, Paul; Casperson, Don; Cline, Tom; Fletcher, Sandra; Frontera, Fillippo; Gisler, Galen; Heise, John; Hills, Jack; Hurley, Kevin; Lee, Brian; Marshall, Stuart; McKay, Tim; Pawl, Andrew; Piro, Luigi; Priedhorsky, Bill; Szymanski, John; Wren, Jim

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure contemporaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The ROTSE-I telescope array has been fully automated and responding to burst alerts from the GRB Coordinates Network since March 1998, taking prompt optical data for 30 bursts in its first year. We will briefly review observations of GRB990123 which revealed the first detection of an optical burst occurring during the gamma-ray emission, reaching 9th magnitude at its peak. In addition, we present here preliminary optical results for seven other gamma-ray bursts. No other optical counterparts were seen in this analysis, and the best limiting senisitivities are mV > 13.0 at 14.7 seconds after the gamma-ray rise, and mmV > 16.4 at 62 minutes. These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. This analysis suggests that there is not a strong correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.

  16. UBAT of UFFO/ Lomonosov: The X-Ray Space Telescope to Observe Early Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Connell, P.; Kim, M. B.; Lee, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Ripa, J.; Eyles, C.; Lim, H.; Gaikov, G.; Jeong, H.; Leonov, V.; Chen, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Nam, J. W.; Svertilov, S.; Yashin, I.; Garipov, G.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Huang, J.-J.; Kim, J. E.; Liu, T.-C.; Petrov, V.; Bogomolov, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Brandt, S.; Park, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope (UBAT) has been designed and built for the localization of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As one of main instruments in the UFFO payload onboard the Lomonosov satellite (hereafter UFFO/ Lomonosov), the UBAT's roles are to monitor the X-ray sky, to rapidly locate and track transient sources, and to trigger the slewing of a UV/optical telescope, namely Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT). The SMT, a pioneering application of rapid slewing mirror technology has a line of sight parallel to the UBAT, allowing us to measure the early UV/optical GRB counterpart and study the extremely early moments of GRB evolution. To detect X-rays, the UBAT utilizes a 191.1 cm2 scintillation detector composed of Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (YSO) crystals, Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), and associated electronics. To estimate a direction vector of a GRB source in its field of view, it employs the well-known coded aperture mask technique. All functions are written for implementation on a field programmable gate array to enable fast triggering and to run the device's imaging algorithms. The UFFO/ Lomonosov satellite was launched on April 28, 2016, and is now collecting GRB observation data. In this study, we describe the UBAT's design, fabrication, integration, and performance as a GRB X-ray trigger and localization telescope, both on the ground and in space.

  17. Wind-Interaction Models for the Early Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Case of GRB 021004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2003-06-01

    Wind-interaction models for gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows predict that the optical emission from the reverse shock drops below that from the forward shock within hundreds of seconds of the burst. The typical frequency νm of the synchrotron emission from the forward shock passes through the optical band typically on a timescale of minutes to hours. Before the passage of νm, the optical flux evolves as t-1/4, and after the passage, the decay steepens to t-(3p-2)/4, where p is the exponent for the assumed power-law energy distribution of nonthermal electrons and is typically ~2. The steepening in the slope of temporal decay should be readily identifiable in the early afterglow light curves. We propose that such a steepening was observed in the R-band light curve of GRB 021004 around day 0.1. Available data at several radio frequencies are consistent with this interpretation, as are the X-ray observations around day 1. The early evolution of GRB 021004 contrasts with that of GRB 990123, which can be described by emission from interaction with a constant density medium.

  18. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Re'em

    1997-11-01

    The detection of delayed emission at X-ray optical and radio wavelengths (``afterglow'') following gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggests that the relativistic shell that emitted the initial GRB as the result of internal shocks decelerates on encountering an external medium, giving rise to the afterglow. We explore the interaction of a relativistic shell with a uniform interstellar medium (ISM) up to the nonrelativistic stage. We demonstrate the importance of several effects that were previously ignored and must be included in a detailed radiation analysis. At a very early stage (few seconds), the observed bolometric luminosity increases as t2. On longer timescales (more than ~10 s), the luminosity drops as t-1. If the main burst is long enough, an intermediate stage of constant luminosity will form. In this case, the afterglow overlaps the main burst; otherwise there is a time separation between the two. On the long timescale, the flow decelerates in a self-similar way, reaching nonrelativistic velocities after ~30 days. Explicit expressions for the radial profiles of this self-similar deceleration are given. As a result of the deceleration and the accumulation of ISM material, the relation between the observed time, the shock radius, and its Lorentz factor is given by t=R/16γ2c, which is a factor of 8 different from the usual expression. We show that even though only a small fraction of the internal energy is given to the electrons, most of the energy can be radiated over time. If the fraction of energy in electrons is greater than ~10%, radiation losses will significantly influence the hydrodynamical evolution at early times (less than ~1 day).

  20. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  1. UFFO/ Lomonosov: The Payload for the Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, I. H.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Chen, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jeong, S.; Bogomolov, V.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Chang, S.-H.; Chang, Y. Y.; Chen, C.-R.; Chen, C.-W.; Choi, H. S.; Connell, P.; Eyles, C.; Gaikov, G.; Garipov, G.; Huang, J.-J.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jeong, H. M.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Lin, C.-Y.; Liu, T.-C.; Nam, J. W.; Petrov, V.; Ripa, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Svertilov, S.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.

    2018-02-01

    The payload of the UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory)-pathfinder now onboard the Lomonosov spacecraft (hereafter UFFO/ Lomonosov) is a dedicated instrument for the observation of GRBs. Its primary aim is to capture the rise phase of the optical light curve, one of the least known aspects of GRBs. Fast response measurements of the optical emission of GRB will be made by a Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT), a key instrument of the payload, which will open a new frontier in transient studies by probing the early optical rise of GRBs with a response time in seconds for the first time. The SMT employs a rapidly slewing mirror to redirect the optical axis of the telescope to a GRB position prior determined by the UFFO Burst Alert Telescope (UBAT), the other onboard instrument, for the observation and imaging of X-rays. UFFO/Lomonosov was launched successfully from Vostochny, Russia on April 28, 2016, and will begin GRB observations after completion of functional checks of the Lomonosov spacecraft. The concept of early GRB photon measurements with UFFO was reported in 2012. In this article, we will report in detail the first mission, UFFO/Lomonosov, for the rapid response to GRB observations.

  2. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  3. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  4. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales—durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals—for EE bursts are factors of ~2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts—the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width—continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (~6×10-10 erg cm-2 s-1) is gsim20× brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (~60,000 s) is ~30× longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  5. Physics of Gamma Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter

    2004-01-01

    During this grant period, the physics of gamma-ray bursts was investigated. A number of new results have emerged. The importance of pair formation in high compactness burst spectra may help explain x-ray flashes; a universal jet shape is a likely explanation for the distribution of jet break times; gravitational waves may be copiously produced both in short bursts from compact mergers and in long bursts arising from collapsars; x-ray iron lines are likely to be due to interaction with the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor; prompt optical flashes from reverse shocks will give diagnostics on the Lorentz factor and the environment; GeV and TeV emission from bursts may be expected in the external shock; etc. The group working with the PI included postdocs Dr. Bing Zhang (now assistant professor at University of Nevada); Dr. Shiho Kobayashi; graduate student Lijun Gou; collaborators Drs. Tim Kallman and Martin Rees. Meszaros shared with Rees and Dr. Bohan Paczynsky the AAS Rossi Prize in 2000 for their work on the theory of gamma ray bursts. The refereed publications and conference proceedings resulting from this research are summarized below. The PI gave a number of invited talks at major conferences, also listed.

  6. The GAMCIT gamma ray burst detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccall, Benjamin J.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Sobajic, Srdjan D.; Chang, Chinley Leonard; Krum, David M.; Ratner, Albert; Trittschuh, Jennifer E.

    1993-01-01

    The GAMCIT payload is a Get-Away-Special payload designed to search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts and any associated optical transients. This paper presents details on the design of the GAMCIT payload, in the areas of battery selection, power processing, electronics design, gamma-ray detection systems, and the optical imaging of the transients. The paper discusses the progress of the construction, testing, and specific design details of the payload. In addition, this paper discusses the unique challenges involved in bringing this payload to completion, as the project has been designed, constructed, and managed entirely by undergraduate students. Our experience will certainly be valuable to other student groups interested in taking on a challenging project such as a Get-Away-Special payload.

  7. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit after a beautiful launch on November 20, 2004. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera detects more than a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners and calibrated in Germany, are pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. Early results from the mission will be presented. The long-standing mystery of short GRBs has been solved, and the answer is the most interesting possible scenario. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. Observations of magnetars, galactic transients, supernovae, AGN and many other types of sources are also being performed

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.

    2003-01-01

    The unrivalled, extreme luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) make them the favored beacons for sampling the high redshift Universe. To employ GRBs to study the cosmic terrain -- e.g., star and galaxy formation history -- GRB luminosities must be calibrated, and the luminosity function versus redshift must be measured or inferred. Several nascent relationships between gamma-ray temporal or spectral indicators and luminosity or total energy have been reported. These measures promise to further our understanding of GRBs once the connections between the luminosity indicators and GRB jets and emission mechanisms are better elucidated. The current distribution of 33 redshifts determined from host galaxies and afterglows peaks near z $\\sim$ 1, whereas for the full BATSE sample of long bursts, the lag-luminosity relation predicts a broad peak z $\\sim$ 1--4 with a tail to z $\\sim$ 20, in rough agreement with theoretical models based on star formation considerations. For some GRB subclasses and apparently related phenomena -- short bursts, long-lag bursts, and X-ray flashes -- the present information on their redshift distributions is sparse or entirely lacking, and progress is expected in Swift era when prompt alerts become numerous.

  9. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  10. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Swift Team

    2005-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit after a beautiful launch on November 20, 2004. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera detects more than a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. The long-standing mystery of short GRBs has been solved, and the answer is the most interesting possible scenario. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

  11. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit since November 20, 2004 and all hardware is performing well. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera is detecting a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 50-100 sec by an autonomously controlled ``swift'' spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. There has been a break-through in the long-standing mystery of short GRBs; they appear to be caused by merging neutron stars. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow.

  12. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit since November 20, 2004 and all hardware is performing well. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera is detecting a hundred bursts per year. sensitive narrow-field X-ray and uv/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 50-100 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. There has been a break-through in the longstanding mystery of short GRBs; they appear to be caused by merging neutron stars. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow.

  13. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit after a beautiful launch on November 20, 2004. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera detects more than a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. The long-standing mystery of short GRBs has been solved, and the answer is the most interesting possible scenario. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

  14. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  15. Long-Lag, Wide-pulse Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.; Kazanas, D.; Scargle, . D.; Hakkila, J.; Giblin, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the best available probe of the early phase of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet attributes is the prompt gamma-ray emission, in which several intrinsic and extrinsic variables determine GRB pulse evolution. Bright, usually complex bursts have many narrow pulses that are difficult to model due to overlap. However, the relatively simple, long spectral lag, wide-pulse bursts may have simpler physics and are easier to model. In this work we analyze the temporal and spectral behavior of wide pulses in 24 long-lag bursts, using a pulse model with two shape parameters - width and asymmetry - and the Band spectral model with three shape parameters. We find that pulses in long-lag bursts are distinguished both temporally and spectrally from those in bright bursts: the pulses in long spectral lag bursts are few in number, and approximately 100 times wider (10s of seconds), have systematically lower peaks in vF(v), harder low-energy spectra and softer high-energy spectra. We find that these five pulse descriptors are essentially uncorrelated for our long-lag sample, suggesting that at least approximately 5 parameters are needed to model burst temporal and spectral behavior. However, pulse width is strongly correlated with spectral lag; hence these two parameters may be viewed as mutual surrogates. We infer that accurate formulations for estimating GRB luminosity and total energy will depend on several gamma-ray attributes, at least for long-lag bursts. The prevalence of long-lag bursts near the BATSE trigger threshold, their predominantly low vF(v) spectral peaks, and relatively steep upper power-law spectral indices indicate that Swift will detect many such bursts.

  16. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed.

  17. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  18. The Chase to Capture Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, thought to be the birth cries of black holes. It has taken 40 years of international cooperation and competition to begin to unravel the mystery of their origin. The most recent chapter in this field is being written by the SWIFT mission, a fast-response satellite with 3 power telescopes. An international team from countries all over the world participates in the chase to capture the fading light of bursts detected by SWIFT. This talk will discuss the challenges and excitement of building this space observatory. New results will be presented on our growing understanding of exploding stars and fiery mergers of orbiting stars.

  19. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Shude

    1993-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code is developed to calculate gravitational microlensing in three dimensions when the lensing optical depth is low or moderate (not greater than 0.25). The code calculates positions of microimages and time delays between the microimages. The majority of lensed gamma-ray bursts should show a simple double-burst structure, as predicted by a single point mass lens model. A small fraction should show complicated multiple events due to the collective effects of several point masses (black holes). Cosmological models with a significant fraction of mass density in massive compact objects can be tested by searching for microlensing events in the current BATSE data. Our catalog generated by 10,000 Monte Carlo models is accessible through the computer network. The catalog can be used to take realistic selection effects into account.

  20. Search of the energetic gamma-ray experiment telescope (EGRET) data for high-energy gamma-ray microsecond bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Esposito, J. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Hawking (1974) and Page & Hawking (1976) investigated theoretically the possibility of detecting high-energy gamma rays produced by the quantum-mechanical decay of a small black hole created in the early universe. They concluded that, at the very end of the life of the small black hole, it would radiate a burst of gamma rays peaked near 250 MeV with a total energy of about 10(exp 34) ergs in the order of a microsecond or less. The characteristics of a black hole are determined by laws of physics beyond the range of current particle accelerators; hence, the search for these short bursts of high-energy gamma rays provides at least the possibility of being the first test of this region of physics. The Compton Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) has the capability of detecting directly the gamma rays from such bursts at a much fainter level than SAS 2, and a search of the EGRET data has led to an upper limit of 5 x 10(exp -2) black hole decays per cu pc per yr, placing constraints on this and other theories predicting microsecond high-energy gamma-ray bursts.

  1. An Ordinary Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Consequences

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-18

    On Aug. 17, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope caught a short burst of gamma rays from the spectacular smashup of two neutron stars, setting off a chain of events that marks the first-ever detection of a cosmic event in gravitational waves and different kinds of light. NASA scientists Colleen Wilson-Hodge and Tyson Littenberg explain what happened and what it means for science and discovery.

  2. Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

  3. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Breaks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Gao; Zhang, Bing; Liang, En-Wei; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lin, Da-Bin; Li, Jing; Li, Long

    2018-06-01

    Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) collimation has been inferred with the observations of achromatic steepening in GRB light curves, known as jet breaks. Identifying a jet break from a GRB afterglow light curve allows a measurement of the jet opening angle and true energetics of GRBs. In this paper, we re-investigate this problem using a large sample of GRBs that have an optical jet break that is consistent with being achromatic in the X-ray band. Our sample includes 99 GRBs from 1997 February to 2015 March that have optical and, for Swift GRBs, X-ray light curves that are consistent with the jet break interpretation. Out of the 99 GRBs we have studied, 55 GRBs are found to have temporal and spectral behaviors both before and after the break, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the jet break models, respectively. These include 53 long/soft (Type II) and 2 short/hard (Type I) GRBs. Only 1 GRB is classified as the candidate of a jet break with energy injection. Another 41 and 3 GRBs are classified as the candidates with the lower and upper limits of the jet break time, respectively. Most jet breaks occur at 90 ks, with a typical opening angle θj = (2.5 ± 1.0)°. This gives a typical beaming correction factor {f}b-1∼ 1000 for Type II GRBs, suggesting an even higher total GRB event rate density in the universe. Both isotropic and jet-corrected energies have a wide span in their distributions: log(Eγ,iso/erg) = 53.11 with σ = 0.84 log(EK,iso/erg) = 54.82 with σ = 0.56 log(Eγ/erg) = 49.54 with σ = 1.29 and log(EK/erg) = 51.33 with σ = 0.58. We also investigate several empirical correlations (Amati, Frail, Ghirlanda, and Liang–Zhang) previously discussed in the literature. We find that in general most of these relations are less tight than before. The existence of early jet breaks and hence small opening angle jets, which were detected in the Swfit era, is most likely the source of scatter. If one limits the sample to jet breaks later than 104 s, the Liang

  5. Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.

    PubMed

    Hough, Jim

    2007-05-15

    After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed.

  6. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  7. Long-Lag, Wide-pulse Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.; Kazanas, D.; Scargie, J. D.; Hakkila, J.; Giblin, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    The best available probe of the early phase of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet attributes is the prompt gamma-ray emission, in which several intrinsic and extrinsic variables determine observed GRB pulse evolution, including at least: jet opening angle, profiles of Lorentz factor and matter/field density, distance of emission region from central source, and viewing angle. Bright, usually complex bursts have many narrow pulses that are difficult to model due to overlap. However, the relatively simple, long spectral lag, wide-pulse bursts may have simpler physics and are easier to model. We have analyzed the temporal and spectral behavior of wide pulses in 24 long-lag bursts from the BATSE sample, using a pulse model with two shape parameters - width and asymmetry - and the Band spectral model with three shape parameters. We find that pulses in long-lag bursts are distinguished both temporally and spectrally from those in bright bursts: the pulses in long spectral lag bursts are few in number, and approximately 100 times wider (10s of seconds), have systemtically lower peaks in nu*F(nu), harder low-energy spectra and softer high-energy spectra. These five pulse descriptors are essentially uncorrelated for our long-lag sample, suggesting that at least approximately 5 parameters are needed to model burst temporal and spectral behavior, roughly commensurate with the theoretical phase space. However, we do find that pulse width is strongly correlated with spectral lag; hence these two parameters may be viewed as mutual surrogates. The prevalence of long-lag bursts near the BATSE trigger threshold, their predominantly low nu*F(nu) spectral peaks, and relatively steep upper power-law spectral indices indicate that Swiift will detect many such bursts.

  8. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in the low-energy gamma-ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms were proposed.

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Fox, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    With its rapid-response capability and multiwavelength complement of instruments, the Swift satellite has transformed our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Providing high-quality observations of hundreds of bursts, and facilitating a wide range of follow-up observations within seconds of each event, Swift has revealed an unforeseen richness in observed burst properties, shed light on the nature of short-duration bursts, and helped realize the promise of gamma-ray bursts as probes of the processes and environments of star formation out to the earliest cosmic epochs. These advances have opened new perspectives on the nature and properties of burst central engines, interactions with the burst environment from microparsec to gigaparsec scales, and the possibilities for non-photonic signatures. Our understanding of these extreme cosmic sources has thus advanced substantially; yet more than forty years after their discovery, gamma-ray bursts continue to present major challenges on both observational and theoretical fronts.

  10. Gamma-ray bursts: The central engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    2000-09-01

    A variety of arguments suggest that the most common form of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), those longer than a few seconds, involve the formation of black holes in supernova-like events. Two kinds of ``collapsar'' models are discussed, those in which the black hole forms promptly-a second or so after iron core collapse-and those in which formation occurs later, following ``fallback'' over a period of minutes to hours. In most cases, extraction of energy from a rapidly accreting disk (and a rapidly rotating black hole) is achieved by magnetohydrodynamical processes, although neutrino-powered models remain viable in cases where the accretion rate is >~0.05Msolar s-1. GRBs are but one observable phenomenon accompanying black hole birth and other possibilities are discussed, some of which (long, faint GRBs and soft x-ray transients) may await discovery. Since they all involve black holes of similar mass accreting one to several Msolar, collapsars have a nearly standard total energy, around 1052 erg, but both the fraction of that energy ejected as highly relativistic matter and the distribution of that energy with angle can be highly variable. An explanation is presented why inferred GRB luminosity might correlate inversely with time scales and arguments are given against the production of ordinary GRBs by supergiant stars. .

  11. A Strange Supernova with a Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    Important Observations with La Silla Telescopes Several articles appear today in the scientific journal Nature about the strange supernova SN 1998bw that exploded earlier this year in the spiral galaxy ESO184-G82 . These studies indicate that this event was linked to a Gamma-Ray Burst and may thus provide new insights into this elusive phenomenon. Important observations of SN 1998bw have been made with several astronomical telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory by some of the co-authors of the Nature articles [1]. The measurements at ESO will continue during the next years. The early observations On April 25, the BeppoSAX satellite detected a Gamma-Ray Burst from the direction of the constellation Telescopium, deep in the southern sky. Although there is now general consensus that they originate in very distant galaxies, the underlying physical causes of these events that release great amounts of energy within seconds are still puzzling astronomers. Immediately after reports about the April 25 Burst had been received, astronomers at La Silla took some images of the sky region where the gamma-rays were observed as a "Target of Opportunity" (ToO) programme. The aim was to check if the visual light of one of the objects in the field had perhaps brightened when compared to exposures made earlier. This would then provide a strong indication of the location of the Gamma-Ray Burst. The digital exposures were transferred to the Italian/Dutch group around BeppoSax that had requested these ToO observations. Astronomers of this group quickly noticed a new, comparatively bright star, right on the arm of a small spiral galaxy. This galaxy was first catalogued in the 1970's during the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the Southern Sky and received the designation ESO184-G82 . It is located at a distance of about 140 million light-years. SN 1998bw ESO PR Photo 39a/98 ESO PR Photo 39a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 963 pix - 592k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3612 pix - 4.1Mb] ESO PR Photo 39b/98

  12. Annihilation radiation in cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Guryan, Y. A.; Ilyinskii, V. N.; Mazets, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    The pair annihilation radiation in gamma-ray bursts is seen as broad lines with extended hard wings. This radiation is suggested to escape in a collimated beam from magnetic polar regions of neutron stars.

  13. Gamma-ray burst theory: Back to the drawing board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts have always been intriguing sources to study in terms of particle acceleration, but not since their discovery two decades ago has the theory of these objects been in such turmoil. Prior to the launch of Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and observations by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), there was strong evidence pointing to magnetized Galactic neutron stars as the sources of gamma-ray bursts. However, since BATSE the observational picture has changed dramatically, requiring much more distant and possibly cosmological sources. I review the history of gamma-ray burst theory from the era of growing consensus for nearby neutron stars to the recent explosion of halo and cosmological models and the impact of the present confusion on the particle acceleration problem.

  14. The Diverse Environments of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel Alan

    I present results from several years of concerted observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic explosions in the Universe. Short gamma-ray bursts originate from a wide variety of environments, including disk galaxies, elliptical galaxies, galaxy haloes, and intracluster and intergalactic space. Long gamma ray bursts associate almost exclusively with star-forming hosts, but the properties of these galaxies also vary widely. Some are hosted in extremely small galaxies, difficult to identify directly in emission or infer from the absorption of afterglow light, but the host luminosity distribution extends up to very luminous (> L*) systems as well. A significant fraction of long GRBs are observed along highly dust-obscured sightlines through their host medium. Some of these events are hosted within conspicuously dusty galaxies, although the hosts of other dust-obscured events show no outward signs of significant internal dust content. By measuring the wavelength dependence of dust absorption profiles using a few well-observed GRB afterglows, I provide evidence for ordinary dust with properties similar to those of dust in the Milky Way in a system at z ˜ 3, but a very different absorption profile from the dust in a galaxy at z ˜ 5, providing tentative evidence to support a transition in dust composition early in the history of the Universe. I present an observationally-determined redshift distribution for Swift GRBs, showing few to originate from high redshifts (z ≳ 5). I also provide the first photometric and spectroscopic catalogs from one of the largest GRB host-galaxy surveys ever conducted, including observations of almost 150 distinct GRB fields.

  15. A link between prompt optical and prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Tueller, J

    2005-05-12

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with the gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  16. BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connaughton, Valerie; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the discovery of low-energy radiation appearing to come from the site of gamma-ray bursts in the hours to weeks after the initial burst of gamma rays, it would appear that astronomers have seen a cosmological imprint made by the burster on its surroundings. I discuss in this paper the phenomenon of post-burst emission in BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) gamma-ray bursts at energies traditionally associated with prompt emission. By summing the background-subtracted signals from hundreds of bursts, I find that tails out to hundreds of seconds after the trigger may be a common feature of long events (duration greater than 2s), and perhaps of the shorter bursts at a lower and shorter-lived level. The tail component appears independent of both the duration (within the long GRB sample) and brightness of the prompt burst emission, and may be softer. Some individual bursts have visible tails at gamma-ray energies and the spectrum in at least a few cases is different from that of the prompt emission. Afterglow at lower energies was detected for one of these bursts, GRB-991216, raising the possibility of afterglow observations over large energy ranges using the next generation of GRB detectors in conjunction with sensitive space or ground-based telescopes.

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts as Cosmological Probes with EXIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Dieter; EXIST Team

    2006-12-01

    The EXIST mission, studied as a Black Hole Finder Probe within NASA's Beyond Einstein Program, would, in its current design, trigger on 1000 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year (Grindlay et al, this meeting). The redshift distribution of these GRBs, using results from Swift as a guide, would probe the z > 7 epoch at an event rate of > 50 per year. These bursts trace early cosmic star formation history, point to a first generation of stellar objects that reionize the universe, and provide bright beacons for absorption line studies with groundand space-based observatories. We discuss how EXIST, in conjunction with other space missions and future large survey programs such as LSST, can be utilized to advance our understanding of cosmic chemical evolution, the structure and evolution of the baryonic cosmic web, and the formation of stars in low metallicity environments.

  18. BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    With the observation of low-energy radiation coming from the site of gamma-ray bursts in the hours to weeks after the initial gamma ray burst, it appears that astronomers have discovered a cosmological imprint made by the burster on its surroundings. This paper discusses the phenomenon of postburst emission in Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) gamma-ray bursts at energies usually associated with prompt emission. After summing up the background-subtracted signals from hundreds of bursts, it is found that tails out to hundreds of seconds after the trigger could be a common feature of events of a duration greater than 2 seconds, and perhaps of the shorter bursts at a lower and shorter-lived level. The tail component may be softer and seems independent of the duration (within the long-GRB sample) and brightness of the prompt burst emission. Some individual bursts have visible tails at gamma-ray energies, and the spectrum in a few cases differs from that of the prompt emission. For one of these bursts, GRB 991216, afterglow at lower energies was detected, which raised the possibility of seeing afterglow observations over large energy ranges using the next generation of GRB detectors in addition to sensitive space- or ground-based telescopes.

  19. 3rd Interplanetary Network Gamma-Ray Burst Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Kevin

    1998-05-01

    We announce the opening of the 3rd Interplanetary Network web site at http://ssl.berkeley.edu/ipn3/index.html This site presently has four parts: 1. A bibliography of over 3000 publications on gamma-ray bursts, 2. IPN data on all bursts triangulated up to February 1998, 3. A master list showing which spacecraft observed which bursts, 4. Preliminary IPN data on the latest bursts observed.

  20. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  1. Physical processes and diagnostics of gamma-ray burst emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1992-01-01

    With improved data from BATSE and other instruments, it is important to develop a range of diagnostic tools to link gamma-ray burst observations with theory. I will review some of the physical processes which may take place to form the spectrum of gamma-ray burst sources, assuming that the bursts originate on strongly magnetized neutron stars. The important diagnostics that these processes provide to probe the emission region and how they might be used to interpret observed spectra will also be discussed.

  2. Unraveling the Origin of Short Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Chincarini, G.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Covino, S.; Moretti, A.; Romano, P.; OBrien, P. T.; Sarazin, C. L.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2005-01-01

    The origin of the short (<2 s) class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is finally becoming clear after decades of search. The first one localized to a few arcseconds accuracy, GRB 050509B, was found to have a highly probable association with a nearby (z = 0.225) elliptical galaxy. A second one with arcsecond localization, GRB 050709, was also associated with a low redshift (z = 0.16) galaxy. We report here the detection of short GRB 050724 with remarkable properties; in particular, it has low energy gamma-ray emission that lasts for 100 s after the main short pulse, strong early X-ray afterglow, and an unusual lightcurve that rebrightens at 3x10(exp 4) s. A position on the sky accurate to 9 arcsec was determined and provided as a GCN alert to ground-based telescopes within 80 s. A subsequent high-resolution X-ray image provided a sub-arcsec position coincident with ground-based optical and radio observations of the afterglow. Like GRB 050509B, this burst is located off-center in an elliptical galaxy. The energy output of the GRB at the host distance of z = 0.258 is 2-3 orders of magnitude less than for long bursts. The low level of star formation in such galaxies is strong evidence against a collapsar or hypernova origin like that associated with long GRBs. Based on these new data, it is highly probable that short GRBs are produced by the coalescence of orbiting neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with some evidence for a NS-BH merger in this burst.

  3. The bright optical flash and afterglow from the gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Panaitescu, A; Wozniak, P R; Davis, H; Palmer, D M; Vianello, G; Omodei, N; Xiong, S; Briggs, M S; Elphick, M; Paciesas, W; Rosing, W

    2014-01-03

    The optical light generated simultaneously with x-rays and gamma rays during a gamma-ray burst (GRB) provides clues about the nature of the explosions that occur as massive stars collapse. We report on the bright optical flash and fading afterglow from powerful burst GRB 130427A. The optical and >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma-ray flux show a close correlation during the first 7000 seconds, which is best explained by reverse shock emission cogenerated in the relativistic burst ejecta as it collides with surrounding material. At later times, optical observations show the emergence of emission generated by a forward shock traversing the circumburst environment. The link between optical afterglow and >100-MeV emission suggests that nearby early peaked afterglows will be the best candidates for studying gamma-ray emission at energies ranging from gigaelectron volts to teraelectron volts.

  4. Observation of gamma ray bursts and flares by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneid, E. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D. J.; Kanbach, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has observed energetic gamma ray bursts and flares. On May 3, 1991, EGRET detected a gamma ray burst both in the energy measuring NaI (Tl) scintillator and independently in the spark chamber imaging assembly. The NaI spectra were accumulated by a special BURST mode of EGRET. The spectra were measured over a range from 1 to 200 MeV, in three sequential spectra of 1,2, and 4 seconds. During the peak of the burst, six individual gamma rays were detected in the spark chamber, allowing a determination of the burst arrival direction. The intense flares of June were also detected. A solar flare on June 4 was observed to last for several minutes and for a brief time, less than a minute, had significant emission of gamma rays exceeding 150 MeV.

  5. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  6. Systematic Effects on Duration Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) have recently been introduced as a measurement of the duration of gamma-ray bursts. We present here a description of the method of measuring T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) and its application to gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). We use simulated as well as observed time profiles to address some of the possible systematic effects affecting individual T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) measurements. We show that these systematic effects do not mimic those effects that would result from time dilation if the burst sources are at distances of several Gpc. We discuss the impact of these systematic effects on the T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions for the gamma-ray bursts observed with BATSE. We distinguish between various types of T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions, and discuss the ways in which distributions observed with different experiments can vary, even though the measurements for commonly observed bursts may be the same. We then discuss the distributions observed with BATSE and compare them to those observed with other experiments.

  7. Fast Radio Burst/Gamma-Ray Burst Cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM_{IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt and luminosity distance (D L(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  8. Observing gamma-ray bursts with the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, G. K.; Connell, P. H.; Naya, J. E.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The spectrometer for INTEGRAL (SPI) is a germanium spectrometer with a wide field of view and will provide the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission with the opportunity of studying gamma ray bursts. Simulations carried out to assess the response of the instrument using data from real burst data as input are reported on. It is shown that, despite the angular resolution of 3 deg, it is possible to locate the direction of bursts with an accuracy of a few arcmin, while offering the high spectral resolution of the germanium detectors. It is remarked that the SPI field of view is similar to the size of the halo of bursts expected around M 31 on galactic models. The detectability of bursts with such a halo is discussed.

  9. Possible Detection of Gamma Ray Air Showers in Coincidence with BATSE Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Fen

    1999-08-01

    Project GRAND presents the results of a search for coincident high-energy gamma ray events in the direction and at the time of nine Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by BATSE. A gamma ray has a non-negligible hadron production cross section; for each gamma ray of energy of 100 GeV, there are 0.015 muons which reach detection level (Fasso & Poirier, 1999). These muons are identified and their angles are measured in stations of eight planes of proportional wire chambers (PWCs). A 50 mm steel plate above the bottom pair of planes is used to distinguish muons from electrons. The mean angular resolution is 0.26o over a ± 61o range in the XZ and YZ planes. The BATSE GRB catalogue is examined for bursts which are near zenith for Project GRAND. The geometrical acceptance is calculated for each of these events. The product is then taken of the GRB flux and GRANDÕs geometrical acceptance. The nine sources with the best combination of detection efficiency and BATSEÕs intensity are selected to be examined in the data. The most significant detection of these nine sources is at a statistical significance of +3.7s; this is also the GRB with the highest product of GRB flux and geometrical acceptance.

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Black holes have been predicted since the 1940's from solutions of Einstein's general relativity field equation. There is strong evidence of their existence from astronomical observations, but their origin has remained an open question of great interest. Gamma-ray bursts may the clue. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and appear to be the birth cries of black holes. The Swift and Fermi missions are two powerful NASA observatories currently in orbit that are discovering how gamma-ray bursts work. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are tremendously luminous and are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. One Swift burst at z=8.3 is the most distant object known in the universe. The talk will present the latest gamma-ray burst results from Swift and Fermi and will highlight what they are teaching us about black holes and jet outflows.

  11. Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2013-05-17

    Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million.

  12. Neutron star mergers and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Under the support of grant NAG 5-1904, we have carried out research on several topics related to gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). In our proposal, we stated that we would study three topics: (1) fireball evolution; (2) neutron star mergers; and (3) statistics of bursts. We have completed a significant amount of work in each of these areas. Resulting papers from this work are presented.

  13. SCIENCE Magazine: BATSE 1000 gamma-ray burst perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A historical highlight and analysis of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), which has been in operation for more than three years and has detected more than 1,000 cosmic gamma-ray bursts is presented. The questions BATSE has answered and those it has not are assessed, along with the problems and data correlation and processing that has occured from the BATSE operation.

  14. Structure in gamma ray burst time profiles: Statistical Analysis 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Since its launch on April 5, 1991, the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has observed and recorded over 500 gamma-ray bursts (GRB). The analysis of the time profiles of these bursts has proven to be difficult. Attempts to find periodicities through Fourier analysis have been fruitless except one celebrated case. Our goal is to be able to qualify the observed time-profiles structure. Before applying this formation to bursts, we have tested it on profiles composed of random Poissonian noise. This paper is a report of those preliminary results.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Intensity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Norris, Jay P.; Bonnell, Jerry T.

    2004-01-01

    We use the lag-luminosity relation to calculate self-consistently the redshifts, apparent peak bolometric luminosities L(sub B1), and isotropic energies E(sub iso) for a large sample of BATSE bursts. We consider two different forms of the lag-luminosity relation; for both forms the median redshift, for our burst database is 1.6. We model the resulting sample of burst energies with power law and Gaussian dis- tributions, both of which are reasonable models. The power law model has an index of a = 1.76 plus or minus 0.05 (95% confidence) as opposed to the index of a = 2 predicted by the simple universal jet profile model; however, reasonable refinements to this model permit much greater flexibility in reconciling predicted and observed energy distributions.

  16. Gravitational lensing, time delay, and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Shude

    1992-01-01

    The probability distributions of time delay in gravitational lensing by point masses and isolated galaxies (modeled as singular isothermal spheres) are studied. For point lenses (all with the same mass) the probability distribution is broad, and with a peak at delta(t) of about 50 S; for singular isothermal spheres, the probability distribution is a rapidly decreasing function with increasing time delay, with a median delta(t) equals about 1/h month, and its behavior depends sensitively on the luminosity function of galaxies. The present simplified calculation is particularly relevant to the gamma-ray bursts if they are of cosmological origin. The frequency of 'recurrent' bursts due to gravitational lensing by galaxies is probably between 0.05 and 0.4 percent. Gravitational lensing can be used as a test of the cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview of Recent Observational Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, T. A.; Akerlof, C.; Kehoe, B.; Pawl, A.; Balsano, R.; Bloch, J.; Casperson, D.; Fletcher, S.; Gisler, G.; Hills, J.; Szymanski, J.; Wren, J.; Marshall, S.; Lee, B.

    Gamma-ray bursts have, since their discovery in 1969, been the archetypal astrophysical mystery. Despite the detection of thousands of events, our knowledge of the origin and nature of GRBs remained minimal for nearly 30 years. Progress in understanding gamma-ray bursts has undergone explosive growth since the observation in 1997 of the first optical afterglow of a burst. The discovery of afterglows was followed in 1999 by the first simultaneous optical detection of a GRB. These discoveries constitute the beginning of a new field, the multiwavelength study of GRBs. We review here some highlights of what we have learned over the last two years, and look ahead towards an observational program likely to settle most of the remaining GRB questions.

  18. A cosmic gamma-ray burst on May 14, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzo, D.; Dayton, B.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A cosmic gamma-ray burst is reported that occurred at 29309.11 s UTC, May 14, 1975. The burst was detected at an atmospheric depth of 4 g/sq cm residual atmosphere with the University of California double scatter gamma-ray telescope launched on a balloon from Palestine, Texas at 1150 UTC, May 13, 1975. The burst was observed both in the single scatter mode by the top liquid scintillator tank in anti-coincidence with the surrounding plastic scintillator and in the double scatter mode from which energy and directional information are obtained. The burst is 24 standard deviations above the background for single scatter events. The total gamma-ray flux in the burst, incident on the atmosphere with photon energy greater than 0.5 MeV, is 0.59 + or - 0.15 photons/sq cm. The initial rise time to 90% of maximum is 0.015 + or - 0.005 s and the duration is 0.11 s. Time structure down to the 5 ms resolution of the telescope is seen. The mean flux over this time period is 5.0 + or - 1.3 photons/sq cm/s and the maximum flux is 8.5 + or - 2.1 photons/sq cm/s.

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst Precursor Activity as Observed with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst time histories often consist of multiple episodes of emission with the count rate dropping to the background level between adjacent episodes. We define precursor activity as any case in which the first episode (referred to as the precursor episode) has a lower peak intensity than that of the remaining emission (referred to as the main episode) and is separated from the remaining burst emission by a background interval that is at least as long as the remaining emission. We find that approx. 3% of the bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satisfy this definition. We present the results of a study of the properties of these events. The spatial distribution of these sources is consistent with that of the larger set of all BATSE gamma-ray bursts: inhomogeneous and isotropic. A correlation between the duration of the precursor emission and the duration of the main episode emission is observed at about the 3 sigma confidence level. We find no meaningful significant correlations between or among any of the other characteristics of the precursor or main episode emission. It appears that the characteristics of the main episode emission are independent of the existence of the precursor emission.

  20. Gamma-ray line afterglow from burst environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fencl, H. S.; Boyd, R. N.; Hartmann, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    We consider photoerosion and direct pair production in a medium surrounding a gamma-ray burst. The resulting secondary gamma-rays may provide diagnostic tools of these environments and, in turn, of the nature of the bursters themselves. In some instances short-lived nuclides are formed; the beta-delayed gamma-rays produced from their decays provide the signatures of the photoerosion. In addition, annihilation radiation produced from positrons resulting from direct pair production is related to the plasma conditions in the medium. We investigate the plausibility of detecting the various radiations. Under extremely favorable conditions, the photoerosion afterglow might be detectable with the present generation of detectors. However, the positron annihilation line should be detectable under a fairly wide range in the conditions of the medium.

  1. Heating of Dust in Gamma-Ray Burst Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Brianne; Updike, A. C.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report observations in the R-band of the afterglow of GRB 090618 with the SARA 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The lightcurve can be fit with a broken power law, with a possible jet break at t j ˜ 0.74 days. The foreground extinction to this burst is A R = 0.036 while the extinction in the host galaxy is undetermined. We also carry out a study of dust destruction due to heating by the prompt and early afterglow emission from the gamma-ray bursts. Dust can be destroyed to distances of several parsecs, so that the local environment of a GRB may not contribute significantly to the possible obscuration. While multiband photometry of GRB afterglows offers a powerful probe of dust evolution to large redshifts, the effects of the intense GRB radiation on dust in its vicinity must be taken into account. This project was funded by a partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF AST-0552798), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and the Department of Defense (DoD) ASSURE (Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences) programs. We thank S. Brittain, A. Colson, J. Lewis, and M. Kronberg for obtaining the CCD images with the SARA telescope. This project has also benefited from discussions with Renata Cumbee and Shanna Estes.

  2. CENTRAL ENGINE MEMORY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang.grb@gmail.com

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that themore » central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.« less

  3. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Bing; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  4. Did A Galactic Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1997-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts now appear to be primarily of extragalactic origin. Statistically, assuming isotropic emission, the observed event rates and fluxes imply that one event occurs per 10(4) \\ - 10(6) \\ years per galaxy, with about 10(51) \\ - 10(53) \\ ergs in gamma-rays emitted per event. Unless the Milky Way is unusual, a gamma-ray burst should occur within 10(2) \\ - 10(3) \\ pc of the Sun in a time span of order 10(8) \\ years. Independent of the underlying cause of the event, it would irradiate the solar system with a brief flash of MeV gamma-rays with a fluence as large as 10(9) - 10(11) \\ erg cm(-2) . What is the effect of such an event on the Earth and objects nearby? Ruderman (\\underbar{Science}, 184, 1079, 1974) and subsequent authors have considered a number of effects of a flash of gamma-rays from a nearby supernova explosion on the Earth's atmosphere, and on its biota. However, with regard to the demise of the dinosaurs, it appears that there was a marked increase in the deposition rate of the rare earth iridium coincident with their extinction. For this reason, an asteroid-Earth impact has been considered the leading contender for the death of the dinosaurs. Here we consider a new mechanism for mass biological extinctions, caused by small comets nudged into the inner solar system by nearby gamma-ray bursts. If comets populate the Oort cloud with a wide distribution of masses, radii and orbital eccentricities, we find that small (< 1 km), low density (10(-2) \\ gm cm(-3) ) objects in highly eccentric orbits can be injected into the inner solar system by a nearby gamma-ray burst. For a relatively brief period of time, the near Earth comet population would increase dramatically. The consequent increased probability of comet-Earth impacts of appropriate energy and material content could account for many of the characteristics of the Cretaceous-Tertiary or other terrestrial mass biological extinctions.

