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Sample records for early graft failure

  1. Predictors of early graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting for chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hideki; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Araki, Yoshimori; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Yukio; Usui, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) variables in grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded vessels (CTOs). We aimed to establish the TTFM cut-off values for detecting graft failure in bypass grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded arteries and clarify the relationship between early graft failure and the grade of collateral circulation/regional wall motion of the CTO territory. Among 491 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from 2009 to 2015, 196 cases with CTOs underwent postoperative coronary angiography within 1 month after CABG. Two hundred and forty-one CTOs in all patients were examined. Thirty-two CTOs (13%) were not bypassed and 214 conduits were anastomosed to CTOs and underwent intraoperative TTFM. Arterial conduits and saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) were used in 102 and 112 cases, respectively. Among the arterial conduit procedures that were performed, 78 involved the left internal thoracic artery (LITA), 10 involved the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) and 14 involved the right gastroepiploic artery (rGEA). Any graft showing Fitzgibbon type B or O lesions on angiography was considered to be a failing graft. The insufficiency rates for LITA, RITA, rGEA and SVG procedures were 5.1, 10, 14.3 and 7.1%, respectively. The TTFM variables recorded in failing grafts had a significantly lower mean flow (Qmean) and higher pulsatility index (PI) compared with patent grafts. Furthermore, akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the territory of bypassed CTOs was observed at a significantly higher rate in failing grafts. A multivariable regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed good predictors of early graft failure as follows: a Qmean value of < 11.5 ml/min for arterial conduits, a PI value of >5.85 and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion in the CTO territory for SVGs. The Rentrop collateral grade was not associated with early graft failure. The Qmean

  2. Chronicity of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, Part 2: Radiographic Predictors of Early Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kita, Keisuke; Takao, Rikio; Amano, Hiroshi; Uchida, Ryohei; Shiozaki, Yoshiki; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Kinugasa, Kazutaka; Mae, Tatsuo; Horibe, Shuji

    2018-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that long-term anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can give rise to an abnormal tibiofemoral relationship and subsequent intra-articular lesions. However, the effects of chronic ACL deficiency (ACLD) on early graft failure after anatomic reconstruction remain unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with long-term ACLD lasting more than 5 years would have a greater rate of early graft failure due to insufficient intraoperative reduction of the tibia and that the preoperative and immediately postoperative abnormal tibiofemoral relationship in the sagittal plane, such as anterior tibial subluxation (ATS), would correlate with the graft status on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 358 patients who had undergone anatomic ACL reconstruction with hamstring grafts were divided into 5 groups based on chronicity of ACLD: (1) 0 to 6 months, (2) 6 months to 1 year, (3) 1 to 2 years, (4) 2 to 5 years, and (5) longer than 5 years. Preoperatively and immediately postoperatively, lateral radiographs in full extension were taken in all patients to evaluate the tibiofemoral relationship, specifically with regard to ATS, space for the ACL (sACL), and extension angle. All patients underwent MRI at 6 months to reveal graft status. Groups with a high rate of graft failure were further analyzed to compare demographic and radiographic factors between the intact and failure subgroups, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify predisposing factors. Results: Graft failure without trauma was observed in 4 (1.8%), 0 (0%), 1 (3.7%), 3 (9.7%), and 8 patients (17.7%) in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Of the 76 patients in groups 4 and 5, significant differences were noted between the failure and intact subgroups in preoperative ATS (4.9 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P < .01), side-to-side differences in sACL (sACL-SSD) (4.7 vs

  3. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M R; Peterson, E R; Easthausen, I; Quintanilla, I; Colago, E; Sonett, J R; D'Ovidio, F; Costa, J; Diamond, J M; Christie, J D; Arcasoy, S M; Lederer, D J

    2013-10-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18-64 years, but severely ill recipients (Lung Allocation Score [LAS] >47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56-64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50 and adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.47-3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of PGD. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56 to 64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Analysis by early angiography of right internal thoracic artery grafting via the transverse sinus : predictors of graft failure.

    PubMed

    Ura, M; Sakata, R; Nakayama, Y; Arai, Y; Oshima, S; Noda, K

    2000-02-15

    There has been debate regarding whether technically demanding right internal thoracic artery (RITA) grafting via the transverse sinus can be extensively applied to patients in high-risk groups, such as patients with a small body size, elderly patients, and woman with relatively smaller coronary artery and internal thoracic artery (ITA) diameters. Of the 1456 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1989 and December 1998 at Kumamoto Central Hospital, 393 patients (mean age, 62.4+/-9.0 years) with the RITA anastomosed to the major branches of the circumflex artery were studied. Left ITA grafting was performed in 384 patients, and in 369, the in situ left ITA was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery using standard methods. Early postoperative angiography was performed in 381 patients. The RITA was occluded in 4 patients, and string-like artery and significant stenosis were present in 11 and 7 patients, respectively; RITA graft patency was thus 94.1%. Of the preoperative variables and angiographic data, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses identified decreased severity of native stenosis, diffuse sclerosis of native vessels, and residual side branches of the ITA as independent predictors of nonfunctional grafts. The method of ITA grafting did not influence the patency of the graft. The excellent patency rate demonstrated by this study, the largest angiographic study to date of RITA grafting via the transverse sinus, indicates that this technique can provide reliable revascularization of the left ventricle and that it has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of patients with diseased circumflex arteries.

  5. Maximal blood flow acceleration analysis in the early diastolic phase for aortocoronary artery bypass grafts: a new transit-time flow measurement predictor of graft failure following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined using transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a potential predictor of graft failure for aortocoronary artery (AC) bypass grafts in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 114 aortocoronary artery bypass grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 9-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve, to measure max df/dt (9-polynomial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of <15 ml/min, a pulsatility index of >5 or a diastolic filling ratio of <50 %. Postoperative assessments were routinely performed by coronary artery angiography (CAG) at 1 year after surgery. Using TTFM, 68 grafts were normal, 4 of which were failing on CAG, and 46 grafts were abnormal, 21 of which were failing on CAG. 9-polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in abnormal TTFM/failing by the CAG group compared with abnormal TTFM/patent by the CAG group (1.08 ± 0.89 vs. 2.05 ± 1.51 ml/s(2), respectively; P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test, Holm adjustment). TTFM 9-polynomial max df/dt in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure for AC bypass grafts, particularly in abnormal TTFM grafts.

  6. Repeated blood transfusions: Identification of a novel culprit of early graft failure in children.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Judith; Guo, Kenneth; Guo, Liming; Liu, Aihua; Marelli, Ariane

    2018-03-01

    The attrition of right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) grafts has been attributed in part to the body's immunologic response. We hypothesized that antibodies developed through blood transfusion, directed against the grafts, may result in accelerated degeneration and the need for re-intervention. This is a population-based study of the province of Quebec. We included children born between January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2006 who were diagnosed with a cono-truncal anomaly and had an RV-PA graft. The patients were followed for transfusion exposure and RV-PA graft re-intervention. Time to re-intervention in those exposed versus non-exposed was analyzed using Cox regression. Analysis was done in two time periods, before and after the calendar year 2000, given the change in blood preparation in the province of Quebec. There were 413 patients who met the inclusion criteria of a cono-truncal disorder. Of the whole study population, 69% received a blood transfusion. Cox regression analysis showed that among patients who had the initial graft performed (n=181) before year 2000, having 2 or more blood transfusion was associated with an nearly tripled risk of a re-intervention comparing to no blood transfusion (hazard ratio of 2.88; 95% confidence interval 1.05-7.91). In patients who had the initial graft performed after year 2000 (n=232), the associated risk increase was 7-fold (hazard ratio of 7.01; 95% confidence interval 3.06-16.02). Kaplan-Meier analyses confirmed the significant difference in the re-intervention free survival probabilities between those who received 2 or more blood product transfusion and those who did not as well: prior to year 2000 (67.9% vs. 88.0% at 5years, p=0.0201) as well as after year 2000 (39.7% vs. 82.8% at 5years, p<0.0001). In this population-based analysis, repeated blood product transfusion was associated with a significant increased risk of a need for RV-PA graft re-intervention. This data strongly suggest that repeated blood

  7. Causes of corneal graft failure in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, L; Naduvilath, T J; Janarthanan, M; Rao, G N

    1998-09-01

    The success of corneal grafting in visual rehabilitation of the corneal blind in India depends on survival of the grafts. Understanding the causes of graft failure may help reduce the risk of failure. We studied these causes in a series of 638 graft failures at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of particular causes of graft failure with indications for grafting, socioeconomic status, age, sex, host corneal vascularization, donor corneal quality, and experience of surgeon. The major causes of graft failure were allograft rejection (29.2%), increased intraocular pressure (16.9%), infection excluding endophthalmitis (15.4%), and surface problems (12.7%). The odds of infection causing graft failure were significantly higher in patients of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.15). Surface problems as a cause of graft failure was significantly associated with grafts done for corneal scarring or for regrafts (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.80-6.30). Increased intraocular pressure as a cause of graft failure had significant association with grafts done for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, congenital conditions or glaucoma, or regrafts (odds ratio 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.84). Corneal dystrophy was the indication for grafting in 12 of the 13 cases of graft failure due to recurrence of host disease. Surface problems, increased intraocular pressure, and infection are modifiable risk factors that are more likely to cause graft failure in certain categories of patients in India. Knowledge about these associations can be helpful in looking for and aggressively treating these modifiable risk factors in the at-risk categories of corneal graft patients. This can possibly reduce the chance of graft failure.

  8. Early graft failure of small-sized porcine valved conduits in reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christian; Sassen, Stefanie; Kostolny, Martin; Hörer, Jürgen; Cleuziou, Julie; Wottke, Michael; Holper, Klaus; Fend, Falko; Eicken, Andreas; Lange, Rüdiger

    2006-07-01

    The quest for an alternative to homografts for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract is ongoing. The Shelhigh No-React (NR-4000PA series) treated porcine pulmonic valve conduit (SPVC) was developed as a potential alternative. During a 12-month period from May 2004 to May 2005, the SPVC was implanted in 34 patients, of whom 62% were younger than 1 year. Median age at operation was 7 months (range, 5 days to 12 years). Thirteen SPCV conduits size 10, 11 size 12, 8 size 14, and 2 size 16 were initially implanted. Since May 2005, however, we have temporarily abandoned its implantation as we were concerned about a number of early failures. Until November 2005, 1 early and 1 late death have occurred. Both were not conduit related. Fifteen conduits were replaced in 13 patients. Of these, 10 were size 10, 3 size 12, 2 size 14, and none size 16. Mean time to replacement of the SPVC was 313 +/- 116 days. A pseudointimal peel formation and chronic inflammation with foreign-body reaction was found in all explanted conduits at all levels. The maximum of the inflammatory reaction occurred at the valvular level around the porcine tissues, with shrinkage of the valve and hemodynamic compromise. At valvular level, small punctuate calcifications were observed in 2 cases. In 6 patients an acute inflammatory component was observed. At late follow-up (mean follow-up 366 +/- 102 days, 34 patient-years), echocardiography showed a mean graft gradient of 39.8 +/- 29.7 mm Hg, with mild to moderate insufficiency in 4 patients. Although the No-React treated valve largely resists calcification, pseudointimal peel formation was found in all explanted conduits and led to multilevel conduit stenoses. The small-sized SPVC can not be regarded as an ideal conduit for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction.

  9. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) early stage graft failure in eyes with preexisting glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Treder, Maximilian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Eter, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a preexisting glaucoma on the early postoperative outcome of a descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). All patients who underwent DMEK surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Muenster with a follow-up of at least 3 months (90d) were included in this study. The best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), the intraocular pressure (IOD), the rate of re-keratoplasty and the rebubbling rate were inter alia recorded. The results of patients with (group 1) and without a preexisting glaucoma (group 2) were compared. 74 eyes of 59 patients with a mean follow-up of 152 ± 70 days were included. 65 eyes were in group 1 and 9 eyes in group 2. The BCDVA significantly improved in both groups after surgery (p < 0.03). The Re-keratoplasty rate (p = 0.172), the number of rebubblings per patient (p = 0.571) and the rebubbling rate (p = 0.939) were not significantly different in patients without glaucoma compared to patients with a preexisting glaucoma. In the early stage outcome of DMEK no significant impact of a preexisting glaucoma was found.