  5. Modeling Gamma Ray Bursts in the Megnetically Dominated Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    Recent observations of broad-band prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope suggest that they do not comply with the predictions of the standard fireball internal shock model. Several independent observations (including detections of high polarization degree of gamma-ray emission and early optical emission of some GRBs, as well as non-detection of PeV neutrinos from GRBs by IceCube) support or are consistent with the hypothesis that at least some GRBs have magnetically dominated jets. This calls for serious, detailed investigations of GRB models in the magnetically dominated regime, which interpret GRB emission as dissipation of strong magnetic fields entrained in the ejecta. On the other hand, because of their complexity, magnetic models are so far much less developed than the baryonic fireball models. Here we propose to tackle this difficult problem, aiming at making solid progress in this direction through a set of numerical investigations. Specifically, we propose to carry out the following simulations. (1) Using a relativistic MHD code, we will perform a global simulation to investigate whether efficient magnetic dissipation would occur when two high-σ magnetic blobs collide with a relativistic speed. (2) We will perform a local simulation of the relativistic collisions between two high-σ fluids, and track the evolution of magnetic field configuration in the colliding region and the interplay between magnetic reconnection and development of magnetic turbulence. (3) Through injecting test particles in the simulation box, we will study how electrons get accelerated in the turbulent reconnection regions. (4) Built upon the above-mentioned numerical simulation results, along with a Monte Carlo code and a synchrotron radiation code developed in our group before, we will develop a full numerical model to simulate lightcurves, time-dependent spectra, and polarization properties of GRB prompt emission within the framework of

  6. The First FERMI-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy great than (20 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above approximately 20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  7. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  8. Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UT, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  9. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  10. High-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Forrest, D. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Rieger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Between February 1980 and August 1983 the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMM) detected 72 events identified as being of cosmic origin. These events are an essentially unbiased subset of all gamma-ray bursts. The measured spectra of these events show that high energy (greater than 1 MeV) emission is a common and energetically important feature. There is no evidence for a general high-energy cut-off or a distribution of cut-offs below about 6 MeV. These observations imply a limit on the preferential beaming of high energy emission. This constraint, combined with the assumption of isotropic low energy emission, implies that the typical magnetic field strength at burst radiation sites is less than 1 x 10 to the 12th gauss.

  11. Cosmological Distance Scale to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, W. J.; Linder, E. V.; Petrosian, V.

    1993-05-01

    The source counts or the so-called log N -- log S relations are the primary data that constrain the spatial distribution of sources with unknown distances, such as gamma-ray bursts. In order to test galactic, halo, and cosmological models for gamma-ray bursts we compare theoretical characteristics of the log N -- log S relations to those obtained from data gathered by the BATSE instrument on board the Compton Observatory (GRO) and other instruments. We use a new and statistically correct method, that takes proper account of the variable nature of the triggering threshold, to analyze the data. Constraints on models obtained by this comparison will be presented. This work is supported by NASA grants NAGW 2290, NAG5 2036, and NAG5 1578.

  12. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Neutron Star Kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Lu, T.; Cheng, K. S.; Wu, X. F.

    2003-09-01

    The idea that gamma-ray bursts might be a phenomenon associated with neutron star kicks was first proposed by Dar & Plaga. Here we study this mechanism in more detail and point out that the neutron star should be a high-speed one (with proper motion larger than ~1000 km s-1). It is shown that the model agrees well with observations in many aspects, such as the energetics, the event rate, the collimation, the bimodal distribution of durations, the narrowly clustered intrinsic energy, and the association of gamma-ray bursts with supernovae and star-forming regions. We also discuss the implications of this model on the neutron star kick mechanism and suggest that the high kick speed was probably acquired as the result of the electromagnetic rocket effect of a millisecond magnetar with an off-centered magnetic dipole.

  13. Neutron starquakes and the nature of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, P.; Blaes, O.; Blandford, R. D.; Goldreich, P.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that gamma-ray bursts originate from quakes deep in the solid crust of a neutron star is investigated. Seismic waves are radiated if shear stress is relieved by brittle fracture. However they cannot propagate directly to the surface but are temporarily trapped below a reflecting layer. The shaking of the stellar surface couples the seismic waves to Alfven waves which propagate out into the magnetosphere. The crust-magnetosphere transmission coefficient strongly increases with wave frequency and magnetic field strength. Alfven wave luminosities sufficient to power galactic gamma-ray bursts are possible if magnetic fields greater than 100 billion G cover at least part of the stellar surface. As the Alfven waves propagate out into the low density magnetosphere, they become increasingly charge starved, thereby accelerating particles to relativistic energies.

  14. Gamma Ray Bursts and Their Links With Supernovae and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism is the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  15. Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    In the sections which follow, we shall be concerned predominantly with the theory of γ-ray burst sources. If the concepts there proposed are indeed relevant to an understanding of the nature of these sources, then their existence becomes inextricably linked to the metabolic pathways through which gravity, spin, and energy can combine to form collimated, ultrarelativistic outflows. These threads are few and fragile, as we are still wrestling with trying to understand non-relativistic processes, most notably those associated with the electromagnetic field and gas dynamics. If we are to improve our picture-making we must make more and stronger ties of physical theory. But in reconstructing the creature, we must be guided by our eyes and their extensions. In this introductory section we have therefore attempted to summarise the observed properties of these ultra-energetic phenomena.

  16. Search for Sub-TeV Gamma Rays Coincident with BATSE Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, C. P.; D'Andrea, Christopher; Gress, Joseph; Race, Doran

    2003-07-01

    project GRAND is a 100m × 100m air shower array of proportional wire chambers (PWCs). There are 64 stations each with eight 1.29 m2 PWC planes arranged in four orthogonal pairs placed vertically above one another to geometrically measure the angles of charged secondaries. A steel plate above the bottom pair of PWCs differentiates muons (which pass undeflected through the steel) from non-p enetrating particles. FLUKA Monte Carlo studies show that a TeV gamma ray striking the atmosphere at normal incidence produces 0.23 muons which reach ground level where their angles and identities are measured. Thus, paradoxically, secondary muons are used as a signature for gamma ray primaries. The data are examined for possible angular and time coincidences with eight gamma ray bursts (GRBs) detected by BATSE. Seven of the GRBs were selected because of their good acceptance by GRAND and high BATSE fluence. The eighth GRB was added due to its possible coincident detection by Milagrito. For each of the eight candidate GRBs, the number of excess counts during the BATSE T90 time interval and within ±5° of BATSE's direction was obtained. The highest statistical significance reported in this paper (2.7σ ) is for the event that was predicted to be the most likely to be observed (GRB 971110).

  17. Observations of short-duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozanenko, Alexei; Volnova, Alina; Tungalag, Namkhai; Elenin, Leonid; Molotov, Igor; Voropaev, Victor; Schmalz, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are the most powerful cosmological catastrophes in the Universe, with energy releases of 1048 - 1053 erg within a few tens of seconds. It is widely believed that progenitors of the short-duration class of GRB can be merging relativistic binary systems such as a neutron star (NS) and a black hole (BH) or NS-NS. We review the physics of GRBs, their phenomenological properties and observational evidence of GRBs, emphasizing optical observations of GRBs from Mongolia.

  18. Fast Fourier transformation results from gamma-ray burst profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Norris, Jay P.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE data have sufficiently long durations and complex temporal structures with pulses that appear to be spaced quasi-periodically. In order to test and quantify these periods we have applied fast Fourier transformations (FFT) to all these events. We have also performed cross spectral analyses of the FFT of the two extreme (high-low) energy bands in each case to determine the lead/lag of the pulses in different energies.

  19. Ten Years of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observations with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The observed gamma-ray temporal, spectral, intensity and spatial distribution characteristics of GRBs from data obtained from BATSE/Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have only recently come to light with the unprecedented sample of over 2700 GRBS. Recent studies of possible observational biases, un-triggered GRBs and threshold calculations for BATSE will also be described.

  20. THE ENGINES BEHIND SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    FRYER, CHRISTOPHER LEE

    2007-01-23

    The authors review the different engines behind supernova (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), focusing on those engines driving explosions in massive stars: core-collapse SNe and long-duration GRBs. Convection and rotation play important roles in the engines of both these explosions. They outline the basic physics and discuss the wide variety of ways scientists have proposed that this physics can affect the supernova explosion mechanism, concluding with a review of the current status in these fields.

  1. Gamma--Ray burst afterglows with the Watcher robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topinka, M.; Hanlon, L.; Meehan, S.; Tisdall, P.; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; van Heerden, H.; Meintjes, P.

    2014-12-01

    The main scientific goal of the Watcher robotic telescope is the rapid follow-up observation of gamma--ray burst afterglows. Some examples of recent observations, including GRB 120327A and GRB 130606A, at a redshift of 5.9, are presented. The telescope has recently been successfully integrated into the GLORIA global robotic telescope network, which allows users to use the array for their own scientific projects.

  2. The Third BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lestrade, John Patrick; Paciesas, William S.; McCollough, Michael L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Horack, John M.; hide

    1996-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1122 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1994 September 19. These events constitute the Third BATSE (3B) burst catalog. This catalog includes the events previously reported in the 2B catalog, which covered the time interval 1991 April 19 to 1993 March 9. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance. The angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. The mean galactic dipole and quadrupole moments are within 0.6 a and 0.3 a, respectively, of the values expected for isotropy. The intensity distribution is not consistent with a homogeneous distribution of burst sources, with V/V(sub max) = 0.33 +/- 0.01. The duration distribution (T(sub 90)) exhibits bimodality, with peaks at approx. 0.5 and approx. 30 s. There is no compelling evidence for burst repetition, but only weak limits can be placed on the repetition rate.

  3. Improved Limits on Gamma-Ray Burst Repetition from BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Hakkila, Jon; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We tighten previous upper limits on gamma-ray burst repetition by analyzing the angular power spectrum of the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 bursts. At 95% confidence, we find that no more than 2% of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters, even if no sources are observed to repeat more than once. If a fraction f of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters that are observed to burst upsilon times each, then all models with (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.05 are ruled out at 99% confidence, as compared to the best previous 99% limit (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.27. At 95% confidence, our new limit is (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.02. Thus, even a cluster of six events from a single source would have caused excess power above that present in the 3B catalog. We conclude that the current BATSE data are consistent with no repetition of classical gamma-ray bursts and that any repeater model is severely constrained by the near-perfect isotropy of their angular distribution.

  4. Improved Limits on Gamma-Ray Burst Repetition from BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We tighten previous upper limits on gamma-ray burst repetition by analyzing the angular power spectrum of the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 bursts. At 95% confidence, we find that no more than 2% of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters, even if no sources are observed to repeat more than once. If a fraction f of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters that are observed to burst nu times each, then all models with (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.05 are ruled out at 99% confidence, as compared to the best previous 99% limit (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.27. At 95% confidence, our new limit is (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.02. Thus, even a cluster of six events from a single source would have caused excess power above that present in the 3B catalog. We conclude that the current BATSE data are consistent with no repetition of classical gamma-ray bursts and that any repeater model is severely constrained by the near-perfect isotropy of their angular dis- tribution.

  5. Galactic dual population models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, J. C.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate in more detail the properties of two-population models for gamma-ray bursts in the galactic disk and halo. We calculate the gamma-ray burst statistical properties, mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), as functions of the detection flux threshold for bursts coming from both Galactic disk and massive halo populations. We consider halo models inferred from the observational constraints on the large-scale Galactic structure and we compare the expected values of mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), with those measured by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and other detectors. We find that the measured values are consistent with solely Galactic populations having a range of halo distributions, mixed with local disk distributions, which can account for as much as approximately 25% of the observed BATSE bursts. M31 does not contribute to these modeled bursts. We also demonstrate, contrary to recent arguments, that the size-frequency distributions of dual population models are quite consistent with the BATSE observations.

  6. Gamma Ray Burst Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    GROCSE (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiments) is a system of automated telescopes that search for simultaneous optical activity associated with gamma ray bursts in response to real-time burst notifications provided by the BATSE/BACODINE network. The first generation system, GROCSE 1, is sensitive down to Mv {approximately} 8.5 and requires an average of 12 seconds to obtain the first images of the gamma ray burst error box defined by the BACODINE trigger. The collaboration is now constructing a second generation system which has a 4 second slewing time and can reach Mv {approximately} 14 with a 5 second exposure. GROCSE 2more » consists of 4 cameras on a single mount. Each camera views the night sky through a commercial Canon lens (f/1.8, focal length 200 mm) and utilizes a 2K x 2K Loral CCD. Light weight and low noise custom readout electronics were designed and fabricated for these CCDs. The total field of view of the 4 cameras is 17.6 x 17.6 {degree}. GROCSE II will be operated by the end of 1995. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the GROCSE system and the results of measurements with a GROCSE 2 prototype unit.« less

  7. Flash photoionization of gamma-ray burst environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1992-01-01

    The H-alpha line emission that a flash-photoionized region emits is calculated. Archival transients, as well as various theoretical predictions, suggest that there may be significant ionizing flux. The limits on the line flux which might be observable indicate that the density must be fairly high for the recombination radiation to be observable. The intense burst radiation is insufficient to melt the dust which will be present in such a dense medium. This dust may attenuate the observable line emission, but does not attenuate the ionizing radiation before it ionizes the neutral medium surrounding the burst source. The dust can also produce a light echo. If there are indeed gamma-ray bursts in dense clouds, then it is possible that the burst was triggered by Bondi-Hoyle accretion from the dense medium, although it is unlikely on statistical grounds that all bursts occur in clouds.

  8. The SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Chincarini, G.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Brauninger, H. W.; Chang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is designed to make prompt multi-wavelength observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB afterglows. The X-ray Telescope enables Swift to determine GRB positions with a few arcseconds accuracy within 100 seconds of the burst onset. The XRT utilizes a mirror set built for JET-X and an XMM-Newton/ EPIC MOS CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with an effective area of more than 120 sq cm at 1.5 keV, a field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and an angular resolution of 18 arcseconds (HPD). The detection sensitivity is 2x10(exp 14) erg/sq cm/s in 10(exp 4) seconds. The instrument provides automated source detection and position reporting within 5 seconds of target acquisition. It can also measure the redshifts of GRBs with Iron line emission or other spectral features. The XRT operates in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return as the source intensity fades. The XRT measures spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning about a minute after the burst and follows each burst for days or weeks. We provide an overview of the X-ray Telescope scientific background from which the systems engineering requirements were derived, with specific emphasis on the design and qualification aspects from conception through to launch. We describe the impact on cleanliness and vacuum requirements for the instrument low energy response and to maintain the high sensitivity to the fading signal of the Gamma-ray Bursts.

  9. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: On the nature of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchkov, B. I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Rozental', I. L.

    1996-07-01

    Current hypotheses of gamma-ray burst origin are analysed. About 30 years after their discovery, it is still unclear where gamma-ray bursts are created (Solar system, Galaxy or Metagalaxy). Nor is the mechanism of their production known. This paper reviews on-going gamma-ray experiments and suggests possible lines of further studies on their origin.

  10. Features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Paczynski, Bohdan; Goodman, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of cosmological gamma-ray bursts by objects in the mass range about 10 exp 17 to 10 exp 20 g (femtolensing) may introduce complicated interference patterns that might be interpreted as absorption or emission lines in the bursts' spectra. This phenomenon, if detected, may be used as a unique probe of dark matter in the universe. The BATSE spectral data should allow one to detect such spectral features or to put significant upper limits on the cosmic density of a dark matter component that may be in the femtolensing range. Software to generate theoretical spectra has been developed, and it is accessible over the computer network with anonymous ftp.

  11. GRO: Black hole models for gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    This grant deals with the production of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) close to horizons of black holes (BH's), mainly via accretion of small chunks of matter onto extreme Kerr BH's. In the past year, we laid the ground work for actual calculations close to Kerr BH's. Because of technical reasons, actual work has only started very recently. Following the detailed list of research subprojects as per our original proposal, we have performed research in the following areas: spectrum calculation; burst dynamics; tidal capture and primordial cloud collapse; halo density profile; and capture of other objects.

  12. The Search for Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Kyler

    2006-05-19

    We report on the combined analysis of over 400 GRB time periods that occurred during seven years of AMANDA observations. AMANDA has seen no neutrinos correlated with these bursts, thus we report a neutrino flux limit that is the most stringent observational limit to date. In light of the new observational opportunities afforded by Swift, we also discuss the future potential for GRB neutrino detection with AMANDA'S successor, IceCube. Finally, we briefly discuss the expansion of AMANDA'S transient point-source search to other phenomena, such as jet-driven supernovae and gamma-ray dark bursts.

  13. Distance and spectrum of the Apollo gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, D.; Metzger, A.E.; Parker, R.H.

    1980-03-15

    The ..gamma..-ray spectrometer on Apollo 16 obtained spectral information with good energy resolution from more than 2500 burst photons in the energy range 0.06--5.16 MeV. The spectrum from 2 keV to 2 MeV, observed at X-ray energies by the Apollo X-ray spectrometer, is fitted by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT=500 keV. The success of the fit implies that the source is optically thin, and it follows that it must be closer than 50 pc. Absence of spectral variability suggests that the burst results from isothermal changes in emission measure.

  14. Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Have "Normal" Luminosities.

    PubMed

    Schaefer

    2000-04-10

    The galactic environment of gamma-ray bursts can provide good evidence about the nature of the progenitor system, with two old arguments implying that the burst host galaxies are significantly subluminous. New data and new analysis have now reversed this picture: (1) Even though the first two known host galaxies are indeed greatly subluminous, the next eight hosts have absolute magnitudes typical for a population of field galaxies. A detailed analysis of the 16 known hosts (10 with redshifts) shows them to be consistent with a Schechter luminosity function with R*=-21.8+/-1.0, as expected for normal galaxies. (2) Bright bursts from the Interplanetary Network are typically 18 times brighter than the faint bursts with redshifts; however, the bright bursts do not have galaxies inside their error boxes to limits deeper than expected based on the luminosities for the two samples being identical. A new solution to this dilemma is that a broad burst luminosity function along with a burst number density varying as the star formation rate will require the average luminosity of the bright sample (>6x1058 photons s-1 or>1.7x1052 ergs s-1) to be much greater than the average luminosity of the faint sample ( approximately 1058 photons s-1 or approximately 3x1051 ergs s-1). This places the bright bursts at distances for which host galaxies with a normal luminosity will not violate the observed limits. In conclusion, all current evidence points to gamma-ray burst host galaxies being normal in luminosity.

  15. Alternative temporal classification of long Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Vasquez, Nicolas; Baquero, Andres; Andrade, David

    2015-08-01

    In order to increase the understanding on Gamma Ray Bursts, many attempts of classification have been proposed. Starting with the canonical classification into long and short GRBs, alternative classifications taking into account the cosmological origin of GRBs have been analyzed. In the present work we propose an alternative classification based on two temporal estimators, the Auto Correlation Function (ACF) of the light curves and the emission time which considered the time where the bursts engine is active. The time estimators chosen reflects the internal evolution of the GRB and the internal structure. Using a sample of 61 bright GRBs detected by SWIFT satellite with known redshift, we proposed a bimodal distribution of long bursts. The two types of bursts have different internal structure suggesting different progenitors.

  16. The first Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray burst catalog

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; ...

    2013-10-23

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ~20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi andmore » processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. Here, we summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.« less

  17. Cosmic Forensics Confirms Gamma-Ray Burst And Supernova Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists announced today that they have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to confirm that a gamma-ray burst was connected to the death of a massive star. This result is an important step in understanding the origin of gamma-ray bursts, the most violent events in the present-day universe. "If a gamma-ray burst were a crime, then we now have strong circumstantial evidence that a supernova explosion was at the scene," said Nathaniel Butler of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, lead author of a paper presented today at the meeting of the High Energy Division of the American Astronomical Society. Chandra was able to obtain an unusually long observation (approximately 21 hours) of the afterglow of GRB 020813 (so named because the High-Energy Transient Explorer, HETE, discovered it on August 13, 2002.) A grating spectrometer aboard Chandra revealed an overabundance of elements characteristically dispersed in a supernova explosion. Narrow lines, or bumps, due to silicon and sulfur ions (atoms stripped of most of their electrons) were clearly identified in the X-ray spectrum of GRB 020813. "Our observation of GRB 020813 supports two of the most important features of the popular supra-nova model for gamma-ray bursts," said Butler. "An extremely massive star likely exploded less than two months prior to the gamma-ray burst, and the radiation from the gamma-ray burst was beamed into a narrow cone." An analysis of the data showed that the ions were moving away from the site of the gamma-ray burst at a tenth the speed of light, probably as part of a shell of matter ejected in the supernova explosion. The line features were observed to be sharply peaked, indicating that they were coming from a narrow region of the expanding shell. This implies that only a small fraction of the shell was illuminated by the gamma-ray burst, as would be expected if the burst was beamed into a narrow cone. The observed duration of the afterglow suggests a delay of about 60 days

  18. Testing the Gamma-Ray Burst Energy Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Preece, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Building on Nakar & Piran's analysis of the Amati relation relating gamma-ray burst peak energies E(sub p) and isotropic energies E(sub iso ) we test the consistency of a large sample of BATSE bursts with the Amati and Ghirlanda (which relates peak energies and actual gamma-ray energies E(sub gamma)) relations. Each of these relations can be exp ressed as a ratio of the different energies that is a function of red shift (for both the Amati and Ghirlanda relations) and beaming fraction f(sub B) (for the Ghirlanda relation). The most rigorous test, whic h allows bursts to be at any redshift, corroborates Nakar & Piran's r esult - 88% of the BATSE bursts are inconsistent with the Amati relat ion - while only l.6% of the bursts are inconsistent with the Ghirlan da relation if f(sub B) = 1. Modelling the redshift distribution resu lts in an energy ratio distribution for the Amati relation that is sh ifted by an order of magnitude relative to the observed distributions; any sub-population satisfying the Amati relation can comprise at mos t approx. 18% of our burst sample. A similar analysis of the Ghirland a relation depends sensitively on the beaming fraction distribution f or small values of f(sub B); for reasonable estimates of this distrib ution about a third of the burst sample is inconsistent with the Ghir landa relation. Our results indicate that these relations are an artifact of the selection effects of the burst sample in which they were f ound; these selection effects may favor sub-populations for which the se relations are valid.

  19. The AGILE Mission and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; INFN, section of Trieste; Tavani, M.

    2007-05-01

    The AGILE Mission will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational at the beginning of 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a largemore » field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of the mission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminute error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE is now (January 2007) undergoing final satellite integration and testing. The PLS V launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.« less

  20. Gamma-ray bursts at high and very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are extra-galactic and extremely energetic transient emissions of gamma rays, which are thought to be associated with the death of massive stars or the merger of compact objects in binary systems. Their huge luminosities involve the presence of a newborn stellar-mass black hole emitting a relativistic collimated outflow, which accelerates particles and produces non-thermal emissions from the radio domain to the highest energies. In this article, I review recent progresses in the understanding of GRB jet physics above 100 MeV, based on Fermi observations of bright GRBs. I discuss the physical implications of these observations and their impact on GRB modeling, and I present some prospects for GRB observation at very high energies in the near future.

  1. Nucleosynthesis, neutrino bursts and gamma-rays from coalescing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, David; Livio, Mario; Piran, Tsvi; Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out here that neutron-star collisions should synthesize neutron-rich heavy elements, thought to be formed by rapid neutron capture (the r-process). Furthermore, these collisions should produce neutrino bursts and resultant bursts of gamma rays; the latter should comprise a subclass of observable gamma-ray bursts. It is argued that observed r-process abundances and gamma-ray burst rates predict rates for these collisions that are both significant and consistent with other estimates.

  2. Probing Intrinsic Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts with Gravitational Waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xilong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    2017-11-03

    Progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts are thought to be neutron stars coalescing with their companion black hole or neutron star, which are one of the main gravitational wave sources. We have devised a Bayesian framework for combining gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave information that allows us to probe short gamma-ray burst luminosities. We show that combined short gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave observations not only improve progenitor distance and inclination angle estimates, they also allow the isotropic luminosities of short gamma-ray bursts to be determined without the need for host galaxy or light-curve information. We characterize our approach by simulating 1000 joint short gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave detections by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We show that ∼90% of the simulations have uncertainties on short gamma-ray burst isotropic luminosity estimates that are within a factor of two of the ideal scenario, where the distance is known exactly. Therefore, isotropic luminosities can be confidently determined for short gamma-ray bursts observed jointly with gravitational waves detected by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Planned enhancements to Advanced LIGO will extend its range and likely produce several joint detections of short gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves. Third-generation gravitational wave detectors will allow for isotropic luminosity estimates for the majority of the short gamma-ray burst population within a redshift of z∼1.

  3. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Roberts, O.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Stanbro, M.; Cramer, E.; Mailyan, B. G.; McBreen, S.; Connaughton, V.; Grove, J. E.; Chekhtman, A.; Holzworth, R.

    2017-12-01

    The revised Second Fermi GBM TGF catalog includes data on 4144 TGFs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor through 2016 July 31. The catalog includes 686 bright TGFs there were detected in orbit and 4135 TGFs that were discovered by ground analysis of GBM data (the two samples overlap). Thirty of the events may have been detected as electrons and positrons rather than gamma-rays: Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs). We also provide results from correlating the GBM TGFs with VLF radio detections of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). TGFs with WWLLN associations have their localization uncertainties improved from 800 to 10 km, making it possible to identify specific thunderstorms responsible for the TGFs and opening up new types of scientific investigations. There are 1544 TGFs with WWLLN associations; maps are provided for these and the other TGFs of the catalog. The data tables of the catalog are available for use by the scientific community at the Fermi Science Support Center, at https://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/data/access/gbm/tgf/.

  4. Properties of gamma-ray burst progenitor stars.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Narayan, Ramesh; Johnson, Jarrett L

    2008-07-18

    We determined some basic properties of stars that produce spectacular gamma-ray bursts at the end of their lives. We assumed that accretion of the outer portion of the stellar core by a central black hole fuels the prompt emission and that fall-back and accretion of the stellar envelope later produce the plateau in the x-ray light curve seen in some bursts. Using x-ray data for three bursts, we estimated the radius of the stellar core to be approximately (1 - 3) x 10(10) cm and that of the stellar envelope to be approximately (1 - 2) x 10(11) cm. The density profile in the envelope is fairly shallow, with rho approximately r(-2) (where rho is density and r is distance from the center of the explosion). The rotation speeds of the core and envelope are approximately 0.05 and approximately 0.2 of the local Keplerian speed, respectively.

  5. Two populations and models of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst statistics are best explained by a source population at cosmological distances, while spectroscopy and intensity histories of some individual bursts imply an origin on Galactic neutron stars. To resolve this inconsistency I suggest the presence of two populations, one at cosmological distances and the other Galactic. I build on ideas of Shemi and Piran (1990) and of Rees and Mesozaros (1992) involving the interaction of fireball debris with surrounding clouds to explain the observed intensity histories in bursts at cosmological distances. The distances to the Galactic population are undetermined because they are too few to affect the statistics of intensity and direction; I explain them as resulting from magnetic reconnection in neutron star magnetospheres. An appendix describes the late evolution of the debris as a relativistic blast wave.

  6. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space- based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements. The Swift mission is managed by the GSFC, and includes an international team of contributors that each bring their unique perspective that have proven invaluable to the mission. The spacecraft bus, provided by Spectrum Astro, Inc. was procured through a Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) contract by the GSFC. There are three instruments: the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) provided by the GSFC; the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) provided by a team led by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU); and the Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope (UVOT), again managed by PSU. The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was developed by and is located at PSU. Science archiving and data analysis centers are located at the GSFC, in the UK and in Italy.

  7. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall timemore » in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).« less

  8. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall timemore » in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).« less

  9. Energy spectra of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Strong, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral measurements of six cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the energy region of 0.1 to 1.2 MeV, made using a semi-omnidirectional X-ray detector on IMP-6 are reported. These measurements confirm the hard X-ray or gamma-ray nature of the bursts, as inferred from the original observations by Klebesadel et al., (1973), and show that their maximum energy release is in this several hundred keV region. Each burst consists of several 1 or 2-second pulses each with the characteristic spectrum of approximately 150-keV exponential, followed by a softer decay. There is no evidence of line structure in this energy region, or for a marked change in the energy spectrum within a given pulse. Event size spectra are estimated for galactic and extragalactic models; the total emission is consistent with present measurements of the diffuse background, and unlikely to account for any spectral feature in the few-MeV region.

  10. Discovery of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    PubMed

    Villasenor, J S; Lamb, D Q; Ricker, G R; Atteia, J-L; Kawai, N; Butler, N; Nakagawa, Y; Jernigan, J G; Boer, M; Crew, G B; Donaghy, T Q; Doty, J; Fenimore, E E; Galassi, M; Graziani, C; Hurley, K; Levine, A; Martel, F; Matsuoka, M; Olive, J-F; Prigozhin, G; Sakamoto, T; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tamagawa, T; Vanderspek, R; Woosley, S E; Yoshida, A; Braga, J; Manchanda, R; Pizzichini, G; Takagishi, K; Yamauchi, M

    2005-10-06

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming galaxies, and to be associated with the explosion of massive stars. In contrast, the distance scale, the energy scale and the progenitors of the short bursts have remained a mystery. Here we report the discovery of a short-hard burst whose accurate localization has led to follow-up observations that have identified the X-ray afterglow and (for the first time) the optical afterglow of a short-hard burst; this in turn led to the identification of the host galaxy of the burst as a late-type galaxy at z = 0.16 (ref. 10). These results show that at least some short-hard bursts occur at cosmological distances in the outskirts of galaxies, and are likely to be caused by the merging of compact binaries.

  11. Gamma Ray Bursts in the Swift-Fermi Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Razzaque, Soebur

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most violent occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole birth. They are highly luminous events and provide excellent probes of the distant universe. GRB research has greatly advanced over the past 10 years with the results from Swift, Fermi and an active follow-up community. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  12. CATSAT: A small satellite for studying gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Vestrand, W. T.; NIS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545; Forrest, D. J.

    1999-12-15

    The Cooperative Astrophysics and Technology Satellite (CATSAT) is a University Explorer (UNEX) Class Mission that is being constructed by the University of New Hampshire and the University of Leicester. The primary scientific goal of the mission is to study the spectral properties of gamma-ray bursts in the energy range range from 500 eV to 5 MeV with particular emphasis on the 500 eV to 10 keV energy band. The satellite will be zenith pointed and flown in a 590 km sun-synchronous terminator orbit. Here we briefly discuss the mission and the expected scientific results.

  13. Bounds on the polymer scale from gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Yuri; Garcia-Chung, Angel; Rastgoo, Saeed

    2017-11-01

    The polymer representations, which are partially motivated by loop quantum gravity, have been suggested as alternative schemes to quantize the matter fields. Here we apply a version of the polymer representations to the free electromagnetic field, in a reduced phase space setting, and derive the corresponding effective (i.e., semiclassical) Hamiltonian. We study the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse, and we confront our theoretical results with gamma ray burst observations. This comparison reveals that the dimensionless polymer scale must be smaller than 4 ×10-35 , casting doubts on the possibility that the matter fields are quantized with the polymer representation we employed.

  14. Hydrodynamic collimation of gamma-ray-burst fireballs

    PubMed

    Levinson; Eichler

    2000-07-10

    Analytic solutions are presented for the hydrodynamic collimation of a relativistic fireball by a surrounding baryonic wind emanating from a torus. The opening angle is shown to be the ratio of the power output of the inner fireball to that of the exterior baryonic wind. The gamma ray burst 990123 might thus be interpreted as a baryon-poor jet (BPJ) with an energy output of order 10(50) erg or less, collimated by a baryonic wind from a torus with an energy output of order 10(52.5) erg, roughly the geometric mean of the BPJ and its isotropic equivalent.

  15. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  16. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most fascinating occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 3 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from - 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type I1 and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=6.3 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy.

  17. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most fascinating occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 3 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from approximately 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z greater than 5 and one at z=6.3 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy.

  18. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most fascinating occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 4 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from approximately 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=6.7 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy.

  19. Gamma-Ray Bursts, their Hosts, and their Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David; Rhoads, James; Rest, Armin; Merrill, Michael; Levan, Andrew; Fruchter, Andrew; Gorosabel Urkia, Javier; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hjorth, Jens; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Patel, Sandeep; Strolger, Lou; Tanvir, Nial

    2005-08-01

    We request rapid optical and near-IR followup observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which will exploit unique NOAO capabilities to obtain (a) rapid afterglow identifications and (b) detailed physical information on selected events. We will use the Mosaic cameras on the 4m telescopes for rapid identification of GRB afterglows. These instruments provide unsurpassed sensitivity over a wide field. This cycle, they will (a) help identify low-redshift bursts found by HETE-2, which may constitute a large fraction of low-z bursts even in the Swift era; and (b) search for Swift bursts found by the hard X-ray BAT instrument in case the Swift narrow- field instruments do not find a bright counterpart. Afterglow IDs from this program will provide targets for our imaging and spectroscopy programs with Spitzer and Gemini. Large area near-IR imaging with ISPI and FLAMINGOS, and simultaneous multicolor imaging with SQIID, will help address several open questions about GRBs and their afterglows: (1) Are ``dark'' GRBs (without detected optical afterglows) a consequence of dust absorption in the GRB environment? (2) Are observed breaks in GRB light curves truly wavelength-independent, as predicted under models of beamed burst afterglows? (3) Can IR observations find bursts at extreme redshifts? (4) How well do afterglow models stand up to detailed comparison with high precision spectral slope and light curve measurements?

  20. Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within θ(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if θ(j)≲30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

  1. A missing population of short duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troja, Eleonora

    Short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief and intense flashes of gamma-ray radiation located at cosmological distances. NASA s Swift mission provided the first breakthrough observations connecting these high-energy transients to the coalescence of two compact objects, either two neutron stars (NSs) or a NS and a black hole (BH). Short GRBs are therefore prime candidate electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave sources detectable by advanced LIGO. Unfortunately, only a fraction of short GRBs visible by Swift is promptly identified by the on-board trigger system. A larger number of events fails to pass the on-board trigger selection and goes unnoticed. Luckily, this subset of events is not lost. It is instead downlinked through a low-priority channel and then archived. The goal of this ADAP proposal is to harvest this rich population of gamma-ray transients buried in the data archive. We propose to 1) systematically mine this untapped resource of the Swift archive in order to discover new short GRBs; 2) correlate the Swift untriggered dataset with signals detected by other facilities (e.g Fermi, INTEGRAL), at other wavelengths (e.g. fast radio bursts) or with other messengers (e.g. gravitational waves); 3) develop and release the relevant tools and documentation to the community in order to facilitate the exploitation of this valuable dataset in future years. The proposed research will significantly expand the current database of short GRBs, and aid multimessenger searches of transient phenomena. By studying the behavior of matter in extreme physical conditions, the formation of new black holes, and gravity, this project directly addresses NASA Strategic Objective 1.6, a key science goal in the area of Cosmic Origins.

  2. GRO: Black hole models for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1995-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has established that the distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) is isotropic but is bound radially. This finding suggests that the bursts are either cosmological or they originate from an extended Galactic halo. The implied luminosities and the observed variability of the GRB's on time scales as short as one millisecond suggest that they originate from compact objects. We are presently studying black hole models for GRB's. Any such model must produce a non-thermal photon spectrum to agree with the observed properties. For a wide range of burst parameters the assumed bursting source consists of a non-thermal electron-positron-photon plasma of very high density. It seems possible to produce such a plasma in accretion onto black holes. In our on-going work, we are developing the kinetic theory for a non-equilibrium pair plasma. The main new features of our work are as follows: (1) We do not assume the presence of a thermal electron bath. (2) Non-thermal, high-energy pairs are allowed to have an arbitrary concentration and energy distribution. (3) There is no soft photon source in our model; initially all the photons in the plasma are either energetic X-rays or gamma-rays. (4) The initial energy distribution of the pairs as well as photons is arbitrary. (5) We collect the analytical expressions for the kinetic kernels for all relevant processes. And (6) we present a different approach to finding the time-evolution of pair and photon spectra, which is a combination of the kinetic-theory and the non-linear Monte-Carlo schemes. We have developed many Monte-Carlo programs to model various process, to take into account the time evolution, and to incorporate various physical effects which are unique to non-thermal plasmas. The hydrodynamics of fireballs in GRB's was studied before. Applying results from kinetic theory will improve our understanding of these systems.

  3. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstances, the radio jet break may be postponed significantly. Using high-accuracy adaptive mesh fluid simulations in one dimension, coupled to a detailed synchrotron radiation code, we demonstrate that this is true even for the standard fireball model and hard-edged jets. We confirm these effects with a simulation in two dimensions. The frequency dependence of the jet break is a result of the angle dependence of the emission, the changing optical depth in the self-absorbed regime and the shape of the synchrotron spectrum in general. In the optically thin case the conventional analysis systematically overestimates the jet break time, leading to inferred opening angles that are underestimated by a factor of ˜1.3 and explosion energies that are underestimated by a factor of ˜1.7, for explosions in a homogeneous environment. The methods presented in this paper can be applied to adaptive mesh simulations of arbitrary relativistic fluid flows. All analysis presented here makes the usual assumption of an on-axis observer.

  4. Gamma-ray bursts appear simpler than expected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, P.; Filina, A. A.; Popov, M. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.; Baranov, A. A.

    The cosmic gamma-ray bursts are certainly an enigma in astrophysics. The "standard fireball" scenario developed during many years has provided a possible explanation of this phenomenon. The aim of this work is simply to explore a new possible interpretation by developing a coherent scenario inside the global picture of stellar evolution. At the basis of our scenario is the fact that maybe we have not fully understood how the core of a pair instability supernovae explode. In such a way, we have proposed a new paradigm assuming that the core of such massive star, instead of doing a symmetrical explosion, is completely fragmented in hot spots of burning nuclear matter. We have tested our scenario using some observational data like GRB spectrum, light curves, Amati relation and GRB-SN connection, and for each set of data we have proposed a possible physical interpretation. We have also suggested some possible tests of this scenario by measurement at high redshift. If this scenario is correct, it tells us simply that cosmic gamma-ray bursts are simply a missing link in stellar evolution.

  5. Magnetic photon splitting and gamma ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1992-01-01

    The splitting of photons into two photons becomes both possible and significant in magnetic fields in excess of 10(exp 12) Gauss. Below the threshold energy, 2m sub e c(exp 2) for single photon pair production, splitting can be an astronomically observable phenomenon evident in gamma ray burst spectra. In such circumstances, it was found that magnetic photon splitting reprocesses the gamma ray burst continuum by degrading the photon energy, with a net effect that is quite similar to pair cascade reprocessing of the spectrum. Results are presented for the spectral modifications due to splitting, taking into account the different probabilities for splitting for different polarization modes. Unpolarized and polarized pair cascade photon spectra form the input spectra for the model, which calculates the resulting splitting reprocessed spectra numerically by solving the photon kinetic equations for each polarization mode. This inclusion of photon polarizations is found to not alter previous predictions that splitting produce a significant flattening of the hard X ray continuum and a bump at MeV energies below a pair production turnover. The spectrum near the bump is always strongly polarized.

  6. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  7. Predicting supernova associated to gamma-ray burst 130427a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ruffini, R.; Kovacevic, M.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Muccino, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Binary systems constituted by a neutron star and a massive star are not rare in the universe. The Induced Gravitational Gamma-ray Burst (IGC) paradigm interprets Gamma-ray bursts as the outcome of a neutron star that collapses into a black hole due to the accretion of the ejecta coming from its companion massive star that underwent a supernova event. GRB 130427A is one of the most luminous GRBs ever observed, of which isotropic energy exceeds 1054 erg. And it is within one of the few GRBs obtained optical, X-ray and GeV spectra simultaneously for hundreds of seconds, which provides an unique opportunity so far to understand the multi-wavelength observation within the IGC paradigm, our data analysis found low Lorentz factor blackbody emission in the Episode 3 and its X-ray light curve overlaps typical IGC Golden Sample, which comply to the IGC mechanisms. We consider these findings as clues of GRB 130427A belonging to the IGC GRBs. We predicted on GCN the emergence of a supernova on May 2, 2013, which was later successfully detected on May 13, 2013.

  8. Radiative striped wind model for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D.; Pe'er, A.; Lyubarsky, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the striped wind model in which the wind is accelerated by magnetic reconnection. In our treatment, radiation is included as an independent component, and two scenarios are considered. In the first one, radiation cannot stream efficiently through the reconnection layer, while the second scenario assumes that radiation is homogeneous in the striped wind. We show how these two assumptions affect the dynamics. In particular, we find that the asymptotic radial evolution of the Lorentz factor is not strongly modified whether radiation can stream through the reconnection layer or not. On the other hand, we show that the width, density and temperature of the reconnection layer are strongly dependent on these assumptions. We then apply the model to the gamma-ray burst context and find that photons cannot diffuse efficiently through the reconnection layer below radius r_D^{Δ } ˜ 10^{10.5} cm, which is about an order of magnitude below the photospheric radius. Above r_D^{Δ }, the dynamics asymptotes to the solution of the scenario in which radiation can stream through the reconnection layer. As a result, the density of the current sheet increases sharply, providing efficient photon production by the Bremsstrahlung process that could have profound influence on the emerging spectrum. This effect might provide a solution to the soft photon problem in gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Simulation of High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the must violent explosions after the Big-Bang. Their high energy radiation can potentially carry information about the most inner part of the accretion disk of a collapsing star, ionize the surrounding material in the host galaxy, and thereby influence the process of star formation specially in the dense environment at high redshifts. They can also have a significant contribution in the formation of high energy cosmic-rays. Here we present new simulations of GRBs according to a dynamically consistent relativistic shock model for the prompt emission, with or without the presence of an magnetic field. They show that the properties of observed bursts are well reproduced by this model up to GeV energies. They help to better understand GRB phenomenon, and provide an insight into characteristics of relativistic jets and particle acceleration which cannot yet be simulated with enough precision from first principles.

  10. The Rapid Gamma-ray Burst Response Campaign with ROTSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsano, R.; Bloch, J.; Casperson, D.; Fletcher, S.; Gisler, G.; Hills, J.; Priedhorsky, W.; Szymanski, J.; Wren, J.; Akerlof, C.; Kehoe, R.; McKay, T.; Pawl, A.; Marshall, S.; Lee, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.

    2000-04-01

    The main goal of the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) is to detect optical emission from Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) during and immediately following GRBs. The instruments comprising ROTSE consist of wide-field optics on rapidly slewing mounts optimized for quick response to GRBs localized to several degree regions. Thus far, only one prompt optical counterpart to a GRB has been discovered although simple scaling arguments suggest more should be easily detected. This talk will cover ROTSE responses to GRBs detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment and the soon-to-be-launched High Energy Transient Experiment. The expansion of ROTSE to a global network of identical telescopes will also be briefly discussed.

  11. Statistical properties of the time histories of cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment of the Compton gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagdeev, Roald

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific objectives of the project were: (1) Calculation of average time history for different subsets of BATSE gamma-ray bursts; (2) Comparison of averaged parameters and averaged time history for different Burst And Transient Source Experiments (BASTE) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) sets; (3) Comparison of results obtained with BATSE data with those obtained with APEX experiment at PHOBOS mission; and (4) Use the results of (1)-(3) to compare current models of gamma-ray bursts sources.

  12. Models for Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, Stan

    Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are the brightest stellar mass explosions in the universe. As such, they serve as cosmic beacons for probing cosmic structure and diagnosing the properties of stars and the universe when it was young. They also produce black holes and neutron stars, interesting in themselves as laboratories where exotic physics comes into play, and they make the elements from which life arises. Consequently, supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are subject to intense study by many NASA missions. We propose focused studies in five areas of supernova research that are directly relevant to NASA's missions, especially SWIFT, HST, JWST, and planning for WFIRST. Our specific topics are a) models for Type Ia supernovae; b) extreme supernovae and first supernovae; c) magnetar-powered supernovae; d) ultra-long duration gamma-ray bursts; and e) shock breakout in supernovae. These phenomena all have in common their importance to NASA missions and the fact that they can be studied using similar tools - computer codes that do radiation hydrodynamics. Our two principal codes, KEPLER (one-dimension) and CASTRO (one to three dimensions), have been honed to the task by years of supernova modeling, and have some unique capabilities. Type Ia supernovae have long been of interest to NASA, but their importance has increased lately because of their utility in determining cosmic distances and because a string of recent observational breakthroughs has severely limited their progenitors. Responding to these developments, we propose to focus on a class of model we have previously neglected, the merger of two white dwarfs. The mergers will be studied with KEPLER and CASTRO in one and two dimensions, and the spectra and light curves determined. The library of model results will be useful in interpreting the results of present NASA missions and planning new ones. A second important area of investigation will be the study of first generation stars and the supernovae that they produce

  13. Bulk Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Marcarini, G.; Nava, L.; Salafia, O. S.; Campana, S.; Salvaterra, R.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allows us to compute their comoving frame properties shedding light on their physics. Upon collisions with the circumburst matter, the fireball of a GRB starts to decelerate, producing a peak or a break (depending on the circumburst density profile) in the light curve of the afterglow. Considering all bursts with known redshift and with an early coverage of their emission, we find 67 GRBs (including one short event) with a peak in their optical or GeV light curves at a time tp. For another 106 GRBs we set an upper limit tpUL. The measure of tp provides the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of the fireball before deceleration. We show that tp is due to the dynamics of the fireball deceleration and not to the passage of a characteristic frequency of the synchrotron spectrum across the optical band. Considering the tp of 66 long GRBs and the 85 most constraining upper limits, we estimate Γ0 or a lower limit Γ0LL. Using censored data analysis methods, we reconstruct the most likely distribution of tp. All tp are larger than the time Tp,γ when the prompt γ-ray emission peaks, and are much larger than the time Tph when the fireball becomes transparent, that is, tp>Tp,γ>Tph. The reconstructed distribution of Γ0 has median value 300 (150) for a uniform (wind) circumburst density profile. In the comoving frame, long GRBs have typical isotropic energy, luminosity, and peak energy ⟨ Eiso ⟩ = 3(8) × 1050 erg, ⟨ Liso ⟩ = 3(15) × 1047 erg s-1, and ⟨ Epeak ⟩ = 1(2) keV in the homogeneous (wind) case. We confirm that the significant correlations between Γ0 and the rest frame isotropic energy (Eiso), luminosity (Liso), and peak energy (Ep) are not due to selection effects. When combined, they lead to the observed Ep-Eiso and Ep-Liso correlations. Finally, assuming a typical opening angle of 5 degrees, we derive the distribution of the jet baryon loading which is centered around a few 10-6M⊙.

  14. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  15. An internally consistent gamma ray burst time history phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenology for gamma ray burst time histories is outlined. Order of their generally chaotic appearance is attempted, based on the speculation that any one burst event can be represented above 150 keV as a superposition of similarly shaped increases of varying intensity. The increases can generally overlap, however, confusing the picture, but a given event must at least exhibit its own limiting characteristic rise and decay times if the measurements are made with instruments having adequate temporal resolution. Most catalogued observations may be of doubtful or marginal utility to test this hypothesis, but some time histories from Helios-2, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and other instruments having one-to several-millisecond capabilities appear to provide consistency. Also, recent studies of temporally resolved Solar Maximum Mission burst energy spectra are entirely compatible with this picture. The phenomenology suggested here, if correct, may assist as an analytic tool for modelling of burst processes and possibly in the definition of burst source populations.

  16. An Analysis of Gamma-ray Burst Time Profiles from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requested funding to measure the durations of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) in the 4B catalog as well as to study the structure of GRB time profiles returned by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The duration (T90) was to be measured using the same techniques and algorithms developed by the principal investigator for the 3B data. The profile structure studies fall into the two categories of variability and fractal analyses.

  17. Compton echoes from nearby gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios; Younes, George; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2018-06-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from GW170817, associated with a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) at a distance of 40 Mpc, has demonstrated that short GRBs can occur locally and at a reasonable rate. Furthermore, gravitational waves enable us to detect close-by GRBs, even when we are observing at latitudes far from the jet's axis. We consider here Compton echoes, the scattered light from the prompt and afterglow emission. Compton echoes, an as yet undetected counterpart of GRBs, peak in X-rays and maintain a roughly constant flux for hundreds to thousands of years after the burst. Though too faint to be detected in typical cosmological GRBs, a fraction of close-by bursts with a sufficiently large energy output in X-rays, and for which the surrounding medium is sufficiently dense, may indeed be observed in this way. The detection of a Compton echo could provide unique insight into the burst properties and the environment's density structure. In particular, it could potentially determine whether or not there was a successful jet that broke through the compact binary merger ejecta. We discuss here the properties and expectations from Compton echoes and suggest methods for detectability.

  18. Yet Another Model for the Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, P. J. T.

    2000-05-01

    We consider whether a gamma-ray burst can result from a merger between a neutron star and a massive main-sequence star in a binary system following a supernova explosion. The scenario for how this can happen is outlined in Leonard, Hills & Dewey 1994, ApJ, 423, L19-L22. The initially more massive star in a massive binary system evolves and undergoes core collapse to produce a neutron star and supernova. Since the outer layers of the originally more massive star have been transferred to the other star, then the supernova may be hydrogen deficient. The newly-formed neutron star receives a random kick during the explosion. In a small fraction of the cases, the kick has the appropriate direction and amplitude to remove most of the orbital angular momentum of the post-supernova binary system. The result is an orbit with a pericenter smaller than the radius of the non-exploding star. The neutron star rather quickly becomes embedded in the other star, and sinks to its center, giving the envelope of the merged object a lot of rotational angular momentum in the process. Leonard, Hills & Dewey estimate the rate of this process in the Galaxy to be 0.06 per square kpc per Myr for secondaries more massive than 15 solar masses. The fate of the merged object has been the source of much speculation, and we shall assume that a collapsar-like scenario results. That is, the neutron star experiences runaway accretion, collapses into a black hole, which continues to accrete, and produces a pair of jets that bore their way out of the merged object. Observers who lie in the direction of either jet will see a gamma-ray burst. Roughly 1% of supernovae in massive binary systems result in neutron stars quickly becoming embedded in the secondaries, and of those which produce black holes, only 1% would be observable as gamma-ray bursts, if the jets are beamed into 1% of the sky.

  19. UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R

    2014-08-01

    We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of Δtmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

  20. POET: a SMEX mission for gamma ray burst polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Baring, Matthew; Bloser, Peter; Dwyer, Joseph F.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Ertley, Camden D.; Greiner, Jochen; Harding, Alice K.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hill, Joanne E.; Kaaret, Philip; Kippen, R. M.; Mattingly, David; McBreen, Sheila; Pearce, Mark; Produit, Nicolas; Ryan, James M.; Ryde, Felix; Sakamoto, Takanori; Toma, Kenji; Vestrand, W. Thomas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Polarimeters for Energetic Transients (POET) is a mission concept designed to t within the envelope of a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) mission. POET will use X-ray and gamma-ray polarimetry to uncover the energy release mechanism associated with the formation of stellar-mass black holes and investigate the physics of extreme magnetic ields in the vicinity of compact objects. Two wide-FoV, non-imaging polarimeters will provide polarization measurements over the broad energy range from about 2 keV up to about 500 keV. A Compton scatter polarimeter, using an array of independent scintillation detector elements, will be used to collect data from 50 keV up to 500 keV. At low energies (2{15 keV), data will be provided by a photoelectric polarimeter based on the use of a Time Projection Chamber for photoelectron tracking. During a two-year baseline mission, POET will be able to collect data that will allow us to distinguish between three basic models for the inner jet of gamma-ray bursts.

  1. Earth Occultation Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT). Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors for daily monitoring. Light curves, updated daily, are available on our website http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm. Our software is also capable of performing the Earth occultation monitoring using up to 128 energy bands, or any combination of those bands, using our 128-channel, 4-s CSPEC data. The GBM BGO detectors, sensitive from about 200 keV to 40 keV, can also be used with this technique. In our standard application of the EOT, we use a catalog of sources to drive the measurements. To ensure that our catalog is complete, our team has developed an Earth occultation imaging method. In this talk, I will describe both techniques and the current data products available. I will highlight recent and important results from the GBM EOT, including the current status of our observations of hard X-ray variations in the Crab Nebula.

  2. Performance study of the gamma-ray bursts polarimeter POLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. C.; Wu, B. B.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvitch, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; He, J. J.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kong, S. W.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Li, Lu; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Produit, N.; Rapin, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Rybka, D.; Shi, H. L.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Xiao, H. L.; Xiong, S. L.; Xu, H. H.; Xu, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Polarimeter-POLAR is a highly sensitive detector which is dedicated to the measurement of GRB's polarization with a large effective detection area and a large field of view (FOV). The optimized performance of POLAR will contribute to the capture and measurement of the transient sources like GRBs and Solar Flares. The detection energy range of POLAR is 50 keV 500 keV, and mainly dominated by the Compton scattering effect. POLAR consists of 25 detector modular units (DMUs), and each DMU is composed of low Z material Plastic Scintillators (PS), multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMT) and multi-channel ASIC Front-end Electronics (FEE). POLAR experiment is an international collaboration project involving China, Switzerland and Poland, and is expected to be launched in September in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory "Tiangong-2 (TG-2)". With the efforts from the collaborations, POLAR has experienced the Demonstration Model (DM) phase, Engineering and Qualification Model (EQM) phase, Qualification Model (QM) phase, and now a full Flight Model (FM) of POLAR has been constructed. The FM of POLAR has passed the environmental acceptance tests (thermal cycling, vibration, shock and thermal vacuum tests) and experienced the calibration tests with both radioactive sources and 100% polarized Gamma-Ray beam at ESRF after its construction. The design of POLAR, Monte-Carlo simulation analysis, as well as the performance test results will all be introduced in this paper.

  3. Correlation Analysis of Prompt Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothapragada, Sriharsha

    Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits very rapid, complicated temporal and spectral evolution. This diverse variability in the light-curves reflects the complicated nature of the underlying physics, in which inter-penetrating relativistic shells in the outflow are believed to generate strong magnetic fields that vary over very small scales. We use the theory of jitter radiation to model the emission from such regions and the resulting overall prompt gamma ray emission from a series of relativistic collisionless shocks. We present simulated GRB light-curves developed as a series of "pulses" corresponding to instantaneously illuminated "thin-shell" regions emitting via the jitter radiation mechanism. The effects of various geometries, viewing angles, and bulk Lorentz factor profiles of the radiating outflow jets on the spectral features and evolution of these light-curves are explored. Our results demonstrate how an anisotropic jitter radiation pattern, in conjunction with relativistic shock kinematics, can produce certain features observed in the GRB prompt emission spectra, such as the occurrence of hard, synchrotron violating spectra, the "tracking" of observed flux with spectral parameters, and spectral softening below peak energy within individual episodes of the light curve. We highlight predictions in the light of recent advances in the observational sphere of GRBs.

  4. Developments in high-precision gamma-ray burst source studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    The source location data analyzed by the first and second interplanetary gamma ray burst spacecraft networks are reviewed. The possibilities of additional networks and of related studies in other disciplines, and the prospects for real time optical transient observations and for the definition of gamma ray burst sources by optical transient astronomy are also reviewed.

  5. Gamma-ray burst spectroscopy capabilities of the BATSE/GRO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W.; Cline, T. L.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A scintillation spectrometer is included in each of the eight BATSE/GRO detector modules, resulting in all-sky coverage for gamma-ray bursts. The scientific motivation, design and capabilities of these spectrometers for performing spectral observations over a wide range of gamma-ray energies and burst intensities are described.

  6. Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, H.-Thomas

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

  7. Gamma ray bursts as a signature for entangled gravitational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basini, Giuseppe; Capozziello, Salvatore; Longo, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs), due to their features, can be considered not only extremely energetic, but also as the most relativistic astrophysical objects discovered. Their phenomenology is still matter of debate and, till now, no fully satisfactory model has been formulated to explain the nature of their origin. In the framework of a recently developed new theory, where general conservation laws are always and absolutely conserved in nature, we propose an alternative model where an ``entangled'' gravitational system, dynamically constituted by a black holes connected to a white hole through a worm hole, seems capable of explaining most of the properties inferred for the GRB engine. In particular, it leads to a natural explanation of energetics, beaming, polarization, and, very likely, distribution. On the other hand, GRBs can be considered a signature of such entangled gravitational systems.

  8. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  9. The progenitors of extended emission gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gompertz, B. P.

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous transient events in the Universe, and as such are associated with some of the most extreme processes in nature. They come in two types: long and short, nominally separated either side of a two second divide in gamma-ray emission duration. The short class (those with durations of less than two seconds) are believed to be due to the merger of two compact objects, most likely neutron stars. Within this population, a small subsection exhibit an apparent extra high-energy emission feature, which rises to prominence several seconds after the initial emission event. These are the extended emission (EE) bursts. This thesis investigates the progenitors of the EE sample, including what drives them, and where they fit in the broader context of short GRBs. The science chapters outline a rigorous test of the magnetar model, in which the compact object merger results in a massive, rapidly-rotating neutron star with an extremely strong magnetic field. The motivation for this central engine is the late-time plateaux seen in some short and EE GRBs, which can be interpreted as energy injection from a long-lived central engine, in this case from the magnetar as it loses angular momentum along open field lines. Chapter 2 addresses the energy budget of such a system, including whether the EE component is consistent with the rotational energy reservoir of a millisecond neutron star, and the implications the model has for the physical properties of the underlying magnetar. Chapter 3 proposes a potential mechanism by which EE may arise, and how both classes may be born within the framework of a single central engine. Chapter 4 addresses the broadband signature of both short and EE GRBs, and provides some observational tests that can be used to either support or contradict the model.

  10. New Fermi-LAT event reconstruction reveals more high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bregeon, J.; ...

    2013-08-19

    Here, based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Largemore » Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy (~147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.« less

  11. Cooling Timescales and Temporal Structure of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Re'em; Narayan, Ramesh; Piran, Tsvi

    1996-12-01

    A leading mechanism for producing cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is via ultrarelativistic particles in an expanding fireball. The kinetic energy of the particles is converted into thermal energy in two shocks, a forward shock and a reverse shock, when the outward flowing particles encounter the interstellar medium. The thermal energy is then radiated via synchrotron emission and Comptonization. We estimate the synchrotron cooling timescale of the shocked material in the forward and reverse shocks for electrons of various Lorentz factors, focusing in particular on those electrons whose radiation falls within the energy detection range of the BATSE detectors. We find that in order to produce the rapid variability observed in most bursts, the energy density of the magnetic field in the shocked material must be greater than about 1% of the thermal energy density. In addition, the electrons must be nearly in equipartition with the protons, since otherwise we do not have reasonable radiative efficiencies of GRBs. Inverse Compton scattering can increase the cooling rate of the relevant electrons, but the Comptonized emission itself is never within the BATSE range. These arguments allow us to pinpoint the conditions within the radiating regions in GRBs and to determine the important radiation processes. In addition, they provide a plausible explanation for several observations. The model predicts that the duty cycle of intensity variations in GRB light curves should be nearly independent of burst duration and should scale inversely as the square root of the observed photon energy. Both correlations are in agreement with observations. The model also provides a plausible explanation for the bimodal distribution of burst durations. There is no explanation, however, for the presence of a characteristic break energy in GRB spectra.

  12. A MAD model for gamma-ray burst variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 s or so), in the context of a magnetically arrested disc (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disc. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the variable luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic time-scale defined by the free-fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and time-scales, and compare them to GRB observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time-scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. We also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse.

  13. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts by HETE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Yoshida, A.; Shirasaki, Y.; Ricker, G.; Doty, J.; Vanderspek, R.; Crew, G.; Villasenor, J.; Atteia, J.-L.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 (HETE-2), launched in October 2000, is currently localizing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at a rate of approximately 20/yr, many in real time. As of August 2003, HETE-2 had localized 43 GRBs; 16 localizations had led to the detection of an X-ray, optical, or radio afterglows. The prompt position notification of HETE-2 enabled probing the nature of so-called "dark bursts" for which no optical afterglows were found despite of accurate localizations. In some cases, the optical afterglow was found to be intrinsically faint , and its flux declined rapidly. In another case, the optical emission was likely to be extinguished by the dust in the vicinity of the GRB source. The bright afterglows of GRB021004 and GRB030329 were observed in unprecedented details by telescopes around the world. Strong evidence for the association of long GRBs with the core-collapse supernovae was found. HETE-2 has localized almost as many X-ray rich GRBs as classical GRBs. The nature of the X-ray rich GRBs and X-ray flashes have been studied systematically with HETE-2, and they are found to have many properties in common with the classical GRBs, suggesting that they are a single phenomenon.

  14. Ideal engine durations for gamma-ray-burst-jet launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidani, Hamid; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Okita, Shinpei

    2017-08-01

    Aiming to study gamma-ray-burst (GRB) engine duration, we present numerical simulations to investigate collapsar jets. We consider typical explosion energy (1052 erg) but different engine durations, in the widest domain to date from 0.1 to 100 s. We employ an adaptive mesh refinement 2D hydrodynamical code. Our results show that engine duration strongly influences jet nature. We show that the efficiency of launching and collimating relativistic outflow increases with engine duration, until the intermediate engine range where it is the highest, past this point to long engine range, the trend is slightly reversed; we call this point where acceleration and collimation are the highest 'sweet spot' (˜10-30 s). Moreover, jet energy flux shows that variability is also high in this duration domain. We argue that not all engine durations can produce the collimated, relativistic and variable long GRB jets. Considering a typical progenitor and engine energy, we conclude that the ideal engine duration to reproduce a long GRB is ˜10-30 s, where the launch of relativistic, collimated and variable jets is favoured. We note that this duration domain makes a good link with a previous study suggesting that the bulk of Burst and Transient Source Experiment's long GRBs is powered by ˜10-20 s collapsar engines.

  15. A Non-Triggered Burst Supplement to the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, J.; Lewin, W. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanParadijs, J.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a real-time burst detection (or "trigger") system running onboard the spacecraft. Under some circumstances, however, a GRB may not activate the onboard burst trigger. For example, the burst may be too faint to exceed the onboard detection threshold, or it may occur while the onboard burst trigger is disabled for technical reasons. This paper is a catalog of such "non-triggered" GRBs that were detected in a search of the archival continuous data from BATSE. It lists 873 non-triggered bursts that were recorded between 1991 December 9.0 and 1997 December 17.0. For each burst, the catalog gives an estimated source direction, duration, peak flux, and fluence. Similar data are presented for 50 additional bursts of unknown origin that were detected in the 25-50 keV range; these events may represent the low-energy "tail" of the GRB spectral distribution. This catalog increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period covered by the search.

  16. A Nontriggered Burst Supplement to the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a real-time burst detection (or "trigger") system running onboard the spacecraft. Under some circumstances, however, a GRB may not activate the on-board burst trigger. For example, the burst may be too faint to exceed the on-board detection threshold, or it may occur while the on-board burst trigger is disabled for technical reasons. This paper describes a catalog of 873 "nontriggered" GRBs that were detected in a search of the archival continuous data from BATSE recorded between 1991 December 9.0 and 1997 December 17.0. For each burst, the catalog gives an estimated source direction, duration, peak flux, and fluence. Similar data are presented for 50 additional bursts of unknown origin that were detected in the 25-50 keV range; these events may represent the low-energy "tail" of the GRB spectral distribution. This catalog increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period covered by the search.

  17. Expanding relativistic shells and gamma-ray burst temporal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.E.; Madras, C.D.; Nayakshin, S.

    1996-12-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) involve a shell expanding at extreme relativistic speeds. The shell of material expands in a photon-quiet phase for a period {ital t}{sub 0} and then becomes gamma-ray active, perhaps due to inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium or the generation of shocks. Based on kinematics, we relate the envelope of the emission of the event to the characteristics of the photon-quiet and photon-active phases. We initially assume local spherical symmetry wherein, on average, the same conditions prevail over the shell`s surface within angles the order of {Gamma}{sup {minus}1}, where {Gamma} is the Lorentz factor formore » the bulk motion. The contribution of the curvature to the temporal structure is comparable to the contribution from the overall expansion. As a result, GRB time histories from a shell should have an envelope similar to {open_quotes}FRED{close_quotes} (fast rise, exponential decay) events in which the rise time is related to the duration of the photon-active phase and the fall time is related to the duration of the photon-quiet phase. This result depends only on local spherical symmetry and, since most GRBs do not have such envelopes, we introduce the {open_quotes}shell symmetry{close_quotes} problem: the observed time history envelopes of most GRBs do not agree with that expected for a relativistic expanding shell. Although FREDs have the signature of a relativistic shell, they may not be due to a single shell, as required by some cosmological models. Some FREDs have precursors in which the peaks are separated by more than the expansion time required to explain FRED shape. Such a burst is most likely explained by a central engine; that is, the separation of the multiple peaks occurs because the central site produced multiple releases of energy on timescales comparable to the duration of the event. (Abstract Truncated)« less

  18. Broadband observations of the naked-eye gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B.

    PubMed

    Racusin, J L; Karpov, S V; Sokolowski, M; Granot, J; Wu, X F; Pal'shin, V; Covino, S; van der Horst, A J; Oates, S R; Schady, P; Smith, R J; Cummings, J; Starling, R L C; Piotrowski, L W; Zhang, B; Evans, P A; Holland, S T; Malek, K; Page, M T; Vetere, L; Margutti, R; Guidorzi, C; Kamble, A P; Curran, P A; Beardmore, A; Kouveliotou, C; Mankiewicz, L; Melandri, A; O'Brien, P T; Page, K L; Piran, T; Tanvir, N R; Wrochna, G; Aptekar, R L; Barthelmy, S; Bartolini, C; Beskin, G M; Bondar, S; Bremer, M; Campana, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Cucchiara, A; Cwiok, M; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Valle, M Della; de Ugarte Postigo, A; Dominik, W; Falcone, A; Fiore, F; Fox, D B; Frederiks, D D; Fruchter, A S; Fugazza, D; Garrett, M A; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Gomboc, A; Gorosabel, J; Greco, G; Guarnieri, A; Immler, S; Jelinek, M; Kasprowicz, G; La Parola, V; Levan, A J; Mangano, V; Mazets, E P; Molinari, E; Moretti, A; Nawrocki, K; Oleynik, P P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Pandey, S B; Paragi, Z; Perri, M; Piccioni, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Roming, P W A; Steele, I A; Strom, R G; Testa, V; Tosti, G; Ulanov, M V; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Winters, J M; Zarnecki, A F; Zerbi, F; Mészáros, P; Chincarini, G; Burrows, D N

    2008-09-11

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) release copious amounts of energy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and so provide a window into the process of black hole formation from the collapse of massive stars. Previous early optical observations of even the most exceptional GRBs (990123 and 030329) lacked both the temporal resolution to probe the optical flash in detail and the accuracy needed to trace the transition from the prompt emission within the outflow to external shocks caused by interaction with the progenitor environment. Here we report observations of the extraordinarily bright prompt optical and gamma-ray emission of GRB 080319B that provide diagnostics within seconds of its formation, followed by broadband observations of the afterglow decay that continued for weeks. We show that the prompt emission stems from a single physical region, implying an extremely relativistic outflow that propagates within the narrow inner core of a two-component jet.

  19. Finding Sub-threshold Short Gamma-ray Bursts in Fermi GBM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Eric; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team

    2018-01-01

    The all-sky monitoring capability of Fermi GBM makes it ideal for finding transients, and the most prolific detector of short gamma-ray bursts with about 40 on-board triggers per year. Because the observed brightness of short gamma-ray bursts has no correlation with redshift, weak short gamma-ray bursts are important during the gravitational wave era. With this in mind, we discuss two searches of GBM data to find short gamma-ray which were below the on-board trigger threshold. The untargeted search looks for significant background-subtracted signals in two or more detectors at various timescales in the continuous data, detecting ~80 additional short GRB candidates per year. The targeted search is the most sensitive search for weak gamma-ray signals in GBM data and is run over limited time intervals around sources of interest like gravitational waves.

  20. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with precursor supernovae.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Soebur; Mészáros, Peter; Waxman, Eli

    2003-06-20

    The high energy neutrino signature from proton-proton and photo-meson interactions in a supernova remnant shell ejected prior to a gamma-ray burst provides a test for the precursor supernova, or supranova, model of gamma-ray bursts. Protons in the supernova remnant shell and photons entrapped from a supernova explosion or a pulsar wind from a fast-rotating neutron star remnant provide ample targets for protons escaping the internal shocks of the gamma-ray burst to interact and produce high energy neutrinos. We calculate the expected neutrino fluxes, which can be detected by current and future experiments.

  1. High-entropy fireballs and jets in gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Two mechanisms whereby compact coalescing binaries can produce relatively 'clean' fireballs via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation are proposed. Preejected mass due to tidal heating will collimate the fireball into jets. The resulting anisotropic gamma-ray emission can be efficient and intense enough to provide an acceptable model for gamma-ray bursts, if these originate at cosmological distances.

  2. Spectral lags in different episodes of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, LanWei; Yi, TingFeng; Liang, EnWei

    2013-08-01

    A systematical analysis of the spectral lags in different episodes within a gamma-ray burst (GRB) for the BATSE GRB sample is given. The identified episodes are usually a single pulse with mixing of small fluctuations. The spectral lags were calculated for lightcurves in the 25-55 keV and 110-320 keV bands. No universal spectral lag evolution feature in different episodes within a GRB were found for most GRBs. Among 362 bright GRBs that have at least three well-identified episodes, 19 of them show long-to-short lag and 19 of them show short-to-long lag in successive episodes. The other 324 GRBs have no clear evolution trend. Defining the specified lag with the ratio of the spectral lag to the episode duration in 110-320 keV band, no prominent case of specified lag was found showing clear evolution features. The results suggest that the observed spectral lag may contribute to the dynamics and/or the radiation physics of a given emission episode.

  3. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  4. Luminosity function and jet structure of Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Salafia, O. S.; Ghisellini, G.; Nappo, F.; Salvaterra, R.

    2015-02-01

    The structure of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets impacts on their prompt and afterglow emission properties. The jet of GRBs could be uniform, with constant energy per unit solid angle within the jet aperture, or it could be structured, namely with energy and velocity that depend on the angular distance from the axis of the jet. We try to get some insight about the still unknown structure of GRBs by studying their luminosity function. We show that low (1046-48 erg s-1) and high (i.e. with L ≥ 1050 erg s-1) luminosity GRBs can be described by a unique luminosity function, which is also consistent with current lower limits in the intermediate luminosity range (1048-50 erg s-1). We derive analytical expressions for the luminosity function of GRBs in uniform and structured jet models and compare them with the data. Uniform jets can reproduce the entire luminosity function with reasonable values of the free parameters. A structured jet can also fit adequately the current data, provided that the energy within the jet is relatively strongly structured, i.e. E ∝ θ-k with k ≥ 4. The classical E ∝ θ-2 structured jet model is excluded by the current data.

  5. MODELING EXTRAGALACTIC EXTINCTION THROUGH GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, Alberto; Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia

    We analyze extragalactic extinction profiles derived through gamma-ray burst afterglows, using a dust model specifically constructed on the assumption that dust grains are not immutable but respond, time-dependently, to the local physics. Such a model includes core-mantle spherical particles of mixed chemical composition (silicate core, sp{sup 2}, and sp{sup 3} carbonaceous layers), and an additional molecular component in the form of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We fit most of the observed extinction profiles. Failures occur for lines of sight, presenting remarkable rises blueward of the bump. We find a tendency for the carbon chemical structure to become more aliphatic withmore » the galactic activity, and to some extent with increasing redshifts. Moreover, the contribution of the molecular component to the total extinction is more important in younger objects. The results of the fitting procedure (either successes and failures) may be naturally interpreted through an evolutionary prescription based on the carbon cycle in the interstellar medium of galaxies.« less

  6. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo, E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is onemore » order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.« less

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Supernovae as Standardizable Candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-01

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  8. Impulsive and Varying Injection in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows.

    PubMed

    Sari; Mészáros

    2000-05-20

    The standard model of gamma-ray burst afterglows is based on synchrotron radiation from a blast wave produced when the relativistic ejecta encounters the surrounding medium. We reanalyze the refreshed shock scenario, in which slower material catches up with the decelerating ejecta and reenergizes it. This energization can be done either continuously or in discrete episodes. We show that such a scenario has two important implications. First, there is an additional component coming from the reverse shock that goes into the energizing ejecta. This persists for as long as the reenergization itself, which could extend for up to days or longer. We find that during this time the overall spectral peak is found at the characteristic frequency of the reverse shock. Second, if the injection is continuous, the dynamics will be different from that in constant energy evolution and will cause a slower decline of the observed fluxes. A simple test of the continuously refreshed scenario is that it predicts a spectral maximum in the far-infrared or millimeter range after a few days.

  9. Rarefaction acceleration in magnetized gamma-ray burst jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapountzis, Konstantinos; Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2013-09-01

    Relativistic jets associated with long/soft gamma-ray bursts are formed and initially propagate in the interior of the progenitor star. Because of the subsequent loss of their external pressure support after they cross the stellar surface, these flows can be modelled as moving around a corner. A strong steady-state rarefaction wave is formed, and the sideways expansion is accompanied by a rarefaction acceleration. We investigate the efficiency and the general characteristics of this mechanism by integrating the steady-state, special relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic equations, using a special set of partial exact solutions in planar geometry (r self-similar with respect to the `corner'). We also derive analytical approximate scalings in the ultrarelativistic cold/magnetized, and hydrodynamic limits. The mechanism is more effective in magnetized than in purely hydrodynamic flows. It substantially increases the Lorentz factor without much affecting the opening of the jet; the resulting values of their product can be much greater than unity, allowing for possible breaks in the afterglow light curves. These findings are similar to the ones from numerical simulations of axisymmetric jets by Komissarov et al. and Tchekhovskoy et al., although in our approach we describe the rarefaction as a steady-state simple wave and self-consistently calculate the opening of the jet that corresponds to zero external pressure.

  10. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts from BATSE - Another great debate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; The, Lih-Sin; Clayton, Donald D.; Schnepf, Neil G.; Linder, Eric V.

    1992-01-01

    The BATSE detectors aboard Compton Observatory record about one cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) per day. Preliminary data analysis shows a highly isotropic sky map and a nonuniform brightness distribution. Anisotropies expected from a Galactic neutron star population, the most frequently considered source model, did not emerge from the data. Taken at face value, the data seem to suggest a heliocentric solution of the GRB puzzle. The observed isotropy can be achieved if sources are either very near or extragalactic. Pop I neutron stars in the disk do not simultaneously fit sky and brightness distributions. A possibility are sources in an extended Galactic halo with scale length large enough to avoid strong anisotropies due to the solar offset from the Galactic center. If GRBs are located in an extended halo we ask whether the neutron star paradigm can survive. We show that the recently discovered high velocity radio pulsars may provide a natural source population for GRBs. If these pulsars formed in the halo, as suggested by the radio data, the possibility arises that GRBs and high velocity pulsars are two related phenomena that provide observational evidence of the dark Galactic corona. We also discuss cosmological redshift constraints that follow from the observed brightness distribution.

  11. Statistical Distributions of Optical Flares from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Yu, Hai; Wang, F. Y.

    2017-07-20

    We statistically study gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical flares from the Swift /UVOT catalog. We compile 119 optical flares, including 77 flares with redshift measurements. Some tight correlations among the timescales of optical flares are found. For example, the rise time is correlated with the decay time, and the duration time is correlated with the peak time of optical flares. These two tight correlations indicate that longer rise times are associated with longer decay times of optical flares and also suggest that broader optical flares peak at later times, which are consistent with the corresponding correlations of X-ray flares. We alsomore » study the frequency distributions of optical flare parameters, including the duration time, rise time, decay time, peak time, and waiting time. Similar power-law distributions for optical and X-ray flares are found. Our statistic results imply that GRB optical flares and X-ray flares may share the similar physical origin, and both of them are possibly related to central engine activities.« less

  12. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; de Pasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multiwavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  13. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith I.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  14. VLBI of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, N.; Karimi, B.; Bietenholz, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the brightest events in the universe. Excluding Type Ia supernovae and short GRBs, they are the result of the core collapse of a massive star with material being ejectedwith speeds of several 1000 km/s to nearly the speed of light, and with a neutron star or a black hole left over as the compact remnant of the explosion. Synchrotron radiation in the radio is generated in a shell when the ejecta interact with the surrounding medium and possibly also in the central region near the compact remnant itself. VLBI has allowed resolving some of these sources and monitoring their expansion in detail, thereby revealing characteristics of the dying star, the explosion, the expanding shock front, and the expected compact remnant. We report on updates of some of the most interesting results that have been obtained with VLBI so far. Movies of supernovae are available from our website. They show the evolution from shortly after the explosion to decades thereafter, in one case revealing an emerging compact central source, which may be associated with shock interaction near the explosion center or with the stellar corpse itself, a neutron star or a black hole.

  15. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  16. Probing massive stars around gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced by ultra-relativistic jets launched from core collapse of massive stars. Most massive stars form in binaries and/or in star clusters, which means that there may be a significant external photon field (EPF) around the GRB progenitor. We calculate the inverse-Compton scattering of EPF by the hot electrons in the GRB jet. Three possible cases of EPF are considered: the progenitor is (I) in a massive binary system, (II) surrounded by a Wolf-Rayet-star wind and (III) in a dense star cluster. Typical luminosities of 1046-1050 erg s-1 in the 1-100 GeV band are expected, depending on the stellar luminosity, binary separation (I), wind mass-loss rate (II), stellar number density (III), etc. We calculate the light curve and spectrum in each case, taking fully into account the equal-arrival time surfaces and possible pair-production absorption with the prompt γ-rays. Observations can put constraints on the existence of such EPFs (and hence on the nature of GRB progenitors) and on the radius where the jet internal dissipation process accelerates electrons.

  17. Microphysics in the Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Janiuk, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnes@cft.edu.pl

    We calculate the structure and evolution of a gamma-ray burst central engine where an accreting torus has formed around the newly born black hole. We study the general relativistic, MHD models and we self-consistently incorporate the nuclear equation of state. The latter accounts for the degeneracy of relativistic electrons, protons, and neutrons, and is used in the dynamical simulation, instead of a standard polytropic γ -law. The EOS provides the conditions for the nuclear pressure in the function of density and temperature, which evolve with time according to the conservative MHD scheme. We analyze the structure of the torus andmore » outflowing winds, and compute the neutrino flux emitted through the nuclear reaction balance in the dense and hot matter. We also estimate the rate of transfer of the black-hole rotational energy to the bipolar jets. Finally, we elaborate on the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the accretion flow and the wind, through computations of the thermonuclear reaction network. We discuss the possible signatures of the radioactive element decay in the accretion flow. We suggest that further detailed modeling of the accretion flow in the GRB engine, together with its microphysics, may be a valuable tool to constrain the black-hole mass and spin. It can be complementary to the gravitational wave analysis if the waves are detected with an electromagnetic counterpart.« less

  18. Gamma-ray bursts and their use as cosmic probes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Since the launch of the highly successful and ongoing Swift mission, the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has undergone a revolution. The arcsecond GRB localizations available within just a few minutes of the GRB alert has signified the continual sampling of the GRB evolution through the prompt to afterglow phases revealing unexpected flaring and plateau phases, the first detection of a kilonova coincident with a short GRB, and the identification of samples of low-luminosity, ultra-long and highly dust-extinguished GRBs. The increased numbers of GRB afterglows, GRB-supernova detections, redshifts and host galaxy associations has greatly improved our understanding of what produces and powers these immense, cosmological explosions. Nevertheless, more high-quality data often also reveal greater complexity. In this review, I summarize some of the milestones made in GRB research during the Swift era, and how previous widely accepted theoretical models have had to adapt to accommodate the new wealth of observational data. PMID:28791158

  19. Identifying High-redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts with RATIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Prochaska, J. X.; Bloom, J. S.; Troja, E.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; de Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z phot, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z phot < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z phot in the ranges of 4 < z phot <~ 8 and 9 < z phot < 10 and can robustly determine when z phot > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z phot < 4 when z sim > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  20. The application of network synthesis to repeating classical gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, J.; Meegan, C.; Laros, J.; Klebesadel, R.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) gamma-ray burst catalog contains several groups of bursts clustered in space or in space and time, which provide evidence that a substantial fraction of the classical gamma-ray burst sources repeat. Because many of the bursts in these groups are weak, they are not directly detected by the Ulysses GRB experiment. We apply the network synthesis method to these events to test the repeating burst hypothesis. Although we find no evidence for repeating sources, the method must be applied under more general conditions before reaching any definite conclusions about the existence of classical gamma-ray burst repeating sources.

  1. A Temporal Correlation in Quiescent Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission: Evidence for Prognitor Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas L.; Giblin, Timothy; Hakkila, Jon E.

    2018-06-01

    In spite of the insight gained into the nature of the Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) from early and late-time X-Ray observations in the Swift era, GRB prompt emission continues to provide clues and new insight into the activity of the central engine. A comprehensive understanding of all emission components observed in GRBs, from the traditional prompt GRB emission to the long lived X-Ray and optical decay super- imposed with late-time flaring activity, currently remains allusive. Using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), we've identified and measured durations observed in GRBs that exhibit multi-episodic prompt emission behavior. Duration analysis of the burst attributes revealed no significant correlations between emissions and quiet time durations. This variability allows us to extrapolate that the central engine is constantly active.

  2. Bright x-ray flares in gamma-ray burst afterglows.

    PubMed

    Burrows, D N; Romano, P; Falcone, A; Kobayashi, S; Zhang, B; Moretti, A; O'brien, P T; Goad, M R; Campana, S; Page, K L; Angelini, L; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A P; Capalbi, M; Chincarini, G; Cummings, J; Cusumano, G; Fox, D; Giommi, P; Hill, J E; Kennea, J A; Krimm, H; Mangano, V; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Morris, D C; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Perri, M; Tagliaferri, G; Wells, A A; Woosley, S; Gehrels, N

    2005-09-16

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows have provided important clues to the nature of these massive explosive events, providing direct information on the nearby environment and indirect information on the central engine that powers the burst. We report the discovery of two bright x-ray flares in GRB afterglows, including a giant flare comparable in total energy to the burst itself, each peaking minutes after the burst. These strong, rapid x-ray flares imply that the central engines of the bursts have long periods of activity, with strong internal shocks continuing for hundreds of seconds after the gamma-ray emission has ended.

  3. Low-mass X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasota, J. P.; Frank, J.; King, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    More than twenty years after their discovery, the nature of gamma-ray burst sources (GRBs) remains mysterious. The results from BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory show however that most of the sources of gamma-ray bursts cannot be distributed in the galactic disc. The possibility that a small fraction of sites of gamma-ray bursts is of galactic disc origin cannot however be excluded. We point out that large numbers of neutron-star binaries with orbital periods of 10 hr and M dwarf companions of mass 0.2-0.3 solar mass are a natural result of the evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The numbers and physical properties of these systems suggest that some gamma-ray burst sources may be identified with this endpoint of LMXB evolution. We suggest an observational test of this hypothesis.

  4. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, Stan

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  5. In-Orbit Performance of the CALET Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Calet Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    This poster presentation describes in-orbit operation and performance of the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) which has been operated for about one year since October 2015 on the International Space Station (ISS).

  6. Rapid fading of optical afterglows as evidence for beaming in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Lu, T.

    2000-03-01

    Based on the refined dynamical model proposed by us earlier for beamed gamma -ray burst ejecta, we carry out detailed numerical procedure to study those gamma -ray bursts with rapidly fading afterglows (i.e., ~ t-2). It is found that optical afterglows from GRB 970228, 980326, 980519, 990123, 990510 and 991208 can be satisfactorily fitted if the gamma -ray burst ejecta are highly collimated, with a universal initial half opening angle theta_0 ~ 0.1. The obvious light curve break observed in GRB 990123 is due to the relativistic-Newtonian transition of the beamed ejecta, and the rapidly fading optical afterglows come from synchrotron emissions during the mildly relativistic and non-relativistic phases. We strongly suggest that the rapid fading of afterglows currently observed in some gamma -ray bursts is evidence for beaming in these cases.

  7. How gravitational-wave observations can shape the gamma-ray burst paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, I.; Brady, P.; Márka, S.

    2013-06-01

    By reaching through shrouding blastwaves, efficiently discovering off-axis events and probing the central engine at work, gravitational wave (GW) observations will soon revolutionize the study of gamma-ray bursts. Already, analyses of GW data targeting gamma-ray bursts have helped constrain the central engines of selected events. Advanced GW detectors with significantly improved sensitivities are under construction. After outlining the GW emission mechanisms from gamma-ray burst progenitors (binary coalescences, stellar core collapses, magnetars and others) that may be detectable with advanced detectors, we review how GWs will improve our understanding of gamma-ray burst central engines, their astrophysical formation channels and the prospects and methods for different search strategies. We place special emphasis on multimessenger searches. To achieve the most scientific benefit, GW, electromagnetic and neutrino observations should be combined to provide greater discriminating power and science reach.

  8. Polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst of 6 December 2002.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Wayne; Boggs, Steven E

    2003-05-22

    Observations of the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have revealed that they lie at cosmological distances, and so correspond to the release of an enormous amount of energy. The nature of the central engine that powers these events and the prompt gamma-ray emission mechanism itself remain enigmatic because, once a relativistic fireball is created, the physics of the afterglow is insensitive to the nature of the progenitor. Here we report the discovery of linear polarization in the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRB021206, which indicates that it is synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in a strong magnetic field. The polarization is at the theoretical maximum, which requires a uniform, large-scale magnetic field over the gamma-ray emission region. A large-scale magnetic field constrains possible progenitors to those either having or producing organized fields. We suggest that the large magnetic energy densities in the progenitor environment (comparable to the kinetic energy densities of the fireball), combined with the large-scale structure of the field, indicate that magnetic fields drive the GRB explosion.

  9. Properties of the Intergalactic Magnetic Field Constrained by Gamma-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Veres, P.; Dermer, C. D.; Dhuga, K. S.