  10. Donor Indocyanine Green Clearance Test Predicts Graft Quality and Early Graft Prognosis After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunhua; Han, Ming; Chen, Maogen; Wang, Xiaoping; Ji, Fei; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiheng; Ju, Weiqiang; Wang, Dongping; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-11-01

    Transplantation centers have given much attention to donor availability. However, no reliable quantitative methods have been employed to accurately assess graft quality before transplantation. Here, we report that the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is a valuable index for liver grafts. We performed the ICG clearance test on 90 brain-dead donors within 6 h before organ procurement between March 2015 and November 2016. We also analyzed the relationship between graft liver function and early graft survival after liver transplantation (LT). Our results suggest that the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) of donors before procurement was independently associated with 3-month graft survival after LT. The best donor ICGR15 cutoff value was 11.0%/min, and we observed a significant increase in 3-month graft failure among patients with a donor ICGR15 above this value. On the other hand, a donor ICGR15 value of ≤ 11.0%/min could be used as an early assessment index of graft quality because it provides additional information to the transplant surgeon or organ procurement organization members who must maintain or improve organ function to adapt the LT. An ICG clearance test before liver procurement might be an effective quantitative method to predict graft availability and improve early graft prognosis after LT.

  11. Age-Dependent Risk of Graft Failure in Young Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, Rémi; Couchoud, Cécile; Macher, Marie-Alice; Salomon, Rémi; Ranchin, Bruno; Lahoche, Annie; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaelle; Garaix, Florentine; Decramer, Stéphane; Pietrement, Christine; Lassalle, Mathilde; Baudouin, Véronique; Cochat, Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; Joly, Pierre; Leffondré, Karen; Harambat, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    The risk of graft failure in young kidney transplant recipients has been found to increase during adolescence and early adulthood. However, this question has not been addressed outside the United States so far. Our objective was to investigate whether the hazard of graft failure also increases during this age period in France irrespective of age at transplantation. Data of all first kidney transplantation performed before 30 years of age between 1993 and 2012 were extracted from the French kidney transplant database. The hazard of graft failure was estimated at each current age using a 2-stage modelling approach that accounted for both age at transplantation and time since transplantation. Hazard ratios comparing the risk of graft failure during adolescence or early adulthood to other periods were estimated from time-dependent Cox models. A total of 5983 renal transplant recipients were included. The risk of graft failure was found to increase around the age of 13 years until the age of 21 years, and decrease thereafter. Results from the Cox model indicated that the hazard of graft failure during the age period 13 to 23 years was almost twice as high as than during the age period 0 to 12 years, and 25% higher than after 23 years. Among first kidney transplant recipients younger than 30 years in France, those currently in adolescence or early adulthood have the highest risk of graft failure.

  12. Graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Zehra Narli; Civriz Bozdağ, Sinem

    2018-04-18

    Graft failure is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) defined as either lack of initial engraftment of donor cells (primary graft failure) or loss of donor cells after initial engraftment (secondary graft failure). Successful transplantation depends on the formation of engrafment, in which donor cells are integrated into the recipient's cell population. In this paper, we distinguish two different entities, graft failure (GF) and poor graft function (PGF), and review the current comprehensions of the interactions between the immune and hematopoietic compartments in these conditions. Factors associated with graft failure include histocompatibility locus antigen (HLA)-mismatched grafts, underlying disease, type of conditioning regimen and stem cell source employed, low stem cell dose, ex vivo T-cell depletion, major ABO incompatibility, female donor grafts for male recipients, disease status at transplantation. Although several approaches have been developed which aimed to prevent graft rejection, establish successful engraftment and treat graft failure, GF remains a major obstacle to the success of allo-HSCT. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) still remains to be the curative treatment option for various non-malignant and malignant hematopoietic diseases. The outcome of allo-HSCT primarily depends on the engraftment of the graft. Graft failure (GF), is a life-threatening complication which needs the preferential therapeutic manipulation. In this paper, we focused on the definitions of graft failure / poor graft function and also we reviewed the current understanding of the pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment approaches for these entities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Graft failure: III. Glaucoma escalation after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Emily C; Kwon, Young H

    2008-06-01

    Glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty is a frequently observed post-operative complication and is a risk factor for graft failure. Penetrating keratoplasty performed for aphakic and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and inflammatory conditions are more likely to cause postoperative glaucoma compared with keratoconus and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. The intraocular pressure elevation may occur immediately after surgery or in the early to late postoperative period. Early postoperative causes of glaucoma include pre-existing glaucoma, retained viscoelastic, hyphema, inflammation, pupillary block, aqueous misdirection, or suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Late causes include pre-existing glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, ghost cell glaucoma, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, and steroid-induced glaucoma. Determining the cause of IOP elevation can help guide therapeutic intervention. Treatments for refractory glaucoma include topical anti-glaucoma medications such as beta-adrenergic blockers. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, miotic agents, adrenergic agonists, and prostaglandin analogs should be used with caution in the post-keratoplasty patient, because of the possibility of corneal decompensation, cystoid macular edema, or persistent inflammation. Various glaucoma surgical treatments have reported success in post-keratoplasty glaucoma. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C can be successful in controlling IOP without the corneal toxicity noted with 5-fluorouracil. Glaucoma drainage devices have successfully controlled intraocular pressure in postkeratoplasty glaucoma; this is, however, associated with increased risk of graft failure. Placement of the tube through the pars plana may improve graft success compared with implantation within the anterior chamber. In addition, cyclophotocoagulation remains a useful procedure for eyes that have refractory glaucoma despite multiple surgical interventions.

  14. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  15. PIRCHE-II Is Related to Graft Failure after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Niemann, Matthias; Drylewicz, Julia; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Joosten, Irma; Allebes, Wil A.; van der Meer, Arnold; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Baas, Marije C.; Hack, C. Erik; van Reekum, Franka E.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Kamburova, Elena G.; Bots, Michiel L.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Lambeck, Annechien J.; Bungener, Laura B.; Roozendaal, Caroline; Tilanus, Marcel G. J.; Vanderlocht, Joris; Voorter, Christien E.; Wieten, Lotte; van Duijnhoven, Elly M.; Gelens, Mariëlle; Christiaans, Maarten H. L.; van Ittersum, Frans J.; Nurmohamed, Azam; Lardy, Junior N. M.; Swelsen, Wendy; van der Pant, Karlijn A.; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; Hoitsma, Andries; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Roelen, Dave L.; Claas, Frans H.; Otten, Henny G.; Spierings, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Individual HLA mismatches may differentially impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable tool to define permissible HLA mismatches in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that donor-derived Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (PIRCHE-II) play a role in de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies formation after kidney transplantation. In the present Dutch multi-center study, we evaluated the possible association between PIRCHE-II and kidney graft failure in 2,918 donor–recipient couples that were transplanted between 1995 and 2005. For these donors–recipients couples, PIRCHE-II numbers were related to graft survival in univariate and multivariable analyses. Adjusted for confounders, the natural logarithm of PIRCHE-II was associated with a higher risk for graft failure [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23, p = 0.003]. When analyzing a subgroup of patients who had their first transplantation, the HR of graft failure for ln(PIRCHE-II) was higher compared with the overall cohort (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34, p < 0.001). PIRCHE-II demonstrated both early and late effects on graft failure in this subgroup. These data suggest that the PIRCHE-II may impact graft survival after kidney transplantation. Inclusion of PIRCHE-II in donor-selection criteria may eventually lead to an improved kidney graft survival. PMID:29556227

  16. A dynamical system that describes vein graft adaptation and failure.

    PubMed

    Garbey, Marc; Berceli, Scott A

    2013-11-07

    Adaptation of vein bypass grafts to the mechanical stresses imposed by the arterial circulation is thought to be the primary determinant for lesion development, yet an understanding of how the various forces dictate local wall remodeling is lacking. We develop a dynamical system that summarizes the complex interplay between the mechanical environment and cell/matrix kinetics, ultimately dictating changes in the vein graft architecture. Based on a systematic mapping of the parameter space, three general remodeling response patterns are observed: (1) shear stabilized intimal thickening, (2) tension induced wall thinning and lumen expansion, and (3) tension stabilized wall thickening. Notable is our observation that the integration of multiple feedback mechanisms leads to a variety of non-linear responses that would be unanticipated by an analysis of each system component independently. This dynamic analysis supports the clinical observation that the majority of vein grafts proceed along an adaptive trajectory, where grafts dilate and mildly thicken in response to the increased tension and shear, but a small portion of the grafts demonstrate a maladaptive phenotype, where progressive inward remodeling and accentuated wall thickening lead to graft failure. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction.

  18. Magnesium inference screw supports early graft incorporation with inhibition of graft degradation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pengfei; Han, Pei; Zhao, Changli; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaonong; Chai, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery commonly encounters graft failure in the initial phase of rehabilitation. The inhibition of graft degradation is crucial for the successful reconstruction of the ACL. Here, we used biodegradable high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws in the rabbit model of ACL reconstruction with titanium (Ti) screws as a control and analyzed the graft degradation and screw corrosion using direct pull-out tests, microCT scanning, and histological and immunohistochemical staining. The most noteworthy finding was that tendon graft fixed by HP Mg screws exhibited biomechanical properties substantially superior to that by Ti screws and the relative area of collagen fiber at the tendon-bone interface was much larger in the Mg group, when severe graft degradation was identified in the histological analysis at 3 weeks. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical results further elucidated that the MMP-13 expression significantly decreased surrounding HP Mg screws with relatively higher Collagen II expression. And HP Mg screws exhibited uniform corrosion behavior without displacement or loosening in the femoral tunnel. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Mg screw inhibited graft degradation and improved biomechanical properties of tendon graft during the early phase of graft healing and highlighted its potential in ACL reconstruction. PMID:27210585

  19. Causes of graft failure in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation by various time periods.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Kayo; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Data collected by the United Network for Organ Sharing from all approved United States transplant programs was analyzed. The data included 26,572 adult diabetic patients who received a primary pancreas transplant between January 1987 and December 2012. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation was the major therapeutic option for diabetes patients. SPK had better graft survival than pancreas transplant alone (PTA) or pancreas-after-kidney (PAK) or pancreas-with-kidney (from a living donor, PWK). The 5-year pancreas graft survival rates for SPK, PWK, PAK, and PTA were 70.0%, 57.2%, 54.0%, and 48.2%, respectively. When long-term SPK pancreas graft survival was examined by various transplant time periods, it was found that survival has remained almost stable since 1996. Graft survival rates were high among the pancreas recipients transplanted in the periods 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2012, and the rates were similar: the 5-year rates were 68.9%, 72.4%, and 73.8%, respectively. Technical failure was the leading cause of graft loss during the first year post-transplant, regardless of period: 61.3%, 68.6%, 64.2%, and 71.9% for 1987-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2012, respectively. After one year, chronic rejection was the leading cause of graft loss in all periods: 51.8%, 53.2%, 44.3%, and 40.7% for 1987-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2012, respectively. Chronic rejection accounted for around 50% (or more) of the grafts that survived over five years. Survival of long-term pancreas grafts as well as long-term causes of graft loss remained almost unchanged across the different transplant periods. Clearly, there is a need for a means to identify early markers of chronic rejection, and to control it to improve long-term survival.