    The magnetic field in intergalactic space gives important information about magnetogenesis in the early universe. The properties of this field can be probed by searching for radiation of secondary e {sup +} e {sup −} pairs created by TeV photons that produce GeV range radiation by Compton-scattering cosmic microwave background photons. The arrival times of the GeV “echo” photons depend strongly on the magnetic field strength and coherence length. A Monte Carlo code that accurately treats pair creation is developed to simulate the spectrum and time-dependence of the echo radiation. The extrapolation of the spectrum of powerful gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)more » like GRB 130427A to TeV energies is used to demonstrate how the intergalactic magnetic field can be constrained if it falls in the 10{sup −21}–10{sup −17} G range for a 1 Mpc coherence length.« less

  10. Exploring the Pulse Structure of the Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Swift Burst Alert Telescop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Juan-Carlos; Team 1: Jon Hakkila, Amy Lien, Judith, Racusin, Team 2: Antonino Cucchiara, David Morris

    2018-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are one of the brightest and most intense explosions in our universe. For this project, we studied the shape of 400 single pulse GRBs using data gathered from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Hakkila et al. (2015) have discovered a mathematical Model that describes the GRB’s pulse shapes. Following the method in Hakkila et al. (2015), we fit GRB pulses with the Norris function and examined the residual in the fitting, to see whether the results are consistent with the one reported in Hakkila et al. (2015).

  11. Angular sensitivities of scintillator slab configurations for location of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Thin flat scintillator slabs are a useful means of measuring the angular location of gamma ray fluxes of astronomical interest. A statistical estimate of position error was made of two scintillator systems suitable for gamma ray burst location from a balloon or satellite platform. A single rotating scintillator with associated flux monitor is compared with a pair of stationary orthogonal scintillators. Position error for a strong burst is of the order of a few arcmin if systematic errors are ignored.

  12. Analyzing Space-Based Interferometric Measurements of Stars and Network Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Since the announcement of the discovery of sources of bursts of gamma-ray radiation in 1973, hundreds more reports of such bursts have now been published. Numerous artificial satellites have been equipped with gamma-ray detectors including the very successful Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE instrument. Unfortunately, we have made no progress in identifying the source(s) of this high energy radiation. We suspected that this was a consequence of the method used to define gamma-ray burst source "error boxes." An alternative procedure to compute gamma-ray burst source positions, with a purely physical underpinning, was proposed in 1988 by Taff. Since then we have also made significant progress in understanding the analytical nature of the triangulation problem and in computing actual gamma-ray burst positions and their corresponding error boxes. For the former, we can now mathematically illustrate the crucial role of the area occupied by the detectors, while for the latter, the Atteia et al. (1987) catalog has been completely re-reduced. There are very few discrepancies in locations between our results and those of the customary "time difference of arrival" procedure. Thus, we have numerically demonstrated that the end result, for the positions, of these two very different-looking procedures is the same. Finally, for the first time, we provide a sample of realistic "error boxes" whose non-simple shapes vividly portray the difficulty of burst source localization.

  13. Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have different environments.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, A S; Levan, A J; Strolger, L; Vreeswijk, P M; Thorsett, S E; Bersier, D; Burud, I; Castro Cerón, J M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Conselice, C; Dahlen, T; Ferguson, H C; Fynbo, J P U; Garnavich, P M; Gibbons, R A; Gorosabel, J; Gull, T R; Hjorth, J; Holland, S T; Kouveliotou, C; Levay, Z; Livio, M; Metzger, M R; Nugent, P E; Petro, L; Pian, E; Rhoads, J E; Riess, A G; Sahu, K C; Smette, A; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Woosley, S E

    2006-05-25

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel, they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powers an even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-duration gamma-ray burst. One would then expect that these long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galactic environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find that the gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated in the very brightest regions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the core-collapse supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most extremely massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  14. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    DOE PAGES

    Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.; ...

    2017-10-17

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T a, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L a, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L peak. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a "gold sample" (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emissionmore » (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T a as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.« less

  15. Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.

  16. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.

    2017-10-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T {sub a} , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L {sub a} , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L {sub peak}. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, suchmore » as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T {sub a} as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.« less

  17. Constraining external reverse shock physics of gamma-ray bursts from ROTSE-III limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Hong; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wei, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Wei-Kang; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Assuming that early optical emission is dominated by external reverse shock (RS) in the standard model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we intend to constrain RS models with an initial Lorentz factor Γ0 of the outflows based on the ROTSE-III observations. We consider two cases of RS behaviour: relativistic shock and non-relativistic shock. For a homogeneous interstellar medium (ISM) and the wind circum-burst environment, constraints can be achieved by the fact that the peak flux Fν at the RS crossing time should be lower than the observed upper limit Fν, limit. We consider the different spectral regimes in which the observed optical frequency νopt may locate, which are divided by the orders for the minimum synchrotron frequency νm and the cooling frequency νc. Considering the homogeneous and wind environments around GRBs, we find that the relativistic RS case can be constrained by the (upper and lower) limits of Γ0 in a large range from about hundreds to thousands for 36 GRBs reported by ROTSE-III. Constraints on the non-relativistic RS case are achieved with limits of Γ0 ranging from ∼30 to ∼350 for 26 bursts. The lower limits of Γ0 achieved for the relativistic RS model are disfavored based on the previously discovered correlation between the initial Lorentz factor Γ0 and the isotropic gamma-ray energy Eγ, iso released in the prompt phase.

  18. Search for optical bursts from the gamma ray burst source GBS 0526-66

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, S.; Sreenivasaiah, K. V.; Marar, T. M. K.; Kasturirangan, K.; Rao, U. R.; Bhattacharyya, J. C.

    1985-08-01

    Attempts were made to detect optical bursts from the gamma-ray burst source GBS 0526-66 during Dec. 31, 1984 to Jan. 2, 1985 and Feb. 23 to Feb. 24, 1985, using the one meter reflector of the Kavalur Observatory. Jan. 1, 1985 coincided with the zero phase of the predicted 164 day period of burst activity from the source (Rothschild and Lingenfelter, 1984). A new optical burst photon counting system with adjustable trigger threshold was used in parallel with a high speed photometer for the observations. The best time resolution was 1 ms and maximum count rate capability was 255,000 counts s(-1). Details of the instrumentation and observational results are presented.

  19. Individual power density spectra of Swift gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Amati, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Timing analysis can be a powerful tool with which to shed light on the still obscure emission physics and geometry of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fourier power density spectra (PDS) characterise time series as stochastic processes and can be used to search for coherent pulsations and, more in general, to investigate the dominant variability timescales in astrophysical sources. Because of the limited duration and of the statistical properties involved, modelling the PDS of individual GRBs is challenging, and only average PDS of large samples have been discussed in the literature thus far. Aims: We aim at characterising the individual PDS of GRBs to describe their variability in terms of a stochastic process, to explore their variety, and to carry out for the first time a systematic search for periodic signals and for a link between PDS properties and other GRB observables. Methods: We present a Bayesian procedure that uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique and apply it to study the individual PDS of 215 bright long GRBs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope in the 15-150 keV band from January 2005 to May 2015. The PDS are modelled with a power-law either with or without a break. Results: Two classes of GRBs emerge: with or without a unique dominant timescale. A comparison with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reveals similar distributions of PDS slopes. Unexpectedly, GRBs with subsecond-dominant timescales and duration longer than a few tens of seconds in the source frame appear to be either very rare or altogether absent. Three GRBs are found with possible evidence for a periodic signal at 3.0-3.2σ (Gaussian) significance, corresponding to a multi-trial chance probability of ~1%. Thus, we found no compelling evidence for periodic signal in GRBs. Conclusions: The analogy between the PDS of GRBs and of AGNs could tentatively indicate similar stochastic processes that rule BH accretion across different BH mass scales and objects

  20. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate

  1. A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye-Sook

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRBs and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRBS. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRBS, and confirmed that GRBs are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRBs remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE`s 8 gamma ray sensors located on the comersmore » of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRBs and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to < {plus_minus}10{degrees} from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRBs are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests thatthis should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRBs ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from« less

  2. GROND coverage of the main peak of gamma-ray burst 130925A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Yu, H.-F.; Krühler, T.; Frederiks, D. D.; Beloborodov, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bolmer, J.; van Eerten, H.; Aptekar, R. L.; Elliott, J.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Graham, J. F.; Hurley, K.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Schmidl, S.; Sudilovsky, V.; Svinkin, D. S.; Tanga, M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Varela, K.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.-L.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: Prompt or early optical emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is notoriously difficult to measure, and observations of the dozen cases show a large variety of properties. Yet, such early emission promises to help us achieve a better understanding of the GRB emission process(es). Methods: We performed dedicated observations of the ultra-long duration (T90 about 7000 s) Swift GRB 130925A in the optical/near-infrared with the 7-channel Gamma-Ray burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND) at the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope. Results: We detect an optical/near-infrared flare with an amplitude of nearly 2 mag which is delayed with respect to the keV-MeV prompt emission by about 300-400 s. The decay time of this flare is shorter than the duration of the flare (500 s) or its delay. Conclusions: While we cannot offer a straightforward explanation, we discuss the implications of the flare properties and suggest ways toward understanding it. Partly based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ID 092.A-0231(B).The GROND photometry table is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A75

  3. DO THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR AND SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE SEE THE SAME SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Eric; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie

    2016-02-20

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find thatmore » the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field of view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field of view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and GBM are detecting significantly different populations of SGRBs. Both instruments can detect untriggered SGRBs using ground searches seeded with time and position. The detection of SGRBs below the on-board triggering sensitivities of Swift BAT and Fermi GBM increases the possibility of detecting and localizing the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) events seen by the new generation of GW detectors.« less

  4. GRB 091208B: FIRST DETECTION OF THE OPTICAL POLARIZATION IN EARLY FORWARD SHOCK EMISSION OF A GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, T.; Chiyonobu, S.; Fukazawa, Y.

    We report that the optical polarization in the afterglow of GRB 091208B is measured at t = 149-706 s after the burst trigger, and the polarization degree is P = 10.4( {+-} 2.5%. The optical light curve at this time shows a power-law decay with index -0.75 {+-} 0.02, which is interpreted as the forward shock synchrotron emission, and thus this is the first detection of the early-time optical polarization in the forward shock (rather than that in the reverse shock reported by Steele et al.). This detection disfavors the afterglow model in which the magnetic fields in the emissionmore » region are random on the plasma skin depth scales, such as those amplified by the plasma instabilities, e.g., Weibel instability. We suggest that the fields are amplified by the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, which would be tested by future observations of the temporal changes of the polarization degrees and angles for other bursts.« less

  5. Gamma-ray bursts, QSOs and active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-05-15

    The similarity of the absorption spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources or afterglows with the absorption spectra of quasars (QSOs) suggests that QSOs and GRB sources are very closely related. Since most people believe that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin, it is natural to assume that GRBs or their afterglows also have cosmological redshifts. For some years a few of us have argued that there is much optical evidence suggesting a very different model for QSOs, in which their redshifts have a non-cosmological origin, and are ejected from low-redshift active galaxies. In this paper I extend these ideas to GRBs. In 2003, Burbidge (Burbidge 2003 Astrophys. J. 183, 112-120) showed that the redshift periodicity in the spectra of QSOs appears in the redshift of GRBs. This in turn means that both the QSOs and the GRB sources are similar objects ejected from comparatively low-redshift active galaxies. It is now clear that many of the GRBs of low redshift do appear in, or very near, active galaxies.A new and powerful result supporting this hypothesis has been produced by Prochter et al. (Prochter et al. 2006 Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L93-L96). They show that in a survey for strong MgII absorption systems along the sightlines to long-duration GRBs, nearly every sightline shows at least one absorber. If the absorbers are intervening clouds or galaxies, only a small fraction should show absorption of this kind. The number found by Prochter et al. is four times higher than that normally found for the MgII absorption spectra of QSOs. They believe that this result is inconsistent with the intervening hypothesis and would require a statistical fluctuation greater than 99.1% probability. This is what we expect if the absorption is intrinsic to the GRBs and the redshifts are not associated with their distances. In this case, the absorption must be associated with gas ejected from the QSO. This in turn implies that the GRBs actually originate in comparatively low

  6. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  7. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor: The First Hundred TGFs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) is now detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. At this rate, nearly a hundred TGFs will have been detected by the time of this Meeting. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. The high time resolution (2 microseconds) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented.

  8. Investigation of primordial black hole bursts using interplanetary network gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Ukwatta, Tilan Niranjan; Hurley, Kevin; MacGibbon, Jane H.; ...

    2016-07-25

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected bymore » the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 10 13–10 18 cm (7–10 5 au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Furthermore, assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.« less

  9. A Search for Microsecond Gamma Ray Bursts From Primordial Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Krennrich

    2004-08-12

    The project is called SGARFACE (Short Gamma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment) and is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector to provide sensitivity to short bursts of gamma rays of extraterrestrial origin. The detector is an addition to the Whipple 10m gamma ray telescope on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona and uses a digital trigger module for recognizing Cherenkov light flashes from gamma ray bursts. The digital trigger modules have been designed, tested and constructed at Iowa State University and have been installed at the Whipple 10m telescope. Operation of the experiment started in March 2003 and data collecting will likely continuemore » until spring of 2005. A final results paper addressing a search for primordial black holes is likely to be finished by summer of 2005.« less

  10. A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts using TGRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    1998-05-01

    We present the results of an ongoing search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray burst data. TGRS, the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the Wind satellite is a high energy-resolution Ge device. Thus it is uniquely situated among the array of space-based, burst sensitive instruments to look for line features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Our search strategy adopts a two tiered approach. An automated `quick look' scan searches spectra for statistically significant deviations from the continuum. We analyzed all possible time accumulations of spectra as well as individual spectra for each burst. Follow-up analysis of potential line candidates uses model fitting with F-test and χ2 tests for statistical significance.

  11. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  12. No supernovae detected in two long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Fynbo, J P U; Thöne, C C; Sollerman, J

    2007-05-15

    There is strong evidence that long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced during the collapse of a massive star. In the standard version of the collapsar model, a broad-lined and luminous Type Ic core-collapse supernova (SN) accompanies the GRB. This association has been confirmed in observations of several nearby GRBs. Recent observations show that some long-duration GRBs are different. No SN emission accompanied the long-duration GRBs 060505 and 060614 down to limits fainter than any known Type Ic SN and hundreds of times fainter than the archetypal SN 1998bw that accompanied GRB 980425. Multi-band observations of the early afterglows, as well as spectroscopy of the host galaxies, exclude the possibility of significant dust obscuration. Furthermore, the bursts originated in star-forming galaxies, and in the case of GRB 060505, the burst was localized to a compact star-forming knot in a spiral arm of its host galaxy. We find that the properties of the host galaxies, the long duration of the bursts and, in the case of GRB 060505, the location of the burst within its host, all imply a massive stellar origin. The absence of an SN to such deep limits therefore suggests a new phenomenological type of massive stellar death.

  13. An Artificial Intelligence Classification Tool and Its Application to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Giblin, Timothy; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite being the most energetic phenomenon in the known universe, the astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has still proven difficult to understand. It has only been within the past five years that the GRB distance scale has been firmly established, on the basis of a few dozen bursts with x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. The afterglows indicate source redshifts of z=1 to z=5, total energy outputs of roughly 10(exp 52) ergs, and energy confined to the far x-ray to near gamma-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multi-wavelength afterglow observations have thus far provided more insight on the nature of the GRB mechanism than the GRB observations; far more papers have been written about the few observed gamma-ray burst afterglows in the past few years than about the thousands of detected gamma-ray bursts. One reason the GRB central engine is still so poorly understood is that GRBs have complex, overlapping characteristics that do not appear to be produced by one homogeneous process. At least two subclasses have been found on the basis of duration, spectral hardness, and fluence (time integrated flux); Class 1 bursts are softer, longer, and brighter than Class 2 bursts (with two second durations indicating a rough division). A third GRB subclass, overlapping the other two, has been identified using statistical clustering techniques; Class 3 bursts are intermediate between Class 1 and Class 2 bursts in brightness and duration, but are softer than Class 1 bursts. We are developing a tool to aid scientists in the study of GRB properties. In the process of developing this tool, we are building a large gamma-ray burst classification database. We are also scientifically analyzing some GRB data as we develop the tool. Tool development thus proceeds in tandem with the dataset for which it is being designed. The tool invokes a modified KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) process, which is described as follows.

  14. An Overview of the Current Understanding of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Fermi Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Guiriec, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin as well as mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades since their serendipitous discovery, followed by several breakthroughs from space-borne and ground-based observations, they remain one of the most interesting astrophysical phenomena yet to be completely understood. Since the launch of Fermi with its unprecedented energy band width spanning seven decades, the study of gamma-ray burst research has entered a new phase. Here we review the current theoretical understanding and observational highlights of gamma-ray burst astronomy and point out some of the potential promises of multi-wavelength observations in view of the upcoming ground based observational facilities .

  15. All-Sky Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently monitoring the transient hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi. The twelve GBM NaI detectors span 8 keV to 1MeV, while the two GBM BGO detectors span about 150 keV to 40 MeV. With GBM, we detect transient events on multiple timescales. Brief events, such as Gamma Ray Bursts, Solar flares, and magnetar bursts are detected with on-board triggers. On longer timescales, we use the Earth occultation technique to monitor a number of sources, including X-ray binaries, AGN, and solar flaring activity. To date we have detected 7 sources above 100 keV. Transient activity from accretion-powered pulsars is monitored using epoch-folding techniques. With GBM we track the pulsed flux and frequency for a number of pulsars. We will present highlights of GBM observations on various timescales.

  16. A Gamma-Ray Burst Model Via Compressional Heating of Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmonson, J. D.; Wilson, J. R.; Mathews, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    We present a model for gamma-ray bursts based on the compression of neutron stars in close binary systems. General relativistic (GR) simulations of close neutron star binaries have found compression of the neutron stars estimated to produce 1053 ergs of thermal neutrinos on a timescale of seconds. The hot neutron stars will emit neutrino pairs which will partially recombine to form 1051 to 1052 ergs of electron-positron (e^-e^+) pair plasma. GR hydrodynamic computational modeling of the e^-e^+ plasma flow and recombination yield a gamma-ray burst in good agreement with general characteristics (duration ~10 seconds, spectrum peak energy ~100 keV, total energy ~1051 ergs) of many observed gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Integral-moment analysis of the BATSE gamma-ray burst intensity distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.; Emslie, A. Gordon

    1994-01-01

    We have applied the technique of integral-moment analysis to the intensity distribution of the first 260 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This technique provides direct measurement of properties such as the mean, variance, and skewness of the convolved luminosity-number density distribution, as well as associated uncertainties. Using this method, one obtains insight into the nature of the source distributions unavailable through computation of traditional single parameters such as V/V(sub max)). If the luminosity function of the gamma-ray bursts is strongly peaked, giving bursts only a narrow range of luminosities, these results are then direct probes of the radial distribution of sources, regardless of whether the bursts are a local phenomenon, are distributed in a galactic halo, or are at cosmological distances. Accordingly, an integral-moment analysis of the intensity distribution of the gamma-ray bursts provides for the most complete analytic description of the source distribution available from the data, and offers the most comprehensive test of the compatibility of a given hypothesized distribution with observation.

  18. Machine-z: Rapid Machine-Learned Redshift Indicator for Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Wozniak, P. R.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here, we introduce 'machine-z', a redshift prediction algorithm and a 'high-z' classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively on canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and the true redshift is nearly 0.6. At the same time, our high-z classifier can achieve 80 per cent recall of true high-redshift bursts, while incurring a false positive rate of 20 per cent. With 40 per cent false positive rate the classifier can achieve approximately 100 per cent recall. The most reliable selection of high-redshift GRBs is obtained by combining predictions from both the high-z classifier and the machine-z regressor.

  19. Gamma-ray bursts from superconducting cosmic strings at large redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babul, Arif; Paczynski, Bohdan; Spergel, David

    1987-01-01

    The relation between cusp events and gamma-rays bursts is investigated. The optical depth of the universe to X-rays and gamma-rays of various energies is calculated and discussed. The cosmological evolution of cosmic strings is examined, and the energetics and time-scales related to the cusp phenomena are estimated. It is noted that it is possible to have energy bursts with a duration of a few seconds or less from cusps at z = 1000; the maximum amount of energy associated with such an event is limited to 10 to the 7th ergs/sq cm.

  20. Gamma-ray bursts from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings at large redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1988-01-01

    Babul et al. (1987) proposed that some gamma-ray bursts may be caused by energy released at the cusps of oscillating loops made of superconducting cosmic strings. It is claimed that there were some errors and omissions in that work, which are claimed to be corrected in the present paper. Arguments are presented, that given certain assumptions, the cusps on oscillating superconducting cosmic strings produce highly collimated and energetic electromagnetic bursts and that a fair fraction of electromagnetic energy is likely to come out as gamma rays.

  1. MoonBEAM: Gamma-Ray Burst Detectors on SmallSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between a spacecraft in Earth and cislunar orbit. MoonBEAM is designed with high TRL components to be flight ready. This instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  2. Helios-2 Vela-Ariel-5 gamma-ray burst source position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Trainor, J. H.; Desai, U. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Ricketts, M.; Heluken, H.

    1979-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst of 28 January 1976, one of 18 events thus far detected in interplanetary space with Helios-2, was also observed with the Vela-5A, -6A and the Ariel-5 satellites. A small source field is obtained from the intersection of the region derived from the observed time delays between Helios-2 and Vela-5A and -6A with the source region independently found with the Ariel-5 X-ray detector. This area contains neither any steady X-ray source as scanned by HEAO-A nor any previously catalogued X-ray, radio or infrared sources, X-ray transients, quasars, seyferts, globular clusters, flare stars, pulsars, white dwarfs or high energy gamma-ray sources. The region is however, within the source field of a gamma-ray transient observed in 1974, which exhibited nuclear gamma-ray line structure.

  3. The effects of pure density evolution on the brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, J. M.; Emslie, A. G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we explore the effects of burst rate density evolution on the observed brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts. Although the brightness distribution of gamma-ray bursts observed by the BATSE experiment has been shown to be consistent with a nonevolving source population observed to redshifts of order unity, evolution of some form is likely to be present in the gamma-ray bursts. Additionally, nonevolving models place significant constraints on the range of observed burst luminosities, which are relaxed if evolution of the burst population is present. In this paper, three analytic forms of density evolution are examined. In general, forms of evolution with densities that increase monotonically with redshift require that the BATSE data correspond to bursts at larger redshifts, or to incorporate a wider range of burst luminosities, or both. Independent estimates of the maximum observed redshift in the BATSE data and/or the range of luminosity from which a large fraction of the observed bursts are drawn therefore allow for constraints to be placed on the amount of evolution that may be present in the burst population. Specifically, if recent measurements obtained from analysis of the BATSE duration distribution of the actual limiting redshift in the BATSE data at z(sub lim) = 2 are correct, the BATSE N(P) distribution in a Lambda = 0 universe is inconsistent at a level of approximately 3 alpha with nonevolving gamma-ray bursts and some form of evolution in the population is required. The sense of this required source evolution is to provide a higher density, larger luminosities, or both with increasing redshift.

  4. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. New sources are added to our catalog as they become active or upon request. In addition to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels. We will present early results. Regularly updated results will be found on our website http://gammaray.nsstc.nasa.gov/gbm/science/occultation.

  5. The Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples.. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs.

  6. Investigation of redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2015-11-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are detectable out to very large distances and as such are potentially powerful cosmological probes. Historically, the angular distribution of GRBs provided important information about their origin and physical properties. As a general population, GRBs are distributed isotropically across the sky. However, there are published reports that once binned by duration or redshift, GRBs display significant clustering. We have studied the redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of GRBs using proximity measures and kernel density estimation. Utilizing bursts detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment, Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, we found marginal evidence for clustering inmore » very short duration GRBs lasting less than 100 ms. As a result, our analysis provides little evidence for significant redshift-dependent clustering of GRBs.« less

  7. V/V(max) test applied to SMM gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Higdon, J. C.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have applied the V/V(max) test to candidate gamma-ray bursts detected by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard the SMM satellite to examine quantitatively the uniformity of the burst source population. For a sample of 132 candidate bursts identified in the GRS data by an automated search using a single uniform trigger criterion we find average V/V(max) = 0.40 +/- 0.025. This value is significantly different from 0.5, the average for a uniform distribution in space of the parent population of burst sources; however, the shape of the observed distribution of V/V(max) is unusual and our result conflicts with previous measurements. For these reasons we can currently draw no firm conclusion about the distribution of burst sources.

  8. Analysis of high resolution satellite data for cosmic gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhof, W. L.; Nakano, G. H.; Reagan, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts detected a germanium spectrometer on the low altitude satellite 1972-076B were surveyed. Several bursts with durations ranging from approximately 0.032 to 15 seconds were found and are tabulated. The frequency of occurrence/intensity distribution of these events was compared with the S to the -3/2 power curve of confirmed events. The longer duration events fall above the S to the -3/2 power curve of confirmed events, suggesting they are perhaps not all true cosmic gamma-ray bursts. The narrow duration events fall closely on the S to the -3/2 power curve. The survey also revealed several counting rate spikes, with durations comparable to confirmed gamma-ray bursts, which were shown to be of magnetospheric origin. Confirmation that energetic electrons were responsible for these bursts was achieved from analysis of all data from the complete payload of gamma-ray and energetic particle detectors on board the satellite. The analyses also revealed that the narrowness of the spikes was primarily spatial rather than temporal in character.

  9. Pulsar-driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-ray Bursts, and SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (less than 1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. SLIP also explains why the 2.14 ms pulsations were more or less consistently observed between years 5.0 and 6.5, and why they eventually disappeared after year 9.0. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars, and possibly SS 433. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even Ia's unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  10. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We alsomore » report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of Almost

  11. BATSE Observations of the Large-Scale Isotropy of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Horack, John M.; Brock, Martin N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We use dipole and quadrupole statistics to test the large-scale isotropy of the first 1005 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In addition to the entire sample of 1005 gamma-ray bursts, many subsets are examined. We use a variety of dipole and quadrupole statistics to search for Galactic and other predicted anisotropies and for anisotropies in a coordinate-system independent manner. We find the gamma-ray burst locations to be consistent with isotropy, e.g., for the total sample the observed Galactic dipole moment (cos theta) differs from the value predicted for isotropy by 0.9 sigma and the observed Galactic quadrupole moment (sin(exp 2) b - 1/3) by 0.3 sigma. We estimate for various models the anisotropies that could have been detected. If one-half of the locations were within 86 deg of the Galactic center, or within 28 deg of the Galactic plane, the ensuing dipole or quadrupole moment would have typically been detected at the 99% confidence level. We compare the observations with the dipole and quadrupole moments of various Galactic models. Several Galactic gamma-ray bursts models have moments within 2 sigma of the observations; most of the Galactic models proposed to date are no longer in acceptable agreement with the data. Although a spherical dark matter halo distribution could be consistent with the data, the required core radius is larger than the core radius of the dark matter halo used to explain the Galaxy's rotation curve. Gamma-ray bursts are much more isotropic than any observed Galactic population, strongly favoring but not requiring an origin at cosmological distances.

  12. Universal statistics of soft gamma-ray repeating (SGR) bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, V. N.; Korovina, Yu. V.

    2018-01-01

    Soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts are considered as a release of magnetic energy stored in the baryon degrees of freedom of the magnetar crust. It is shown that this interpretation allows all observations of these bursts to be systematized and universal statistical properties to be revealed and explained.

  13. Constraints on Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Burst Beaming Angles from Gravitational Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Clark, J. A.; Williamson, A. R.; Heng, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The first detection of a binary neutron star merger, GW170817, and an associated short gamma-ray burst confirmed that neutron star mergers are responsible for at least some of these bursts. The prompt gamma-ray emission from these events is thought to be highly relativistically beamed. We present a method for inferring limits on the extent of this beaming by comparing the number of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) observed electromagnetically with the number of neutron star binary mergers detected in gravitational waves. We demonstrate that an observing run comparable to the expected Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) 2016–2017 run would be capable of placing limits on the beaming angle of approximately θ \\in (2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 88,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 15), given one binary neutron star detection, under the assumption that all mergers produce a gamma-ray burst, and that SGRBs occur at an illustrative rate of {{ \\mathcal R }}grb}=10 {Gpc}}-3 {yr}}-1. We anticipate that after a year of observations with aLIGO at design sensitivity in 2020, these constraints will improve to θ \\in (8\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 10,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 95), under the same efficiency and SGRB rate assumptions.

  14. Smooth Optical Self-similar Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, Vladimir; Simakov, Sergey; Gorbovskoy, Evgeny; Vlasenko, Daniil

    2017-08-01

    We offer a new type of calibration for gamma-ray bursts (GRB), in which some class of GRB can be marked and share a common behavior. We name this behavior Smooth Optical Self-similar Emission (SOS-similar Emission) and identify this subclasses of GRBs with optical light curves described by a universal scaling function.

  15. LFlGRB: Luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    LFlGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of long Gamma Ray Bursts (lGRBs) by using a sample of Swift and Fermi lGRBs to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation and self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. The GRB formation rate is modeled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass.

  16. GRB 060614: a Fake Short Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caito, L.; Bernardini, M. G.; Bianco, C. L.; Dainotti, M. G.; Guida, R.; Ruffini, R.

    2008-05-01

    The explosion of GRB 060614 produced a deep break in the GRB scenario and opened new horizons of investigation because it can't be traced back to any traditional scheme of classification. In fact, it has features both of long bursts and of short bursts and, above all, it is the first case of long duration near GRB without any bright Ib/c associated Supernova. We will show that, in our canonical GRB scenario [1], this ``anomalous'' situation finds a natural interpretation and allows us to discuss a possible variation to the traditional classification scheme, introducing the distinction between ``genuine'' and ``fake'' short bursts.

  17. Correlations of Prompt and Afterglow Emission in Swift Long and Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrel, Neil; Barthelmy, S. d.; Burrows, D. N.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Chincarini, G.; Feinmore, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; O'Brien, P.; Palmer, D. M.; Racusin, J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Correlation studies of prompt and afterglow emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between different spectral bands has been difficult to do in the past because few bursts had comprehensive and intercomparable afterglow measurements. In this paper we present a large and uniform data set for correlation analysis based on bursts detected by the Swift mission. For the first time, short and long bursts can be analyzed and compared. It is found for both classes that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated, but with a large spread about the correlation line; stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Short bursts are, on average, weaker in both prompt and afterglow emissions. No short bursts are seen with extremely low optical to X-ray ratio as occurs for 'dark' long bursts. Although statistics are still poor for short bursts, there is no evidence yet for a subgroup of short bursts with high extinction as there is for long bursts. Long bursts are detected in the dark category at the same fraction as for pre-Swift bursts. Interesting cases are discovered of long bursts that are detected in the optical, and yet have low enough optical to X-ray ratio to be classified as dark. For the prompt emission, short and long bursts have different average tracks on flux vs fluence plots. In Swift, GRB detections tend to be fluence limited for short bursts and flux limited for long events.

  18. On the correlation of angular position with time of occurrence of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, Vahe; Efron, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Evidence indicating that a large fraction of gamma-ray bursts are repeaters would provide strong support for noncosmological origin of these sources. Wang & Lingenfelter have claimed existance of a correlation between angular position and time of occurrence of bursts. We perform statistical tests and find a marginal evidence for nearby bursts occurring within 4 to 5 days of each other in the BATSE 1B catalog. This evidence is present also in the 2B catalogs, which in addition, shows some marginal evidence for bursts repetition at longer time delays up to the total length of the observations.

  19. On the possible gamma-ray burst-gravitational wave association in GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; Bejger, M.; Charzyński, S.; Sukova, P.

    2017-02-01

    Data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor satellite observatory suggested that the recently discovered gravitational wave source, a pair of two coalescing black holes, was related to a gamma-ray burst. The observed high-energy electromagnetic radiation (above 50 keV) originated from a weak transient source and lasted for about 1 s. Its localization is consistent with the direction to GW150914. We speculate about the possible scenario for the formation of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by the gravitational-wave signal. Our model invokes a tight binary system consisting of a massive star and a black hole which leads to the triggering of a collapse of the star's nucleus, the formation of a second black hole, and finally to the binary black hole merger. For the most-likely configuration of the binary spin vectors with respect to the orbital angular momentum in the GW150914 event, the recoil speed (kick velocity) acquired by the final black hole through gravitational wave emission is of the order of a few hundred km/s and this might be sufficient to get it closer to the envelope of surrounding material and capture a small fraction of matter from the remnant of the host star. The gamma-ray burst is produced by the accretion of this remnant matter onto the final black hole. The moderate spin of the final black hole suggests that the gamma-ray burst jet is powered by weak neutrino emission rather than the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and hence explains the low power available for the observed GRB signal.

  20. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HIGHEST REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Holz, Daniel E.; Fryer, Chris L.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 080913 and GRB 090423 are the most distant gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) known to date, with spectroscopically determined redshifts of z = 6.7 and z = 8.1, respectively. The detection of bursts at this early epoch of the universe significantly constrains the nature of GRBs and their progenitors. We perform population synthesis studies of the formation and evolution of early stars, and calculate the resulting formation rates of short- and long-duration GRBs at high redshift. The peak of the GRB rate from Population II stars occurs at z approx 7 for a model with efficient/fast mixing of metals, while itmore » is found at z approx 3 for an inefficient/slow metallicity evolution model. We show that in the redshift range 6 approx< z approx< 10, essentially all GRBs originate from Population II stars, regardless of the metallicity evolution model. These stars (having small, but non-zero metallicity) are the most likely progenitors for both long GRBs (collapsars) and short GRBs (neutron star-neutron star or blackhole-neutron star mergers) at this epoch. Although the predicted intrinsic rates of long and short GRBs are similar at these high redshifts, observational selection effects lead to higher (a factor of approx10) observed rates for long GRBs. We conclude that the two recently observed high-z GRB events are most likely long GRBs originating from Population II collapsars.« less

  1. THE UNUSUAL RADIO AFTERGLOW OF THE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Horesh, Assaf; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-10-10

    GRB 130925A is one of the recent additions to the growing family of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; T90 ≳1000 s). While the X-ray emission of ultra-long GRBs have been studied extensively in the past, no comprehensive radio data set has been obtained so far. We report here the early discovery of an unusual radio afterglow associated with the ultra-long GRB 130925A. The radio emission peaks at low-frequencies (∼7 GHz) at early times, only 2.2 days after the burst occurred. More notably, the radio spectrum at frequencies above 10 GHz exhibits a rather steep cut-off, compared to other long GRB radiomore » afterglows. This cut-off can be explained if the emitting electrons are either mono-energetic or originate from a rather steep, dN/dE ∝ E{sup −4}, power-law energy distribution. An alternative electron acceleration mechanism may be required to produce such an electron energy distribution. Furthermore, the radio spectrum exhibits a secondary underlying and slowly varying component. This may hint that the radio emission we observed is comprised of emission from both a reverse and a forward shock. We discuss our results in comparison with previous works that studied the unusual X-ray spectrum of this event and discuss the implications of our findings on progenitor scenarios.« less

  2. Results from GROCSE I: A real-time search for gamma ray burst optical counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.; Akerlof, C.; Ables, E.

    The GROCSE I experiment (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment) is a rapid slewing wide field of view optical telescope at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which responds to triggers from the BATSE GRB data telemetry stream that have been processed and distributed by the BACODINE network. GROCSE 1 has been in continuous automated operation since January 1994. As of October 1995, sky images for 22 GRB triggers have been recorded, in some cases while the burst was still emitting gamma rays. The preliminary analysis of eight of these events are presented here. No optical counterparts have yet been detected. Limits formore » optical emission are given.« less

  3. Gamma-ray burst constraints on the galactic frequency of extrasolar Oort Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    With the strong Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (CGRO/BATSE) evidence that most gamma-ray bursts do not come from galactic neutron stars, models involving the accretion of a comet onto a neutron star (NS) no longer appear to be strong contenders for explaining the majority of bursts. If this is the case, then it is worth asking whether the lack of an observed galactic gamma-ray burst population provides a useful constraint on the number of comets and comet clouds in the galaxy. Owing to the previously unrecognized structural weakness of cometary nuclei, we find the capture cross sections for comet-NS events to be much higher than previously published estimates, with tidal breakup at distances R(sub b) approx. equals 4 x 10(exp 10) cm from the NS. As a result, impacts of comets onto field NSs penetrating the Oort Clouds of other stars are found to dominate all other galactic NS-comet capture rates by a factor of 100. This in turn predicts that if comet clouds are common, there should be a significant population of repeater sources with (1) a galactic distribution, (2) space-correlated repetition, and (3) a wide range of peak luminosities and luminosity time histories. If all main sequence stars have Oort Clouds like our own, we predict approximately 4000 such repeater sources in the Milky Way at any time, each repeating on time scales of months to years. Based on estimates of the sensitivity of the CGRO/BATSE instrument and assuming isotropic gamma-ray beaming from such events, we estimate that a population of approximately 20-200 of these galactic NS-Oort Cloud gamma-ray repeater sources should be detectable by CGRO. In addition, if giant planet formation is common in the galaxy, we estimate that the accretion of isolated comets injected to the interstellar medium by giant planet formation should produce an additional source of galactic, nonrepeating, events. Comparing these estimates to the 3-4 soft gamma-ray repeater sources

  4. Fermi-LAT observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bonamente, E; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Burgess, J Michael; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Chaplin, V; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cleveland, W; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Collazzi, A; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; DeKlotz, M; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Desiante, R; Diekmann, A; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Finke, J; Fitzpatrick, G; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Gibby, M; Giglietto, N; Giles, M; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Granot, J; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Gruber, D; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, W N; Kawano, T; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Paneque, D; Pelassa, V; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Racusin, J L; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sartori, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Sonbas, E; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yamazaki, R; Younes, G; Yu, H-F; Zhu, S J; Bhat, P N; Briggs, M S; Byrne, D; Foley, S; Goldstein, A; Jenke, P; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; McBreen, S; Meegan, C; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R; Rau, A; Tierney, D; van der Horst, A J; von Kienlin, A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Xiong, S; Cusumano, G; La Parola, V; Cummings, J R

    2014-01-03

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest γ-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  5. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; ...

    2013-11-21

    The Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources using the observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A. We found that GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest γ-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  6. Closest Gamma Ray Burst Providing Scientists With Crucial Test for Burst Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    The closest Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) yet known is providing astronomers with a rare opportunity to gain information vital to understanding these powerful cosmic explosions. Extremely precise radio-telescope observations already have ruled out one proposed mechanism for the bursts. "This is the closest and brightest GRB we've ever seen, and we can use it to decipher the physics of how these bursts work," said Greg Taylor of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Taylor worked with Dale Frail, also of the NRAO, along with Prof. Shri Kulkarni and graduate student Edo Berger of Caltech in studying a GRB detected on March 29, 2003. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Nashville, TN. VLBA image of GRB 030329 VLBA IMAGE of GRB 030329 CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) Taylor and Frail used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and other radio telescopes to study the burst, known as GRB 030329. In a series of observations from April 1 to May 19, they determined the size of the expanding "fireball" from the burst and measured its position in the sky with great precision. At a distance of about 2.6 billion light-years, GRB 030329 is hardly next door. However, compared to other GRBs at typical distances of 8-10 billion light-years, it presents an easier target for study. "We only expect to see one burst per decade this close," said Frail. The precise measurement of the object's position allowed the scientists to show that one theoretical model for GRBs can be ruled out. This model, proposed in 2000, says that the radio-wave energy emitted by the GRB comes from "cannonballs" of material shot from the explosion at extremely high speeds. "The 'cannonball model' predicted that we should see the radio-emitting object move across the sky by a specific amount. We have not seen that motion," Taylor said. The currently standard "fireball model" of GRBs

  7. The Third Swift Burst Alert Telescope Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Chen, Kevin; Collins, Nicholas R.; Cummings, Jay R.; Gehrels, Neil; Krimm, Hans A.; Markwardt, Craig. B.; Palmer, David M.; Stamatikos, Michael; Troja, Eleonora; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    To date, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected ˜1000 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), of which ˜360 GRBs have redshift measurements, ranging from z = 0.03 to z = 9.38. We present the analyses of the BAT-detected GRBs for the past ˜11 years up through GRB 151027B. We report summaries of both the temporal and spectral analyses of the GRB characteristics using event data (I.e., data for each photon within approximately 250 s before and 950 s after the BAT trigger time), and discuss the instrumental sensitivity and selection effects of GRB detections. We also explore the GRB properties with redshift when possible. The result summaries and data products are available at http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/batgrbcat/index.html. In addition, we perform searches for GRB emissions before or after the event data using the BAT survey data. We estimate the false detection rate to be only one false detection in this sample. There are 15 ultra-long GRBs (˜2% of the BAT GRBs) in this search with confirmed emission beyond ˜1000 s of event data, and only two GRBs (GRB 100316D and GRB 101024A) with detections in the survey data prior to the starting of event data.

  8. THE THIRD SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, Amy; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Cannizzo, John K.

    2016-09-20

    To date, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected ∼1000 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), of which ∼360 GRBs have redshift measurements, ranging from z = 0.03 to z = 9.38. We present the analyses of the BAT-detected GRBs for the past ∼11 years up through GRB 151027B. We report summaries of both the temporal and spectral analyses of the GRB characteristics using event data (i.e., data for each photon within approximately 250 s before and 950 s after the BAT trigger time), and discuss the instrumental sensitivity and selection effects of GRB detections. We also explore the GRB propertiesmore » with redshift when possible. The result summaries and data products are available at http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/batgrbcat/index.html. In addition, we perform searches for GRB emissions before or after the event data using the BAT survey data. We estimate the false detection rate to be only one false detection in this sample. There are 15 ultra-long GRBs (∼2% of the BAT GRBs) in this search with confirmed emission beyond ∼1000 s of event data, and only two GRBs (GRB 100316D and GRB 101024A) with detections in the survey data prior to the starting of event data.« less

  9. An origin for short gamma-ray bursts unassociated with current star formation.

    PubMed

    Barthelmy, S D; Chincarini, G; Burrows, D N; Gehrels, N; Covino, S; Moretti, A; Romano, P; O'Brien, P T; Sarazin, C L; Kouveliotou, C; Goad, M; Vaughan, S; Tagliaferri, G; Zhang, B; Antonelli, L A; Campana, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; Davies, M B; Giommi, P; Grupe, D; Kaneko, Y; Kennea, J A; King, A; Kobayashi, S; Melandri, A; Meszaros, P; Nousek, J A; Patel, S; Sakamoto, T; Wijers, R A M J

    2005-12-15

    Two short (< 2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have recently been localized and fading afterglow counterparts detected. The combination of these two results left unclear the nature of the host galaxies of the bursts, because one was a star-forming dwarf, while the other was probably an elliptical galaxy. Here we report the X-ray localization of a short burst (GRB 050724) with unusual gamma-ray and X-ray properties. The X-ray afterglow lies off the centre of an elliptical galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.258 (ref. 5), coincident with the position determined by ground-based optical and radio observations. The low level of star formation typical for elliptical galaxies makes it unlikely that the burst originated in a supernova explosion. A supernova origin was also ruled out for GRB 050709 (refs 3, 31), even though that burst took place in a galaxy with current star formation. The isotropic energy for the short bursts is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that for the long bursts. Our results therefore suggest that an alternative source of bursts--the coalescence of binary systems of neutron stars or a neutron star-black hole pair--are the progenitors of short bursts.

  10. Why galactic gamma-ray bursts might depend on environment: Blast waves around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, Martin J.; Meszaros, Peter; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1994-01-01

    Although galactic models for gamma-ray bursts are hard to reconcile with the isotropy data, the issue is still sufficiently open that both options should be explored. The most likely 'triggers' for bursts in our Galaxy would be violent disturbances in the magnetospheres of neutron stars. Any event of this kind is likely to expel magnetic flux and plasma at relativistic speed. Such ejecta would be braked by the interstellar medium (ISM), and a gamma-ray flash may result from this interaction. The radiative efficiency, of this mechanism would depend on the density of the circumstellar ISM. Therefore, even if neutron stars were uniformly distributed in space (at least within 1-2 kpc of the Sun), the observed locations of bursts would correlate with regions of above-average ISM density.

  11. New constraints on neutron star models of gamma-ray bursts. II - X-ray observations of three gamma-ray burst error boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Pizzichini, G.; Gottardi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Exosat observations are presented for 3 gamma-ray-burst error boxes, one of which may be associated with an optical flash. No point sources were detected at the 3-sigma level. A comparison with Einstein data (Pizzichini et al., 1986) is made for the March 5b, 1979 source. The data are interpreted in the framework of neutron star models and derive upper limits for the neutron star surface temperatures, accretion rates, and surface densities of an accretion disk. Apart from the March 5b, 1979 source, consistency is found with each model.

  12. Machine- z: Rapid machine-learned redshift indicator for Swift gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Wozniak, P. R.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-03-08

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here, we introduce ‘machine-z’, a redshift prediction algorithm and a ‘high-z’ classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively onmore » canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and the true redshift is nearly 0.6. At the same time, our high-z classifier can achieve 80 per cent recall of true high-redshift bursts, while incurring a false positive rate of 20 per cent. With 40 per cent false positive rate the classifier can achieve ~100 per cent recall. As a result, the most reliable selection of high-redshift GRBs is obtained by combining predictions from both the high-z classifier and the machine-z regressor.« less

  13. GRB 120422A: a Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Burst Driven by a Central Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Shen, Rong-Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Wei, Da-Ming; Burrows, David N.; Zhang, Bing; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    GRB 120422A is a low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (GRB) associated with a bright supernova, which distinguishesitself by its relatively short T(sub 90) (approximately 5 s) and an energetic and steep-decaying X-ray tail. We analyze the Swift BurstAlert Telescope and X-ray Telescope data and discuss the physical implications. We show that the steep declineearly in the X-ray light curve can be interpreted as the curvature tail of a late emission episode around 58-86 s,with a curved instantaneous spectrum at the end of the emission episode. Together with the main activity in thefirst 20 s and the weak emission from 40 s to 60 s, the prompt emission is variable, which points to a centralengine origin in contrast to a shock-breakout origin, which is used to interpret some other nearby low-luminosity supernova GRBs. Both the curvature effect model and interpreting the early shallow decay as the coasting externalforward shock emission in a wind medium provide a constraint on the bulk Lorentz factor to be around several.Comparing the properties ofGRB 120422A and other supernova GRBs,we find that themain criterion to distinguish engine-driven GRBs from shock-breakout GRBs is the time-averaged -ray luminosity. Engine-driven GRBs likelyhave a luminosity above approximately 10(sup 48) erg s(sup -1).

  14. Unsteady Plasma Ejections from Hollow Accretion Columns of Galactic Neutron Stars as a Trigger for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    We propose a model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) based on close Galactic neutron stars with accretion disks. We outline a simple mechanism of unsteady plasma ejections during episodic accretion events. The relative kinetic energy of ejected blobs can be converted into gamma-rays by internal shocks. The beaming of gamma-ray emission can be responsible for the observed isotropic angular distribution of GRBs.

  15. Modeling The Most Luminous Supernova Associated with a Gamma-Ray Burst, SN 2011kl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan-Qin; Cano, Zach; Wang, Ling-Jun; Zheng, WeiKang; Dai, Zi-Gao; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Liu, Liang-Duan

    2017-12-01

    We study the most luminous known supernova (SN) associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB), SN 2011kl. The photospheric velocity of SN 2011kl around peak brightness is 21,000 ± 7000 km s-1. Owing to different assumptions related to the light-curve (LC) evolution (broken or unbroken power-law function) of the optical afterglow of GRB 111209A, different techniques for the LC decomposition, and different methods (with or without a near-infrared contribution), three groups derived three different bolometric LCs for SN 2011kl. Previous studies have shown that the LCs without an early-time excess preferred a magnetar model, a magnetar+56Ni model, or a white dwarf tidal disruption event model rather than the radioactive heating model. On the other hand, the LC shows an early-time excess and dip that cannot be reproduced by the aforementioned models, and hence the blue-supergiant model was proposed to explain it. Here, we reinvestigate the energy sources powering SN 2011kl. We find that the two LCs without the early-time excess of SN 2011kl can be explained by the magnetar+56Ni model, and the LC showing the early excess can be explained by the magnetar+56Ni model taking into account the cooling emission from the shock-heated envelope of the SN progenitor, demonstrating that this SN might primarily be powered by a nascent magnetar.

  16. Possible role of gamma ray bursts on life extinction in the universe.

    PubMed

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul

    2014-12-05

    As a copious source of gamma rays, a nearby galactic gamma ray burst (GRB) can be a threat to life. Using recent determinations of the rate of GRBs, their luminosity function, and properties of their host galaxies, we estimate the probability that a life-threatening (lethal) GRB would take place. Amongst the different kinds of GRBs, long ones are most dangerous. There is a very good chance (but no certainty) that at least one lethal GRB took place during the past 5 gigayears close enough to Earth as to significantly damage life. There is a 50% chance that such a lethal GRB took place during the last 500×10^{6}  years, causing one of the major mass extinction events. Assuming that a similar level of radiation would be lethal to life on other exoplanets hosting life, we explore the potential effects of GRBs to life elsewhere in the Galaxy and the Universe. We find that the probability of a lethal GRB is much larger in the inner Milky Way (95% within a radius of 4 kpc from the galactic center), making it inhospitable to life. Only at the outskirts of the Milky Way, at more than 10 kpc from the galactic center, does this probability drop below 50%. When considering the Universe as a whole, the safest environments for life (similar to the one on Earth) are the lowest density regions in the outskirts of large galaxies, and life can exist in only ≈10% of galaxies. Remarkably, a cosmological constant is essential for such systems to exist. Furthermore, because of both the higher GRB rate and galaxies being smaller, life as it exists on Earth could not take place at z>0.5. Early life forms must have been much more resilient to radiation.

  17. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts: Power-law and annihilation-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Sturrock, P. A.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1988-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  18. Search for Very-high-energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the First 18 Months of Data from the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Bernal, A.; Braun, J.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño deLeón, S.; De la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engel, K.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; Garfias, F.; Gerhardt, M.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hernandez, S.; Hona, B.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Kieda, D.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Raya, G. Luis; Luna-García, R.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vianello, G.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P. W.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory is an extensive air shower detector operating in central Mexico that has recently completed its first two years of full operations. If for a burst like GRB 130427A at a redshift of 0.34 and a high-energy component following a power law with index 1.66, the high-energy component is extended to higher energies with no cutoff other than that from extragalactic background light attenuation, HAWC would observe gamma-rays with a peak energy of ˜300 GeV. This paper reports the results of HAWC observations of 64 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift and Fermi, including 3 GRBs that were also detected by the Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). An ON/OFF analysis method is employed, searching on the timescale given by the observed light curve at keV-MeV energies and also on extended timescales. For all GRBs and timescales, no statistically significant excess of counts is found and upper limits on the number of gamma-rays and the gamma-ray flux are calculated. GRB 170206A, the third brightest short GRB detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on board the Fermi satellite (Fermi-GBM) and also detected by the LAT, occurred very close to zenith. The LAT measurements can neither exclude the presence of a synchrotron self-Compton component nor constrain its spectrum. Instead, the HAWC upper limits constrain the expected cutoff in an additional high-energy component to be less than 100 {GeV} for reasonable assumptions about the energetics and redshift of the burst.

  19. Spectral properties of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.; Papathanassiou, H.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources, for various assumptions about the magnetic field density and the relativistic particle acceleration efficiency. For a range of physically plausible models we find that the radiation efficiency is high and leads to nonthermal spectra with breaks at various energies comparable to those observed in the gamma-ray range. Radiation is also predicted at other wavebands, in particular at X-ray, optical/UV, and GeV/TeV energies. We discuss the spectra as a function of duration for three basic types of models, and for cosmological, halo, and galactic disk distances. We also evaluate the gamma-ray fluences and the spectral characteristics for a range of external densities. Impulsive burst models at cosmological distances can satisfy the conventional X-ray paucity constraint S(sub x)/S(sub gamma)less than a few percent over a wide range of durations, but galactic models can do so only for bursts shorter than a few seconds, unless additional assumptions are made. The emissivity is generally larger for bursts in a denser external environment, with the efficiency increasing up to the point where all the energy input is radiated away.

  20. Evolution of the polarization of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB030329.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian; Stecklum, Bringfried; Zharikov, Sergej; Tovmassian, Gaghik; Bärnbantner, Otto; Ries, Christoph; Jehin, Emmanuel; Henden, Arne; Kaas, Anlaug A; Grav, Tommy; Hjorth, Jens; Pedersen, Holger; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Kaufer, Andreas; Park, Hye-Sook; Williams, Grant; Reimer, Olaf

    2003-11-13

    The association of a supernova with GRB030329 strongly supports the 'collapsar' model of gamma-ray bursts, where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because gamma-ray bursts lie at cosmological distances; their existence is instead inferred from 'breaks' in the light curves of the afterglows, and from the theoretical desire to reduce the estimated total energy of the burst by proposing that most of it comes out in narrow beams. Temporal evolution of the polarization of the afterglows may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization ( approximately 1-3 per cent) has been reported for a few bursts, but its temporal evolution has yet to be established. Here we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB030329. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the per cent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has a small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the picture arising from the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB021206 (ref. 18).

  1. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Taka; Shady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Yi-Zhong, Fan; Zhi-Ping, Jin; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM and ROTSE telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx. 100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 5000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.

  2. An Upper Bound on Neutron Star Masses from Models of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Scott; Tervala, Justin G.; Bedaque, Paulo F.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2015-08-01

    The discovery of two neutron stars with gravitational masses ≈ 2 {M}⊙ has placed a strong lower limit on the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars, and with it a strong constraint on the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear density. Current upper mass limits are much looser. Here, we note that if most short gamma-ray bursts are produced by the coalescence of two neutron stars, and if the merger remnant collapses quickly, then the upper mass limit is constrained tightly. If the rotation of the merger remnant is limited only by mass-shedding (which seems probable based on numerical studies), then the maximum gravitational mass of a nonrotating neutron star is ≈ 2-2.2 {M}⊙ if the masses of neutron stars that coalesce to produce gamma-ray bursts are in the range seen in Galactic double neutron star systems. These limits would be increased by ˜4% in the probably unrealistic case that the remnants rotate at ˜30% below mass-shedding, and by ˜15% in the extreme case that the remnants do not rotate at all. Future coincident detection of short gamma-ray bursts with gravitational waves will strengthen these arguments because they will produce tight bounds on the masses of the components for individual events. If these limits are accurate, then a reasonable fraction of double neutron star mergers might not produce gamma-ray bursts. In that case, or in the case that many short bursts are produced instead by the mergers of neutron stars with black holes, the implied rate of gravitational wave detections will be increased.

  3. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; ...

    2012-07-17

    Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fitsmore » presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.« less

  4. Constraining the High-energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi Large Area Telescope Team; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J.; McGlynn, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Ryde, F.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Uehara, T.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Guirec, S.; Goldstein, A.; Burgess, J. M.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Fishman, J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Xiong, S.

    2012-08-01

    We examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  5. Limits on Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the 40 String IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, C.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

    2011-04-01

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 1018eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  6. Cosmography by GRBs: Gamma Ray Bursts as possible distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, S.; Izzo, L.

    2009-10-01

    A new method to constrain the cosmological equation of state is proposed by using combined samples of gammaray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae (SNeIa). The Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parameterization is adopted for the equation of state in order to find out a realistic approach to achieve the deceleration/acceleration transition phase of dark energy models. As results, we find that GRBs, calibrated by SNeIa, could be, at least, good distance indicators capable of discriminating cosmological models with respect to ΛCDM at high redshift.

  7. An Unusual Supernova in the Error Box of the Gamma-Ray Burst of 25 April 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama , T. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Augusteijn, T.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brewer, J. P.; Doublier, V.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Leibundgut, B.; hide

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts at X-ray, optical and radio wavelengths and the measurement of the redshifts of some of these events has established that gamma-ray bursts lie at extreme distances, making them the most powerful photon-emitters known in the Universe. Here we report the discovery of transient optical emission in the error box of the gamma-ray burst GRB980425, the light curve of which was very different from that of previous optical afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts. The optical transient is located in a spiral arm of the galaxy ESO 184-GS2, which has a redshift velocity of only 2,550 km/ s. Its optical spectrum and location indicate that it is a very luminous supernova, which has been identified as SN1998bw. If this supernova and GRB980425 are indeed associated, the energy radiated in gamma-rays is at least four orders of magnitude less than in other gamma-ray bursts, although its appearance was otherwise unremarkable: this indicates that very different mechanisms can give rise to gamma-ray bursts. But independent of this association, the supernova is itself unusual, exhibiting an unusual light curve at radio wavelengths that requires that the gas emitting the radio photons be expanding relativistically.

  8. The spectra and light curves of two gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations made by the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma-Ray Experiment on board HEAO-1 of the spectra and light curves of two gamma-ray bursts for which localized arrival directions will become available are presented. The burst of October 20, 1977 is found to exhibit a fluence of 0.000031 + or - 0.000005 erg/sq cm over the energy range 0.135-2.05 MeV and a duration of 38.7 sec, while that of November 10, 1977 is found to have a fluence of 0.000021 + or - 0.000008 erg/sq cm between 0.125 and 3 MeV over 2.8 sec. The light curves of both bursts exhibit time fluctuations down to the limiting time resolution of the detectors. The spectrum of the October burst can be fit by a power law of index -1.93 + or -0.16, which is harder than any other gamma-burst spectrum yet reported. The spectrum of the second burst is softer (index -2.4 + or - 0.7), and is consistent with the upper index in the double power law fit to the burst of April 27, 1972.

  9. Thermal Electrons in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Ressler, Sean M.; Laskar, Tanmoy

    2017-08-20

    To date, nearly all multi-wavelength modeling of long-duration γ -ray bursts has ignored synchrotron radiation from the significant population of electrons expected to pass the shock without acceleration into a power-law distribution. We investigate the effect of including the contribution of thermal, non-accelerated electrons to synchrotron absorption and emission in the standard afterglow model, and show that these thermal electrons provide an additional source of opacity to synchrotron self-absorption, and yield an additional emission component at higher energies. The extra opacity results in an increase in the synchrotron self-absorption frequency by factors of 10–100 for fiducial parameters. The nature ofmore » the additional emission depends on the details of the thermal population, but is generally observed to yield a spectral peak in the optical brighter than radiation from the nonthermal population by similar factors a few seconds after the burst, remaining detectable at millimeter and radio frequencies several days later.« less

  10. Gamma-ray burst constraints on the galactic frequency of extra-solar Oort clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    With the strong CGRO/BATSE evidence that most gamma-ray bursts do not come from galactic neutron stars, models involving the accretion of a comet onto a neutron star (NS) no longer appear to be strong contenders for explaining the majority of bursts. If this is the case, then it is worth asking whether the lack of an observed galactic gamma-ray burst population provides a useful constraint on the number of comets and comet clouds in the galaxy. Owing to the previously unrecognized structural weakness of cometary nuclei, we find the capture cross sections for comet-NS events to be much higher than previously published estimates, with tidal breakup at distances R(sub b) approximately equals to 4 x 10(exp 10) cm from the NS. As a result, impacts of comets onto field NS's penetrating the Oort Clouds of other stars are found to dominate all other galactic NS-comet capture rates by a factor of 100. This in turn predicts that if comet clouds are common, there should be a significant population of repeater sources with (1) a galactic distribution, (2) space-correlated repetition, and (3) a wide range of peak luminosities and luminosity time histories. If all main sequences stars have Oort Clouds like our own, we predict approximately 4000 such repeater sources in the Milky Way at any time, each repeating on timescales of months to years. Based on estimates of the sensitivity of the CGRO/BATSE instrument and assuming isotropic gamma-ray beaming from such events, we estimate that a population of approximately 20-200 of these galactic NS-Oort Cloud gamma-ray repeater sources should be detectable by CGRO. In addition, if giant planet formation is common in the galaxy, we estimate that the accretion of isolated comets injected to the interstellar medium by giant planet formation should produce an additional source of galactic, nonrepeating events. Comparing these estimates to the three to four soft gamma-ray repeater sources detected by BATSE, one is forced to conclude that (1

  11. Magnetic field and flavor effects on the gamma-ray burst neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baerwald, Philipp; Hümmer, Svenja; Winter, Walter

    2011-03-01

    We reanalyze the prompt muon neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in terms of the particle physics involved, as in the example of the often-used reference Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux. We first reproduce this reference flux explicitly treating synchrotron energy losses of the secondary pions. Then we include additional neutrino production modes, the neutrinos from muon decays, the magnetic field effects on all secondary species, and flavor mixing with the current parameter uncertainties. We demonstrate that the combination of these effects modifies the shape of the original Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux significantly and changes the normalization by a factor of 3 to 4. As a consequence, the gamma-ray burst search strategy of neutrino telescopes may be based on the wrong flux shape, and the constraints derived for the GRB neutrino flux, such as the baryonic loading, may in fact be much stronger than anticipated.

  12. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    PubMed

    Price, P A; Fox, D W; Kulkarni, S R; Peterson, B A; Schmidt, B P; Soderberg, A M; Yost, S A; Berger, E; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Blain, A W; Chapman, S C

    2003-06-19

    Past studies of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been hampered by their extreme distances, resulting in faint afterglows. A nearby GRB could potentially shed much light on the origin of these events, but GRBs with a redshift z burst of 29 March 2003 (GRB030329; ref. 2). The brightness of the afterglow and the prompt report of its position resulted in extensive follow-up observations at many wavelengths, along with the measurement of the redshift, z = 0.169 (ref. 4). The gamma-ray and afterglow properties of GRB030329 are similar to those of GRBs at cosmological redshifts. Observations have already identified the progenitor as a massive star that exploded as a supernova.

  13. Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

  14. Fast transient X-rays and gamma ray bursts - Are they stellar flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. R.; Vahia, M. N.

    Short period transient X-ray emissions (FTX) have been observed from several sources in the sky and the largest single group of objects identified with such sources are active stars: flare stars, and RS CVn binaries. The study of the number, source and flux distribution of the fast transient X-ray sources shows that all the FTX emission can be treated as flares in the interbinary regions of active stars. It is suggested that the FTX emission is a common feature of the gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The evidence for the similarity between the hard X-ray flares and GRBs is discussed, and the possibility that the gamma ray bursts are the impulsive precursors of FTX originating from active stars with large scale magnetic activity is examined.

  15. Gamma-ray bursts from internal shocks in a relativistic wind: a hydrodynamical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigne, F.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2000-06-01

    The internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts involves shocks taking place in a relativistic wind with a very inhomogeneous initial distribution of the Lorentz factor. We have developed a 1D lagrangian hydrocode to follow the evolution of such a wind and the results we have obtained are compared to those of a simpler model presented in a recent paper (Daigne & Mochkovitch \\cite{Daigne2}) where all pressure waves are suppressed in the wind so that shells with different velocities only interact by direct collisions. The detailed hydrodynamical calculation essentially confirms the conclusion of the simple model: the main temporal and spectral properties of gamma-ray bursts can be reproduced by internal shocks in a relativistic wind.

  16. Observational constraints on the inter-binary stellar flare hypothesis for the gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. R.; Vahia, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (GRO/BATSE) results on the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have given an internally consistent set of observations of about 260 GRBs which have been released for analysis by the BATSE team. Using this database we investigate our earlier suggestion (Vahia and Rao, 1988) that GRBs are inter-binary stellar flares from a group of objects classified as Magnetically Active Stellar Systems (MASS) which includes flare stars, RS CVn binaries and cataclysmic variables. We show that there exists an observationally consistent parameter space for the number density, scale height and flare luminosity of MASS which explains the complete log(N) - log(P) distribution of GRBs as also the observed isotropic distribution. We further use this model to predict anisotropy in the GRB distribution at intermediate luminosities. We make definite predictions under the stellar flare hypothesis that can be tested in the near future.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Links with Supernovae and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism are the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  18. Probing the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously own GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and additional image threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we develop a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image threshold. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection rate of dim bursts. As a result, our simulations suggest bursts need to be dimmer than previously expected to avoid over-producing the number of detections and to match with Swift observations. Moreover, our results indicate that these dim bursts are more likely to be high redshift events than low-luminosity GRBs. This would imply an even higher cosmic GRB rate at large redshifts than previous expectations based on star-formation rate measurements, unless other factors, such as the luminosity evolution, are taken into account. The GRB rate from our best result gives a total number of 4568 +825 -1429 GRBs per year that are beamed toward us in the whole universe.

  19. Probing the cosmic gamma-ray burst rate with trigger simulations of the swift burst alert telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, Amy; Cannizzo, John K.; Sakamoto, Takanori

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae, and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously flown GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and an additional imagemore » threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we develop a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image threshold. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection rate of dim bursts. As a result, our simulations suggest that bursts need to be dimmer than previously expected to avoid overproducing the number of detections and to match with Swift observations. Moreover, our results indicate that these dim bursts are more likely to be high redshift events than low-luminosity GRBs. This would imply an even higher cosmic GRB rate at large redshifts than previous expectations based on star formation rate measurements, unless other factors, such as the luminosity evolution, are taken into account. The GRB rate from our best result gives a total number of 4568{sub −1429}{sup +825} GRBs per year that are beamed toward us in the whole universe.« less

  20. X-ray Afterglows of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, David N.

    2006-12-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has discovered about 20 short GRBs in its first two years of operation. The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) has detected X-ray afterglows for roughly 75% of these, allowing host galaxies, redshifts and source characteristics to be studied for the first time. As a result, our knowledge of the properties of short GRBs and their afterglows has increased tremendously in the past year and a half. I will discuss the X-ray afterglows of short GRBs as observed by the Swift XRT and by Chandra. These afterglows are generally much fainter than those of long GRBs, and therefore fade rapidly below detection thresholds. However, some brighter, long-lived afterglows provide intriguing insights into the properties of the progenitors and their environments.

  1. Gamma-ray Bursts May Originate in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    New findings from two X-ray satellites suggest that gamma-ray bursts, some of the most intense blasts in the universe, may be created in the same area where stars are born. Dr. Luigi Piro of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, presented data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Italian-Dutch ASI BeppoSAX observatory today at the Gamma Ray 2001 conference in Baltimore, MD. "We know that when a gamma-ray burst explodes, it produces a blast of material called a fireball, which expands at relativistic speeds like a rapidly inflating bubble," said Piro, who works within CNR's Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. "Our team found evidence that the blast wave caused by the fireball brakes against a wall of very dense gas, which we believe is the crowded region where stars form." Several theories exist about what causes gamma-ray bursts. Among more popular theories are that gamma-ray bursts come from various combinations of merging neutron stars and black holes, or, from the explosion of massive stars, called hypernovae. "Because gamma-ray bursts are going off in extremely distant galaxies, it is difficult to 'see' the regions that harbor them," said Piro. "We can only gather circumstantial evidence as to where and how they form." Piro's observations support the hypernova model. Scientists believe that within dense star-forming regions, the massive star required for a hypernova explosion evolves extremely rapidly. On astronomical time scales, the supermassive star would evolve over the course of only about one million years. Thus, the hypernova explosion may occur in the same stellar environment that originally produced the massive star itself, and perhaps may trigger even more star formation. The hint that gamma-ray bursts can occur in dense media came during a Chandra observation of an afterglow that occurred on September 26, 2000. Prof. Gordon Garmire of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, found X-ray emission to be greater

  2. Efficient electron heating in relativistic shocks and gamma-ray-burst afterglow.

    PubMed

    Gedalin, M; Balikhin, M A; Eichler, D

    2008-02-01

    Electrons in shocks are efficiently energized due to the cross-shock potential, which develops because of differential deflection of electrons and ions by the magnetic field in the shock front. The electron energization is necessarily accompanied by scattering and thermalization. The mechanism is efficient in both magnetized and nonmagnetized relativistic electron-ion shocks. It is proposed that the synchrotron emission from the heated electrons in a layer of strongly enhanced magnetic field is responsible for gamma-ray-burst afterglows.

  3. Spatial distribution of the gamma-ray bursts at very high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Attila

    2018-05-01

    The author - with his collaborators - already in years 1995-96 have shown - purely from the analyses of the observations - that the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be till redshift 20. Since that time several other statistical studies of the spatial distribution of GRBs were provided. Remarkable conclusions concerning the star-formation rate and the validity of the cosmological principle were obtained about the regions of the cosmic dawn. In this contribution these efforts are surveyed.

  4. The Synergy between the LAT and GBM in GLAST's Study of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Using semi-analytic calculations I characterize the gamma-ray bursts to which GLAST's LAT and GBM detectors will be sensitive. The thresholds of both instruments are at approximately the same vfv proportional to E(sup 2)N(E) values, i.e., the thresholds can be connected by an E(sup -2) spectrum. Therefore simultaneous detections by both instruments will be biased towards spectral components flatter than E(sup -2).

  5. Joint Discussion/Mini-Workshop: Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Hosts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2000-01-01

    The observed gamma-ray temporal, spectral, intensity and spatial distribution characteristics of GRBs, primarily from data obtained from the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have only recently come to light with the unprecedented sample of over two thousand GRBs, along with some mention of studies in progress by members of the BATSE team.

  6. BOOTES and GTC observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and their progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    2016-07-01

    We will summarize the follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts performed worldwide by the BOOTES Network of robotic telescopes (with some of the data being contemporaneous to the prompt emission) leading to the discovery of many afterglows. Complementary data has been also obtained by the 10.4m GTC telescope in La Palma (mainly spectroscopy), with one of them being the highest extinguished afterglow detected to date.

  7. A note on `Analysis of gamma-ray burst duration distribution using mixtures of skewed distributions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Hok Shing; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2018-01-01

    Tarnopolski [Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 458 (2016) 2024-2031] analysed data sets on gamma-ray burst durations using skew distributions. He showed that the best fits are provided by two skew normal and three Gaussian distributions. Here, we suggest other distributions, including some that are heavy tailed. At least one of these distributions is shown to provide better fits than those considered in Tarnopolski. Five criteria are used to assess best fits.

  8. Looking inside jets: optical polarimetry as a probe of Gamma-Ray Bursts physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C.

    2015-07-01

    It is broadly accepted that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered by accretion of matter by black holes, formed during massive stellar collapse, which launch ultra-relativistic, collimated outflows or jets. The nature of the progenitor star, the structure of the jet, and thus the underlying mechanisms that drive the explosion and provide collimation, remain some of the key unanswered questions. To approach these problems, and in particular the role of magnetic fields in GRBs, early time-resolved polarimetry is the key, because it is the only direct probe of the magnetic fields structure. Using novel fast RINGO polarimeter developed for use on the 2-m robotic optical Liverpool Telescope, we have made the first measurements of optical linear polarization of the early optical afterglows of GRBs, finding linear percentage polarization as high as 30% and, for the first time, making time-resolved polarization measurements. I will present the past 8 years of RINGO observations, discuss how the results fit into the GRB theoretical picture, and highlight recent data, in particular high-time resolution multi-colour optical photometry performed during the prompt GRB phase, which also provides some limits on polarization.

  9. Polarimetry and Photometry of Gamma-Ray Bursts with RINGO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Kopač, D.; Arnold, D. M.; Smith, R. J.; Kobayashi, S.; Jermak, H. E.; Mundell, C. G.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Japelj, J.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalog of early-time (˜ {10}2-{10}4 s) photometry and polarimetry of all gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows observed with the RINGO2 imaging polarimeter on the Liverpool Telescope. Of the 19 optical afterglows observed, the following nine were bright enough to perform photometry and attempt polarimetry: GRB 100805A, GRB 101112A, GRB 110205A, GRB 110726A, GRB 120119A, GRB 120308A, GRB 120311A, GRB 120326A, and GRB 120327A. We present multiwavelength light curves for these 9 GRBs, together with estimates of their optical polarization degrees and/or limits. We carry out a thorough investigation of detection probabilities, instrumental properties, and systematics. Using two independent methods, we confirm previous reports of significant polarization in GRB 110205A and 120308A, and report the new detection of P={6}-2+3% in GRB101112A. We discuss the results for the sample in the context of the reverse- and forward-shock afterglow scenario, and show that GRBs with detectable optical polarization at early time have clearly identifiable signatures of reverse-shock emission in their optical light curves. This supports the idea that GRB ejecta contain large-scale magnetic fields, and it highlights the importance of rapid-response polarimetry.

  10. Catalogue of isolated emission episodes in gamma-ray bursts from Fermi, Swift and BATSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisi, M.; Márka, S.; Bartos, I.

    2015-04-01

    We report a comprehensive catalogue of emission episodes within long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that are separated by a quiescent period during which gamma-ray emission falls below the background level. We use a fully automated identification method for an unbiased, large-scale and expandable search. We examine a comprehensive sample of long GRBs from the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment), Swift and Fermi missions, assembling a total searched set of 2710 GRBs, the largest catalogue of isolated emission episodes so far. Our search extends out to [-1000 s, 750 s] around the burst trigger, expanding the covered time interval beyond previous studies and far beyond the nominal durations (T90) of most bursts. We compare our results to previous works by identifying pre-peak emission (or precursors), defined as isolated emission periods prior to the episode with the highest peak luminosity of the burst. We also systematically search for similarly defined periods after the burst's peak emission. We find that the pre-peak and post-peak emission periods are statistically similar, possibly indicating a common origin. For the analysed GRBs, we identify 24 per cent to have more than one isolated emission episode, with 11 per cent having at least one pre-peak event and 15 per cent having at least one post-peak event. We identify GRB activity significantly beyond their T90, which can be important for understanding the central engine activity as well as, e.g. gravitational-wave searches.

  11. Using Boosting Decision Trees in Gravitational Wave Searches triggered by Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraw, Sarah; LIGO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The search for gravitational wave bursts requires the ability to distinguish weak signals from background detector noise. Gravitational wave bursts are characterized by their transient nature, making them particularly difficult to detect as they are similar to non-Gaussian noise fluctuations in the detector. The Boosted Decision Tree method is a powerful machine learning algorithm which uses Multivariate Analysis techniques to explore high-dimensional data sets in order to distinguish between gravitational wave signal and background detector noise. It does so by training with known noise events and simulated gravitational wave events. The method is tested using waveform models and compared with the performance of the standard gravitational wave burst search pipeline for Gamma-ray Bursts. It is shown that the method is able to effectively distinguish between signal and background events under a variety of conditions and over multiple Gamma-ray Burst events. This example demonstrates the usefulness and robustness of the Boosted Decision Tree and Multivariate Analysis techniques as a detection method for gravitational wave bursts. LIGO, UMass, PREP, NEGAP.

  12. Colliding neutron stars. Gravitational waves, neutrino emission, and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffert, M.; Janka, H.-Th.

    1998-10-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations are presented for the direct head-on or off-center collision of two neutron stars, employing a basically Newtonian PPM code but including the emission of gravitational waves and their back-reaction on the hydrodynamical flow. A physical nuclear equation of state is used that allows us to follow the thermodynamical evolution of the stellar matter and to compute the emission of neutrinos. Predicted gravitational wave signals, luminosities and waveforms, are presented. The models are evaluated for their implications for gamma-ray burst scenarios. We find an extremely luminous outburst of neutrinos with a peak luminosity of more than 4* 10(54) erg/s for several milliseconds. This leads to an efficiency of about 1% for the annihilation of neutrinos with antineutrinos, corresponding to an average energy deposition rate of more than 10(52) erg/s and a total energy of about 10(50) erg deposited in electron-positron pairs around the collision site within 10 ms. Although these numbers seem very favorable for gamma-ray burst scenarios, the pollution of the e(+/-) pair-plasma cloud with nearly 10(-1} M_{sun) of dynamically ejected baryons is 5 orders of magnitude too large. Therefore the formation of a relativistically expanding fireball that leads to a gamma-ray burst powered by neutrino emission from colliding neutron stars is definitely ruled out.

  13. High-precision source location of the 1978 November 19 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Pizzichini, G.; Evans, W. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The celestial source location of the November 19, 1978, intense gamma ray burst has been determined from data obtained with the interplanetary gamma-ray sensor network by means of long-baseline wave front timing instruments. Each of the instruments was designed for studying events with observable spectra of approximately greater than 100 keV, and each provides accurate event profile timing in the several millisecond range. The data analysis includes the following: the triangulated region is centered at (gamma, delta) 1950 = (1h16m32s, -28 deg 53 arcmin), at -84 deg galactic latitude, where the star density is very low and the obscuration negligible. The gamma-ray burst source region, consistent with that of a highly polarized radio source described by Hjellming and Ewald (1981), may assist in the source modeling and may facilitate the understanding of the source process. A marginally identifiable X-ray source was also found by an Einstein Observatory investigation. It is concluded that the burst contains redshifted positron annihilation and nuclear first-excited iron lines, which is consistent with a neutron star origin.

  14. Outliers to the peak energy-isotropic energy relation in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2005-06-01

    The peak energy-isotropic energy (EpEi) relation is among the most intriguing recent discoveries concerning gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It can have numerous implications for our understanding of the emission mechanism of the bursts and for the application of GRBs to cosmological studies. However, this relation has been verified only for a small sample of bursts with measured redshifts. We propose here a test of whether a burst with an unknown redshift can potentially satisfy the EpEi relation. Applying this test to a large sample of BATSE bursts, we find that a significant fraction of those bursts cannot satisfy this relation. Our test is sensitive only to dim and hard bursts, and therefore this relation might still hold as an inequality (i.e. there are no intrinsically bright and soft bursts). We conclude that the observed relation seen in the sample of bursts with known redshift might be influenced by observational biases and the inability to locate and to localize well hard and weak bursts that have only a small number of photons. In particular, we point out that the threshold for detection, localization and redshift measurement is essentially higher than the threshold for detection alone. We predict that Swift will detect some hard and weak bursts that would be outliers to the EpEi relation. However, we cannot quantify this prediction. We stress the importance of understanding the detection-localization-redshift threshold for the coming Swift detections.

  15. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Müller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level.

  16. HUBBLE STAYS ON TRAIL OF FADING GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Hubble Space Telescope image of the fading fireball from one of the universe's most mysterious phenomena, a gamma-ray burst. Though the visible component has faded to 1/500th its brightness (27.7 magnitude) from the time it was first discovered by ground- based telescopes last March (the actual gamma-ray burst took place on February 28), Hubble continues to clearly see the fireball and discriminated a surrounding nebulosity (at 25th magnitude) which is considered a host galaxy. The continued visibility of the burst, and the rate of its fading, support theories that the light from a gamma-ray burst is an expanding relativistic (moving near the speed of light) fireball, possibly produced by the collision of two dense objects, such as an orbiting pair of neutron stars. If the burst happened nearby, within our own galaxy, the resulting fireball should have had only enough energy to propel it into space for a month. The fact that this fireball is still visible after six months means the explosion was truly titanic and, to match the observed brightness, must have happened at the vast distances of galaxies. The energy released in a burst, which can last from a fraction of a second to a few hundred seconds, is equal to all of the Sun's energy generated over its 10 billion year lifetime. The false-color image was taken Sept. 5, 1997 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Credit: Andrew Fruchter (STScI), Elena Pian (ITSRE-CNR), and NASA

  17. Angular Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Observational Probe of Cosmological Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, A.; Balázs, L. G.; Vavrek, R.; Horváth, I.; Bagoly, Z.

    The test of the isotropy in the angular distribution of the gamma-ray bursts collected in BATSE Catalog (Meegan C. A. et al., http://www.batse.msfc.nasa.gov/data, 2000) is a test of cosmological principle itself, because the gamma-ray bursts are at cosmological distances. Several articles of the authors study this question (Balázs L. G., Mészáros A., & Horváth I., Astron. Astrophys., 339, 1, 1998; Balázs L. G., Mészáros A., Horváth I., & Vavrek R., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 138, 417, 1999; Mészáros A., Bagoly Z., & Vavrek R. Astron. Astrophys., in press, 2000). The final conclusion concerning the validity of isotropy is complicated both by instrumental effects and by the fact that there are three subgroups of gamma-ray bursts ("short", "intermediate", "long"; separation is done with respect to the duration of bursts). The long bursts are surely up to z ≃ 4 (z is the redshift); for the remaining two subclasses the redshifts are unknown. The done tests of isotropy suggest (after the elimination of instrumental effects) the existence of anisotropy for the intermediate subclass on the confidence level > 95%. On the other hand, for the remaining two subclasses the situation is unclear; there is no unambiguous rejection of isotropy for them yet on the higher than 95% confidence level. If the bursts of intermediate subclass are at high z-s (say, at, z > 0.1), then the validity of cosmological principle would be at a serious doubt.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Norris, Jay P.

    2007-01-01

    GRB research has undergone a revolution in the last two years. The launch of Swift, with its rapid slewing capability, has greatly increased the number and quality of GRB localizations and X-ray and optical afterglow lightcurves. Over 160 GRBs have been detected, and nearly all that have been followed up with the on-board narrow field telescopes. Advances in our understanding of short GRBs have been spectacular. The detection of X-ray afterglows has led to accurate localizations from ground based observatories, which have given host identifications and redshifts. Theoretical models for short GRB progenitors have, for the first time, been placed on a sound foundation. The hosts for the short GRBs differ in a fundamental way from the long GRB hosts: short GRBs tend to occur in non-star forming galaxies or regions, whereas long GRBs are strongly concentrated within star forming regions. Observations are consistent with a binary neutron star merger model, but other models involving old stellar populations are also viable. Swift has greatly increased the redshift range of GRB detection. The highest redshift GRBs, at zeta approx. 5-6, are approaching the era of reionization. Ground-based deep optical spectroscopy of high redshift bursts is giving metallicity measurements and other information on the source environment to much greater distance than other techniques. The localization of GRB 060218 to a nearby galaxy, and association with SN 2006aj, added a valuable member to the class of GRBs with detected supernova. The prospects for future progress are excellent given the >10 year orbital lifetime of the Swift satellite.

  19. A second catalog of gamma ray bursts: 1978 - 1980 localizations from the interplanetary network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atteia, J. L.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Cline, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-two gamma ray bursts were detected between 1978 September 14 and 1980 February 13 by the experiments of the interplanetary network (Prognoz 7, Venera 11 and 12 SIGNE experiments, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, International Sun-Earth Explorer 3, Helios 2, and Vela). Sixty-five of these events have been localized to annuli or error boxes by the method of arrival time analysis. The distribution of sources is consistent with isotropy, and there is no statistically convincing evidence for the detection of more than one burst from any source position. The localizations are compared with those of two previous catalogs.

  20. Methodological problems with gamma-ray burst hardness/intensity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1993-01-01

    The hardness and intensity are easily measured quantities for all gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and so, many past and current studies have sought correlations between them. This Letter presents many serious methodological problems with the practical definitions for both hardness and intensity. These difficulties are such that significant correlations can be easily introduced as artifacts of the reduction procedure. In particular, cosmological models of GRBs cannot be tested with hardness/intensity correlations with current instrumentation and the time evolution of the hardness in a given burst may be correlated with intensity for reasons that are unrelated to intrinsic change in the spectral shape.

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Fast Transients. Multi-wavelength Observations and Multi-messenger Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willingale, R.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-07-01

    The current status of observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts and some other related transients, including ultra-long bursts and tidal disruption events, is reviewed. We consider the impact of multi-wavelength data on the formulation and development of theoretical models for the prompt and afterglow emission including the standard fireball model utilizing internal shocks and external shocks, photospheric emission, the role of the magnetic field and hadronic processes. In addition, we discuss some of the prospects for non-photonic multi-messenger detection and for future instrumentation, and comment on some of the outstanding issues in the field.

  2. A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z approximately 8.2.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, N R; Fox, D B; Levan, A J; Berger, E; Wiersema, K; Fynbo, J P U; Cucchiara, A; Krühler, T; Gehrels, N; Bloom, J S; Greiner, J; Evans, P A; Rol, E; Olivares, F; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Farihi, J; Willingale, R; Starling, R L C; Cenko, S B; Perley, D; Maund, J R; Duke, J; Wijers, R A M J; Adamson, A J; Allan, A; Bremer, M N; Burrows, D N; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cavanagh, B; de Ugarte Postigo, A; Dopita, M A; Fatkhullin, T A; Fruchter, A S; Foley, R J; Gorosabel, J; Kennea, J; Kerr, T; Klose, S; Krimm, H A; Komarova, V N; Kulkarni, S R; Moskvitin, A S; Mundell, C G; Naylor, T; Page, K; Penprase, B E; Perri, M; Podsiadlowski, P; Roth, K; Rutledge, R E; Sakamoto, T; Schady, P; Schmidt, B P; Soderberg, A M; Sollerman, J; Stephens, A W; Stratta, G; Ukwatta, T N; Watson, D; Westra, E; Wold, T; Wolf, C

    2009-10-29

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyman-alpha emitting galaxy. Here we report that GRB 090423 lies at a redshift of z approximately 8.2, implying that massive stars were being produced and dying as GRBs approximately 630 Myr after the Big Bang. The burst also pinpoints the location of its host galaxy.

  3. An apparently normal gamma-ray burst with an unusually low luminosity.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, S Yu; Lutovinov, A A; Sunyaev, R A

    2004-08-05

    Much of the progress in understanding gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has come from studies of distant events (redshift z approximately 1). In the brightest GRBs, the gamma-rays are so highly collimated that the events can be seen across the Universe. It has long been suspected that the nearest and most common events have been missed because they are not as collimated or they are under-energetic (or both). Here we report soft gamma-ray observations of GRB 031203, the nearest event to date (z = 0.106; ref. 2). It had a duration of 40 s and peak energy of >190 keV, and therefore appears to be a typical long-duration GRB. The isotropic gamma-ray energy of < or =10(50) erg, however, is about three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the cosmological population. This event--as well as the other nearby but somewhat controversial GRB 980425--is a clear outlier from the isotropic-energy/peak-energy relation and luminosity/spectral-lag relations that describe the majority of GRBs. Radio calorimetry shows that both of these events are under-energetic explosions. We conclude that there does indeed exist a large population of under-energetic events.