  20. Machine-Learning Algorithms Predict Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lawrence; Kankanige, Yamuna; Rubinstein, Benjamin; Jones, Robert; Christophi, Christopher; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Bailey, James

    2017-04-01

    The ability to predict graft failure or primary nonfunction at liver transplant decision time assists utilization of scarce resource of donor livers, while ensuring that patients who are urgently requiring a liver transplant are prioritized. An index that is derived to predict graft failure using donor and recipient factors, based on local data sets, will be more beneficial in the Australian context. Liver transplant data from the Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from 2010 to 2013 has been included in the study. The top 15 donor, recipient, and transplant factors influencing the outcome of graft failure within 30 days were selected using a machine learning methodology. An algorithm predicting the outcome of interest was developed using those factors. Donor Risk Index predicts the outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) value of 0.680 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669-0.690). The combination of the factors used in Donor Risk Index with the model for end-stage liver disease score yields an AUC-ROC of 0.764 (95% CI, 0.756-0.771), whereas survival outcomes after liver transplantation score obtains an AUC-ROC of 0.638 (95% CI, 0.632-0.645). The top 15 donor and recipient characteristics within random forests results in an AUC-ROC of 0.818 (95% CI, 0.812-0.824). Using donor, transplant, and recipient characteristics known at the decision time of a transplant, high accuracy in matching donors and recipients can be achieved, potentially providing assistance with clinical decision making.

  1. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System.

    PubMed

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; De Wit, Guillermo; Martínez, Jaime D; Mingo, David; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS) proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases), incomplete medical notes (5 cases) and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases). We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure ( P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship ( P >0.05) between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant ( P <0.05), although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  2. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    PubMed Central

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; De Wit, Guillermo; Martínez, Jaime D.; Mingo, David; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS) proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases), incomplete medical notes (5 cases) and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases). We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05), although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y. PMID:28393027

  3. Early statin use is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival.

    PubMed

    Moreso, Francesc; Calvo, Natividad; Pascual, Julio; Anaya, Fernando; Jiménez, Carlos; Del Castillo, Domingo; Sánchez-Plumed, Jaime; Serón, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Background. Statin use in renal transplantation has been associated with a lower risk of patient death but not with an improvement of graft functional survival. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of statin use in graft survival, death-censored graft survival and patient survival using the data recorded on the Spanish Late Allograft Dysfunction Study Group.Patients and methods. Patients receiving a renal allograft in Spain in 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002 were considered. Since the mean follow-up in the 2002 cohort was 3 years, statin use was analysed considering its introduction during the first year or during the initial 2 years after transplantation. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses with a propensity score for statin use were employed to analyse graft survival, death-censored graft survival and patient survival.Results. In the 4682 evaluated patients, the early statin use after transplantation significantly increased from 1990 to 2002 (12.7%, 27.9%, 47.7% and 53.0%, P < 0.001). Statin use during the first year was not associated with graft or patient survival. Statin use during the initial 2 years was associated with a lower risk of graft failure (relative risk [RR] = 0.741 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.635-0.866, P < 0.001) and patient death (RR = 0.806 and 95% CI = 0.656-0.989, P = 0.039). Death-censored graft survival was not associated with statin use during the initial 2 years.Conclusion. The early introduction of statin treatment after transplantation is associated with a significant decrease in late graft failure due to a risk reduction in patient death.

  4. Early statin use is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival

    PubMed Central

    Moreso, Francesc; Calvo, Natividad; Pascual, Julio; Anaya, Fernando; Jiménez, Carlos; del Castillo, Domingo; Sánchez-Plumed, Jaime; Serón, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background. Statin use in renal transplantation has been associated with a lower risk of patient death but not with an improvement of graft functional survival. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of statin use in graft survival, death-censored graft survival and patient survival using the data recorded on the Spanish Late Allograft Dysfunction Study Group. Patients and methods. Patients receiving a renal allograft in Spain in 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002 were considered. Since the mean follow-up in the 2002 cohort was 3 years, statin use was analysed considering its introduction during the first year or during the initial 2 years after transplantation. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses with a propensity score for statin use were employed to analyse graft survival, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Results. In the 4682 evaluated patients, the early statin use after transplantation significantly increased from 1990 to 2002 (12.7%, 27.9%, 47.7% and 53.0%, P < 0.001). Statin use during the first year was not associated with graft or patient survival. Statin use during the initial 2 years was associated with a lower risk of graft failure (relative risk [RR] = 0.741 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.635–0.866, P < 0.001) and patient death (RR = 0.806 and 95% CI = 0.656–0.989, P = 0.039). Death-censored graft survival was not associated with statin use during the initial 2 years. Conclusion. The early introduction of statin treatment after transplantation is associated with a significant decrease in late graft failure due to a risk reduction in patient death. PMID:20508861

  5. High Risk of Graft Failure in Emerging Adult Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Foster, B J; Dahhou, M; Zhang, X; Dharnidharka, V; Ng, V; Conway, J

    2015-12-01

    Emerging adulthood (17-24 years) is a period of high risk for graft failure in kidney transplant. Whether a similar association exists in heart transplant recipients is unknown. We sought to estimate the relative hazards of graft failure at different current ages, compared with patients between 20 and 24 years old. We evaluated 11 473 patients recorded in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients who received a first transplant at <40 years old (1988-2013) and had at least 6 months of graft function. Time-dependent Cox models were used to estimate the association between current age (time-dependent) and failure risk, adjusted for time since transplant and other potential confounders. Failure was defined as death following graft failure or retransplant; observation was censored at death with graft function. There were 2567 failures. Crude age-specific graft failure rates were highest in 21-24 year olds (4.2 per 100 person-years). Compared to individuals with the same time since transplant, 21-24 year olds had significantly higher failure rates than all other age periods except 17-20 years (HR 0.92 [95%CI 0.77, 1.09]) and 25-29 years (0.86 [0.73, 1.03]). Among young first heart transplant recipients, graft failure risks are highest in the period from 17 to 29 years of age. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Recipient Risk Factors for Graft Failure in the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugar, Alan; Tanner, Jean Paul; Dontchev, Mariya; Tennant, Brad; Schultze, Robert L.; Dunn, Steven P.; Lindquist, Thomas D.; Gal, Robin L.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Mannis, Mark J.; Holland, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Identify recipient factors which may be related to risk of corneal graft failure Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) Methods Donor corneas were assigned using a random approach without respect to recipient factors, and surgeons were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines and subjects were followed for five years. Baseline factors were evaluated for their association with graft failure. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results Preoperative diagnosis of pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema increased graft failure risk approximately 4-fold compared with Fuchs’ dystrophy (27% vs. 7%). Prior glaucoma surgery with preoperative glaucoma medication use substantially increased the graft failure rate. Factors not strongly associated with graft failure included age, gender, diabetes, smoking, and graft size. Conclusion The risk of graft failure is significantly increased in eyes with pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema compared with Fuchs’ dystrophy, independent of lens status, and in eyes with a history of glaucoma. PMID:19395036

  7. Endothelial cell density to predict endothelial graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Sugar, Alan; Benetz, Beth Ann; Beck, Roy W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Gross, Robert; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Mannis, Mark J; Raber, Irving; Stark, Walter; Stulting, R Doyle

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative and/or postoperative central endothelial cell density (ECD) and its rate of decline postoperatively are predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation following penetrating keratoplasty to treat a moderate-risk condition, principally, Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema. In a subset of Cornea Donor Study participants, a central reading center determined preoperative and postoperative ECD from available specular images for 17 grafts that failed because of endothelial decompensation and 483 grafts that did not fail. Preoperative ECD was not predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation (P = .91). However, the 6-month ECD was predictive of subsequent failure (P < .001). Among those that had not failed within the first 6 months, the 5-year cumulative incidence (+/-95% confidence interval) of failure was 13% (+/-12%) for the 33 participants with a 6-month ECD of less than 1700 cells/mm(2) vs 2% (+/-3%) for the 137 participants with a 6-month ECD of 2500 cells/mm(2) or higher. After 5 years' follow-up, 40 of 277 participants (14%) with a clear graft had an ECD below 500 cells/mm(2). Preoperative ECD is unrelated to graft failure from endothelial decompensation, whereas there is a strong correlation of ECD at 6 months with graft failure from endothelial decompensation. A graft can remain clear after 5 years even when the ECD is below 500 cells/mm(2).

  8. Nonesterified fatty acids and development of graft failure in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Klooster, Astrid; Hofker, H Sijbrand; Navis, Gerjan; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Gans, Reinold O B; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-06-15

    Chronic transplant dysfunction is the most common cause of graft failure on the long term. Proteinuria is one of the cardinal clinical signs of chronic transplant dysfunction. Albumin-bound fatty acids (FA) have been hypothesized to be instrumental in the etiology of renal damage induced by proteinuria. We therefore questioned whether high circulating FA could be associated with an increased risk for future development of graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). To this end, we prospectively investigated the association of fasting concentrations of circulating nonesterified FA (NEFA) with the development of graft failure in RTR. Baseline measurements were performed between 2001 and 2003 in outpatient RTR with a functioning graft of more than 1 year. Follow-up was recorded until May 19, 2009. Graft failure was defined as return to dialysis or retransplantation. We included 461 RTR at a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 6.1 (3.3-11.3) years after transplantation. Median (IQR) fasting concentrations of NEFA were 373 (270-521) μM/L. Median (IQR) follow-up for graft failure beyond baseline was 7.1 (6.1-7.5) years. Graft failure occurred in 23 (15%), 14 (9%), and 9 (6%) of RTR across increasing gender-specific tertiles of NEFA (P=0.04). In a gender-adjusted Cox-regression analysis, log-transformed NEFA level was inversely associated with the development of graft failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.81; P<0.001). In this prospective cohort study in RTR, we found an inverse association between fasting NEFA concentrations and risk for development of graft failure. This association suggests a renoprotective rather than a tubulotoxic effect of NEFA. Further studies on the role of different types of NEFA in the progression of renal disease are warranted.

  9. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Impact of the Learning Curve for Endoscopic Vein Harvest on Conduit Quality and Early Graft Patency

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pranjal; Kiani, Soroosh; Thiruvanthan, Nannan; Henkin, Stanislav; Kurian, Dinesh; Ziu, Pluen; Brown, Alex; Patel, Nisarg; Poston, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that endoscopic vein harvest (EVH) compromises graft patency. To test whether the learning curve for EVH alters conduit integrity owing to increased trauma compared with an open harvest, we analyzed the quality and early patency of conduits procured by technicians with varying EVH experience. Methods During coronary artery bypass grafting, veins were harvested open (n = 10) or by EVH (n = 85) performed by experienced (>900 cases, >30/month) versus novice <100 cases, <3/month) technicians. Harvested conduits were imaged intraoperatively using optical coherence tomography and on day 5 to assess graft patency using computed tomographic angiography. Results Conduits from experienced (n = 55) versus novice (n = 30) harvesters had similar lengths (33 versus 34 cm) and harvest times (32.4 versus 31.8 minutes). Conduit injury was noted in both EVH groups with similar distribution among disruption of the adventitia (62%), intimal tears at branch points (23%), and intimal or medial dissections (15%), but the incidence of these injuries was less with experienced harvesters and rare in veins procured with an open technique. Overall, the rate of graft attrition was similar between the two EVH groups (6.45% versus 4.34% of grafts; p = 0.552). However, vein grafts with at least 4 intimal or medial dissections showed significantly worse patency (67% versus 96% patency; p = 0.05). Conclusions High-resolution imaging confirmed that technicians inexperienced with EVH are more likely to cause intimal and deep vessel injury to the saphenous vein graft, which increases graft failure risk. Endoscopic vein harvest remains the most common technique for conduit harvest, making efforts to better monitor the learning curve an important public health issue. PMID:21524447

  11. Incomplete cellular depopulation may explain the high failure rate of bovine ureteric grafts.

    PubMed

    Spark, J I; Yeluri, S; Derham, C; Wong, Y T; Leitch, D

    2008-05-01

    The aim was to assess the results of a decellularized bovine ureter graft (SynerGraft) for complex venous access. Bovine ureter conduits were implanted in patients with a failed fistula or access graft in whom native vessels were unsuitable as conduits. Graft histories were obtained from all patients who had undergone this procedure at one institution. Failed grafts were explanted and subjected to histological examination. A sample of fresh bovine ureter was immunostained for galactose (alpha1 --> 3) galactose (alpha-Gal). Nine patients with a median age of 46 (range 25-70) years underwent complex venous access surgery between August 2004 and November 2006 using a SynerGraft. Graft types included loop superficial femoral artery to stump of long saphenous vein (four patients), loop brachial artery to vein (two), brachial artery to axillary vein (two) and left axillary artery to innominate vein (one). Three grafts developed aneurysmal dilatation and two thrombosed. Histological assessment of the explanted bovine ureters revealed acute and chronic transmural inflammation. Immunostaining of fresh bovine ureter suggested residual cells and the xenoantigen alpha-Gal. Graft failure with aneurysmal dilatation and thrombosis in complex arteriovenous conduits using bovine ureter may be due to residual xenoantigens. 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nighttime kidney transplantation is associated with less pure technical graft failure.