  4. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Heinze, Jonas; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  5. Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts with multiple timescale variability of central engine activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Si-Yao; Li, Zhuo

    2014-04-01

    Complete high-resolution light curves of GRB 080319B observed by Swift present an opportunity for detailed temporal analysis of prompt optical emission. With a two-component distribution of initial Lorentz factors, we simulate the dynamical process of shells being ejected from the central engine in the framework of the internal shock model. The emitted radiations are decomposed into different frequency ranges for a temporal correlation analysis between the light curves in different energy bands. The resulting prompt optical and gamma-ray emissions show similar temporal profiles, with both showing a superposition of a component with slow variability and a component with fast variability, except that the gamma-ray light curve is much more variable than its optical counterpart. The variability in the simulated light curves and the strong correlation with a time lag between the optical and gamma-ray emissions are in good agreement with observations of GRB 080319B. Our simulations suggest that the variations seen in the light curves stem from the temporal structure of the shells injected from the central engine of gamma-ray bursts. Future observations with high temporal resolution of prompt optical emission from GRBs, e.g., by UFFO-Pathfinder and SVOM-GWAC, will provide a useful tool for investigating the central engine activity.

  6. Chandra Contributes to ESA's Integral Detection of Closest Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, and also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs should emit similar amounts of gamma-ray energy. The fraction of it detected at Earth should then depend on the 'width' (opening angle) and orientation of the beam as well as on the distance. The energy received should be larger when the beam is narrow or points towards us and smaller when the beam is broad or points away from us. New data collected with ESA's high energy observatories, Integral and XMM-Newton, now show that this picture is not so clear-cut and that the amount of energy emitted by GRBs can vary significantly. "The idea that all GRBs spit out the same amount of gamma rays, or that they are 'standard candles' as we call them, is simply ruled out by the new data," said Dr Sergey Sazonov, from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) and the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching near Munich (Germany). Sazonov and an international team of researchers studied the GRB detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 and given the code-name of GRB 031203. Within a record 18 seconds of the burst, the Integral Burst Alert System

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Afterglows with Two-component Jets: Polarization Evolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mi-Xiang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2018-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts have been widely argued to originate from binary compact object mergers or core collapse of massive stars. Jets from these systems may have two components: an inner, narrow sub-jet and an outer, wider sub-jet. Such a jet subsequently interacts with its ambient gas, leading to a reverse shock (RS) and a forward shock. The magnetic field in the narrow sub-jet is very likely to be mixed by an ordered component and a random component during the afterglow phase. In this paper, we calculate light curves and polarization evolution of optical afterglows with this mixed magnetic field in the RS region of the narrow sub-jet in a two-component jet model. The resultant light curve has two peaks: an early peak arising from the narrow sub-jet and a late-time rebrightening due to the wider sub-jet. We find the polarization degree (PD) evolution under such a mixed magnetic field confined in the shock plane is very similar to that under the purely ordered magnetic field condition. The two-dimensional “mixed” magnetic fields confined in the shock plane are essentially the ordered magnetic fields only with different configurations. The position angle (PA) of the two-component jet can change gradually or abruptly by 90°. In particular, an abrupt 90° change of the PA occurs when the PD changes from its decline phase to the rise phase.

  8. Prompt emission from the counter jet of a short gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakamura, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The counter jet of a short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) has not yet been observed, while recent discoveries of gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary neutron star merger GW170817 and the associated sGRB 170817A have demonstrated that off-axis sGRB jets are detectable. We calculate the prompt emission from the counter jet of an sGRB and show that it is typically 23-26 mag in the optical-infrared band 10-10^3 s after the GWs for an sGRB 170817A-like event, which is brighter than the early macronova (or kilonova) emission and detectable by LSST in the near future. We also propose a new method to constrain the unknown jet properties, such as the Lorentz factor, opening angle, emission radii, and jet launch time, by observing both the forward and counter jets. To scrutinize the counter jets, space GW detectors like DECIGO are powerful in forecasting the merger time (≲ 1 s) and position (≲ 1 arcmin) (˜ a week) before the merger.

  9. The Konus-Wind Catalog of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Known Redshifts. I. Bursts Detected in the Triggered Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, A.; Frederiks, D.; Golenetskii, S.; Lysenko, A.; Oleynik, P.; Pal'shin, V.; Svinkin, D.; Ulanov, M.; Cline, T.; Hurley, K.; Aptekar, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this catalog, we present the results of a systematic study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with reliable redshift estimates detected in the triggered mode of the Konus-Wind (KW) experiment during the period from 1997 February to 2016 June. The sample consists of 150 GRBs (including 12 short/hard bursts) and represents the largest set of cosmological GRBs studied to date over a broad energy band. From the temporal and spectral analyses of the sample, we provide the burst durations, the spectral lags, the results of spectral fits with two model functions, the total energy fluences, and the peak energy fluxes. Based on the GRB redshifts, which span the range 0.1≤slant z≤slant 5, we estimate the rest-frame, isotropic-equivalent energy, and peak luminosity. For 32 GRBs with reasonably constrained jet breaks, we provide the collimation-corrected values of the energetics. We consider the behavior of the rest-frame GRB parameters in the hardness-duration and hardness-intensity planes, and confirm the “Amati” and “Yonetoku” relations for Type II GRBs. The correction for the jet collimation does not improve these correlations for the KW sample. We discuss the influence of instrumental selection effects on the GRB parameter distributions and estimate the KW GRB detection horizon, which extends to z˜ 16.6, stressing the importance of GRBs as probes of the early universe. Accounting for the instrumental bias, we estimate the KW GRB luminosity evolution, luminosity and isotropic-energy functions, and the evolution of the GRB formation rate, which are in general agreement with those obtained in previous studies.

  10. COMPTEL Studies of Gamma-Ray Bursts at MeV Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to analyse and interpret gamma-ray burst (GRB) data using both telescope mode data and single detector burst mode data from COMPTEL. Collectively, these data span the energy range from 300 keV up to 30 MeV. The initial goal of our proposal was to perform a standard analysis for each significant GRB event seen by COMPTEL. This includes GRBs that are registered by the telescope mode data as well as GRBs that are registered only in the burst mode data. (The latter category includes both GRBs that he outside of the FoV as well as GRBs within the FoV that are too weak to be seen in the telescope mode.) A second goal of our proposal was to define a set of data products (including deconvolved photon spectra) that, for each detected GRB event, would be made available via the COMPTEL GRB Web Page. The third goal of our program was to perform more detailed studies of selected GRB events. This represented a continuation of past GRB studies by the COMPTEL team. In general, we have met with only limited success in achieving these goals, in part due to the limited resources provided and our philosophy of utilizing local high school students to participate in this effort. Using local high school student support, however, we expect that considerable progress will be made in our efforts to catalog the COMPTEL gamma-ray burst data between now and the end of the current academic year. In addition, observations with COMPTEL contributed to an analysis of GRB 990123, the first gamma-ray burst with simultaneous optical observations.

  11. Studies of Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission with RHESSI and NCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous objects in the universe. They herald a catastrophic energy release which manifests itself in tenths to hundreds of seconds of irregular gamma-ray emission. This initial "prompt" emission is followed by "afterglow" emission at other wavelengths that fades smoothly over hours to years. GRB prompt emission has been observed with ever-increasing sophistication for more than four decades, but many details of its origin remain unknown. While GRBs are under-stood to result from relativistic jets produced by violent reconfigurations of compact objects, the composition of the outflow, the means of energy dissipation, and the radiative processes underlying the observed emission are all uncertain. I review the present understanding of all facets of GRB science in Chapter 1. Gamma-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry provide two channels for testing models of GRB prompt emission with observed data. In Chapters 2--4, I employ the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to conduct broad-band time-resolved spectroscopy of bright GRBs. RHESSI is a solar observatory that uses nine coaxial germanium detectors for imaging and spectroscopy of solar flares. Because the detectors are unshielded, RHESSI also records counts from off-axis sources like GRBs. In Chapter 2, I detail the methods I use for analyzing RHESSI GRB data. In Chapter 3, I conduct joint spectral analysis of bursts co-observed by RHESSI and Swift-BAT, enabling spectral modeling over a wide 15 keV--17 MeV band. These results reveal the difficulty of predicting the peak spectral energy of a burst from BAT observations alone. While GRB spectra commonly have been assumed to be non-thermal and have been fit by purely phenomenological models, some authors have proposed that thermal emission from the GRB photosphere may be the source of the GRB spectral peak. In Chapter 4, I perform time-resolved spectroscopy of bright GRBs observed by RHESSI and compare the fit

  12. Average Emissivity Curve of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts with Different Intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Six intensity groups with $/sim 150$ BATSE gamma-ray bursts each are compared using average emissivity curves. Time-stretch factors for each of the dimmer groups are estimated with respect to the brightest group. Which serves as the reference taking into account the systematics of counts-produced noise effects and choice statistics. The effect of stretching/intensity anti-correlation is found at the average back slopes of bursts with good statistical significance. A stretch factor $/sim 2$ is found between the 150 dimmest bursts with peak flux $less than 0.45$ ph cm$(exp -2)$ s$(exp -1)$, and the 147 brightest bursts with peak flux $greater than 4.1$ ph cm$(exp -2}$ s$(exp -1)$. On the other hand, only a marginally significant stretching effect $V(sub ec) 1.4$ is seen at the average rise fronts.

  13. Terrestrial Ozone Depletion Due to a Milky Way Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Jackman, Charles H.; Melott, Adrian L.; Laird, Claude M.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Hogan, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    Based on cosmological rates, it is probable that at least once in the last Gy the Earth has been irradiated by a gamma-ray burst in our Galaxy from within 2 kpc. Using a two-dimensional atmospheric model we have computed the effects upon the Earth's atmosphere of one such burst. A ten second burst delivering 100 kJ/sq m to the Earth results in globally averaged ozone depletion of 35%, with depletion reaching 55% at some latitudes. Significant global depletion persists for over 5 years after the burst. This depletion would have dramatic implications for life since a 50% decrease in ozone column density results in approximately three times the normal UVB flux. Widespread extinctions are likely, based on extrapolation from UVB sensitivity of modern organisms.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts as the death throes of massive binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Paczynski, Bohdan; Piran, Tsvi

    1992-01-01

    We propose that gamma-ray bursts are created in the mergers of double neutron star binaries and black hole neutron star binaries at cosmological distances. Two different processes provide the electromagnetic energy for the bursts: neutrino-antineutrino annihilation into electron-position pairs during the merger, and magnetic flares generated by the Parker instability in a postmerger differentially rotating disk. In both cases, an optically thick fireball of size less than or approximately equal to 100 km is initially created, which expands ultrarelativistically to large radii before radiating. The scenario is only qualitative at this time, but it eliminates many previous objections to the cosmological merger model. The strongest bursts should be found close to, but not at the centers of, galaxies at redshifts of order 0.1, and should be accompanied by bursts of gravitational radiation from the spiraling-in binary which could be detected by LIGO.

  15. Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Bursts and Insights from Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    A new revolution in Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observations and theory has begun over the last two years since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new window into high energy gamma-rays opened by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) is providing insight into prompt emission mechanisms and possibly also afterglow physics. The LAT detected GRBs appear to be a new unique subset of extremely energetic and bright bursts compared to the large sample detected by Swift over the last 6 years. In this talk, I will discuss the context and recent discoveries from these LAT GRBs and the large database of broadband observations collected by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Through comparisons between the GRBs detected by Swift-BAT, G8M, and LAT, we can learn about the unique characteristics, physical differences, and the relationships between each population. These population characteristics provide insight into the different physical parameters that contribute to the diversity of observational GRB properties.

  16. ON THE LACK OF TIME DILATION SIGNATURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kocevski, Daniel; Petrosian, Vahe

    2013-03-10

    We examine the effects of time dilation on the temporal profiles of gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses. By using prescriptions for the shape and evolution of prompt gamma-ray spectra, we can generate a simulated population of single-pulsed GRBs at a variety of redshifts and observe how their light curves would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. We find that the observer frame duration of individual pulses does not increase with redshift as 1 + z, which one would expect from cosmological expansion. This time dilation is masked by an opposite and often stronger effect: with increasing redshift and decreasingmore » signal-to-noise ratio only the brightest portion of the light curve can be detected. The results of our simulation are consistent with the fact that the simple time dilation of GRB light curves has not materialized in either the Swift or Fermi detected GRBs with known redshift. We show that the measured durations and associated E{sub iso} estimates for GRBs detected near the instrument's detection threshold should be considered lower limits to the true values. Furthermore, we conclude that attempts at distinguishing between long and short GRBs, at even moderate redshifts, cannot be done based on a burst's temporal properties alone.« less

  17. The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager catalogue of gamma-ray burst afterglows at 15.7 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Staley, T. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Fender, R. P.; Rowlinson, A.; Mooley, K. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rumsey, C.; Titterington, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Large Array catalogue of 139 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). AMI observes at a central frequency of 15.7 GHz and is equipped with a fully automated rapid-response mode, which enables the telescope to respond to high-energy transients detected by Swift. On receiving a transient alert, AMI can be on-target within 2 min, scheduling later start times if the source is below the horizon. Further AMI observations are manually scheduled for several days following the trigger. The AMI GRB programme probes the early-time (<1 d) radio properties of GRBs, and has obtained some of the earliest radio detections (GRB 130427A at 0.36 and GRB 130907A at 0.51 d post-burst). As all Swift GRBs visible to AMI are observed, this catalogue provides the first representative sample of GRB radio properties, unbiased by multiwavelength selection criteria. We report the detection of six GRB radio afterglows that were not previously detected by other radio telescopes, increasing the rate of radio detections by 50 per cent over an 18-month period. The AMI catalogue implies a Swift GRB radio detection rate of ≳ 15 per cent, down to ∼0.2 mJy beam-1. However, scaling this by the fraction of GRBs AMI would have detected in the Chandra & Frail sample (all radio-observed GRBs between 1997 and 2011), it is possible ∼ 44-56 per cent of Swift GRBs are radio bright, down to ∼0.1-0.15 mJy beam-1. This increase from the Chandra & Frail rate (∼30 per cent) is likely due to the AMI rapid-response mode, which allows observations to begin while the reverse-shock is contributing to the radio afterglow.

  18. Radio Constraints on Long-lived Magnetar Remnants in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Metzger, B. D.; Berger, E.; Özel, F.

    2016-11-01

    The merger of a neutron star (NS) binary may result in the formation of a rapidly spinning magnetar. The magnetar can potentially survive for seconds or longer as a supramassive NS before collapsing to a black hole if, indeed, it collapses at all. During this process, a fraction of the magnetar’s rotational energy of ˜1053 erg is transferred via magnetic spin-down to the surrounding ejecta. The resulting interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding circumburst medium powers a year-long or greater synchrotron radio transient. We present a search for radio emission with the Very Large Array following nine short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at rest-frame times of ≈1.3-7.6 yr after the bursts, focusing on those events that exhibit early-time excess X-ray emission that may signify the presence of magnetars. We place upper limits of ≲18-32 μJy on the 6.0 GHz radio emission, corresponding to spectral luminosities of ≲(0.05-8.3) × 1039 erg s-1. Comparing these limits to the predicted radio emission from a long-lived remnant and incorporating measurements of the circumburst densities from broadband modeling of short GRB afterglows, we rule out a stable magnetar with an energy of 1053 erg for half of the events in our sample. A supramassive remnant that injects a lower rotational energy of 1052 erg is ruled out for a single event, GRB 050724A. This study represents the deepest and most extensive search for long-term radio emission following short GRBs to date, and thus the most stringent limits placed on the physical properties of magnetars associated with short GRBs from radio observations.

  19. Swift-BAT: The First Year of Gamma-Ray Burst Detections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2006-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift has been detecting gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since Dec. 17,2004 and automated burst alerts have been distributed since Feb. 14,2005. Since commissioning the BAT has triggered on more than 100 GRBs, nearly all of which have been followed up by the narrow-field instruments on Swift through automatic repointing, and by ground and other satellite telescopes after rapid notification. Within seconds of a trigger the BAT produces and relays to the ground a position good to three arc minutes and a four channel light curve. A full ten minutes of event data follows on subsequent ground station passes. The burst archive has allowed us to determine ensemble burst parameters such as fluence, peak flux and duration. An overview of the properties of BAT bursts and BAT'S performance as a burst monitor will be presented in this talk. BAT is a coded aperture imaging system with a wide (approx.2 sr) field of view consisting of a large coded mask located 1 m above a 5200 cm2 array of 32.768 CdZnTe detectors. All electronics and other hardware systems on the BAT have been operating well since commissioning and there is no sign of any degradation on orbit. The flight and ground software have proven similarly robust and allow the real time localization of all bursts and the rapid derivation of burst light curves, spectra and spectral fits on the ground.

  20. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected in the RELEC experiment onboard the Vernov satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Minaev, P. Yu.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Chernenko, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The RELEC scientific instrumentation onboard the Vernov spacecraft launched on July 8, 2014, included the DRGE gamma-ray and electron spectrometer. This instrument incorporates a set of scintillation phoswich detectors, including four identical X-ray and gamma-ray detectors in the energy range from 10 keV to 3 MeV with a total area of 500 cm2 directed toward the nadir, and an electron spectrometer containing three mutually orthogonal detector units with a geometry factor of 2 cm2 sr, which is also sensitive to X-rays and gamma-rays. The goal of the space experiment with the DRGE instrument was to investigate phenomena with fast temporal variability, in particular, terrestrial gammaray flashes (TGFs) and magnetospheric electron precipitations. However, the detectors of the DRGE instrument could record cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and allowed one not only to perform a detailed analysis of the gamma-ray variability but also to compare the time profiles with the measurements made by other instruments of the RELEC scientific instrumentation (the detectors of optical and ultraviolet flashes, the radio-frequency and low-frequency analyzers of electromagnetic field parameters). We present the results of our observations of cosmicGRB 141011A and GRB 141104A, compare the parameters obtained in the GBM/Fermi and KONUS-Wind experiments, and estimate the redshifts and E iso for the sources of these GRBs. The detectability of GRBs and good agreement between the independent estimates of their parameters obtained in various experiments are important factors of the successful operation of similar detectors onboard the Lomonosov spacecraft.

  1. Construction of the GAMCIT gamma-ray burst detector (G-056)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coward, Michael H.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Mccall, Benjamin J.; Ratner, Albert

    1995-01-01

    The GAMCIT (Gamma-ray Astrophysics Mission, California Institute of Technology) payload is a Get-Away-Special payload designed to search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts and any associated optical transients. This paper presents details on the development and construction of the GAMCIT payload. In addition, this paper will reflect upon the unique challenges involved in bringing the payload close to completion, as the project has been designed, constructed, and managed entirely by undergraduate members of the Caltech SEDS (Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). Our experience will definitely be valuable to other student groups interested in undertaking a challenge such as a Get-Away-Special payload.

  2. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  3. All-Sky Earth Occultation Observations with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G.; Jenke, P.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M.; Connaughton, V.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/ soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique. Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors and spanning 150 keV to 40 MeV for the GBM BGO detectors. Our preliminary catalog consists of galactic X-ray binaries, the Crab Nebula, and active galactic nuclei. In addition, to Earth occultations, we have observed numerous occultations with Fermi's solar panels.

  4. Fermi-LAT Gamma-ray Bursts and Insight from Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    A new revolution in GRB observation and theory has begun over the last 3 years since the launch of the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. The new window into high energy gamma-rays opened by the Fermi-LAT is providing insight into prompt emission mechanisms and possibly also afterglow physics. The LAT detected GRBs appear to be a new unique subset of extremely energetic and bright bursts. In this talk I will discuss the context and recent discoveries from these LAT GRBs and the large database of broadband observations collected by Swift over the last 7 years and how through comparisons between the Swift, GBM, and LAT GRB samples, we can learn about the unique characteristics and relationships between each population.

  5. Accretion and Outflow from a Magnetized, Neutrino Cooled Torus around the Gamma Ray Burst Central Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; Moscibrodzka, Monika

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) are the extremely energetic transient events, visible from the most distant parts of the Universe. They are most likely powered by accretion on the hyper-Eddington rates that proceeds onto a newly born stellar mass black hole. This central engine gives rise to the most powerful, high Lorentz factor jets that are responsible for energetic gamma ray emission. We investigate the accretion flow evolution in GRB central engine, using the 2D MHD simulations in General Relativity. We compute the structure and evolution of the extremely hot and dense torus accreting onto the fast spinning black hole, which launches the magnetized jets. We calculate the chemical structure of the disk and account for neutrino cooling. Our preliminary runs apply to the short GRB case (remnant torus accreted after NS-NS or NS-BH merger). We estimate the neutrino luminosity of such an event for chosen disk and central BH mass.

  6. Characteristics of bursts observed by the SMM Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.; Matz, S. M.; Rieger, E.; Forrest, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the SMM completed close to 10 years of highly successful operation when the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere on December 2, 1989. During this period the GRS detected 177 events above 300 keV which have been classified as cosmic gamma-ray bursts. A catalog of these events is in preparation which will include time profiles and spectra for all events. Visual inspection of the spectra indicates that emission typically extends into the MeV range, without any evidence for a high-energy cutoff; 17 of these events are also observed above 10 MeV. We find no convincing evidence for line-like emission features in any of the time-integrated spectra.

  7. Testing gamma-ray burst models with the afterglow of GRB 090102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendre, B.; Klotz, A.; Palazzi, E.; Krühler, T.; Covino, S.; Afonso, P.; Antonelli, L. A.; Atteia, J. L.; D'Avanzo, P.; Boër, M.; Greiner, J.; Klose, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present the observations of the afterglow of gamma-ray burst GRB 090102. Optical data taken by the Telescope a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires (TAROT), Rapid Eye Mount (REM), Gamma-Ray burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND), together with publicly available data from Palomar, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) telescopes, and X-ray data taken by the XRT instrument on board the Swift spacecraft were used. This event features an unusual light curve. In X-rays, it presents a constant decrease with no hint of temporal break from 0.005 to 6d after the burst. In the optical, the light curve presents a flattening after 1ks. Before this break, the optical light curve is steeper than that of the X-ray. In the optical, no further break is observed up to 10d after the burst. We failed to explain these observations in light of the standard fireball model. Several other models, including the cannonball model were investigated. The explanation of the broad-band data by any model requires some fine-tuning when taking into account both optical and X-ray bands. Based on observations obtained with TAROT, REM, GROND. E-mail: bruce.gendre@asdc.asi.it ‡ Present address: ASDC, Via Galileo Galilei, 00044 Frascati, Italy.

  8. Introduction: recent developments in the study of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alan; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Rees, Martin J

    2007-05-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are immensely powerful explosions, originating at cosmological distances, whose outbursts persist for durations ranging from milliseconds to tens of seconds or more. In these brief moments, the explosions radiate more energy than the Sun will release in its entire 10Gyr lifetime. Current theories attribute these phenomena to the final collapse of a massive star, or the coalescence of a binary system induced by gravity wave emission. New results from Swift and related programmes offer fresh understanding of the physics of GRBs, and of the local environments and host galaxies of burst progenitors. Bursts found at very high red shifts are new tools for exploring the intergalactic medium, the first stars and the earliest stages of galaxy formation. This Royal Society Discussion Meeting has brought together leading figures in the field, together with young researchers and students, to discuss and review the latest results from NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Observatory and elsewhere, and to examine their impact on current understanding of the observed phenomena.

  9. Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.; Karam, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~0.5 Gyr. We define the level of catastrophic damage to the biosphere as approximation 100 kJ m-2, based on Thomas et al. (2005a, b). Using results in Melott & Thomas (2011), we estimate the probability of the Earth receiving this fluence from a GRB of any type, as 87% during the last 500 Myr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone (O3) layer. With depleted O3, there will be an increased flux of Solar UVB on the Earth's surface with potentially harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Among all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modelled the air showers produced by gamma-ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by the electromagnetic component of hypothetical galactic GRBs significantly increases the total muon flux. However, since the muon production efficiency is extremely low for photon energies below 100 GeV, and because GRBs radiate strongly for only a very short time, we find that the biological radiation dose from secondary muons is negligible. The main mechanism of biological damage from GRBs is through Solar UVB irradiation from the loss of O3 in the upper atmosphere.

  10. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Schady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift Ultra Violet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3-m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx.100,000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data covers a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18,000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.injection

  11. Smoking Gun Found for Gamma-Ray Burst in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Combined data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and infrared observations with the Palomar 200-inch telescope have uncovered evidence that a gamma-ray burst, one of nature's most catastrophic explosions, occurred in our Galaxy a few thousand years ago. The supernova remnant, W49B, may also be the first remnant of a gamma-ray burst discovered in the Milky Way. W49B is a barrel-shaped nebula located about 35,000 light years from Earth. The new data reveal bright infrared rings, like hoops around a barrel, and intense X-radiation from iron and nickel along the axis of the barrel. "These results provide intriguing evidence that an extremely massive star exploded in two powerful, oppositely directed jets that were rich in iron," said Jonathan Keohane of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory at a press conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Denver. "This makes W49B a prime candidate for being the remnant of a gamma ray burst involving a black hole collapsar." "The nearest known gamma-ray burst to Earth is several million light years away - most are billions of light years distant - so the detection of the remnant of one in our galaxy would be a major breakthrough," said William Reach, one of Keohane's collaborators from the California Institute of Technology. According to the collapsar theory, gamma-ray bursts are produced when a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel and the star's core collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a disk of extremely hot, rapidly rotating, magnetized gas. Much of this gas is pulled into the black hole, but some is flung away in oppositely directed jets of gas traveling at near the speed of light. An observer aligned with one these jets would see a gamma-ray burst, a blinding flash in which the concentrated power equals that of ten quadrillion Suns for a minute or so. The view perpendicular to the jets is a less astonishing, although nonetheless spectacular supernova explosion. For W49B, the jet is tilted out of the

  12. A systematic description of shocks in gamma-ray bursts - I. Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2009-07-01

    Since the suggestion of relativistic shocks as the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the early 1990s, the mathematical formulation of this process has stayed at a phenomenological level. One of the reasons for the slow development of theoretical works has been the simple power-law behaviour of the afterglows hours or days after the prompt gamma-ray emission. It was believed that they could be explained with these formulations. Nowadays, with the launch of the Swift satellite and implementation of robotic ground follow-ups, GRBs and their afterglow can be observed at multi-wavelengths from a few tens of seconds after trigger onwards. These observations have led to the discovery of features unexplainable by the simple formulation of the shocks and emission processes used up to now. Some of these features can be inherent in the nature and activities of the GRBs' central engines which are not yet well understood. On the other hand, the devil is in the detail and others may be explained with a more detailed formulation of these phenomena and without ad hoc addition of new processes. Such a formulation is the goal of this work. We present a consistent formulation of the kinematics and dynamics of the collision between two spherical relativistic shells, their energy dissipation and their coalescence. It can be applied to both internal and external shocks. Notably, we propose two phenomenological models for the evolution of the emitting region during the collision. One of these models is more suitable for the prompt/internal shocks and late external shocks, and the other for the afterglow/external collisions as well as the onset of internal shocks. We calculate a number of observables such as flux, lag between energy bands and hardness ratios. One of our aims has been a formulation complex enough to include the essential processes, but simple enough such that the data can be directly compared with the theory to extract the value and evolution of physical quantities. To

  13. Constraining the High-Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sonbas, E.; Stamatikos, M.; Guirec, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine 288 GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field-of-view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the nuF(sub v) spectra (E(sub pk)). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E(sub pk) than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cut-off in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to gamma gamma attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  14. An Estimation of the Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Apparent Optical Brightness Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Swan, Heather F.

    2007-12-01

    By using recent publicly available observational data obtained in conjunction with the NASA Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) mission and a novel data analysis technique, we have been able to make some rough estimates of the GRB afterglow apparent optical brightness distribution function. The results suggest that 71% of all burst afterglows have optical magnitudes with mR<22.1 at 1000 s after the burst onset, the dimmest detected object in the data sample. There is a strong indication that the apparent optical magnitude distribution function peaks at mR~19.5. Such estimates may prove useful in guiding future plans to improve GRB counterpart observation programs. The employed numerical techniques might find application in a variety of other data analysis problems in which the intrinsic distributions must be inferred from a heterogeneous sample.

  15. Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts with the ARGO-YBJ Detector in Shower Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre

    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a “full coverage” (central carpet with an active area of ∼93%) air shower array dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray studies. The wide field of view (∼2 sr) and high duty cycle (>86%), made ARGO-YBJ suitable to search for short and unexpected gamma-ray emissions like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Between 2007 November 6 and 2013 February 7, 156 satellite-triggered GRBs (24 of them with known redshift) occurred within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°). A search for possible emissionmore » associated with these GRBs has been made in the two energy ranges 10–100 GeV and 10–1000 GeV. No significant excess has been found in time coincidence with the satellite detections nor in a set of different time windows inside the interval of one hour after the bursts. Taking into account the EBL absorption, upper limits to the energy fluence at a 99% confidence level have been evaluated, with values ranging from ∼10{sup −5} erg cm{sup −2} to ∼10{sup −1} erg cm{sup −2}. The Fermi -GBM burst GRB 090902B, with a high-energy photon of 33.4 GeV detected by Fermi -LAT, is discussed in detail.« less

  16. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  17. Magnetars in Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB 111209A

    SciTech Connect

    Gompertz, B.; Fruchter, A., E-mail: bgompertz@stsci.edu

    2017-04-10

    Supernova 2011kl, associated with the ultra-long gamma-ray burst (ULGRB) 111209A, exhibited a higher-than-normal peak luminosity, placing it in the parameter space between regular supernovae and super-luminous supernovae. Its light curve can only be matched by an abnormally high fraction of {sup 56}Ni that appears inconsistent with the observed spectrum, and as a result it has been suggested that the supernova, and by extension the gamma-ray burst, are powered by the spin-down of a highly magnetized millisecond pulsar, known as a magnetar. We investigate the broadband observations of ULGRB 111209A and find two independent measures that suggest a high density circumburstmore » environment. However, the light curve of the GRB afterglow shows no evidence of a jet break (the steep decline that would be expected as the jet slows due to the resistance of the external medium) out to three weeks after trigger, implying a wide jet. Combined with the high isotropic energy of the burst, this implies that only a magnetar with a spin period of ∼1 ms or faster can provide enough energy to power both ULGRB 111209A and Supernova 2011kl.« less

  18. Observation of an ionospheric disturbance caused by a gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Inan, U. S.

    1988-01-01

    A first observation of an ionospheric disturbance from a gamma-ray burst is reported. The burst, GB30801, occurred at 22:14:18 UT on August 1, 1983, and was one of the strongest ever observed. The total fluence was 0.002 erg/sq cm, most of which occurred in the first 4 s of the burst. Simultaneously, a change was observed in the amplitude of a VLF radio signal from a transmitter in Rugby, England indicative of an ionospheric disturbance. Weaker disturbances were also recorded at the same receiving site on signals from VLF stations in Annapolis, Maryland and Lualualei, Hawaii. The times of the burst and the disturbances are coincident within the 10-s resolution of the VLF recording system. No similar disturbances were observed within 60 hr around the time of the burst. In the future, a network of VLF burst monitors may provide measurements of the total ionizing energy fluence from a burst, as well as some limited directional information.

  19. Scientific prospects for spectroscopy of the gamma-ray burst prompt emission with SVOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, M. G.; Xie, F.; Sizun, P.; Piron, F.; Dong, Y.; Atteia, J.-L.; Antier, S.; Daigne, F.; Godet, O.; Cordier, B.; Wei, J.

    2017-10-01

    SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a Sino-French space mission dedicated to the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the next decade, capable to detect and localise the GRB emission, and to follow its evolution in the high-energy and X-ray domains, and in the visible and NIR bands. The satellite carries two wide-field high-energy instruments: a coded-mask gamma-ray imager (ECLAIRs; 4-150 keV), and a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRM; 15-5500 keV) that, together, will characterise the GRB prompt emission spectrum over a wide energy range. In this paper we describe the performances of the ECLAIRs and GRM system with different populations of GRBs from existing catalogues, from the classical ones to those with a possible thermal component superimposed to their non-thermal emission. The combination of ECLAIRs and the GRM will provide new insights also on other GRB properties, as for example the spectral characterisation of the subclass of short GRBs showing an extended emission after the initial spike.

  20. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  1. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, A M; Chakraborti, S; Pignata, G; Chevalier, R A; Chandra, P; Ray, A; Wieringa, M H; Copete, A; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Barthelmy, S D; Bietenholz, M F; Chugai, N; Stritzinger, M D; Hamuy, M; Fransson, C; Fox, O; Levesque, E M; Grindlay, J E; Challis, P; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Milne, P A; Torres, M A P

    2010-01-28

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their gamma-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported.

  2. Understanding the Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts via their Host Galaxies: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. Brad

    2014-08-01

    While massive star core-collapse is known to power long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the origin of short GRBs remains unconfirmed. Studies of the host galaxies of short GRBs provide critical constraints on their progenitors, particularly if (as expected) short GRBs result from the neutron star mergers. Here we request deep Keck/LRIS imaging of short GRBs lacking securely identified hosts. By constraining the fraction of events that appear to have been 'kicked' out of their host galaxy in a more unbiased manner than past efforts, we aim to infer fundamental properties about the formation and evolution of binary neutron star systems.

  3. X-Ray Spectral Diagnostics of Gamma-Ray Burst Environments.

    PubMed

    Paerels; Kuulkers; Heise; Liedahl

    2000-05-20

    Recently, detection of discrete features in the X-ray afterglow spectra of GRB 970508 and GRB 970828 was reported. The most natural interpretation of these features is that they are redshifted Fe K emission complexes. The identification of the line emission mechanism has drastic implications for the inferred mass of radiating material and hence the nature of the burst site. X-ray spectroscopy provides a direct observational constraint on these properties of gamma-ray bursters. We briefly discuss how these constraints arise in the context of an application to the spectrum of GRB 970508.

  4. Study of Electron Anti-neutrinos Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos ({{\\bar{ν }}e}) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the tightest upper limits on {{\\bar{ν }}e} fluence from GRBs below 7 MeV and place first constraints on the relation between {{\\bar{ν }}e} luminosity and effective temperature.

  5. The origin and location of the 5 March 1979 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1988-01-01

    Evidence and arguments concerning the origin and location of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) of March 5, 1979 are reviewed. This GRB has been positionally identified with the SNR 49 in the LMC. Such an association would fix the GRB's distance at 55 kpc, and the observed flux from the GRB would require prodigious energy and luminosity, casting doubt on the GRB's distance and its association with the LMC. Some Kosmos 856 observations which may provide more direct evidence on the energy released are discussed.

  6. An Asymmetric Hypernova (SN 2003jd) Viewed Off-Axis, and a Link to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; et al.

    2006-02-01

    Authors: Keiichi Maeda, Ken Nomoto, Nozomu Tominaga (Tokyo), Paolo Mazzali, Elena Pian (Trieste), Jinsong Deng (Beijing) Type Ic supernovae, the explosions following the core collapse ofmassive stars that have previously lost their hydrogen and heliumenvelopes, are particularly interesting because of the link withlong-duration gamma-ray bursts. Although indications exist that theseexplosions are aspherical, direct evidence has still been missing.Late-time observations of SN 2003jd, a luminous hypernova, providesuch evidence. Recent Subaru and Keck spectra reveal double-peakedprofiles in the nebular lines of neutral oxygen and magnesium. Theseprofiles are different from those of known Type Ic supernovae, with orwithout a gamma-ray burst, and they can be understood if SN 2003jd wasan aspherical, axisymmetric explosion viewed from near the equatorialplane. If SN 2003jd was associated with a gamma-ray burst, we missedthe burst as it was pointing away from us.

  7. An asymmetric energetic type Ic supernova viewed off-axis, and a link to gamma ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Kawabata, Koji S; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Benetti, Stefano; Pian, Elena; Deng, Jinsong; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ohyama, Youichi; Iye, Masanori; Foley, Ryan J; Matheson, Thomas; Wang, Lifan; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2005-05-27

    Type Ic supernovae, the explosions after the core collapse of massive stars that have previously lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes, are particularly interesting because of their link with long-duration gamma ray bursts. Although indications exist that these explosions are aspherical, direct evidence has been missing. Late-time observations of supernova SN 2003jd, a luminous type Ic supernova, provide such evidence. Recent Subaru and Keck spectra reveal double-peaked profiles in the nebular lines of neutral oxygen and magnesium. These profiles are different from those of known type Ic supernovae, with or without a gamma ray burst, and they can be understood if SN 2003jd was an aspherical axisymmetric explosion viewed from near the equatorial plane. If SN 2003jd was associated with a gamma ray burst, we missed the burst because it was pointing away from us.

  8. Perspectives on Gamma-Ray Burst Physics and Cosmology with Next Generation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Weimin; Amati, Lorenzo; Cannizzo, John K.; Cordier, Bertrand; Gehrels, Neil; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Götz, Diego; Produit, Nicolas; Qiu, Yulei; Sun, Jianchao; Tanvir, Nial R.; Wei, Jianyan; Zhang, Chen

    2016-12-01

    High-redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) beyond redshift {˜}6 are potentially powerful tools to probe the distant early Universe. Their detections in large numbers and at truly high redshifts call for the next generation of high-energy wide-field instruments with unprecedented sensitivity at least one order of magnitude higher than the ones currently in orbit. On the other hand, follow-up observations of the afterglows of high-redshift GRBs and identification of their host galaxies, which would be difficult for the currently operating telescopes, require new, extremely large facilities of at multi-wavelengths. This chapter describes future experiments that are expected to advance this exciting field, both being currently built and being proposed. The legacy of Swift will be continued by SVOM, which is equipped with a set of space-based multi-wavelength instruments as well as and a ground segment including a wide angle camera and two follow-up telescopes. The established Lobster-eye X-ray focusing optics provides a promising technology for the detection of faint GRBs at very large distances, based on which the THESEUS, Einstein Probe and other mission concepts have been proposed. Follow-up observations and exploration of the reionization era will be enabled by large facilities such as SKA in the radio, the 30 m class telescopes in the optical/near-IR, and the space-borne WFIRST and JWST in the optical/near-IR/mid-IR. In addition, the X-ray and γ-ray polarization experiment POLAR is also introduced.

  9. PROSPECTS FOR JOINT GRAVITATIONAL WAVE AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Evans, H.; Fairhurst, S.

    2015-08-10

    We present a detailed evaluation of the expected rate of joint gravitational-wave (GW) and short gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations over the coming years. We begin by evaluating the improvement in distance sensitivity of the GW search that arises from using the GRB observation to restrict the time and sky location of the source. We argue that this gives a 25% increase in sensitivity when compared to an all-sky, all-time search, corresponding to more than double the number of detectable GW signals associated with GRBs. Using this, we present the expected rate of joint observations with the advanced LIGO and Virgomore » instruments, taking into account the expected evolution of the GW detector network. We show that in the early advanced GW detector observing runs, from 2015 to 2017, there is only a small chance of a joint observation. However, as the detectors approach their design sensitivities, there is a good chance of joint observations, provided wide field GRB satellites, such as Fermi and the Inter planetary Network, continue operation. The rate will also depend critically upon the nature of the progenitor, with neutron star-black hole systems observable to greater distances than double neutron star systems. The relative rate of binary mergers and GRBs will depend upon the jet opening angle of GRBs. Consequently, joint observations, as well as accurate measurement of both the GRB rate and binary merger rates, will allow for an improved estimation of the opening angle of GRBs.« less

  10. Related Progenitor Models for Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ic Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera-Dena, David R.; Langer, Norbert; Moriya, Takashi J.; Schootemeijer, Abel

    2018-05-01

    We model the late evolution and mass loss history of rapidly rotating Wolf–Rayet stars in the mass range 5 M ⊙…100 M ⊙). We find that quasi-chemically homogeneously evolving single stars computed with enhanced mixing retain very little or no helium and are compatible with Type Ic supernovae. The more efficient removal of core angular momentum and the expected smaller compact object mass in our lower-mass models lead to core spins in the range suggested for magnetar-driven superluminous supernovae. Our higher-mass models retain larger specific core angular momenta, expected for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the collapsar scenario. Due to the absence of a significant He envelope, the rapidly increasing neutrino emission after core helium exhaustion leads to an accelerated contraction of the whole star, inducing a strong spin-up and centrifugally driven mass loss at rates of up to {10}-2 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 in the last years to decades before core collapse. Because the angular momentum transport in our lower-mass models enhances the envelope spin-up, they show the largest relative amounts of centrifugally enforced mass loss, i.e., up to 25% of the expected ejecta mass. Our most massive models evolve into the pulsational pair-instability regime. We would thus expect signatures of interaction with a C/O-rich circumstellar medium for Type Ic superluminous supernovae with ejecta masses below ∼10 M ⊙ as well as for the most massive engine-driven explosions with ejecta masses above ∼30 M ⊙. Signs of such interaction should be observable at early epochs of the supernova explosion; they may be related to bumps observed in the light curves of superluminous supernovae, or to the massive circumstellar CO-shell proposed for Type Ic superluminous supernova Gaia16apd.

  11. Evidence for Diverse Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, H.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Grav, T.; Østensen, R.; Andersen, M. I.; Wold, M.; Kristen, H.; Broeils, A.; Näslund, M.; Fransson, C.; Lacy, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Pérez, A. M.; Wolf, C.; Fockenbrock, R.; Hjorth, J.; Muhli, P.; Hakala, P.; Piro, L.; Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Frontera, F.; Monaldi, L.; Heise, J.

    1998-03-01

    Optical Transients from gamma-ray burst sources, in addition to offering a distance determination, convey important information about the physics of the emission mechanism, and perhaps also about the underlying energy source. As the gamma-ray phenomenon is extremely diverse, with timescales spanning several orders of magnitude, some diversity in optical counterpart signatures appears plausible. We have studied the optical transient that accompanied the gamma-ray burst of 1997 May 8, GRB 970508. Observations conducted at the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the 2.2 m telescope at the German-Spanish Calar Alto observatory (CAHA) cover the time interval starting 3 hr 5 minutes to 96 days after the high-energy event. This brackets all other published observations, including radio. When analyzed in conjunction with optical data from other observatories, evidence emerges for a composite light curve. The first interval, from 3 to 8 hr after the event, was characterized by a constant or slowly declining brightness. At a later moment, the brightness started increasing rapidly, and reached a maximum approximately 40 hr after the GRB. From that moment, the GRB brightness decayed approximately as a power law of index -1.21. The last observation, after 96 days, mR = 24.28 +/- 0.10, is brighter than the extrapolated power law, and hints that a constant component, mR = 25.50 +/- 0.40, is present. The optical transient is unresolved (FWHM 0.83") at the faintest magnitude level. The brightness of the optical transient, its duration, and the general shape of the light curve set this source apart from the single other optical transient known, that of the 1997 February 28 event.