    PubMed

    Brunschot, Denise M D Özdemir-van; Hoitsma, Andries J; van der Jagt, Michel F P; d'Ancona, Frank C; Donders, Rogier A R T; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Warlé, Michiel C

    2016-07-01

    To minimize cold ischemia time, transplantations with kidneys from deceased donors are frequently performed during the night. However, sleep deprivation of those who perform the transplantation may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor performance and may cause reduced cognitive flexibility. We hypothesize that renal transplantations performed during the night are associated with an increased incidence of pure technical graft failure. A retrospective analysis of data of the Dutch Organ Transplant Registry concerning all transplants from deceased donors between 2000 and 2013 was performed. Nighttime surgery was defined as the start of the procedure between 8 p.m. and 8 a.m. The primary outcome measure was technical graft failure, defined as graft loss within 10 days after surgery without signs of (hyper)acute rejection. Of 4.519 renal transplantations in adult recipients, 1.480 were performed during the night. The incidence of pure technical graft failure was 1.0 % for procedures started during the night versus 2.6 % for daytime surgery (p = .001). In a multivariable model, correcting for relevant donor, recipient and graft factors, daytime surgery was an independent predictor of pure technical graft failure (p < .001). Limitation of this study is mainly to its retrospective design, and the influence of some relevant variables, such as the experience level of the surgeon, could not be assessed. We conclude that nighttime surgery is associated with less pure technical graft failures. Further research is required to explore factors that may positively influence the performance of the surgical team during the night.

  13. Statistical analysis of early failures in electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, M.; Capasso, C.; Jawarani, D.; Hernandez, R.; Kawasaki, H.; Ho, P. S.

    2001-07-01

    The detection of early failures in electromigration (EM) and the complicated statistical nature of this important reliability phenomenon have been difficult issues to treat in the past. A satisfactory experimental approach for the detection and the statistical analysis of early failures has not yet been established. This is mainly due to the rare occurrence of early failures and difficulties in testing of large sample populations. Furthermore, experimental data on the EM behavior as a function of varying number of failure links are scarce. In this study, a technique utilizing large interconnect arrays in conjunction with the well-known Wheatstone Bridge is presented. Three types of structures with a varying number of Ti/TiN/Al(Cu)/TiN-based interconnects were used, starting from a small unit of five lines in parallel. A serial arrangement of this unit enabled testing of interconnect arrays encompassing 480 possible failure links. In addition, a Wheatstone Bridge-type wiring using four large arrays in each device enabled simultaneous testing of 1920 interconnects. In conjunction with a statistical deconvolution to the single interconnect level, the results indicate that the electromigration failure mechanism studied here follows perfect lognormal behavior down to the four sigma level. The statistical deconvolution procedure is described in detail. Over a temperature range from 155 to 200 °C, a total of more than 75 000 interconnects were tested. None of the samples have shown an indication of early, or alternate, failure mechanisms. The activation energy of the EM mechanism studied here, namely the Cu incubation time, was determined to be Q=1.08±0.05 eV. We surmise that interface diffusion of Cu along the Al(Cu) sidewalls and along the top and bottom refractory layers, coupled with grain boundary diffusion within the interconnects, constitutes the Cu incubation mechanism.

  14. Warfarin improves the outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafting at high risk for failure.

    PubMed

    Sarac, T P; Huber, T S; Back, M R; Ozaki, C K; Carlton, L M; Flynn, T C; Seeger, J M

    1998-09-01

    Patients with marginal venous conduit, poor arterial runoff, and prior failed bypass grafts are at high risk for infrainguinal graft occlusion and limb loss. We sought to evaluate the effects of anticoagulation therapy after autogenous vein infrainguinal revascularization on duration of patency, limb salvage rates, and complication rates in this subset of patients. This randomized prospective trial was performed in a university tertiary care hospital and in a Veterans Affairs Hospital. Fifty-six patients who were at high risk for graft failure were randomized to receive aspirin (24 patients, 27 bypass grafts) or aspirin and warfarin (WAR; 32 patients, 37 bypass grafts). All patients received 325 mg of aspirin each day, and the patients who were randomized to warfarin underwent anticoagulation therapy with heparin immediately after surgery and then were started on warfarin therapy to maintain an international normalized ratio between 2 and 3. Perioperative blood transfusions and complications were compared with the Student t test or with the chi2 test. Graft patency rates, limb salvage rates, and survival rates were compared with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Sixty-one of the 64 bypass grafts were performed for rest pain or tissue loss, and 3 were performed for short-distance claudication. There were no differences between the groups in ages, indications, bypass graft types, risk classifications (ie, conduit, runoff, or graft failure), or comorbid conditions (except diabetes mellitus). The cumulative 5-year survival rate was similar between the groups. The incidence rate of postoperative hematoma (32% vs 3.7%; P = .004) was greater in the WAR group, but no differences were seen between the WAR group and the aspirin group in the number of packed red blood cells transfused, in the incidence rate of overall nonhemorrhagic wound complications, or in the overall complication rate (62% vs 52%). The immediate postoperative primary graft patency rates (97

  15. Risk prediction models for graft failure in kidney transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, Rémi; Haller, Maria C; Harambat, Jérôme; Heinze, Georg; Leffondré, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Risk prediction models are useful for identifying kidney recipients at high risk of graft failure, thus optimizing clinical care. Our objective was to systematically review the models that have been recently developed and validated to predict graft failure in kidney transplantation recipients. We used PubMed and Scopus to search for English, German and French language articles published in 2005-15. We selected studies that developed and validated a new risk prediction model for graft failure after kidney transplantation, or validated an existing model with or without updating the model. Data on recipient characteristics and predictors, as well as modelling and validation methods were extracted. In total, 39 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 34 developed and validated a new risk prediction model and 5 validated an existing one with or without updating the model. The most frequently predicted outcome was graft failure, defined as dialysis, re-transplantation or death with functioning graft. Most studies used the Cox model. There was substantial variability in predictors used. In total, 25 studies used predictors measured at transplantation only, and 14 studies used predictors also measured after transplantation. Discrimination performance was reported in 87% of studies, while calibration was reported in 56%. Performance indicators were estimated using both internal and external validation in 13 studies, and using external validation only in 6 studies. Several prediction models for kidney graft failure in adults have been published. Our study highlights the need to better account for competing risks when applicable in such studies, and to adequately account for post-transplant measures of predictors in studies aiming at improving monitoring of kidney transplant recipients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Spontaneous Graft Intra- and Perihepatic Hematoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lupaşcu, Cristian; Apopei, Oana; Vlad, Nutu; Vasiluta, Ciprian; Trofin, Ana-Maria; Zabara, Mihai; Vornicu, Alexandra; Lupaşcu-Ursulescu, Corina; Nitu, Mioara; Crumpei, Felicia; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2017-01-01

    Hematoma of the graft is a life threatening complication of liver transplantation (LT) and there has been no overt conclusion in the literature about optimal management except in scarcely reported cases. It may be either intrahepatic or subcapsular, then again it may develop spontaneously or following parenchimal injuries or transhepatic percutaneous invasive manoeuvers. In this report we describe a rare case of large spontaneous graft intra- and perihepatic hematoma. A 62 year-old man underwent a whole graft orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for decompensated chronic liver disease due to alcoholic cirrhosis. The surgical procedure was uneventful. During the early postoperative course, routine Doppler ultrasound examination and CT-scan revealed an extrahepatic paracaval hematoma, 7 days after transplantation, which was stable and conservatively managed until the 18-th postoperative day, when rapidly expanding intraparenchimal hematoma involving the right hemiliver, several other perihepatic hematomas, significant right pleural effusion and hemorrhagic ascites were described. The patient was successfully treated conservatively (nonsurgically) with slow recovery of the liver allograft and discharged one month later in good general status. Celsius.

  17. Engraftment kinetics and graft failure after single umbilical cord blood transplantation using a myeloablative conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Annalisa; Labopin, Myriam; Sormani, Maria Pia; Sanz, Guillermo; Sanz, Jaime; Volt, Fernanda; Michel, Gerard; Locatelli, Franco; Diaz De Heredia, Cristina; O'Brien, Tracey; Arcese, William; Iori, Anna Paola; Querol, Sergi; Kogler, Gesine; Lecchi, Lucilla; Pouthier, Fabienne; Garnier, Federico; Navarrete, Cristina; Baudoux, Etienne; Fernandes, Juliana; Kenzey, Chantal; Eapen, Mary; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Saccardi, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplant recipients are exposed to an increased risk of graft failure, a complication leading to a higher rate of transplant-related mortality. The decision and timing to offer a second transplant after graft failure is challenging. With the aim of addressing this issue, we analyzed engraftment kinetics and outcomes of 1268 patients (73% children) with acute leukemia (64% acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 36% acute myeloid leukemia) in remission who underwent single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation after a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median follow-up was 31 months. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 47%; the 100-day cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 16%. Longer time to engraftment was associated with increased transplant-related mortality and shorter overall survival. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 60 was 86%, while the median time to achieve engraftment was 24 days. Probability density analysis showed that the likelihood of engraftment after umbilical cord blood transplantation increased after day 10, peaked on day 21 and slowly decreased to 21% by day 31. Beyond day 31, the probability of engraftment dropped rapidly, and the residual probability of engrafting after day 42 was 5%. Graft failure was reported in 166 patients, and 66 of them received a second graft (allogeneic, n=45). Rescue actions, such as the search for another graft, should be considered starting after day 21. A diagnosis of graft failure can be established in patients who have not achieved neutrophil recovery by day 42. Moreover, subsequent transplants should not be postponed after day 42. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Post-Transplant Hypophosphatemia and the Risk of Death-Censored Graft Failure and Mortality after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    van Londen, Marco; Aarts, Brigitte M; Deetman, Petronella E; van der Weijden, Jessica; Eisenga, Michele F; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2017-08-07

    Hypophosphatemia is common in the first year after kidney transplantation, but its clinical implications are unclear. We investigated the relationship between the severity of post-transplant hypophosphatemia and mortality or death-censored graft failure in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients with long-term follow-up. We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 957 renal transplant recipients who were transplanted between 1993 and 2008 at a single center. We used a large real-life dataset containing 28,178 phosphate measurements (median of 27; first to third quartiles, 23-34) serial measurements per patient) and selected the lowest intraindividual phosphate level during the first year after transplantation. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and death-censored graft failure. The median (interquartile range) intraindividual lowest phosphate level was 1.58 (1.30-1.95) mg/dl, and it was reached at 33 (21-51) days post-transplant. eGFR was the main correlate of the lowest serum phosphate level (model R 2 =0.32). During 9 (5-12) years of follow-up, 181 (19%) patients developed graft failure, and 295 (35%) patients died, of which 94 (32%) deaths were due to cardiovascular disease. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, more severe hypophosphatemia was associated with a lower risk of death-censored graft failure (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.88 per 1 mg/dl lower serum phosphate) and cardiovascular mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.62) but not noncardiovascular mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.96) or all-cause mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.61). Post-transplant hypophosphatemia develops early after transplantation. These data connect post-transplant hypophosphatemia with favorable long-term graft and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HMERF Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure ( HMERF ) is an inherited muscle disease that ...

  20. Acute Rejection Increases Risk of Graft Failure and Death in Recent Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Josh; Goldberg, David; Smith, Abigail R; Mansfield, Sarah A; Gillespie, Brenda W; Merion, Robert M; Lok, Anna S F; Levy, Gary; Kulik, Laura; Abecassis, Michael; Shaked, Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Acute rejection is detrimental to most transplanted solid organs, but is considered to be less of a consequence for transplanted livers. We evaluated risk factors for and outcomes after biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) based on an analysis of a more recent national sample of recipients of liver transplants from living and deceased donors. We analyzed data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) from 2003 through 2014 as the exploratory cohort and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) from 2005 through 2013 as the validation cohort. We examined factors associated with time to first BPAR using multivariable Cox regression or discrete-survival analysis. Competing risks methods were used to compare causes of death and graft failure between recipients of living and deceased donors. At least 1 BPAR episode occurred in 239 of 890 recipients in A2ALL (26.9%) and 7066 of 45,423 recipients in SRTR (15.6%). In each database, risk of rejection was significantly lower when livers came from biologically related living donors (A2ALL hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.76; and SRTR HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91) and higher in liver transplant recipients with primary biliary cirrhosis, of younger age, or with hepatitis C. In each database, BPAR was associated with significantly higher risks of graft failure and death. The risks were highest in the 12 month post-BPAR period in patients whose first episode occurred more than 1 year after liver transplantation: HRs for graft failure were 6.79 in A2ALL (95% CI, 2.64-17.45) and 4.41 in SRTR (95% CI, 3.71-5.23); HRs for death were 8.81 in A2ALL (95% CI, 3.37-23.04) and 3.94 in SRTR (95% CI, 3.22-4.83). In analyses of cause-specific mortality, associations were observed for liver-related (graft failure) causes of death but not for other causes. Contrary to previous data, acute rejection after liver transplant is associated with significantly increased

  1. Early graft function and carboxyhemoglobin level in liver transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Yasser; Negmi, H; Elmasry, N; Sadek, M; Riaz, A; Al Ouffi, H; Khalaf, H

    2007-10-01

    Heme-Oxygenase-1 catalyzes hemoglobin into bilirubin, iron, and carbon monoxide, a well known vasodilator. Heme-Oxygenase-1 expression and carbon monoxide production as measured by blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, increase in end stage liver disease patients. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin level and early graft function in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. In a descriptive retrospective study, 39 patients who underwent liver transplantation between the year 2005 and 2006 at KFSH&RC, are included in the study. All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and air. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentration in percentage were recorded at preoperative time, anhepatic phase, end of surgery, ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The level of lactic acid, prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), serum total bilirubin and ammonia were also recorded at ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The numbers of blood units transfused were recorded. 39 patients were included in the study with 13/39 for living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to 26/39 patients scheduled for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). The mean age was 35.9 +/- 16.9 years while the mean body weight was 60.3 +/- 20.9 Kg. Female to male ratio was 21/18. The median packed red blood cell (PRBC) units was 4 (Rang 0-40). There was a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level during the anhepatic phase, end of surgery and on ICU admission compared with preoperative value (p<0.005). However, there was insignificant changes in methemoglobin level and significant decrease in oxyhemoglobin levels throughout the study period compared to the preoperative value (p<0.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin level on ICU admission and 24 hrs postoperatively were positively correlated with the changes in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin time (R = 0.35, 0.382, 0.325 and 0

  2. Prolonged warm ischemia time is associated with graft failure and mortality after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tennankore, Karthik K; Kim, S Joseph; Alwayn, Ian P J; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-03-01

    Warm ischemia time is a potentially modifiable insult to transplanted kidneys, but little is known about its effect on long-term outcomes. Here we conducted a study of United States kidney transplant recipients (years 2000-2013) to determine the association between warm ischemia time (the time from organ removal from cold storage to reperfusion with warm blood) and death/graft failure. Times under 10 minutes were potentially attributed to coding error. Therefore, the 10-to-under-20-minute interval was chosen as the reference group. The primary outcome was mortality and graft failure (return to chronic dialysis or preemptive retransplantation) adjusted for recipient, donor, immunologic, and surgical factors. The study included 131,677 patients with 35,901 events. Relative to the reference patients, times of 10 to under 20, 20 to under 30, 30 to under 40, 40 to under 50, 50 to under 60, and 60 and more minutes were associated with hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.15), 1.13 (1.06-1.22), 1.17 (1.09-1.26), 1.20 (1.12-1.30), and 1.23 (1.15-1.33) for the composite event, respectively. Association between prolonged warm ischemia time and death/graft failure persisted after stratification by donor type (living vs. deceased donor) and delayed graft function status. Thus, warm ischemia time is associated with adverse long-term patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation. Identifying strategies to reduce warm ischemia time is an important consideration for future study. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  4. Association of Pretransplant Skin Cancer With Posttransplant Malignancy, Graft Failure and Death in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woosun; Sampaio, Marcelo Santos; Huang, Edmund; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2017-06-01

    Posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is one of the leading causes of late death in kidney recipients. Those with a cancer history may be more prone to develop a recurrent or a new cancer. We studied the association between pretransplant skin cancer, PTM, death, and graft failure. Primary adult kidney recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2013 were included. Malignancy information was obtained from Organ Procurement Kidney Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing registration and follow-up forms. Posttransplant malignancy was classified into skin cancer, solid tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Competing risk and survival analysis with adjustment for confounders were used to calculate risk for PTM, death and graft failure in recipients with pretransplant skin cancer compared with those without cancer. Risk was reported in hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The cohort included 1671 recipients with and 102 961 without pretransplant skin malignancy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PTM in patients with and without a pretransplant skin cancer history was 31.6% and 7.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Recipients with pretransplant skin cancer had increased risk of PTM (sub-HR [SHR], 2.60; 95% CI, 2.27-2.98), and posttransplant skin cancer (SHR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.52-3.39), PTLD (SHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.01-3.66), solid tumor (SHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99), death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34), and graft failure (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30) when compared with those without pretransplant malignancy. Pretransplant skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of posttransplant skin cancer, PTLD, solid organ cancer, death and graft failure.

  5. Reoperation for composite valve graft failure: Operative results and midterm survival.

    PubMed

    Maroto, Luis C; Carnero, Manuel; Cobiella, Javier; García, Mónica; Vilacosta, Isidre; Reguillo, Fernando; Villagrán, Enrique; Olmos, Carmen

    2018-06-01

    The replacement of a failed composite valve graft is technically more demanding and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We present our technique and outcomes for reoperations for composite graft failures. Between September 2011 and June 2017, 14 patients underwent a redo composite graft replacement. Twelve patients (85.7%) were male, and mean age was 58.4 years ± 12 standard deviation (SD). One patient had two previous root replacements. Indications for reoperation were endocarditis (8), aortic pseudoaneurysm (3), and aortic prosthesis thrombosis (3). Mean logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II were 30.8% and 14.7%, respectively. A mechanical composite graft was used in 12 patients and biological composite grafts were used in two patients. Hospital mortality was 14.3% (n = 2). One patient (7.1%) required reoperation for bleeding, One patient (7.1%) had mechanical ventilation >24 h, and four patients (28.6%) required implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Median intensive care unit and hospital stays were 3 days (interquartile range [IQR] 1-5) and 10 days (IQR 6.5-38.5). One patient experienced recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis 14 months after operation. On follow-up, 11 of 12 survivors were in New York Heart Association class I or II. Survival at 3 years was 85.7% ± 9.4% SD. Composite valve graft replacement can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality with good mid-term survival. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Use of marginal grafts in deceased donor liver transplant: assessment of early outcomes.

    PubMed

    Godara, Rajesh; Naidu, C Sudeep; Rao, Pankaj P; Sharma, Sanjay; Banerjee, Jayant K; Saha, Anupam; Vijay, Kapileshwer

    2014-03-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation has become a routinely applied therapy for an expanding group of patients with end-stage liver disease. Shortage of organs has led centers to expand their criteria for the acceptance of marginal donors. There is current debate about the regulation and results of liver transplantation using marginal grafts. The study included data of all patients who received deceased donor liver grafts between March 2007 to December 2011. Patients with acute liver failure, living donor transplantation, split liver transplantation, and retransplantation were excluded. Early allograft dysfunction, primary nonfunction, patient survival, and incidence of surgical complications were measured. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 20 marginal and 13 nonmarginal grafts. The two groups were well matched regarding age, sex and indication of liver transplantation, model for end-stage liver disease score, technique of transplant, requirement of vascular reconstruction, warm ischemia time, blood loss, mean operative time, etc. In our study, posttransplant peak level of liver enzymes, international normalization ratio, and bilirubin were not statistically significant in the marginal and nonmarginal group. Wound infection occurred in 10 % of marginal compared with 7.7 % of nonmarginal graft recipients (p > 0.05). In the marginal group, the incidences of vascular complications, hepatic artery thrombosis (four), and portal vein thrombosis (one) were not statistically significant compared to the nonmarginal group. Acute rejection was observed in a total of seven patients (21.2 %)-five (25 %) in the marginal group and two (15.4 %) in the nonmarginal graft recipients. Primary nonfunction occurred in three (9.1 %) patients-two (10 %) in the marginal and one (7.7 %) in the nonmarginal group. Average patient survival for the whole group was 91 % at 1 week, 87.8 % at 3 months, and 84.8 % at 6 months. Because organ scarcity persists, additional

  7. Early chest tube removal after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Mohsen; Etesampour, Ali; Gharipour, Mojgan; Shariat, Zeinab; Nilforoush, Peyman; Saeidi, Mahmoud; Mackie, Mahsa; Sadeghi, Fatemeh Mirmohamad

    2009-12-01

    There is no clear data about the optimum time for chest tube removal after coronary artery bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the chest tube removal time following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery on the clinical outcome of the patients. An analysis of data from 307 patients was performed. The patients were randomized into two groups: in group 1 (N=107) chest tubes were removed within the first 24 hours after surgery, whereas in group 2 (N=200), chest tubes were removed in the second 24 hours after surgery. Demographics, lactate and pH at the beginning, during and after the operation, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, inotropic drugs administration, length of ICU stay, and mortality data were collected. Respiratory rate and pain level was assessed. In these surgeries, the mean± standard deviation for the aortic clamping time was 49.18±17.59 minutes and cardiopulmonary bypass time was 78.39±25.12 minutes. The amount of heparin consumed by the second group was higher (P <0.001) which could be considered as an important factor in increasing the drainage time after the surgery (P =0.047). The pain level evaluated 24 hours post-operation was lower in the first group, and the difference in the pain level between the 2 groups evaluated 30 hours post-operation was significant (P=0.016). The mean time of intensive care unit stay was longer in the second group but it was not statistically significant. Early extracting of chest tubes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery when there is no significant drainage can lead to pain reduction and consuming oxygen is an effective measure after surgery toward healing; it doesn't increase the risk of creation of plural effusion and pericardial effusion.