  12. Tests and consequences of disk plus halo models of gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst observations made by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and by previous experiments are still consistent with a combined Galactic disk (or Galactic spiral arm) plus extended Galactic halo model. Testable predictions and consequences of the disk plus halo model are discussed here; tests performed on the expanded BATSE database in the future will constrain the allowed model parameters and may eventually rule out the disk plus halo model. Using examples, it is shown that if the halo has an appropriate edge, BATSE will never detect an anisotropic signal from the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. A prediction of the disk plus halo model is that the fraction of the bursts observed to be in the 'disk' population rises as the detector sensitivity improves. A careful reexamination of the numbers of bursts in the two populations for the pre-BATSE databases could rule out this class of models. Similarly, it is predicted that different satellites will observe different relative numbers of bursts in the two classes for any model in which there are two different spatial distribiutions of the sources, or for models in which there is one spatial distribution of the sources that is sampled to different depths for the two classes. An important consequence of the disk plus halo model is that for the birthrate of the halo sources to be small compared to the birthrate of the disk sources, it is necessary for the halo sources to release many orders of magnitude more energy over their bursting lifetime than the disk sources. The halo bursts must also be much more luminous than the disk bursts; if this disk-halo model is correct, it is necessary to explain why the disk sources do not produce halo-type bursts.

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts from primordial stars: A new renaissance in astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Pascal; Filina, Anastasia; Chechetkin, Valery; Popov, Mikhail; Baranov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray bursts are certainly an enigma in astrophysics. The “standard fireball” scenario developed during many years has provided a possible explanation of this phenomena. The aim of this work is simply to explore a new possible interpretation by developing a coherent scenario inside the global picture of stellar evolution. At the basis of our scenario, is the fact that maybe we have not fully understood how the core of a pair instability supernova explodes. In such way, we have proposed a new paradigm assuming that the core of such massive star, instead of doing a symmetrical explosion, is completely fragmented in hot spots of burning nuclear matter. We have tested our scenario with observational data like GRB spectra, lightcurves, Amati relation and GRB-SN connection, and for each set of data we have proposed a possible physical interpretation. We have also suggested some possible test of this scenario by measurement at high redshifts. If this scenario is correct, it tells us simply that the cosmic gamma-ray bursts are a missing link in stellar evolution, related to an unusual explosion.

  14. Search for a Signature of Interaction between Relativistic Jet and Progenitor in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Yoneoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2017-11-01

    The time variability of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is expected to originate from the temporal behavior of the central engine activity and the jet propagation in the massive stellar envelope. Using a pulse search algorithm for bright GRBs, we investigate the time variability of gamma-ray light curves to search a signature of the interaction between the jet and the inner structure of the progenitor. Since this signature might appear in the earlier phase of prompt emission, we divide the light curves into the initial phase and the late phase by referring to the trigger time and the burst duration of each GRB. We also adopt this algorithm for GRBs associated with supernovae/hypernovae that certainly are accompanied by massive stars. However, there is no difference between each pulse interval distribution described by a lognorma distribution in the two phases. We confirm that this result can be explained by the photospheric emission model if the energy injection of the central engine is not steady or completely periodic but episodic and described by the lognormal distribution with a mean of ˜1 s.

  15. A New Limit on Planck Scale Lorentz Violation from Gamma-ray Burst Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Constraints on possible Lorentz invariance violation (UV) to first order in E/M(sub Plank) for photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed, taking cosmological factors into account. Then. using the reported detection of polarized soft gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB041219a that is indicative' of an absence of vacuum birefringence, together with a very recent improved method for estimating the redshift of the burst, we derive constraints on the dimension 5 Lorentz violating modification to the Lagrangian of an effective local QFT for QED. Our new constraints are more than five orders of magnitude better than recent constraints from observations of the Crab Nebula.. We obtain the upper limit on the Lorentz violating dimension 5 EFT parameter absolute value of zeta of 2.4 x 10(exp -15), corresponding to a constraint on the dimension 5 standard model extension parameter. Kappa (sup 5) (sub (v)oo) much less than 4.2 X 10(exp -3)4 / GeV.

  16. Gamma and neutrino radiation dose from gamma ray bursts and nearby supernovae.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2002-04-01

    Supernovae and gamma ray bursts are exceptionally powerful cosmic events that occur randomly in space and time in our galaxy. Their potential to produce very high radiation levels has been discussed, along with speculation that they may have caused mass extinctions noted from the fossil record. It is far more likely that they have produced radiation levels that, while not lethal, are genetically significant, and these events may have influenced the course of evolution and the manner in which organisms respond to radiation insult. Finally, intense gamma radiation exposure from these events may influence the ability of living organisms to travel through space. Calculations presented in this paper suggest that supernovae and gamma ray bursts are likely to produce sea-level radiation exposures of about I Gy with a mean interval of about five million years and sea-level radiation exposures of about 0.2 Gy every million years. Comets and meteors traveling through space would receive doses in excess of 10 Gy at a depth of 0.02 m at mean intervals of 4 and 156 million years, respectively. This may place some constraints on the ability of life to travel through space either between planets or between planetary systems. Calculations of radiation dose from neutrino radiation are presented and indicate that this is not a significant source of radiation exposure for even extremely close events for the expected neutrino spectrum from these events.

  17. The Search for Muon Neutrinos from Northern HemisphereGamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Achterberg, A.

    2007-05-08

    We present the results of the analysis of neutrino observations by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) correlated with photon observations of more than 400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Northern Hemisphere from 1997 to 2003. During this time period, AMANDA's effective collection area for muon neutrinos was larger than that of any other existing detector. Based on our observations of zero neutrinos during and immediately prior to the GRBs in the dataset, we set the most stringent upper limit on muon neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a Waxman-Bahcall spectrum and incorporating all systematic uncertainties, ourmore » flux upper limit has a normalization at 1 PeV of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}} {le} 6.0 x 10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1}, with 90% of the events expected within the energy range of {approx}10 TeV to {approx}3 PeV. The impact of this limit on several theoretical models of GRBs is discussed, as well as the future potential for detection of GRBs by next generation neutrino telescopes. Finally, we briefly describe several modifications to this analysis in order to apply it to other types of transient point sources.« less

  18. A burst of energetic gamma rays. [measured by balloon-borne instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, R.; Simnett, G.; White, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A burst of gamma rays with energies greater than 1 MeV occurring on May 14, 1972, at 201247 UT (151247 local time) was detected during a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, at a float altitude of 4g/sq cm residual atmosphere. The detector was a tank of liquid scintillator 1m x 0.5 m x 15 cm surrounded by a 0.6 cm plastic scintillator in anticoincidence. The signal was 60 standard deviations above a steady background of 600 counts/sec. The flux was 0.12 (+0.07 or -0.04) gamma/sq cm, and the time integrated flux 20(+11 or -7) gamma/sq cm. Only one such event was seen during the 8 hours of observation in the daytime on May 14 and 15. Two sub-flares in H alpha occurred during the burst, but not coincident with the start time. A detector on the Solrad satellite observed X-rays on all channels 2 minutes after the gamma ray start time. This event is similar to three earlier reported events.

  19. On the Connection of Gamma-Ray Bursts and X-Ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, J.; Meszaros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Classification of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) into groups has been intensively studied by various statistical tests since 1998. It has been suggested that next to the groups of short/hard and long/soft GRBs there could be another class of intermediate durations. For the Swift/BAT database Veres et al. 2010 (ApJ, 725, 1955) it was found that the intermediate-duration bursts might be related to X-ray flashes (XRFs). On the other hand, Ripa and Meszaros 2016 (Ap&SS, 361, 370) and Ripa et al. 2012 (ApJ, 756, 44) found that the intermediate-duration GRBs in the RHESSI database are spectrally too hard to be given by XRFs. Also, in the BATSE database the intermediate-duration GRBs can be only partly populated by XRFs. The key ideas of the Ripa and Meszaros 2016 (Ap&SS, 361, 370) article are summarized in this poster.

  20. A SIZE-DURATION TREND FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacka, Anna; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: abarnacka@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-10-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show a bimodal distribution of durations, separated at a duration of ∼2 s. Observations have confirmed the association of long GRBs with the collapse of massive stars. The origin of short GRBs is still being explored. We examine constraints on the size of emission regions in short and long GRBs detected by Fermi/GBM. We find that the transverse extent of emission regions during the prompt phase, R, and the burst duration, T {sub 90}, are consistent with the relation R ∼ c × T {sub 90}, for both long and short GRBs. We find the characteristic transverse extentmore » for the prompt emission region to be ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm and ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm for short and long GRBs, respectively.« less

  1. Magnetized hypermassive neutron-star collapse: a central engine for short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaru; Duez, Matthew D; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Stephens, Branson C

    2006-01-27

    A hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is a possible transient formed after the merger of a neutron-star binary. In the latest axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity, we find that a magnetized HMNS undergoes "delayed" collapse to a rotating black hole (BH) as a result of angular momentum transport via magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability. The outcome is a BH surrounded by a massive, hot torus with a collimated magnetic field. The torus accretes onto the BH at a quasisteady accretion rate [FORMULA: SEE TEXT]; the lifetime of the torus is approximately 10 ms. The torus has a temperature [FORMULA: SEE TEXT], leading to copious ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]) thermal radiation that could trigger a fireball. Therefore, the collapse of a HMNS is a promising scenario for generating short-duration gamma-ray bursts and an accompanying burst of gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  2. Revealing the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection with TeV neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F

    2005-08-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are rare, powerful explosions displaying highly relativistic jets. It has been suggested that a significant fraction of the much more frequent core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by comparably energetic but mildly relativistic jets, which would indicate an underlying supernova-GRB connection. We calculate the neutrino spectra from the decays of pions and kaons produced in jets in supernovae, and show that the kaon contribution is dominant and provides a sharp break near 20 TeV, which is a sensitive probe of the conditions inside the jet. For a supernova at 10 Mpc, 30 events above 100 GeV are expected in a 10 s burst in the IceCube detector.

  3. BATSE gamma-ray burst line search. 2: Bayesian consistency methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D. L.; Ford, L. A.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Preece, R.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian methodology to evaluate the consistency between the reported Ginga and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detections of absorption features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Currently no features have been detected by BATSE, but this methodology will still be applicable if and when such features are discovered. The Bayesian methodology permits the comparison of hypotheses regarding the two detectors' observations and makes explicit the subjective aspects of our analysis (e.g., the quantification of our confidence in detector performance). We also present non-Bayesian consistency statistics. Based on preliminary calculations of line detectability, we find that both the Bayesian and non-Bayesian techniques show that the BATSE and Ginga observations are consistent given our understanding of these detectors.

  4. Testing the Einstein's equivalence principle with polarized gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Zhang, Yue-Yang; Liao, Bin; Lei, Wei-Hua

    2017-07-01

    The Einstein's equivalence principle can be tested by using parametrized post-Newtonian parameters, of which the parameter γ has been constrained by comparing the arrival times of photons with different energies. It has been constrained by a variety of astronomical transient events, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts as well as pulses of pulsars, with the most stringent constraint of Δγ ≲ 10-15. In this Letter, we consider the arrival times of lights with different circular polarization. For a linearly polarized light, it is the combination of two circularly polarized lights. If the arrival time difference between the two circularly polarized lights is too large, their combination may lose the linear polarization. We constrain the value of Δγp < 1.6 × 10-27 by the measurement of the polarization of GRB 110721A, which is the most stringent constraint ever achieved.

  5. Corequake and shock heating model of the 5 March 1979 gamma ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, D. C.; Kazanas, D.

    1983-01-01

    Ramatry, et al. proposed a model to account for the 5 March 1979 gamma ray burst in terms of a neutron star corequake and subsequent shock heating of the neutron star atmosphere. This model is extended by examining the overall energetics and characteristics of these shocks, taking into account the e(+)-e(-) pair production behind the shock. The effects of a dipole magnetic field in the shock jump conditions are also examined and it is concluded that the uneven heating produced by such a field can account for the temperature difference between pole and equator implied by the pulsating phase of the burst. The overall energetics and distribution of energy between e(+)-(-) pairs and photons appears to be in agreement with observations if this event is at a distance of 55 kpc as implied by its association with the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  6. The AMANDA Search for High Energy Neutrinos From Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Hardtke, Rellen

    2004-09-28

    We have searched three and a half years of AMANDA data for high energy muon neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The data was recorded from 1997 through 1999 by the AMANDA-B10 detector and in 2000 by the AMANDA-II detector. AMANDA is a Cerenkov detector embedded 1.5 to 2 km deep in the transparent ice of the South Polar plateau. We searched for neutrino candidates from the direction of, and coincident with, GRBs detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The current result is consistent with no signal. A preliminary event upper limit for GRB neutrino emission is presentedmore » as well as a description of AMANDA's cubic-kilometer successor, IceCube.« less

  7. A possible relation between flare activity in super-luminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Li, Shao-Ze

    2017-09-01

    Significant undulations appear in the light curve of a recently discovered super-luminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn after the first peak, while the underlying profile of the light curve can be explained well by a continuous energy supply from a central engine, possibly the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar. We propose that these undulations are caused by an intermittent pulsed energy supply, indicating the energetic flare activity of the central engine of the SLSN. Many post-burst flares were discovered during X-ray afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We find that the SLSN flares described here approximately obey the empirical correlation between the luminosity and time-scale of GRB flares, extrapolated to the relevant longer time-scales of SLSN flares. This somewhat confirms the possible connection between these two different phenomena, as recently suggested by Yu et al.

  8. Average Emissivity Curve of Batse Gamma-Ray Bursts with Different Intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Six intensity groups with approximately 150 BATSE gamma-ray bursts each are compared using average emissivity curves. Time stretch factors for each of the dimmer groups are estimated with respect to the brightest group, which serves as the reference, taking into account the systematics of counts-produced noise effects and choice statistics. A stretching/intensity anticorrelation is found with good statistical significance during the average back slopes of bursts. A stretch factor approximately 2 is found between the 150 dimmest bursts, with peak flux less than 0.45 photons/sq cm.s, and the 147 brightest bursts, with peak flux greater than 4.1 photons/sq cm.s. On the other hand, while a trend of increasing stretching factor may exist for rise fronts for bursts with decreasing peak flux from greater than 4.1 photons/sq cm.s down to 0.7 photons/sq cm.s, the magnitude of the stretching factor is less than approximately 1.4 and is therefore inconsistent with stretching factor of back slope.

  9. Solving the Mystery of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Derek

    2004-07-01

    Seven years after the afterglow detections that revolutionized studies of the long-soft gamma-ray bursts, not even one afterglow of a short-hard GRB has been seen, and the nature of these events has become one of the most important problems in GRB research. The forthcoming Swift satellite will report few-arcsecond localizations for short-hard bursts in minutes, however, enabling prompt, deep optical afterglow searches for the first time. Discovery and observation of the first short-hard optical afterglows will answer most of the critical questions about these events: What are their distances and energies? Do they occur in distant galaxies, and if so, in which regions of those galaxies? Are they the result of collimated or quasi-spherical explosions? In combination with an extensive rapid-response ground-based campaign, we propose to make the critical high-sensitivity HST TOO observations that will allow us to answer these questions. If theorists are correct in attributing the short-hard bursts to binary neutron star coalescence events, then the short-hard bursts are signposts to the primary targeted source population for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and short-hard burst studies will have a vital role to play in guiding their observations.

  10. Applications of Bayesian Statistics to Problems in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation will describe two applications of Bayesian statistics to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS). The first attempts to quantify the evidence for a cosmological versus galactic origin of GRBs using only the observations of the dipole and quadrupole moments of the angular distribution of bursts. The cosmological hypothesis predicts isotropy, while the galactic hypothesis is assumed to produce a uniform probability distribution over positive values for these moments. The observed isotropic distribution indicates that the Bayes factor for the cosmological hypothesis over the galactic hypothesis is about 300. Another application of Bayesian statistics is in the estimation of chance associations of optical counterparts with galaxies. The Bayesian approach is preferred to frequentist techniques here because the Bayesian approach easily accounts for galaxy mass distributions and because one can incorporate three disjoint hypotheses: (1) bursts come from galactic centers, (2) bursts come from galaxies in proportion to luminosity, and (3) bursts do not come from external galaxies. This technique was used in the analysis of the optical counterpart to GRB970228.

  11. On the detection of very high redshift gamma-ray bursts with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Covino, S.

    2007-09-01

    We compute the probability of detecting long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z >= 5 with Swift, assuming that GRBs form preferentially in low-metallicity environments. The model fits both the observed Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and Swift GRB differential peak flux distributions well and is consistent with the number of z >= 2.5 detections in the 2-yr Swift data. We find that the probability of observing a burst at z >= 5 becomes larger than 10 per cent for photon fluxes P < 1 ph s-1 cm-2, consistent with the number of confirmed detections. The corresponding fraction of z >= 5 bursts in the Swift catalogue is ~10-30 per cent depending on the adopted metallicity threshold for GRB formation. We propose to use the computed probability as a tool to identify high-redshift GRBs. By jointly considering promptly available information provided by Swift and model results, we can select reliable z >= 5 candidates in a few hours from the BAT detection. We test the procedure against last year Swift data: only three bursts match all our requirements, two being confirmed at z >= 5. Another three possible candidates are picked up by slightly relaxing the adopted criteria. No low-z interloper is found among the six candidates.

  12. The Gamma-Ray Burst ToolSHED is Open for Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.; Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2004-09-01

    The GRB ToolSHED, a Gamma-Ray Burst SHell for Expeditions in Data-Mining, is now online and available via a web browser to all in the scientific community. The ToolSHED is an online web utility that contains pre-processed burst attributes of the BATSE catalog and a suite of induction-based machine learning and statistical tools for classification and cluster analysis. Users create their own login account and study burst properties within user-defined multi-dimensional parameter spaces. Although new GRB attributes are periodically added to the database for user selection, the ToolSHED has a feature that allows users to upload their own burst attributes (e.g. spectral parameters, etc.) so that additional parameter spaces can be explored. A data visualization feature using GNUplot and web-based IDL has also been implemented to provide interactive plotting of user-selected session output. In an era in which GRB observations and attributes are becoming increasingly more complex, a utility such as the GRB ToolSHED may play an important role in deciphering GRB classes and understanding intrinsic burst properties.

  13. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore.

    PubMed

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S

    2013-06-14

    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  14. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-08

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  15. Fermi detection of delayed GeV emission from the short gamma-ray burst 081024B

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.

    2010-03-03

    Here, we report on the detailed analysis of the high-energy extended emission from the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 081024B detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Historically, this represents the first clear detection of temporal extended emission from a short GRB. Furthermore, the light curve observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor lasts approximately 0.8 s whereas the emission in the Fermi Large Area Telescope lasts for about 3 s. Evidence of longer lasting high-energy emission associated with long bursts has been already reported by previous experiments. These observations, together with the earlier reported study of the bright short GRBmore » 090510, indicate similarities in the high-energy emission of short and long GRBs and open the path to new interpretations.« less

  16. The sub-energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to the nearby GRB 980425.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Sako, M; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Moon, D S; Cenko, S B; Yost, S A; Phillips, M M; Persson, S E; Freedman, W L; Wyatt, P; Jayawardhana, R; Paulson, D

    2004-08-05

    Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in gamma-rays by three orders of magnitude. Radio calorimetry showed that the explosion was sub-energetic by a factor of 10. Here we report observations of the radio and X-ray afterglow of the recent GRB 031203 (refs 5-7), which has a redshift of z = 0.105. We demonstrate that it too is sub-energetic which, when taken together with the low gamma-ray luminosity, suggests that GRB 031203 is the first cosmic analogue to GRB 980425. We find no evidence that this event was a highly collimated explosion viewed off-axis. Like GRB 980425, GRB 031203 appears to be an intrinsically sub-energetic gamma-ray burst. Such sub-energetic events have faint afterglows. We expect intensive follow-up of faint bursts with smooth gamma-ray light curves (common to both GRB 031203 and 980425) to reveal a large population of such events.

  17. SGR J1550-5418 Bursts Detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during Its Most Prolific Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderHorst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gorgone, N. M.; Kaneko, Y.; Baring, M. G.; Guiriec, S.; Gogus, E,; Granot, J.; Watts, A. L.; Lin, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties.We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J15505418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E(sub peak) and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BBfits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature.We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  18. GRB 080503: IMPLICATIONS OF A NAKED SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST DOMINATED BY EXTENDED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Metzger, B. D.; Butler, N. R.

    We report on observations of GRB 080503, a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) with very bright extended emission (about 30 times the gamma-ray fluence of the initial spike) in conjunction with a thorough comparison to other short Swift events. In spite of the prompt-emission brightness, however, the optical counterpart is extraordinarily faint, never exceeding 25 mag in deep observations starting at {approx}1 hr after the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) trigger. The optical brightness peaks at {approx}1 day and then falls sharply in a manner similar to the predictions of Li and Paczynski (1998) for supernova-like emission following compact binary mergers. However,more » a shallow spectral index and similar evolution in X-rays inferred from Chandra observations are more consistent with an afterglow interpretation. The extreme faintness of this probable afterglow relative to the bright gamma-ray emission argues for a very low density medium surrounding the burst (a 'naked' GRB), consistent with the lack of a coincident host galaxy down to 28.5 mag in deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging. The late optical and X-ray peak could be explained by a slightly off-axis jet or by a refreshed shock. Our observations reinforce the notion that short GRBs generally occur outside regions of active star formation, but demonstrate that in some cases the luminosity of the extended prompt emission can greatly exceed that of the short spike, which may constrain theoretical interpretation of this class of events. This extended emission is not the onset of an afterglow, and its relative brightness is probably either a viewing-angle effect or intrinsic to the central engine itself. Because most previous BAT short bursts without observed extended emission are too faint for this signature to have been detectable even if it were present at typical level, conclusions based solely on the observed presence or absence of extended emission in the existing Swift sample are premature.« less

  19. VLA Observations Confirm Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts in Short-Lived Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Radio telescope studies of the fiery afterglow of a Gamma Ray Burst have provided astronomers with the best clues yet about the origins of these tremendous cosmic cataclysms since their discovery more than 30 years ago. Observations with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope confirm that a blast seen to occur on March 29 had its origin in a star-forming region in a distant galaxy. "There are two leading theories for the causes of Gamma Ray Bursts," said Dale Frail of the NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "According to one theory, the blasts occur in the death throes of pairs of old stars. The other requires them to arise from exploding, massive, short-lived stars that still reside within the star-forming gas and dust from which they formed. The VLA studies of the burst show that at least this one almost certainly occurred within a star-forming region. This result also explains why half of the Gamma Ray Burst afterglows are not detected by optical telescopes." Frail heads a VLA observing team including Greg Taylor, also of NRAO, and Shri Kulkarni of Caltech, that reported its findings to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, CA. The March 29 burst was seen clearly by radio telescopes (the accompanying image is GRB 980329 as seen by the VLA) but only very faintly with optical instruments. "That is extremely important," said Taylor. "This burst was very faint at visible wavelengths, brighter at infrared wavelengths and brighter still at radio wavelengths. This is a clear indication that the exploding object was surrounded by dust. Dust is most commonly found in star-forming regions." This strongly favors one of the two leading theories about Gamma Ray Bursts over the other. One explanation for these tremendously energetic fireballs is that a pair of superdense neutron stars collides. The other is that a single, very massive star explodes in a "hypernova," more powerful than a

  20. SWIFT Detects a remarkable Gamma-ray Burst, GRB 060514, that introduces a New Classification Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Norris, J. P.; Mangano, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Granot, J.; Kaneko, Y.; Kouveliotou, C.; Markwardt, C. B.; Meszaros, P.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts (GFU3s) are known to come in two duration classes, separated at approx.2 s. Long bursts originate from star forming regions in galaxies, have accompanying supernovae (SNe) when near enough to observe and are likely caused by massive-star collapsars. Recent observations show that short bursts originate in regions within their host galaxies with lower star formation rates, consistent with binary neutron star (NS) or NS - black hole (BH) mergers. Moreover, although their hosts are predominantly nearby galaxies, no SNe have been so far associated with short GRBs. We report here on the bright, nearby GRB 060614 that does not fit in either class. Its approx.102 s duration groups it with long GRBs, while its temporal lag and peak luminosity fall entirely within the short GRB subclass. Moreover, very deep optical observations exclude an accompanying supernova, similar to short GRBs. This combination of a long duration event without accompanying SN poses a challenge to both a collapsar and merging NS interpretation and opens the door on a new GRB classification scheme that straddles both long and short bursts.

  1. Solving the Mystery of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Derek

    2005-07-01

    Eight years after the afterglow detections that revolutionized studies of the long-soft gamma-ray bursts, not even one afterglow of a short-hard GRB has been seen, and the nature of these events has become one of the most important problems in GRB research. The Swift satellite, expected to be in full operation throughout Cycle 14, will report few-arcsecond localizations for short-hard bursts in minutes, enabling prompt, deep optical afterglow searches for the first time. Discovery and observation of the first short-hard optical afterglows will answer most of the critical questions about these events: What are their distances and energies? Do they occur in distant galaxies, and if so, in which regions of those galaxies? Are they the result of collimated or quasi-spherical explosions? In combination with an extensive rapid-response ground-based campaign, we propose to make the critical high-sensitivity HST TOO observations that will allow us to answer these questions. If theorists are correct in attributing the short-hard bursts to binary neutron star coalescence events, then they will serve as signposts to the primary targeted source population for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and short-hard burst studies will have a vital role to play in guiding those observations.

  2. A new gamma-ray burst classification scheme from GRB 060614.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, N; Norris, J P; Barthelmy, S D; Granot, J; Kaneko, Y; Kouveliotou, C; Markwardt, C B; Mészáros, P; Nakar, E; Nousek, J A; O'Brien, P T; Page, M; Palmer, D M; Parsons, A M; Roming, P W A; Sakamoto, T; Sarazin, C L; Schady, P; Stamatikos, M; Woosley, S E

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known to come in two duration classes, separated at approximately 2 s. Long-duration bursts originate from star-forming regions in galaxies, have accompanying supernovae when these are near enough to observe and are probably caused by massive-star collapsars. Recent observations show that short-duration bursts originate in regions within their host galaxies that have lower star-formation rates, consistent with binary neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers. Moreover, although their hosts are predominantly nearby galaxies, no supernovae have been so far associated with short-duration GRBs. Here we report that the bright, nearby GRB 060614 does not fit into either class. Its approximately 102-s duration groups it with long-duration GRBs, while its temporal lag and peak luminosity fall entirely within the short-duration GRB subclass. Moreover, very deep optical observations exclude an accompanying supernova, similar to short-duration GRBs. This combination of a long-duration event without an accompanying supernova poses a challenge to both the collapsar and the merging-neutron-star interpretations and opens the door to a new GRB classification scheme that straddles both long- and short-duration bursts.

  3. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    PubMed

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors.

  4. The Angular Power Spectrum of BATSE 3B Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectrum C(sub l) from the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 gamma-ray bursts and find no evidence for clustering on any scale. These constraints bridge the entire range from small scales (which probe source clustering and burst repetition) to the largest scales (which constrain possible anisotropics from the Galactic halo or from nearby cosmological large-scale structures). We develop an analysis technique that takes the angular position errors into account. For specific clustering or repetition models, strong upper limits can be obtained down to scales l approx. equal to 30, corresponding to a couple of degrees on the sky. The minimum-variance burst weighting that we employ is visualized graphically as an all-sky map in which each burst is smeared out by an amount corresponding to its position uncertainty. We also present separate bandpass-filtered sky maps for the quadrupole term and for the multipole ranges l = 3-10 and l = 11-30, so that the fluctuations on different angular scales can be inspected separately for visual features such as localized 'hot spots' or structures aligned with the Galactic plane. These filtered maps reveal no apparent deviations from isotropy.

  5. Probing Pre-galactic Metal Enrichment with High-redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-11-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature >~ 104 K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm-3. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n >~ 100 cm-3. The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z >~ 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may distinguish whether the first heavy elements were produced in a pair

  6. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  7. Storage Rings in the Sky: Gamma Ray Bursts and Galactic Gravitational Collapse Stored Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, H. D.

    2004-05-01

    The recent discovery of almost 100% polarization of the prompt gamma ray emission from GRB021206, (1), confirms my 44 year old ``Strong" Magnetic Field" model (SMF) for galactic dynamics. In SMF, Storage Ring particles were accelerated long ago during the original gravitational collapse of the pregalactic/prequasar plasma cloud that is permeated by an almost uniform primordial magnetic field (2,3) The enormous, intense, slender, relativistic, stable, completely coherent Storage Ring stores a very small fraction of the huge galactic gravitational collapse energy in an almost radiationless state, unless disturbed. The concept of an Astrophysical Storage Ring was introduced by me in l961. At first it was to explain galactic structure, but soon it proved useful to explain active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dynamics of quasar/AGN jets. AGN and galactic morphology, energetics and dynamics vary as the ratio of magnetic energy to rotational energy in the particular object. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are due simply to a ``rock". i.e. a white dwarf, ordinary star, neutron sstar, asteroid, planet, etc. falling rapidly through the Storage Ring and being almost instantly vaporized into a hot plasma fireball, causing an electromagnetic shower (2) Then the fireball speeds into the huge organized magnetic field surrounding the current ring, thus generating very highly polarized prompt gamma ray emission (as seen in GRB021206) from the synchrotron radiation process. The timing fits the GRB observations nicely. For instance, a ``rock" racing at 1000 kilometers per second across a 20,000 km. path in the beam would produce a twenty second burst. Other times, a target might track across a short chord for a short burst. Space missions have shown that often typical currents in space plasmas are made up of slender filaments. Thus the puzzling less than one millisecond spikes observed in some GRB are simply describing the structure of that particular ring current at that particular time. 1

  8. On the Sensitivity of the HAWC Observatory to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, E.; McEnery, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the sensitivity of HAWC to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). HAWC is a very high-energy gamma-ray observatory currently under construction in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m. It will observe atmospheric air showers via the water Cherenkov method. HAWC will consist of 300 large water tanks instrumented with 4 photomultipliers each. HAWC has two data acquisition (DAQ) systems. The main DAQ system reads out coincident signals in the tanks and reconstructs the direction and energy of individual atmospheric showers. The scaler DAQ counts the hits in each photomultiplier tube (PMT) in the detector and searches for a statistical excess over the noise of all PMTs. We show that HAWC has a realistic opportunity to observe the high-energy power law components of GRBs that extend at least up to 30 GeV, as it has been observed by Fermi LAT. The two DAQ systems have an energy threshold that is low enough to observe events similar to GRB 090510 and GRB 090902b with the characteristics observed by Fermi LAT. HAWC will provide information about the high-energy spectra of GRBs which in turn will lead to understanding about e-pair attenuation in GRB jets, extragalactic background light absorption, as well as establishing the highest energy to which GRBs accelerate particles.

  9. Search for a Signature of Interaction between Relativistic Jet and Progenitor in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Yoneoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya

    The time variability of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is expected to originate from the temporal behavior of the central engine activity and the jet propagation in the massive stellar envelope. Using a pulse search algorithm for bright GRBs, we investigate the time variability of gamma-ray light curves to search a signature of the interaction between the jet and the inner structure of the progenitor. Since this signature might appear in the earlier phase of prompt emission, we divide the light curves into the initial phase and the late phase by referring to the trigger time and the burstmore » duration of each GRB. We also adopt this algorithm for GRBs associated with supernovae/hypernovae that certainly are accompanied by massive stars. However, there is no difference between each pulse interval distribution described by a lognorma distribution in the two phases. We confirm that this result can be explained by the photospheric emission model if the energy injection of the central engine is not steady or completely periodic but episodic and described by the lognormal distribution with a mean of ∼1 s.« less

  10. Limits to the Fraction of High-energy Photon Emitting Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-02-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  11. On the Time Evolution of Gamma-Ray Burst Pulses: A Self-Consistent Description.

    PubMed

    Ryde; Svensson

    2000-01-20

    For the first time, the consequences of combining two well-established empirical relations that describe different aspects of the spectral evolution of observed gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses are explored. These empirical relations are (1) the hardness-intensity correlation and (2) the hardness-photon fluence correlation. From these we find a self-consistent, quantitative, and compact description for the temporal evolution of pulse decay phases within a GRB light curve. In particular, we show that in the case in which the two empirical relations are both valid, the instantaneous photon flux (intensity) must behave as 1&solm0;&parl0;1+t&solm0;tau&parr0;, where tau is a time constant that can be expressed in terms of the parameters of the two empirical relations. The time evolution is fully defined by two initial constants and two parameters. We study a complete sample of 83 bright GRB pulses observed by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and identify a major subgroup of GRB pulses ( approximately 45%) which satisfy the spectral-temporal behavior described above. In particular, the decay phase follows a reciprocal law in time. It is unclear what physics causes such a decay phase.

  12. High spectral resolution studies of gamma ray bursts on new missions

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, U. D.; Acuna, M. H.; Cline, T. L.

    1996-08-01

    Two new missions will be launched in 1996 and 1997, each carrying X-ray and gamma ray detectors capable of high spectral resolution at room temperature. The Argentine Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC-B) and the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) Clark missions will each carry several arrays of X-ray detectors primarily intended for the study of solar flares and gamma-ray bursts. Arrays of small (1 cm{sup 2}) cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) units will provide x-ray measurements in the 10 to 80 keV range with an energy resolution of {approx_equal}6 keV. Arrays of both silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) and P-intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiodesmore » (for the SAC-B mission only) will provide energy coverage from 2-25 keV with {approx_equal}1 keV resolution. For SAC-B, higher energy spectral data covering the 30-300 keV energy range will be provided by CsI(Tl) scintillators coupled to silicon APDs, resulting in similar resolution but greater simplicity relative to conventional CsI/PMT systems. Because of problems with the Pegasus launch vehicle, the launch of SAC-B has been delayed until 1997. The launch of the SSTI Clark mission is scheduled for June 1996.« less

  13. The suppression of pulsar and gamma-ray burst annihilation lines by magnetic photon splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron stars, relativistic and compact by nature, show great potential for the copious creation of electron-positron pairs in the magnetospheres; these rapidly cool, thermalize, and then annihilate. It is therefore expected that many neutron sources might display evidence of pair annihilation lines in the 400-500 keV range. It is shown that magnetic photon splitting, which operates effectively at these energies and in the enormous neutron star magnetic fields, can destroy an annihilation feature by absorbing line photons and reprocessing them to lower energies. In so doing, photon splitting creates a soft gamma-ray bump and a broad quasi-power-law contribution to the X-ray continuum, which is too flat to conflict with the observed X-ray paucity in gamma-ray bursts. The destruction of the line occurs in neutron stars with surface fields of 5 x 10 exp 12 G or maybe even less, depending on the size of the emission region.

  14. Possible Class of Nearby Gamma-Ray Burst / Gravitational Wave Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Jay P.

    2003-10-01

    A possible subclass of gamma-ray bursts - those with few, wide pulses, spectral lags of order one to several seconds, and soft spectra - has been identified. Their Log[N]-Log[Fp] distribution approximates a -3/2 power-law, suggesting homogeneity and relatively nearby sources. These mostly dim bursts account for ~ 50% of the BATSE sample of long bursts near that instrument's trigger threshold, suggesting that this subluminous class constitutes a more common variety than the more familiar burst sources which lie at truly cosmological distances. Theoretical scenarios predicted such a class, motivated by their exemplar GRB 980425 (SN 1998bw) lying at a distance of ~ 38 Mpc. The observations are explained by invoking off-axis viewing of the GRB jet and/or bulk Lorentz factors of order a few. Long-lag bursts show a tendency to concentrate near the Supergalactic Plane with a quadrupole moment of -0.10 +/- 0.04, similar to that for SNe type Ib/c within the same volume. The rate of the observed subluminous bursts is of order 14 that of SNe Ib/c. Evidence for a sequential relationship between SNe Ib/c and GRBs is critiqued for two cases, as simultaneity of the SN and GRB events may be important for detection of the expected gravitational wave signal; at most, SN to GRB delays appear to be a few days. SN asymmetries and ultrarelativistic GRB jets suggest the possibility of rapid rotation in the pre-collapse objects, a primary condition required for highly non-axisymmetric SN collapse to produce strong gravitational waves.

  15. MoonBEAM: A Beyond Earth-Orbit Gamma-Ray Burst Detector for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between different orbits. We present here a gamma-ray SmallSat concept in Earth-Moon L3 halo orbit that is capable of rapid response and provide a timing baseline for localization improvement when partnered with an Earth-orbit instrument. Such an instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  16. In vacuo dispersion features for gamma-ray-burst neutrinos and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; D'Amico, Giacomo; Rosati, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló

    2017-07-01

    Over the past 15 years there has been considerable interest in the possibility of quantum-gravity-induced in vacuo dispersion, the possibility that spacetime itself might behave essentially like a dispersive medium for particle propagation. Two recent studies have exposed what might be in vacuo dispersion features for gamma-ray-burst (GRB) neutrinos of energy in the range of 100 TeV and for GRB photons with energy in the range of 10 GeV. We here show that these two features are roughly compatible with a description such that the same effects apply over four orders of magnitude in energy. We also show that it should not happen so frequently that such pronounced features arise accidentally, as a result of (still unknown) aspects of the mechanisms producing photons at GRBs or as a result of background neutrinos accidentally fitting the profile of a GRB neutrino affected by in vacuo dispersion.

  17. Laboratory laser acceleration and high energy astrophysics: {gamma}-ray bursts and cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    1998-08-20

    Recent experimental progress in laser acceleration of charged particles (electrons) and its associated processes has shown that intense electromagnetic pulses can promptly accelerate charged particles to high energies and that their energy spectrum is quite hard. On the other hand some of the high energy astrophysical phenomena such as extremely high energy cosmic rays and energetic components of {gamma}-ray bursts cry for new physical mechanisms for promptly accelerating particles to high energies. The authors suggest that the basic physics involved in laser acceleration experiments sheds light on some of the underlying mechanisms and their energy spectral characteristics of the promptlymore » accelerated particles in these high energy astrophysical phenomena.« less

  18. COSMOLOGY WITH THE Ep,i - Eiso CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo

    2012-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the brightest sources in the universe, emit mostly in the hard X-ray energy band and have been detected at redshifts up to about 8.2. Thus, they are in principle very powerful probes for cosmology. I shortly review the researches aimed to use GRBs for the measurement of cosmological parameters, which are mainly based on the correlation between spectral peak photon energy and total radiated energy or luminosity. In particular, based on an enriched sample of 120 GRBs, I will provide an update of the analysis by Amati et al. (2008) aimed at extracting information on ΩM and, to a less extent, on ΩΛ, from the Ep,i - Eiso correlation.

  19. Galactic and extragalactic hydrogen in the X-ray spectra of Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, I. I.; Bagoly, Z.; Tóth, L. V.; Balázs, L. G.; Horváth, I.; Pintér, S.

    2017-07-01

    Two types of emission can be observed from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): the prompt emission from the central engine which can be observed in gamma or X-ray (as a low energy tail) and the afterglow from the environment in X-ray and at shorter frequencies. We examined the Swift XRT spectra with the XSPEC software. The correct estimation of the galactic interstellar medium is very important because we observe the host emission together with the galactic hydrogen absorption. We found that the estimated intrinsic hydrogen column density and the X-ray flux depend heavily on the redshift and the galactic foreground hydrogen. We also found that the initial parameters of the iteration and the cosmological parameters did not have much effect on the fitting result.

  20. 5-10 GeV neutrinos from gamma-Ray burst fireballs

    PubMed

    Bahcall; Meszaros

    2000-08-14

    A gamma-ray burst fireball is likely to contain an admixture of neutrons. Inelastic collisions between differentially streaming protons and neutrons in the fireball produce nu(&mgr;) (nu;(&mgr;)) of approximately 10 GeV as well as nu(e) (nu;(e)) of approximately 5 GeV, which could produce approximately 7 events/year in km(3) detectors, if the neutron abundance is comparable to that of protons. Photons of approximately 10 GeV from pi(0) decay and approximately 100 MeV nu;(e) from neutron decay are also produced, but will be difficult to detect. Photons with energies less, similar1 MeV from shocks following neutron decay produce a characteristic signal which may be distinguishable from the proton-related MeV photons.

  1. Gamma-ray burst jet dynamics and their interaction with the progenitor star.

    PubMed

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2007-05-15

    The association of at least some long gamma-ray bursts with type Ic supernova explosions has been established beyond reasonable doubt. Theoretically, the challenge is to explain the presence of a light hyper-relativistic flow propagating through a massive stellar core without losing those properties. We discuss the role of the jet-star interaction in shaping the properties of the outflow emerging on the surface of the star. We show that the nature of the inner engine is hidden from the observer for most of the evolution, well beyond the time of the jet breakout on the stellar surface. The discussion is based on analytical considerations as well as high resolution numerical simulations. Finally, the observational consequences of the scenario are addressed in light of the present capabilities.

  2. Long-term prospects: Mitigation of supernova and gamma-ray burst threat to intelligent beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirković, Milan M.; Vukotić, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    We consider global catastrophic risks due to cosmic explosions (supernovae, magnetars and gamma-ray bursts) and possible mitigation strategies by humans and other hypothetical intelligent beings. While by their very nature these events are so huge to daunt conventional thinking on mitigation and response, we wish to argue that advanced technological civilizations would be able to develop efficient responses in the domain of astroengineering within their home planetary systems. In particular, we suggest that construction of shielding swarms of small objects/particles confined by electromagnetic fields could be one way of mitigating the risk of cosmic explosions and corresponding ionizing radiation surges. Such feats of astroengineering could, in principle, be detectable from afar by advanced Dysonian SETI searches.

  3. AN EVOLVING STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE GAMMA-RAY BURST REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not trace an ordinary star formation history (SFH). Here, we show that the GRB rate turns out to be consistent with the SFH with an evolving stellar initial mass function (IMF). We first show that the latest Swift sample of GRBs reveals an increasing evolution in the GRB rate relative to the ordinary star formation rate at high redshifts. We then assume only massive stars with masses greater than the critical value to produce GRBs and use an evolving stellar IMF suggested by Dave to fit the latest GRB redshift distribution.more » This evolving IMF would increase the relative number of massive stars, which could lead to more GRB explosions at high redshifts. We find that the evolving IMF can well reproduce the observed redshift distribution of Swift GRBs.« less

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission Light Curves and Power Density Spectra in the ICMART Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter σ in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high σ flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  5. Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment to observe Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. M.

    Ground based telescopes have marginally observed very high energy emission (>100GeV) from gamma-ray bursts(GRB). For instance, Milagrito observed GRB970417a with a significance of 3.7 sigmas over the background. Milagro have not yet observed TeV emission from a GRB with its triggered and untriggered searches or GeV emission with a triggered search using its scalers. These results suggest the need of new observatories with higher sensitivity to transient sources. The HAWC (High Altitute Water Cherenkov) observatory is proposed as a combination of the Milagro tecnology with a very high altitude (>4000m over see level) site. The expected HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is at least >10 times the Milagro sensitivity. In this work HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is discussed for different detector configurations such as altitude, distance between PMTs, depth under water of PMTs, number of PMTs required for a trigger, etc.

  6. Gamma-ray burst progenitors and the population of rotating Wolf-Rayet stars.

    PubMed

    Vink, Jorick S

    2013-06-13

    In our quest for gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors, it is relevant to consider the progenitor evolution of normal supernovae (SNe). This is largely dominated by mass loss. We discuss the mass-loss rate for very massive stars up to 300M⊙. These objects are in close proximity to the Eddington Γ limit. We describe the new concept of the transitional mass-loss rate, enabling us to calibrate wind mass loss. This allows us to consider the occurrence of pair-instability SNe in the local Universe. We also discuss luminous blue variables and their link to luminous SNe. Finally, we address the polarization properties of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, measuring their wind asphericities. We argue to have found a group of rotating WR stars that fulfil the required criteria to make long-duration GRBs.

  7. Detection of short-term response of the low ionosphere on gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Simić, Saša.; Srećković, Vladimir A.; Popović, Luka Č.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study the possibility of detection of short-term terrestrial lower ionospheric response to gamma ray bursts (GRBs) using a statistical analysis of perturbations of six very low or low-frequency (VLF/LF) radio signals emitted by transmitters located worldwide and recorded by VLF/LF receiver located in Belgrade (Serbia). We consider a sample of 54 short-lasting GRBs (shorter than 1 min) detected by the Swift satellite during the period 2009-2012. We find that a statistically significant perturbation can be present in the low ionosphere, and reactions on GRBs may be observed immediately after the beginning of the GRB event or with a time delay of 60 s-90 s.

  8. Gamma-ray bursts generated from phase transition of neutron stars to quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of compact stars is believed to be able to produce various violent phenomena in our universe. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) might result from the phase transition of a neutron star to a quark star and calculate the energy released from the conversion. In our study, we utilize the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to describe the hadronic phase of neutron stars, while an improved quasi-particle model is adopted to describe the quark phase of quark stars. With quark matter equation-of-state (EOS) more reliable than models used before, it is found that the energy released is of the order of 1052 erg, which confirms the validity of the phase transition model.

  9. Constraints on millisecond magnetars as the engines of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios; Metzger, Brian D.

    2017-12-01

    We examine millisecond magnetars as central engines of gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) prompt emission. Using the protomagnetar wind model of Metzger et al., we estimate the temporal evolution of the magnetization and power injection at the base of the GRB jet and apply these to different prompt emission models to make predictions for the GRB energetics, spectra and light curves. We investigate both shock and magnetic reconnection models for the particle acceleration, as well as the effects of energy dissipation across optically thick and thin regions of the jet. The magnetization at the base of the jet, σ0, is the main parameter driving the GRB evolution in the magnetar model and the emission is typically released for 100 ≲σ0 ≲3000. Given the rapid increase in σ0 as the protomagnetar cools and its neutrino-driven mass loss subsides, the GRB duration is typically limited to ≲100 s. This low baryon loading at late times challenges magnetar models for ultralong GRBs, though black hole models likely run into similar difficulties without substantial entrainment from the jet walls. The maximum radiated gamma-ray energy is ≲5 × 1051 erg, significantly less than the magnetar's total initial rotational energy and in strong tension with the high end of the observed GRB energy distribution. However, the gradual magnetic dissipation model applied to a magnetar central engine, naturally explains several key observables of typical GRBs, including energetics, durations, stable peak energies, spectral slopes and a hard to soft evolution during the burst.

  10. Effects of Fallback Accretion on Protomagnetar Outflows in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized protoneutron stars (“millisecond protomagnetars”) are candidate central engines of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), and binary neutron star mergers. Magnetar birth may be accompanied by the fallback of stellar debris, lasting for seconds or longer following the explosion. Accretion alters the magnetar evolution by (1) providing an additional source of rotational energy (or a potential sink, if the propeller mechanism operates), (2) enhancing the spin-down luminosity above the dipole rate by compressing the magnetosphere and expanding the polar cap region of open magnetic field lines, and (3) supplying an additional accretion-powered neutrino luminosity that sustains the wind baryon loading, even after the magnetar’s internal neutrino luminosity has subsided. The more complex evolution of the jet power and magnetization of an accreting magnetar more readily accounts for the high 56Ni yields of GRB SNe and the irregular time evolution of some GRB light curves (e.g., bursts with precursors followed by a long quiescent interval before the main emission episode). Additional baryon loading from accretion-powered neutrino irradiation of the polar cap lengthens the time frame over which the jet magnetization is in the requisite range σ ≲ 103 for efficient gamma-ray emission, thereby accommodating GRBs with ultralong durations. Though accretion does not significantly raise the maximum energy budget from the limit of ≲ few × 1052 erg for an isolated magnetar, it greatly expands the range of magnetic field strengths and birth spin periods capable of powering GRB jets, reducing the differences between the magnetar properties normally invoked to explain GRBs versus SLSNe.

  11. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  12. Testing the Isotropic Universe Using the Gamma-Ray Burst Data of Fermi/GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řípa, Jakub; Shafieloo, Arman

    2017-12-01

    The sky distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been intensively studied by various groups for more than two decades. Most of these studies test the isotropy of GRBs based on their sky number density distribution. In this work, we propose an approach to test the isotropy of the universe through inspecting the isotropy of the properties of GRBs such as their duration, fluences, and peak fluxes at various energy bands and different timescales. We apply this method on the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data sample containing 1591 GRBs. The most noticeable feature we found is near the Galactic coordinates l≈ 30^\\circ , b≈ 15^\\circ , and radius r≈ 20^\\circ {--}40^\\circ . The inferred probability for the occurrence of such an anisotropic signal (in a random isotropic sample) is derived to be less than a percent in some of the tests while the other tests give results consistent with isotropy. These are based on the comparison of the results from the real data with the randomly shuffled data samples. Considering the large number of statistics we used in this work (some of which are correlated with each other), we can anticipate that the detected feature could be a result of statistical fluctuations. Moreover, we noticed a considerably low number of GRBs in this particular patch, which might be due to some instrumentation or observational effects that can consequently affect our statistics through some systematics. Further investigation is highly desirable in order to clarify this result, e.g., utilizing a larger future Fermi/GBM data sample as well as data samples of other GRB missions and also looking for possible systematics.

  13. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A

    DOE PAGES

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P. D.; ...

    2015-09-09

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is x HI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded inmore » a very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. Furthermore, the possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely.« less

  14. Evidence of the Exponential Decay Emission in the Swift Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Hill, J.E.; Krimm, H.A.; Yamazaki, R.; Takami, K.; Swindell, S.; Osborne, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the steep decay emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT). In contrast to the analysis in recent literature, instead of extrapolating the data of Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) down into the XRT energy range, we extrapolated the XRT data up to the BAT energy range, 15-25 keV, to produce the BAT and XRT composite light curve. Based on our composite light curve fitting, we have confirmed the existence of an exponential decay component which smoothly connects the BAT prompt data to the XRT steep decay for several GRBs. We also find that the XRT steep decay for some of the bursts can be well fitted by a combination of a power-law with an exponential decay model. We discuss that this exponential component may be the emission from an external shock and a sign of the deceleration of the outflow during the prompt phase.

  15. Our Magnetic Universe: The Nature of High Polarization Prompt Gamma Ray Bursts and the Origin of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    The author's "Strong” Magnetic Field model (SMF), created in 1961, is an approach identical to that urged for study by Zel'dovich in 1983. SMF is described in my 2005 paper, published in the CD of the Proceedings of the 22nd Texas Relativistic Astrophysics Symposium (also existing in Astro-ph0509223). A first order phase transition called the Spinodal Decomposition Instability causes a rapid exponential growth of the fluctuations at Combination Time. One of several important results from SMF is the very early generation, soon after Combination Time, of an intense, relativistic stable "storage current loop” in most active galaxies and quasars that was formed by gravitational collapse of the huge pre-galactic plasma cloud in the presence of the primordial magnetic field. This suggests that gamma ray bursts (GRB) are created, similar to what happens on Earth at an accelerator, by a beam on target (BOT) process. A dense target, like a white dwarf, neutron star, planet, et al, crossing the beam, causes the optical transient or "fireball” that is observed at the site of a gamma ray burst (GRB). The extremely powerful "storage current ring", or loop current, heats the target into a plasma blob. The plasma blob is accelerated, exits the current ring, passing through the enormous ordered magnetic field around the current loop, thus inducing the polarization that has been observed. An Appendix explains the Origin of Dark Energy according to the SMF model, which, uniquely, derives the Origin of Magnetic Fields occurring at Combination Time, (NOT far later when galaxies form, as believed by most astrophysicists for over eight decades), and also uses a comment by Albert Einstein. That result produces the unique Supercluster Topology where almost all the mass is on a shell surrounding an extremely high vacuum, explaining the current Accelerating Expansion observed in our universe.

  16. A Search Technique for Weak and Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts from Background Model Residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. T.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    We report on a planned search technique for Gamma-Ray Bursts too weak to trigger the on-board threshold. The technique is to search residuals from a physically based background model used for analysis of point sources by the Earth occultation method.

  17. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of "standard candle” where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass one of these tests, and all but two pass the other. Even with this failure, redundancies in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the "Firmani relation” is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. It is also shown to be derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a luminosity indicator (Epeak) are measured. The result is an irreducible systematic error of 28%. Finally, the work concludes with a discussion about the impact of the work and the future of GRB luminosity relations.

  18. Black-hole binaries as relics of gamma-ray burst/hypernova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Mendez, Enrique

    The Collapsar model, in which a fast-spinning massive star collapses into a Kerr black hole, has become the standard model to explain long-soft gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions (GRB/HN). However, stars massive enough (those with ZAMS mass ≳ (18--20) M⊙ ) to produce these events evolve through a path that loses too much angular momentum to produce a central engine capable of delivering the necessary energy. In this work I suggest that the soft X-ray transient sources are the remnants of GRBs/HNe. Binaries in which the massive primary star evolves a carbon-oxygen burning core, then start to transfer material to the secondary star (Case C mass transfer), causing the orbit to decay until a common-envelope phase sets in. The secondary spirals in, further narrowing the orbit of the binary and removing the hydrogen envelope of the primary star. Eventually the primary star becomes tidally locked and spins up, acquiring enough rotational energy to power up a GRB/HN explosion. The central engine producing the GRB/HN event is the Kerr black hole acting through the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. This model can explain not only the long-soft GRBs, but also the subluminous bursts (which comprise ˜ 97% of the total), the long-soft bursts and the short-hard bursts (in a neutron star, black hole merger). Because of our binary evolution through Case C mass transfer, it turns out that for the subluminous and cosmological bursts, the angular momentum O is proportional to m3/2D , where mD is the mass of the donor (secondary star). This binary evolution model has a great advantage over the Woosley Collapsar model; one can "dial" the donor mass in order to obtain whatever angular momentum is needed to drive the explosion. Population syntheses show that there are enough binaries to account for the progenitors of all known classes of GRBs.

  19. The Synchrotron Shock Model Confronts a "Line of Death" in the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The synchrotron shock model (SSM) for gamma-ray burst emission makes a testable prediction: that the observed low-energy power-law photon number spectral index cannot exceed -2/3 (where the photon model is defined with a positive index: $dN/dE \\propto E{alpha}$). We have collected time-resolved spectral fit parameters for over 100 bright bursts observed by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the {\\it Compton Gamma Ray Observatory}. Using this database, we find 23 bursts in which the spectral index limit of the SSM is violated, We discuss elements of the analysis methodology that affect the robustness of this result, as well as some of the escape hatches left for the SSM by theory.

  20. Physics of gamma-ray bursts and multi-messenger signals from double neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He

    My dissertation includes two parts: Physics of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs): Gamma-ray bursts are multi-wavelength transients, with both prompt gamma-ray emission and late time afterglow emission observed by telescopes in different wavelengths. I have carried out three investigations to understand GRB prompt emission and afterglow. Chapter 2 develops a new method, namely, "Stepwise Filter Correlation" method, to decompose the variability components in a light curve. After proving its reliability through simulations, we apply this method to 266 bright GRBs and find that the majority of the bursts have clear evidence of superposition of fast and slow variability components. Chapter 3 gives a complete presentation of the analytical approximations for synchrotron self-compton emission for all possible orders of the characteristic synchrotron spectral breaks (nua, nu m, and nuc). We identify a "strong absorption" regime whennua > nuc, and derive the critical condition for this regime. The external shock theory is an elegant theory to model GRB afterglows. It invokes a limit number of model parameters, and has well predicted spectral and temporal properties. Chapter 4 gives a complete reference of all the analytical synchrotron external shock afterglow models by deriving the temporal and spectral indices of all the models in all spectral regimes. This complete reference will serve as a useful tool for afterglow observers to quickly identify relevant models to interpret their data and identify new physics when the models fail. Milti-messenger signals from double neutron star merger: As the multi-messenger era of astronomy ushers in, the second part of the dissertation studies the possible electromagnetic (EM) and neutrino emission counterparts of double neutron star mergers. Chapter 6 suggests that if double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process, and under

  1. A Robotic System Discovers Contemporaneous Optical Radiation from a Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, J. J.; Akerlof, C.; Balsano, R.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Casperson, D.; Cline, T.; Fletcher, S.; Frontera, F.; Gisler, G.; Heise, J.; Hills, J.; Kehoe, R.; Lee, B.; Marshall, S.; McKay, T.; Miller, R. S.; Piro, L.; Priedhorsky, W.; Szymanski, J.; Wren, J.; ROTSE Team

    2000-05-01

    Since their discovery more than 25 years ago (Klebesadel et al, 1973), the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been profoundly enigmatic. This situation improved radically in 1997 when coordinates provided by the BeppoSAX satellite enabled the delayed detection of faint optical afterglows associated with GRBs which demonstrated that these phenomena are at truly cosmological distances. However the brief duration of gamma-ray bursts has hitherto precluded optical detection while the burst was still in progress. We report here the first discovery of such a signal from GRB 990123, a remarkably bright and distant event using a robotic observation system. The light curve was sampled 7 times in the interval between 22 and 600 seconds following the burst onset. Over this time span, the brightness increased by 3 magnitudes to mv ~ 9 in 25 seconds and then waned by 5 magnitudes 8 minutes later before falling below detection threshold. The absolute magnitude of this object at peak brightness is <= -36.4, about 6 x 106 times as bright as a type Ia supernova, making this the most luminous object ever detected. The discovery reported here was performed with ROTSE-I, a four-fold robotic array of 35 mm camera telephoto lenses coupled to large format CCD imagers mounted on a rapidly slewing platform and having a composite FOV of 16° x 16° . The instrument is directly connected to the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). The apparatus is installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico and runs autonomously. When ROTSE-I is not responding to GRBs, it is automatically recording the visible sky twice every night down to a limiting magnitude of mv ~ 14-15. Over 2 TBytes of sky data has been collected since ROTSE-I began operations. This talk will describe the details and implications of this remarkable detection and the instrumentation used to obtain it. It will also discuss the next generation instrumentation (ROTSE-II,III) that the project will produce and field at

  2. IceCube's Search for Neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    In a cubic kilometer of volume of ice under Antarctica, an observatory called IceCube is taking measurements that may help us to determine what causes the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) we occasionally observe from Earth. A recent study reports on its latest results.Atomic BaseballsCosmic rays are high-energy radiation primarily composed of protons and atomic nuclei. When these charged and extremely energetic particles impact the Earths atmosphere on their journey through space, they generate showers of secondary particles that we then detect.A UHECR is any cosmic-ray particle with a kinetic energy exceeding 1018 eV and some have been detected with energies of more than 1020 eV! In practical terms, this is an atomic nucleus with the same kinetic energy as a baseball pitched at 60mph. These unbelievably energetic particlesare quite rare, but weve observed them for decades. Yet in spite of this, the source of UHECRs is unknown.Illustration of a gamma-ray burst in a star-forming region. Could these phenomena accelerate UHECRs to their enormous energies? [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Gamma-Ray Burst FireballsOne proposed source that could accelerate particles to these energies is a gamma-ray burst (GRB). In some models for GRBs, the explosion is envisioned as a relativistically expanding fireball of electrons, photons and protons. Internal shock fronts accelerate electrons and protons within the fireball, generating UHECRs, gamma rays, and neutrinos in the process.Because the charged cosmic-ray particles can be easily deflected as they travel, its difficult to identify where they came from. Neutrinos and photons, on the other hand, both travel largely undeflected through the universe. As a result, if we detect high-energy neutrinos that are correlated with gamma-ray photons from a GRB, this would providestrong support for GRBfireball models for UHECR production.Heading Under the IceThe IceCube Laboratory in Antarctica. Beneath the Antarctic

  3. Naked-eye optical flash from gamma-ray burst 080319B: Tracing the decaying neutrons in the outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Yizhong; Zhang Bing; Wei Daming

    For an unsteady baryonic gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow, the fast and slow proton shells collide with each other and produce energetic soft gamma-ray emission. If the outflow has a significant neutron component, the ultrarelativistic neutrons initially expand freely until decaying at a larger radius. The late-time proton shells ejected from the GRB central engine, after powering the regular internal shocks, will sweep these {beta}-decay products and give rise to very bright UV/optical emission. The naked-eye optical flash from GRB 080319B, an energetic explosion in the distant Universe, can be well explained in this way.

  4. The detector response matrices of the burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Koshut, Tom M.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Horack, John M.; Lestrade, John Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The detector response matrices for the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are described, including their creation and operation in data analysis. These response matrices are a detailed abstract representation of the gamma-ray detectors' operating characteristics that are needed for data analysis. They are constructed from an extensive set of calibration data coupled with a complex geometry electromagnetic cascade Monte Carlo simulation code. The calibration tests and simulation algorithm optimization are described. The characteristics of the BATSE detectors in the spacecraft environment are also described.

  5. Spectral catalogue of bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the BeppoSAX/GRBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidorzi, C.; Lacapra, M.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E.; Amati, L.; Calura, F.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.

    2011-02-01

    Context. The emission process responsible for the so-called "prompt" emission of gamma-ray bursts is still unknown. A number of empirical models fitting the typical spectrum still lack a satisfactory interpretation. A few GRB spectral catalogues derived from past and present experiments are known in the literature and allow to tackle the issue of spectral properties of gamma-ray bursts on a statistical ground. Aims: We extracted and studied the time-integrated photon spectra of the 200 brightest GRBs observed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor which flew aboard the BeppoSAX mission (1996-2002) to provide an independent statistical characterisation of GRB spectra. Methods: The spectra have a time-resolution of 128 s and consist of 240 energy channels covering the 40-700 keV energy band. The 200 brightest GRBs were selected from the complete catalogue of 1082 GRBs detected with the GRBM (Frontera et al. 2009), whose products are publicly available and can be browsed/retrieved using a dedicated web interface. The spectra were fit with three models: a simple power law, a cut-off power law or a Band model. We derived the sample distributions of the best-fitting spectral parameters and investigated possible correlations between them. For a few, typically very long GRBs, we also provide a loose (128-s) time-resolved spectroscopic analysis. Results: The typical photon spectrum of a bright GRB consists of a low-energy index around 1.0 and a peak energy of the ν F_ν spectrum Ep ≃ 240 keV in agreement with previous results on a sample of bright CGRO/BATSE bursts. Spectra of ~ 35% of GRBs can be fit with a power law with a photon index around 2, indicative of peak energies either close to or outside the GRBM energy boundaries. We confirm the correlation between Ep and fluence, in agreement with previous results, with a logarithmic dispersion of 0.13 around the power law with index 0.21 ± 0.06. This is shallower than its analogous in the GRB rest-frame, the Amati relation

  6. The Diversity of Kilonova Emission in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gompertz, B. P.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Covino, S.; Evans, P. A.; Fruchter, A. S.; González-Fernández, C.; Jin, Z. P.; Lyman, J. D.; Oates, S. R.; O’Brien, P. T.; Wiersema, K.

    2018-06-01

    The historic first joint detection of both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic emission from a binary neutron star merger cemented the association between short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and compact object mergers, as well as providing a well-sampled multi-wavelength light curve of a radioactive kilonova (KN) for the first time. Here, we compare the optical and near-infrared light curves of this KN, AT 2017gfo, to the counterparts of a sample of nearby (z < 0.5) SGRBs to characterize their diversity in terms of their brightness distribution. Although at similar epochs AT 2017gfo appears fainter than every SGRB-associated KN claimed so far, we find three bursts (GRBs 050509B, 061201, and 080905A) where, if the reported redshifts are correct, deep upper limits rule out the presence of a KN similar to AT 2017gfo by several magnitudes. Combined with the properties of previously claimed KNe in SGRBs this suggests considerable diversity in the properties of KN drawn from compact object mergers, despite the similar physical conditions that are expected in many NS–NS mergers. We find that observer angle alone is not able to explain this diversity, which is likely a product of the merger type (NS–NS versus NS–BH) and the detailed properties of the binary (mass ratio, spins etc.). Ultimately disentangling these properties should be possible through observations of SGRBs and gravitational-wave sources, providing direct measurements of heavy element enrichment throughout the universe.

  7. THE TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 'FAST RISE AND EXPONENTIAL DECAY' GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSES

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Yin, Y.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the temporal and spectral behavior of 52 fast rise and exponential decay (FRED) pulses in 48 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the CGRO/BATSE, using a pulse model with two shape parameters and the Band model with three shape parameters, respectively. It is found that these FRED pulses are distinguished both temporally and spectrally from those in the long-lag pulses. In contrast to the long-lag pulses, only one parameter pair indicates an evident correlation among the five parameters, which suggests that at least four parameters are needed to model burst temporal and spectral behavior.more » In addition, our studies reveal that these FRED pulses have the following correlated properties: (1) long-duration pulses have harder spectra and are less luminous than short-duration pulses and (2) the more asymmetric the pulses are, the steeper are the evolutionary curves of the peak energy (E{sub p}) in the {nu}f{sub {nu}} spectrum within the pulse decay phase. Our statistical results give some constraints on the current GRB models.« less

  8. Gasdynamics of relativistically expanding gamma-ray burst sources - Kinematics, energetics, magnetic fields, and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Laguna, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate both analytically and numerically the evolution of highly relativistic fireballs through the stages of free expansion and coasting, and determine the dependence of the thermodynamic and radiation variables in the comoving and laboratory flames. The dynamics and the comoving geometry change at the (lab) expansion factors r/r(0) greater than eta and r/r(0) greater than eta-squared, respectively, where eta = E(0)/M(0)c-squared is the initial Lorentz factor. In the lab, the gas appears concentrated in a thin shell of width r(0) until r/r(0) of less than about eta-squared, and increases linearly after that. Magnetic fields may have been important in the original impulsive event. We discuss their effect on the fireball dynamics and also consider their effects on the radiation emitted when the fireball runs into an external medium and is decelerated. The inverse synchro-Compton mechanism can then yield high radiative efficiency in the reverse shock (and through turbulent instabilities and mixing also in the forward blast wave), producing a burst of nonthermal radiation mainly in the MeV to GeV range. The energy and duration depend on eta, the magnetic field strength, and the external density, and can match the range of properties observed in cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  9. GRB070125: The First Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst in a Halo Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Cenko S.; Fox, Derek B.; Penprase, Brian E.; Kulkarni, Shri R.; Price, Paul A.; Berger, Edo; Kulkarni, Shri R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present the discovery and high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations of the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB070125. Unlike all previously observed long-duration afterglows in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.0, we find no strong (rest-frame equivalent width W > 1.0 A) absorption features in the wavelength range 4000 - 10000 A. The sole significant feature is a weak doublet we identify as Mg 11 2796 (W = 0.18 +/- 0.02 A), 2803 (W = 0.08 +0I.-01 ) at z = 1.5477 +/- 0.0001. The low observed Mg II and inferred H I column densities are typically observed in galactic halos, far away from the bulk of massive star formation. Deep ground-based imaging reveals no host directly underneath the afterglow to a limit of R > 25.4 mag. Either of the two nearest blue galaxies could host GRB070125; the large offset (d >= 27 kpc) would naturally explain the low column density. To remain consistent with the large local (i.e. parsec scale) circum-burst density inferred from broadband afterglow observations, we speculate GRB070125 may have occurred far away from the disk of its host in a compact star-forming cluster. Such distant stellar clusters, typically formed by dynamical galaxy interactions, have been observed in the nearby universe, and should be more prevalent at z>l where galaxy mergers occur more frequently.

  10. The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Fynbo, Johan P U; Price, Paul A; Jensen, Brian L; Jørgensen, Uffe G; Kubas, Daniel; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Sollerman, Jesper; Pedersen, Kristian; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-10-06

    It has long been known that there are two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), mainly distinguished by their durations. The breakthrough in our understanding of long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s), which ultimately linked them with energetic type Ic supernovae, came from the discovery of their long-lived X-ray and optical 'afterglows', when precise and rapid localizations of the sources could finally be obtained. X-ray localizations have recently become available for short (duration <2 s) GRBs, which have evaded optical detection for more than 30 years. Here we report the first discovery of transient optical emission (R-band magnitude approximately 23) associated with a short burst: GRB 050709. The optical afterglow was localized with subarcsecond accuracy, and lies in the outskirts of a blue dwarf galaxy. The optical and X-ray afterglow properties 34 h after the GRB are reminiscent of the afterglows of long GRBs, which are attributable to synchrotron emission from ultrarelativistic ejecta. We did not, however, detect a supernova, as found in most nearby long GRB afterglows, which suggests a different origin for the short GRBs.

  11. A very energetic supernova associated with the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, Jesper; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P U; Woosley, Stan E; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Tanvir, Nial R; Greiner, Jochen; Andersen, Michael I; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Castro Cerón, José María; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Kaper, Lex; Klose, Sylvio; Masetti, Nicola; Pedersen, Holger; Pedersen, Kristian; Pian, Elena; Palazzi, Eliana; Rhoads, James E; Rol, Evert; van den Heuvel, Edward P J; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Watson, Darach; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2003-06-19

    Over the past five years evidence has mounted that long-duration (>2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-the most luminous of all astronomical explosions-signal the collapse of massive stars in our Universe. This evidence was originally based on the probable association of one unusual GRB with a supernova, but now includes the association of GRBs with regions of massive star formation in distant galaxies, the appearance of supernova-like 'bumps' in the optical afterglow light curves of several bursts and lines of freshly synthesized elements in the spectra of a few X-ray afterglows. These observations support, but do not yet conclusively demonstrate, the idea that long-duration GRBs are associated with the deaths of massive stars, presumably arising from core collapse. Here we report evidence that a very energetic supernova (a hypernova) was temporally and spatially coincident with a GRB at redshift z = 0.1685. The timing of the supernova indicates that it exploded within a few days of the GRB, strongly suggesting that core-collapse events can give rise to GRBs, thereby favouring the 'collapsar' model.

  12. Search for Muon Neutrinos from Gamma-ray Bursts with the IceCube Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tooker, J.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; IceCube Collaboration

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of searches for high-energy muon neutrinos from 41 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern sky with the IceCube detector in its 22 string configuration active in 2007/2008. The searches cover both the prompt and a possible precursor emission as well as a model-independent, wide time window of -1 hr to +3 hr around each GRB. In contrast to previous searches with a large GRB population, we do not utilize a standard Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux for the prompt emission but calculate individual neutrino spectra for all 41 GRBs from the burst parameters measured by satellites. For all of the three time windows, the best estimate for the number of signal events is zero. Therefore, we place 90% CL upper limits on the fluence from the prompt phase of 3.7 × 10-3 erg cm-2 (72 TeV-6.5 PeV) and on the fluence from the precursor phase of 2.3 × 10-3 erg cm-2 (2.2-55 TeV), where the quoted energy ranges contain 90% of the expected signal events in the detector. The 90% CL upper limit for the wide time window is 2.7 × 10-3 erg cm-2 (3 TeV-2.8 PeV) assuming an E -2 flux.

  13. Can comet clouds around neutron stars explain gamma-ray bursts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremaine, S.; Zytkow, A. N.

    1986-01-01

    The proposal of Harwit and Salpeter (1973) that gamma-ray bursts are due to impacts of comets onto neutron stars is examined further. It is assumed that most stars are formed with comet clouds similar to the Oort comet cloud which surrounds the sun, and it is suggested that there are at least four mechanisms by wich neutron stars may be formed while retaining their comet clouds: a spherically symmetric supernova explosion in an isolated star, accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable with a very low mass secondary, accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf in a wide binary with a low-mass giant companion, and coalescence of a close binary composed of two white dwarfs. Estimates are given of the cometary impact rates for such systems. It is suggested that if the wide binary scenario is correct, optical bursts may arise from the impact of comets onto the white dwarf remnant of the giant companion.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts from stellar mass accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    A cosmological model for gamma-ray bursts is explored in which the radiation is produced as a broadly beamed pair fireball along the rotation axis of an accreting black hole. The black hole may be a consequence of neutron star merger or neutron star-black hole merger, but for long complex bursts, it is more likely to come from the collapse of a single Wolf-Rayet star endowed with rotation ('failed' Type Ib supernova). The disk is geometrically thick and typically has a mass inside 100 km of several tenths of a solar mass. In the failed supernova case, the disk is fed for a longer period of time by the collapsing star. At its inner edge the disk is thick to its own neutrino emission and evolves on a viscous time scale of several seconds. In a region roughly 30 km across, interior to the accretion disk and along its axis of rotation, a pair fireball is generated by neutrino annihilation and electron-neutrino scattering which deposit approximately 10 exp 50 ergs/s.

  15. The long, the short and the weak: the origin of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Piran, Tsvi; Bromberg, Omer; Nakar, Ehud; Sari, Re'em

    2013-06-13

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the most interesting puzzles in recent astronomy. During the last decade a consensus has formed that long GRBs (LGRBs) arise from the collapse of massive stars, and that short GRBs (SGRBs) have a different origin, most likely neutron star mergers. A key ingredient of the collapsar model that explains how the collapse of massive stars produces a GRB is the emergence of a relativistic jet that penetrates the stellar envelope. The condition that the emerging jet penetrates the envelope imposes strong constraints on the system. Using these constraints we show the following. (i) Low-luminosity GRBs (llGRBs), a subpopulation of GRBs with very low luminosities (and other peculiar properties: single-peaked, smooth and soft), cannot be formed by collapsars. llGRBs must have a different origin (most likely a shock breakout). (ii) On the other hand, regular LGRBs must be formed by collapsars. (iii) While for BATSE the dividing line between collapsars and non-collapsars is indeed at approximately 2 s, the dividing line is different for other GRB detectors. In particular, most Swift bursts longer than 0.8 s are of a collapsar origin. This last result requires a revision of many conclusions concerning the origin of Swift SGRBs, which were based on the commonly used 2 s limit.

  16. Borexino's search for low-energy neutrino and antineutrino signals correlated with gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for neutrino and antineutrino events correlated with 2350 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is performed with Borexino data collected between December 2007 and November 2015. No statistically significant excess over background is observed. We look for electron antineutrinos (νbare) that inverse beta decay on protons with energies from 1.8 MeV to 15 MeV and set the best limit on the neutrino fluence from GRBs below 8 MeV. The signals from neutrinos and antineutrinos from GRBs that scatter on electrons are also searched for, a detection channel made possible by the particularly radio-pure scintillator of Borexino. We obtain currently the best limits on the neutrino fluence of all flavors and species below 7 MeV. Finally, time correlations between GRBs and bursts of events are investigated. Our analysis combines two semi-independent data acquisition systems for the first time: the primary Borexino readout optimized for solar neutrino physics up to a few MeV, and a fast waveform digitizer system tuned for events above 1 MeV.

  17. The Intensity Distribution for Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Paciesas, William S.; Briggs, Michael S.; Preece, Robert D.; Koshut, Tom M.; Horack, John M.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Hakkila, Jon; hide

    1996-01-01

    The intensity distributions of gamma-ray bursts observed by BATSE from 19 April 1991 to 19 September 1994 are presented. For this data set, (V/V(sub max)) is 0.329 +/- 0.011, which is 15.5 sigma away from the value of 0.5 expected for a homogeneous distribution. Standard cosmological model parameters are obtained by fitting the differentially binned peak flux distribution expressed in units of photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) in the energy range 50-300 keV. The value of z calculated for a peak flux of 1 photon cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) is 0.8 +/- 0.33. The procedures used to produce the peak flux data and C(sub p)/C(sub lim) data are presented. The differences between the two representations of burst intensity are emphasized so that researchers can determine which type of data is most appropriate for their studies. The sky sensitivity correction as a function of intensity for the peak flux data is also described.

  18. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Merger of Two Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Lazzati, Davide; Giacomazzo, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are explosions of cosmic origins believed to be associated with the merger of two compact objects, either two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole (BH). The presence of at least one neutron star has long been thought to be an essential element of the model: its tidal disruption provides the needed baryonic material whose rapid accretion onto the post-merger BH powers the burst. The recent tentative detection by the Fermi satellite of a short GRB in association with the gravitational wave signal GW150914 produced by the merger of two BHs has challenged this standard paradigm. Here, we show that the evolution of two high-mass, low-metallicity stars with main-sequence rotational speeds a few tens of percent of the critical speed eventually undergoing a weak supernova explosion can produce a short GRB. The outer layers of the envelope of the last exploding star remain bound and circularize at large radii. With time, the disk cools and becomes neutral, suppressing the magnetorotational instability, and hence the viscosity. The disk remains “long-lived dead” until tidal torques and shocks during the pre-merger phase heat it up and re-ignite accretion, rapidly consuming the disk and powering the short GRB.

  19. Gamma-ray bursts as a threat to life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. C.

    2009-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have made a number of significant impacts on the Earth during the last billion years. The gamma radiation from a burst within a few kiloparsecs would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, damaging DNA and causing sunburn. In addition, NO2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of GRBs delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have estimated DNA damage levels caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO2 opacity, and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO3. In this paper we give a concise review of this work and discuss current and future work on extending and improving our estimates of the terrestrial impact of a GRB.

  20. On the nature of short and long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Remo; Fryer, Chris; Muccino, Marco; Rueda Hernandez, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    For a long GRB (L-GRB) the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm proposes as progenitor a binary system made up of a carbon-oxygen core undergoing a supernova (SN) that triggers hypercritical accretion onto a neutron star (NS) companion. For a short GRB (S-GRB), a NS-NS merger is adopted. We divide L-GRBs and S-GRBs into subclasses, depending whether or not a black hole (BH) is formed. For long bursts, when no BH is formed we have the X-ray flashes (XRFs), with isotropic energy Eiso <=1052 erg and rest-frame spectral peak energy Ep , i <= 200 keV. When a BH is formed we have authentic L-GRBs, with Eiso >1052 erg and Ep , i > 200 keV. For short bursts, when no BH is formed we have short gamma-ray flashes (S-GRFs) with Eiso <=1052 erg and Ep , i <= 2 MeV, while an authentic S-GRBs occur if BH is formed, with Eiso >1052 erg and Ep , i > 2 MeV. We give examples and observational signatures of the four subclasses. In the case of S-GRBs and BdHNe evidence is given of the coincidence of the onset of the high-energy GeV emission with the birth of a Kerr-Newman BH.

  1. Polarization of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Dissipative Photosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundman, Christoffer; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2018-04-01

    The MeV spectral peak of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is best explained as photospheric emission from a dissipative relativistic jet. The observed non-blackbody spectrum shows that sub-photospheric dissipation involves both thermal plasma heating and injection of nonthermal particles, which quickly cool through inverse Compton scattering and emission of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron photons emitted around and above the photosphere are predicted to dominate the low-energy part of the GRB spectrum, starting from roughly a decade in energy below the MeV peak. We show that this leads to a unique polarization signature: a rise in GRB polarization toward lower energies. We compute the polarization degree of GRB radiation as a function of photon energy for a generic jet model, and show the predictions for GRBs 990123, 090902B, and 110721A. The expected polarization is significant in the X-ray band, in particular for bursts similar to GRB 090902B. The model predicts that radiation in the MeV peak (and at higher energies) is unpolarized as long as the jet is approximately uniform on angular scales δθ ≳ Γ‑1 where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet.

  2. X-Ray Flare Candidates in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margutti, R.; Chincarini, G.; Granot, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Berger, E.; Bernardini, M. G.; Geherls, N.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stamatikos, M.; Zaninoni, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic study of X-ray flare candidates in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) exploiting the large 6-year Swift database with the aim to constrain the physical nature of such fluctuations. We find that flare candidates appear in different types of SGRB host galaxy environments and show no clear correlation with the X-ray afterglow lifetime; flare candidates are detected both in SGRBs with a bright extended emission in the soft gamma-rays and in SGRBs which do not show such component. We furthermore show that SGRB X-ray flare candidates only partially share the set of observational properties of long GRB (LGRB) flares. In particular, the main parameter driving the duration evolution of X-ray variability episodes in both classes is found to be the elapsed time from the explosion, with very limited dependence on the different progenitors, environments, central engine life-times, prompt variability time-scales and energy budgets. On the contrary, SGRB flare candidates significantly differ from LGRB flares in terms of peak luminosity, isotropic energy, flare-to-prompt luminosity ratio and relative variability flux. However, these differences disappear when the central engine time-scales and energy budget are accounted for, suggesting that (i) flare candidates and prompt pulses in SGRBs likely have a common origin; (ii) similar dissipation and/or emission mechanisms are responsible for the prompt and flare emission in long and short GRBs, with SGRBs being less energetic albeit faster evolving versions of the long class. Finally, we show that in strict analogy to the SGRB prompt emission, flares candidates fall off the lag-luminosity relation defined by LGRBs, thus strengthening the SGRB flare-prompt pulse connection.

  3. SEARCH FOR GAMMA RAY BURSTS WITH THE ARGO-YBJ DETECTOR IN SCALER MODE

    SciTech Connect

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Bacci, C.

    2009-07-10

    We report on the search for gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in the energy range 1-100 GeV in coincidence with the prompt emission detected by satellites using the Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) air shower detector. Thanks to its mountain location (Yangbajing, Tibet, People's Republic of China, 4300 m above sea level), active surface ({approx}6700 m{sup 2} of Resistive Plate Chambers), and large field of view ({approx}2 sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption), the ARGO-YBJ air shower detector is particularly suitable for the detection of unpredictable and short duration events such as GRBs. The search is carriedmore » out using the 'single particle technique', i.e., counting all the particles hitting the detector without measurement of the energy and arrival direction of the primary gamma rays. Between 2004 December 17 and 2009 April 7, 81 GRBs detected by satellites occurred within the field of view of ARGO-YBJ (zenith angle {theta} {<=} 45 deg.). It was possible to examine 62 of these for >1 GeV counterpart in the ARGO-YBJ data finding no statistically significant emission. With a lack of detected spectra in this energy range fluence upper limits are profitable, especially when the redshift is known and the correction for the extragalactic absorption can be considered. The obtained fluence upper limits reach values as low as 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -2} in the 1-100 GeV energy region. Besides this individual search for a higher energy counterpart, a statistical study of the stack of all the GRBs both in time and in phase was made, looking for a common feature in the GRB high-energy emission. No significant signal has been detected.« less

  4. SMM observation of a cosmic gamma-ray burst from 20 keV to 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Matz, S. M.; Messina, D. C.; Nolan, P. L.; Chupp, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission gamma-ray spectrometer has detected an intense gamma-ray burst that occurred on August 5, 1984. The burst originated from a source in the constellation Hydra and lasted about 45 s. Its integral fluence at 20 keV was 0.003 erg/sq cm. Spectral evolution similar to other bursts detected by SMM was observed. The overall shape of the spectrum from 20 keV to 100 MeV, on timescales as short as 2 s, is relatively constant. This shape can be fitted by the sum of an exponential-type function and a power law. There is no evidence for narrow or broadened emission lines.

  5. On the Lack of a Radio Afterglow from Some Gamma-Ray Bursts - Insight into Their Progenitors?

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2017-02-07

    We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 10 52 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, butmore » a reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. Lastly, we discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.« less

  6. On the Lack of a Radio Afterglow from Some Gamma-Ray Bursts - Insight into Their Progenitors?

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Fryer, Christopher L.

    We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 10 52 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, butmore » a reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. Lastly, we discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.« less

  7. On the lack of a radio afterglow from some gamma-ray bursts - insight into their progenitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 1052 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, but a reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. We discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.

  8. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Gamma-Ray Bursts Inferred from Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Bursts of 23 January 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Band, D.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Preece, R. D.; Bremer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to arise when an extremely relativistic outflow of particles from a massive explosion (the nature at which is still unclear) interacts with material surrounding the site of the explosion. Observations of the evolving changes in emission at many wavelengths allow us to investigate the origin of the photons, and so potentially determine the nature of the explosion. Here we report the results of gamma-ray, optical, infrared, submillimeter, millimeter and radio observations of the burst ORB990123 and its afterglow. Our interpretation of the data indicates that the initial and afterglow emissions are associated with three distinct regions in the fireball. The peak flux of the afterglow, one day after the burst, has a lower frequency than observed for other bursts; this explains the short-lived radio emission. We suggest that the differences between bursts reflect variations in the magnetic-field strength in the afterglow-emitting regions.

  9. Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian C.

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short, incredibly powerful astrophysical events which produce a flux of radiation detectable across the observable universe. A GRB within our own galaxy could cause major damage to the Earth's biosphere. Rate estimates suggest that at least one GRB has occurred within a dangerous range (about 2 kpc) in the last billion years. The gamma radiation from such a burst would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, causing sunburn and damaging DNA. In addition, NO 2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of a GRB. We have simulated bursts delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have computed DNA damage caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO 2 opacity; and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO 3 . For a "typical" burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 years after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, with greatest damage occurring at low to mid latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed. We find support in our results for the hypothesis that the

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Earth: Exploration of Atmospheric, Biological, Climatic, and Biogeochemical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Laird, Claude M.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Hogan, Daniel P.; Ejzak, Larissa M.

    2005-11-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have made a number of significant impacts on the Earth during the last billion years. The gamma radiation from a burst within a few kiloparsecs would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, damaging DNA and causing sunburn. In addition, NO2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of GRBs delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have estimated DNA damage levels caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO2 opacity, and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO3. For the ``typical'' nearest burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 yr after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. The impact scales with the total fluence of the GRB at the Earth but is insensitive to the time of day of the burst and its duration (1-1000 s). We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, well above lethal levels for simple life forms such as phytoplankton. The greatest damage occurs at mid- to low latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed, lasting several years. We discuss how these results support the

  11. Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst in the Multi-Messeng