  8. Donor-specific anti-HLA Abs and graft failure in matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, Stefan O.; Thall, Peter F.; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Sa A.; Hu, Ying; Cano, Pedro; Aung, Fleur; Rondon, Gabriela; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Korbling, Martin; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-HLA donor-specific Abs (DSAs) have been reported to be associated with graft failure in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, their role in the development of graft failure in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesize that DSAs against a mismatched HLA-DPB1 locus is associated with graft failure in this setting. The presence of anti-HLA Abs before transplantation was determined prospectively in 592 MUD transplantation recipients using mixed-screen beads in a solid-phase fluorescent assay. DSA identification was performed using single-Ag beads containing the corresponding donor's HLA-mismatched Ags. Anti-HLA Abs were detected in 116 patients (19.6%), including 20 patients (3.4%) with anti-DPB1 Abs. Overall, graft failure occurred in 19 of 592 patients (3.2%), including 16 of 584 (2.7%) patients without anti-HLA Abs compared with 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with DSA (P = .0014). In multivariate analysis, DSAs were the only factor highly associated with graft failure (P = .0001; odds ratio = 21.3). Anti-HLA allosensitization was higher overall in women than in men (30.8% vs 12.1%; P < .0001) and higher in women with 1 (P = .008) and 2 or more pregnancies (P = .0003) than in men. We conclude that the presence of anti-DPB1 DSAs is associated with graft failure in MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:21967975

  9. Peripheral arterial disease preoperatively may predict graft failure and mortality in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Salma I; Chakkera, Harini A; Wennberg, Paul W; Liedl, David A; Alrabadi, Fadi; Cha, Stephen S; Hooley, Darren D; Amer, Hatem; Wadei, Hani M; Shamoun, Fadi E

    2017-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing kidney transplant often have diffuse atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. We analyzed the correlation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), here quantified by an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) measured within the 5 years prior to kidney transplant, with graft failure and mortality rates (primary end points) after adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, known coronary artery disease or heart failure, years of dialysis). Of 1055 patients in our transplant population, 819 had arterial studies within the 5 years prior to transplant. Secondary end points included myocardial infarction; cerebrovascular accident; and limb ischemia, gangrene, or amputation. Low ABI was an independent and significant predictor of organ failure (OR, 2.77 (95% CI, 1.68-4.58), p<0.001), secondary end points (HR, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.97-1.99), p<0.076), and death (HR, 1.84 (95% CI, 1.26-2.68), p=0.002). PAD was common in this population: of 819 kidney transplant recipients, 46% had PAD. Low ABI was associated with a threefold greater risk of graft failure, a twofold greater risk of death after transplant, and a threefold greater risk of secondary end points. Screening for PAD is important in this patient population because of the potential impact on long-term outcomes.

  10. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm fistula formation causing right heart failure: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Boon, K J; Arshad, M A; Singh, H; Lainchbury, J G; Blake, J W H

    2015-11-01

    Saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVG) formation after coronary artery bypass grafting is a rare complication of the surgery. We present a case of a 68-year-old man with an unusual presentation of such an aneurysm. Thirty-four years after his initial bypass surgery, the patient presented with a fistula formation into his right atrium from a vein graft aneurysm. Late aneurysm formation is thought to occur secondary to atherosclerotic degeneration of the SVG with background hypertension and dyslipidaemia accelerating the process. Diagnostic modalities used to investigate SVG aneurysms include computed tomography, transthoracic echocardiogram, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac catheterisation. Aneurysms with fistula formation historically require aggressive surgical intervention. Resection of the aneurysm with subsequent revascularisation if required is the surgical norm. SVG aneurysm with fistula formation into a cardiac chamber is a rare complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), which can occur with atypical presenting symptoms. Physicians should keep in mind the possibility of this occurring in post-CABG patients presenting with heart failure and a new murmur. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  12. Forensic Study of Early Failures with Unbonded Concrete Overlays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-11-01

    A forensic investigation was conducted to identify failure mechanisms responsible for early failures of unbonded concrete overlays on selected projects in Ohio, including I-70 in Madison County, I-77 in Washington and Noble Counties, and I-90 in Lake...

  13. Clinical Courses of Graft Failure Caused by Chronic Allograft Dysfunction in Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T; Teruta, S; Tsudaka, S; Ota, K; Matsuda, H

    Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) is a main cause of graft failure in kidney transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed 279 kidney transplant recipients who survived with a functioning graft for at least 2 years. CAD was defined as chronic graft deterioration, excluding other specific causes. We defined the pattern of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as follows: (1) "plateau" was defined as decline in eGFR ≤2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year; "long plateaus" were those lasting more than 5 years; (2) "rapid decline" was a decrease in eGFR ≥20 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year. Patients diagnosed with CAD were categorized according to the occurrence of rapid decline and/or long plateau as follows: group 1, neither rapid decline nor long plateau; group 2, rapid decline only; group 3, long plateau only; and group 4, both rapid decline and long plateau. From a total of 81 graft losses, 51 (63%) failed because of CAD, with a median of 9.4 years. Sixteen patients belonged to group 1, 14 to group 2, 12 to group 3, and nine to group 4. Mean graft survival times in the four groups were 7.7 ± 1.1, 6.1 ± 3.1, 16.2 ± 2.5, and 10.8 ± 3.6 years, respectively (P < .001). There were significant differences among groups in donor age, year of transplantation, mean eGFR at baseline, and acute rejection rate after transplantation. The results indicate that this cohort of kidney transplant recipients who had CAD comprised subgroups with different clinical courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grafting influences on early acorn production in swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Wild.)

    Mark V. Coggeshall; J.W. Van Sambeek; H.E. Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Early fruiting of swamp white oak planting stock has been observed. The potential to exploit this trait for wildlife enhancement purposes was evaluated in a grafting study. Scions from both precocious and non-precocious ortets were grafted onto a series of related seedling rootstock sources. Acorn production was recorded through age 4 years. Acorn productivity of the...

  15. Urinary potassium excretion, renal ammoniagenesis, and risk of graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Eisenga, Michele F; Kieneker, Lyanne M; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; van den Berg, Else; Deetman, Petronella E; Navis, Gerjan J; Gans, Reinold Ob; Gaillard, Carlo Ajm; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M

    2016-12-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have commonly been urged to limit their potassium intake during renal insufficiency and may adhere to this principle after transplantation. Importantly, in experimental animal models, low dietary potassium intake induces kidney injury through stimulation of ammoniagenesis. In humans, low potassium intake is an established risk factor for high blood pressure. We hypothesized that low 24-h urinary potassium excretion [UKV; urinary potassium concentration × volume], the gold standard for assessment of dietary potassium intake, represents a risk factor for graft failure and mortality in RTRs. In secondary analyses, we aimed to investigate whether these associations could be explained by ammoniagenesis, plasma potassium, or blood pressure. In a prospective cohort of 705 RTRs, we assessed dietary potassium intake by a single 24-h UKV and food-frequency questionnaires. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate prospective associations with outcome. We included 705 stable RTRs (mean ± SD age: 53 ± 13 y; 57% men) at 5.4 y (IQR: 1.9-12.0 y) after transplantation and 253 kidney donors. Mean ± SD UKV was 73 ± 24 mmol/24 h in RTRs compared with 85 ± 25 mmol/24 h in kidney donors. During follow-up for 3.1 y (IQR: 2.7-3.9 y), 45 RTRs developed graft failure and 83 died. RTRs in the lowest sex-specific tertile of UKV (women, <55 mmol/24 h; men, <65 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of graft failure (HR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.64, 8.34) and risk of mortality (HR; 2.66; 95% CI: 1.53, 4.61), independent of potential confounders. In causal path analyses, 24-h urinary ammonia excretion, plasma potassium, and blood pressure did not affect these associations. Our results indicate that low UKV is associated with a higher risk of graft failure and mortality in RTRs. Specific attention for adequate potassium intake after transplantation seems warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02811835. © 2016 American Society for

  16. High risk of graft failure in patients with anti-HLA antibodies undergoing haploidentical stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Stefan O; de Lima, Marcos; Cano, Pedro; Korbling, Martin; Giralt, Sergio; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Wang, Xuemei; Thall, Peter F; Champlin, Richard E; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo

    2009-10-27

    BACKGROUND.: Although donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) have been implicated in graft rejection in solid organ transplantation, their role in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation remains unclear. METHODS.: To address the hypothesis that the presence of DSA contributes to the development graft failure, we tested 24 consecutive patients for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies determined by a sensitive and specific solid-phase/single-antigen assay. The study included a total of 28 haploidentical transplants, each with 2 to 5 HLA allele mismatches, at a single institution, from September 2005 to August 2008. RESULTS.: DSA were detected in five patients (21%). Three of four (75%) patients with DSA before the first transplant failed to engraft, compared with 1 of 20 (5%) without DSA (P=0.008). All four patients who experienced primary graft failure had second haploidentical transplants. One patient developed a second graft failure with persistent high DSA levels, whereas three engrafted, two of them in the absence of DSA. No other known factors that could negatively influence engraftment were associated with the development of graft failure in these patients. CONCLUSIONS.: These results suggest that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies are associated with a high rate of graft rejection in patients undergoing haploidentical stem-cell transplantation. Anti-HLA sensitization should be evaluated routinely in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with HLA mismatched donors.

  17. Early pregnancy failure management among family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robin; Dehlendorf, Christine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gold, Katherine J; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-03-01

    Family physicians, as primary care providers for reproductive-aged women, frequently initiate or refer patients for management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Safe and effective options for EPF treatment include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and aspiration in the office or operating room. Current practice does not appear to reflect patient preferences or to utilize the most cost-effective treatments. We compared characteristics and practice patterns among family physicians who do and do not provide multiple options for EPF care. We performed a secondary analysis of a national survey of women's health providers to describe demographic and practice characteristics among family physicians who care for women with EPF. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of providing more than one option for EPF management. The majority of family physicians provide only one option for EPF; expectant management was most frequently used among our survey respondents. Misoprostol and office-based aspiration were rarely used. Providing more than one option for EPF management was associated with more years in practice, smaller county population, larger proportions of Medicaid patients, intrauterine contraception provision, and prior training in office-based aspiration. Family physicians are capable of providing a comprehensive range of options for EPF management in the outpatient setting but few providers currently do so. To create a more patient-centered and cost-effective model of care for EPF, additional resources should be directed at education, skills training, and system change initiatives to prepare family physicians to offer misoprostol and office-based aspiration to women with EPF.

  18. [Interleukin 8 concentrations in donor bronchoalveolar lavage: impact on primary graft failure in double lung transplant].

    PubMed

    Almenar, María; Cerón, José; Gómez, M A Dolores; Peñalver, Juan C; Jiménez, M A José; Padilla, José

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from donor lungs and assess the role of IL-8 levels in the development of primary graft failure. Twenty patients who received a double lung transplant were studied. A series of data, including BAL fluid concentrations of IL-8, were collected for the donors. Data collected for the recipients included arterial blood gases after 6, 24, and 48 hours, and intubation time. Patients with a ratio of PaO(2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) of less than 300 during the first 48 hours were diagnosed with primary graft failure. IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations between the donor variables and IL-8 concentrations were evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho) and the Mann-Whitney test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Fifteen of the 20 donors were men. The cause of brain death was trauma in 9 donors, 7 were smokers, 13 required inotropic support, and pathogens were isolated in the BAL fluid of 18. The median age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR], 23.5-51.25y), the median ventilation time was 1 day (IQR, 1-2d), the median PaO(2)/FiO(2) was 459.5 (IQR, 427-510.25), and the median IL-8 concentration in BAL fluid was 49.01ng/L (IQR, 7.86-94.05ng/mL). Ten of the recipients were men and the median age was 48.43 years (IQR, 25.4-56.81y). The median ischemic time was 210 minutes (IQR, 176.25-228.75 min) for the first lung and 300 minutes (IQR, 273.75-333.73 min) for the second lung. The median PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio for the implant at 6, 14, and 48 hours was 329 (IQR, 190.25-435), 363.5 (IQR, 249-434.75), and 370.5 (IQR, 243.25-418.25), respectively. The median intubation time was 39.5 hours (IQR, 19.25-68.5h) and the correlation with IL-8 values was positive: higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid

  19. Factors Associated with Mortality and Graft Failure in Liver Transplants: A Hierarchical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Andraus, Wellington; de Martino, Rodrigo Bronze; Ortega, Neli Regina de Siqueira; Abe, Jair Minoro; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation has received increased attention in the medical field since the 1980s following the introduction of new immunosuppressants and improved surgical techniques. Currently, transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease, and it has been expanded for other indications. Liver transplantation outcomes depend on donor factors, operating conditions, and the disease stage of the recipient. A retrospective cohort was studied to identify mortality and graft failure rates and their associated factors. All adult liver transplants performed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2006 and 2012 were studied. Methods and Findings A hierarchical Poisson multiple regression model was used to analyze factors related to mortality and graft failure in liver transplants. A total of 2,666 patients, 18 years or older, (1,482 males; 1,184 females) were investigated. Outcome variables included mortality and graft failure rates, which were grouped into a single binary variable called negative outcome rate. Additionally, donor clinical, laboratory, intensive care, and organ characteristics and recipient clinical data were analyzed. The mortality rate was 16.2 per 100 person-years (py) (95% CI: 15.1–17.3), and the graft failure rate was 1.8 per 100 py (95% CI: 1.5–2.2). Thus, the negative outcome rate was 18.0 per 100 py (95% CI: 16.9–19.2). The best risk model demonstrated that recipient creatinine ≥ 2.11 mg/dl [RR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.56–2.08)], total bilirubin ≥ 2.11 mg/dl [RR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.27–1.72)], Na+ ≥ 141.01 mg/dl [RR = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.47–1.97)], RNI ≥ 2.71 [RR = 1.64 (95% CI: 1.41–1.90)], body surface ≥ 1.98 [RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68–0.97)] and donor age ≥ 54 years [RR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.11–1.48)], male gender [RR = 1.19(95% CI: 1.03–1.37)], dobutamine use [RR = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.36–0.82)] and intubation ≥ 6 days [RR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.10–1.34)] affected the negative outcome

  20. Identification of subgroups by risk of graft failure after paediatric renal transplantation: application of survival tree models on the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

    PubMed

    Lofaro, Danilo; Jager, Kitty J; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Groothoff, Jaap W; Arikoski, Pekka; Hoecker, Britta; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaelle; Spasojević, Brankica; Verrina, Enrico; Schaefer, Franz; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2016-02-01

    Identification of patient groups by risk of renal graft loss might be helpful for accurate patient counselling and clinical decision-making. Survival tree models are an alternative statistical approach to identify subgroups, offering cut-off points for covariates and an easy-to-interpret representation. Within the European Society of Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry data we identified paediatric patient groups with specific profiles for 5-year renal graft survival. Two analyses were performed, including (i) parameters known at time of transplantation and (ii) additional clinical measurements obtained early after transplantation. The identified subgroups were added as covariates in two survival models. The prognostic performance of the models was tested and compared with conventional Cox regression analyses. The first analysis included 5275 paediatric renal transplants. The best 5-year graft survival (90.4%) was found among patients who received a renal graft as a pre-emptive transplantation or after short-term dialysis (<45 days), whereas graft survival was poorest (51.7%) in adolescents transplanted after long-term dialysis (>2.2 years). The Cox model including both pre-transplant factors and tree subgroups had a significantly better predictive performance than conventional Cox regression (P < 0.001). In the analysis including clinical factors, graft survival ranged from 97.3% [younger patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and dialysis <20 months] to 34.7% (adolescents with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and dialysis >20 months). Also in this case combining tree findings and clinical factors improved the predictive performance as compared with conventional Cox model models (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, we demonstrated the tree model to be an accurate and attractive tool to predict graft failure for patients with specific characteristics. This may

  1. Cunninghamella bertholletiae Infection in a HLA-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient with Graft Failure: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Jiasheng; Hu, Yongxian; Luo, Yi; Tan, Yamin; Jin, Aiyun; Wei, Bin; Hu, Huixian; Huang, He

    2016-10-01

    Cunninghamella bertholletiae as a rare cause of mucormycosis has been described almost exclusively in immunosuppressed patients such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The infection is associated with high rates of mortality despite aggressive treatment. We describe a 40-year-old male with HLA-haploidentical HSCT developed fungal pneumonitis caused by C. bertholletiae complicated by graft failure and prolonged neutropenia. The patient died 102 days after HSCT despite early use of posaconazole and amphotericin B, which are believed to be the two most effective antifungal antibiotics against C. bertholletiae. The case highlights extreme unfavorable outcome in C. bertholletiae infection and neutropenia as a major risk factor.

  2. Preventing Early Reading Failure: An Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Across the pendulum-like changes in beginning reading instruction over the past 30 years, three interrelated ideas emerge as the key to preventing reading failure in kindergarten and first grade: (1) an interesting, carefully-leveled book curriculum; (2) a leveled phonics curriculum; and (3) a well-trained teacher who knows how to integrate guided…

  3. Early clinical and angiographic outcome of the pedicled right internal thoracic artery graft to the left anterior descending artery.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruzzeh, Sharif; George, Shane; Bustami, Mahmoud; Nakamura, Koki; Ilsley, Charles; Amrani, Mohamed

    2002-05-01

    The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery became the gold standard graft in coronary surgery. Subsequently, the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) graft was increasingly used. However, there is still some debate about the optimal way of using this conduit. The aim of the present study was to assess our experience in grafting the pedicled RITA graft to LAD in 212 consecutive patients. The records of 212 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with the pedicled RITA graft to the LAD artery at Harefield Hospital between January 1998 and May 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. We approached the last 35 consecutive patients to obtain an angiographic control group. All 35 patients (16.5%) consented and, before discharge, underwent angiography to look at the quality of anastomoses and the patency of grafts. Successful catheterization and engagement of the RITA grafts was performed in 32 patients. Angiography showed that 32/32 (100%) of the RITA grafts were widely patent with excellent flow. The distal anastomoses of these RITA grafts were also satisfactory. There were no deaths among the study patients. Our results show that the use of the pedicled RITA graft to the LAD artery provides a good early clinical and angiographic outcome, and suggests that the pedicled RITA graft to the LAD artery is a good alternative to the pedicled LITA graft to the LAD artery.

  4. Income-related disparities in kidney transplant graft failures are eliminated by Medicare's immunosuppression coverage

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Robert S.; Page, Timothy F.; Soares, Ricardo; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Lentine, Krista L.; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning January 1, 2000, Medicare extended coverage of immunosuppression medications from 3-years to lifetime based on age >65 years or disability. Using USRDS data for Medicare-insured recipients of kidney transplants between July 1995 and December 2000, we identified four Cohorts of Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients. Patients in Cohort 1 were individuals who were both eligible and received lifetime-coverage. Patients in Cohort 2 would have been eligible, but their three-year coverage expired before lifetime-coverage was available. Patients in Cohort 3 were ineligible for lifetime-coverage because of youth or lack of disability. Patients in Cohort 4 were transplanted 1996–1996 and were ineligible for lifetime-coverage. Incomes were categorized by ZIP-code median household income from census data. Lifetime-extension of Medicare immunosuppression was associated with improved allograft survival among low-income transplant recipients in the sense that the previously existing income-related disparities in graft survival in Cohort 2 were not apparent in Cohort 1. Ineligible individuals served as a control group; the income-related disparities in graft survival observed in the early Cohort 4 persisted in more recent Cohort 3. Multivariate proportional-hazards models confirmed these findings. Future work should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these coverage increases, as well as that of benefits extensions to broader patient groups. PMID:19032227

  5. Decreased serum estrogen improves fat graft retention by enhancing early macrophage infiltration and inducing adipocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hsiaopei; Feng, Jingwei; Hu, Wansheng; Wang, Jing; Cai, Junrong; Lu, Feng

    2018-06-18

    Fat grafting is a commonly used procedure; however, the mechanisms that regulate graft outcomes are not clear. Estrogen has been associated with vascularization, inflammation and fat metabolism, yet its role in fat grafting is unclear. Mice were implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets (high estrogen, HE), underwent ovariectomy (low estrogen level, OVX) or sham surgery (normal estrogen level, CON). 45 days later, inguinal fat of mice was autografted subcutaneously. At 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks post-transplantation, grafts were dissected, weighed, and assessed for histology, angiogenesis and inflammation level. Serum estrogen level correlated to estrogen manipulation. 12 weeks after autografting, the retention rate was significantly higher in the OVX (79% ± 30%) than in the HE (16% ± 8%) and CON (35% ± 13%) groups. OVX-grafts had the least necrosis and most hypertrophic fat. OVX recruited the most pro-inflammatory macrophages and demonstrated a faster dead tissue removal process, however a higher fibrogenic tendency was found in this group. HE grafts had the most Sca1+ local stem cells and CD31  +  capillary content; however, with a low level of acute inflammation and insufficient adipokine PPAR-γ expression, their retention rate was impaired. Elevated serum estrogen increased stem cell density and early vascularization; however, by inhibiting the early inflammation, it resulted in delayed necrotic tissue removal and finally led to impaired adipose restoration. A low estrogen level induced favorable inflammation status and adipocyte hypertrophy to improve fat graft retention, but a continuing decreased estrogen level led to fat graft fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  7. Narrowing the gap: early and intermediate outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft procedures in California, 1997 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joseph S; Danielsen, Beate; Milliken, Jeffrey; Li, Zhongmin; Stabile, Bruce E

    2009-11-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly used to treat multivessel coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass graft procedures have decreased, and as a result, percutaneous coronary intervention has increased. The overall impact of this treatment shift is uncertain. We examined the in-hospital mortality and complication rates for these procedures in California using a combined risk model. The confidential dataset of the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development patient discharge database was queried for 1997 to 2006. A risk model was developed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedures and diagnostic codes from the combined pool of isolated coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures performed during 2005 and 2006. In-hospital mortality was corrected for "same-day" transfers to another health care institution. Early failure rate was defined as in-hospital mortality rate plus reintervention for another percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiac surgery procedure within 90 days. Coronary artery bypass graft volume decreased from 28,495 (1997) to 15,520 (2006), whereas percutaneous coronary intervention volume increased from 38,098 to 53,703. Risk-adjusted mortality rate decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% for coronary artery bypass graft procedures and from 3.4% to 1.9% for percutaneous coronary intervention. Expected mortality rate increased for both procedures. Early failure rate decreased from 13.1% to 8.0% for percutaneous coronary intervention and from 6.5% to 5.4% for coronary artery bypass graft. For the years 2004 and 2005, the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction or need for coronary artery bypass graft during the first postoperative year was 12% for percutaneous coronary intervention and 6% for coronary artery bypass grafts. This study shows that as volume shifted from coronary artery bypass grafts to percutaneous coronary intervention, expected

  8. Early Failures Benefit Subsequent Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Igata, Hideyoshi; Sasaki, Takuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-02-17

    Animals navigate using cognitive maps. However, how they adaptively exploit these maps in changing environments is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the problem-solving behaviors of mice in a complicated maze in which multiple routes with different intersections were available (Test 1). Although all mice eventually settled on the shortest route, mice that initially exhibited more trial-and-error exploration solved the maze more rapidly. We then introduced one or two barriers that obstructed learned routes such that mice had to establish novel roundabout detours (Tests 2/3). Solutions varied among mice but were predictable based on individual early trial-and-error patterns observed in Test 1: mice that had initially explored more extensively found better solutions. Finally, when the barriers were removed (Test 4), all mice reverted to the best solution after active exploration. Thus, early active exploration helps mice to develop optimal strategies.

  9. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  10. A randomized comparison of the Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft (SAVE RITA) trial: early results.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Jun Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2012-11-01

    The Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft trial was designed to evaluate the saphenous vein compared with the right internal thoracic artery as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the side of the left internal thoracic artery. In this early analysis, we compared early angiographic patency rates and clinical outcomes. From September 2008 to October 2011, 224 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomized prospectively to undergo off-pump revascularization using the saphenous vein group (n = 112) or the right internal thoracic artery group (n = 112) as Y-composite grafts. Early postoperative (1.4 ± 1.1 days) angiographic patency and clinical outcomes were compared. There was 1 operative death in the right internal thoracic artery group. No statistically significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure, were observed between the groups. The number of distal anastomoses using the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 2.3 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.7 in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P < .001). A third conduit was used in 44 patients (saphenous vein group vs right internal thoracic artery group, 4/109 vs 40/110; P < .001) to extend the side-arm Y-composite graft for complete revascularization. Early angiography demonstrated an overall patency rate of 99.4% (771 of 776 distal anastomoses). Patency rates of the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 98.8% (245 of 248) and 99.5% (207 of 208) in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P = .629). A third conduit was needed to extend the right internal thoracic artery composite graft and reach the target vessels in 36.4% (40/110) of the patients. The saphenous vein composite graft was comparable with the right internal thoracic artery composite graft

  11. Transient hyperglycemia during liver transplantation does not affect the early graft function.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Annabel; Beltran, Joan; Martin, Nuria; Martinez-Pallí, Graciela; Lozano, Juan J; Balust, Jaume; Torrents, Abigail; Taura, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background and rationale for the study. Hyperglycemia after graft reperfusion is a consistent finding in liver transplantation (LT) that remains poorly studied. We aim to describe its appearance in LT recipients of different types of grafts and its relation to the graft function. 436 LT recipients of donors after brain death (DBD), donors after cardiac death (DCD), and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) donors were reviewed. Serum glucose was measured at baseline, during the anhepatic phase, after graft reperfusion, and at the end of surgery. Early graft dysfunction (EAD) was assessed by Olthoff criteria. Caspase-3, IFN-γ, IL1β, and IL6 gene expression were measured in liver biopsy. The highest increase in glucose levels after reperfusion was observed in FAP LT recipients and the lowest in DCD LT recipients. Glucose level during the anhepatic phase was the only modifiable predictive variable of hyperglycemia after reperfusion. No relation was found between hyperglycemia after reperfusion and EAD. However, recipients with the highest glucose levels after reperfusion tended to achieve the best glucose control at the end of surgery and those who were unable to control the glucose value after reperfusion showed EAD more frequently. The highest levels of caspase-3 were found in recipients with the lowest glucose values after reperfusion. In conclusion, glucose levels increased after graft reperfusion to a different extent according to the donor type. Contrary to general belief, transient hyperglycemia after reperfusion does not appear to impact negatively on the liver graft function and could even be suggested as a marker of graft quality.

  12. Ibrutinib for chronic graft-versus-host disease after failure of prior therapy.

    PubMed

    Miklos, David; Cutler, Corey S; Arora, Mukta; Waller, Edmund K; Jagasia, Madan; Pusic, Iskra; Flowers, Mary E; Logan, Aaron C; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Blazar, Bruce R; Li, Yunfeng; Chang, Stephen; Lal, Indu; Dubovsky, Jason; James, Danelle F; Styles, Lori; Jaglowski, Samantha

    2017-11-23

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with few effective options available after failure of corticosteroids. B and T cells play a role in the pathophysiology of cGVHD. Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase in B cells and interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase in T cells. In preclinical models, ibrutinib reduced severity of cGVHD. This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in patients with active cGVHD with inadequate response to corticosteroid-containing therapies. Forty-two patients who had failed 1 to 3 prior treatments received ibrutinib (420 mg) daily until cGVHD progression. The primary efficacy end point was cGVHD response based on 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, best overall response was 67%; 71% of responders showed a sustained response for ≥20 weeks. Responses were observed across involved organs evaluated. Most patients with multiple cGVHD organ involvement had a multiorgan response. Median corticosteroid dose in responders decreased from 0.29 mg/kg per day at baseline to 0.12 mg/kg per day at week 49; 5 responders discontinued corticosteroids. The most common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nausea, and bruising. Plasma levels of soluble factors associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cGVHD significantly decreased over time with ibrutinib. Ibrutinib resulted in clinically meaningful responses with acceptable safety in patients with ≥1 prior treatments for cGVHD. Based on these results, ibrutinib was approved in the United States for treatment of adult patients with cGVHD after failure of 1 or more lines of systemic therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02195869. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Telomere shortening in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a potential mechanism for late graft failure?

    PubMed

    Awaya, Norihiro; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Manley, Thomas J; Sanders, Jean E; Mielcarek, Marco; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres serve to maintain the structural integrity of chromosomes, yet each somatic cell division is associated with a decrease in telomere length. The cumulative decrease in telomere length can impose an upper limit for the number of cell divisions that can occur before a cell senesces. When studied in vitro with fibroblasts, this limit is referred to as the Hayflick limit and usually occurs after 40 to 80 cell doublings. In theory, a similar replicative potential in a hematopoietic stem cell could support hematopoiesis in a person for more than 100 years. However, stem cells differentiate, and the telomere length differs among chromosomes within a single cell, among cell types, and among age-matched individuals. This variation in telomere length raises the possibility that long-term hematopoiesis by transplanted stem cells could, depending on the telomere length of the engrafted stem cell and the proliferative demand to which it is subjected, reach a Hayflick limit during the life span of the patient. Although significant shortening of telomeres is reported to occur within the first year posttransplantation, as yet no evidence has indicated that this shortening is associated with marrow function. In this review, we summarize reports on telomere shortening in stem cell transplantation recipients and report 2 cases in which graft failure is associated with significant telomere shortening.

  14. Obstructive uropathy and acute renal failure due to ureteral calculus in renal graft: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lusenti, T; Fiorini, F; Barozzi, L

    2009-09-01

    Obstructive uropathy caused by kidney stones is quite rare in transplant kidneys. The authors report the case of a patient, previously gastrectomized for gastric carcinoma. He underwent renal transplantation using uretero-ureterostomy, and presented an episode of acute renal failure 7 years after surgery. Ultrasound (US) examination showed no sign of rejection but allowed detection of moderate hydronephrosis in the transplant kidney. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed a kidney stone in the middle ureter at the crossing of the iliac vessels. The patient therefore urgently underwent percutaneous nephrostomy of the graft and recovered diuresis and renal function. The patient was transferred to the Transplant Center where he underwent ureterotomy with removal of the stone and subsequent ureteropyelostomy. Also transureteral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed due to urinary retention of prostatic origin. Histological examination showed prostate carcinoma, Gleason stage 3, which was treated conservatively using radiotherapy without suspension of the administered low dose of immunotherapy. Calculosis is one of the least common causes of obstructive uropathy in transplant kidneys. In the described case, US examination performed after onset of renal insufficiency led to subsequent radiological investigation and resulting interventional procedures (nephrostomy and surgical removal of the stone) with complete recovery of pre-existing renal function.

  15. Characteristics of early versus late implant failure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Oubaid, Saheer; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Implant failures can be divided into early and late according to the timing of failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare both types. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 194 patients (98 men and 96 women) who presented after dental implant failures during a 6-year period (2000 to 2006). The patient served as the unit of analysis. A history of at least 1 failed and removed dental implant served as the inclusion criterion. Patients were excluded from this study whenever their files had missing data. The collected data included a patient's characteristics, failure characteristics, and the anatomic status of the alveolar ridge after failure. Late failures were associated with moderate to severe bone loss, a larger number of failed implants per patient, a higher incidence in men, and mostly in posterior areas. Early failures were associated with minimal bone loss, occurred more in women, at a younger age, and in most cases the implants were intended to support single crowns. Meticulous follow-up is needed to reveal and treat failing or ailing implants. Once established as hopeless, they should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further bone loss.

  16. The predictive value of the antioxidative function of HDL for cardiovascular disease and graft failure in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Leberkühne, Lynn J; Ebtehaj, Sanam; Dimova, Lidiya G; Dikkers, Arne; Dullaart, Robin P F; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2016-06-01

    Protection of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidative modification is a key anti-atherosclerotic property of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This study evaluated the predictive value of the HDL antioxidative function for cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality and chronic graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The capacity of HDL to inhibit native LDL oxidation was determined in vitro in a prospective cohort of renal transplant recipients (RTR, n = 495, median follow-up 7.0 years). The HDL antioxidative functionality was significantly higher in patients experiencing graft failure (57.4 ± 9.7%) than in those without (54.2 ± 11.3%; P = 0.039), while there were no differences for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Specifically glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.001) and C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) associated independently with antioxidative functionality in multivariate linear regression analyses. Cox regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between antioxidative functionality of HDL and graft failure in age-adjusted analyses, but significance was lost following adjustment for baseline kidney function and inflammatory load. No significant association was found between HDL antioxidative functionality and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This study demonstrates that the antioxidative function of HDL (i) does not predict cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in RTR, but (ii) conceivably contributes to the development of graft failure, however, not independent of baseline kidney function and inflammatory load. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Early outcomes of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ghulam; Azam, Hammad; Baig, Mirza Ahmad Raza; Ahmad, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    To see the early post-operative outcomes of off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This retrospective analytical study was conducted at Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan, Pakistan. Our Primary outcome variables were; necessity of inotropic support, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ICU stay, nonfatal stroke, new renal failure requiring dialysis and death within 30 days after operation. There were two groups of patients; Group-I (On-pump group) and Group-II (Off-pump Group). SPSS V17 was used for data analysis. Independent sample t-test and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare quantitative Variables. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze qualitative variables. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Three hundred patients were included in this study. There were no significant difference regarding risk factors except hyper-cholestrolemia which was high in off pump group (p-value 0.05). Angiographic and Echocardiographic characteristics e.g. preoperative ejection fraction, LV function grade and severity of CAD was same between the groups. Mortality risk scores and Priority status for surgery were also same. Regarding post-operative outcomes; Post-op CKMB Levels, need and duration of inotropic support, mechanical ventilation time and ICU stay was significantly less in Off-Pump group (p-value 0.001, <0.0001, 0.006, 0.025 and 0.001 resp.). Peri-operative chest drainage was significantly high in On-pump CABG group (p-value 0.027). Incidence of post-op complications was not statistically different between the groups. At 30 days follow-up, Incidence of myocardial infarction, necessity and duration of inotropic support, ICU stay period and peri-operative bleeding were significantly less in off-pump group. The incidence of neurologic, pulmonary and renal complications was same between the off-pump and on-pump groups.

  18. Does Early Reading Failure Decrease Children's Reading Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Cordray, David S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure…

  19. Early healing in alveolar sockets grafted with titanium granules. An experimental study in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Thiago; Sukekava, Flávia; de Souza, André B; Rasmusson, Lars; Araújo, Maurício G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the placement of titanium granules in fresh extraction sockets on early bone formation. The mesial roots of the third maxillary premolars of five adult beagle dogs were removed. On one side of the maxilla (Test group) the fresh extraction socket was grafted with titanium granules, while the contra-lateral socket was left non-grafted (Control group). After 1 month of healing, the dogs were euthanized and biopsies were obtained. The healing tissues were described, and histometric measurements were performed to obtain the percentage area occupied by connective tissue, new mineralized bone, bone marrow, and biomaterial particles. After 1 month of healing the findings from the histological examination revealed the titanium graft to be well incorporated into the provisional connective tissue or newly formed woven bone. The histometric measurements showed, however, that less mineralized bone was formed in the Test group than in the Control group. The present study suggests that the use of titanium granules in fresh extraction sockets was conducive to new bone formation. The graft of titanium granules seems, however, to delay the early phase of the healing process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Can zero-hour cortical biopsy predict early graft outcomes after living donor renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ranjeet Singh; Mehta, Nisarg; Mehta, Sony Bhaskar; Babu, Manas; Bansal, Devesh; Pillai, Biju S; Sam, Mohan P; Krishnamoorthy, Hariharan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relevance of subclinical pathological findings in the kidneys of living donors and correlate these with early graft renal function. This was a prospective study on 84 living donor kidney transplant recipients over a period of two years. In all the donors, cortical wedge biopsy was taken and sent for assessment of glomerular, mesangial, and tubule status. The graft function of patients with normal histology was compared with those of abnormal histological findings at one, three, and six months, and one year post-surgery. Most abnormal histological findings were of mild degree. Glomerulosclerosis (GS, 25%), interstitial fibrosis (IF, 13%), acute tubular necrosis (ATN 5%), and focal tubal atrophy (FTA, 5%) were the commonly observed pathological findings in zero-hour biopsies. Only those donors who had histological changes of IF and ATN showed progressive deterioration of renal function at one month, three months, six months, and one year post-transplantation. In donors with other histological changes, no significant effect on graft function was observed. Zero-hour cortical biopsy gave us an idea of the general status of the donor kidney and presence or absence of subclinical pathological lesions. A mild degree of subclinical and pathological findings on zero-hour biopsy did not affect early graft renal function in living donor kidney transplantation. Zero-hour cortical biopsy could also help in discriminating donor-derived lesions from de novo alterations in the kidney that could happen subsequently.

  1. Race and ethnic differences in the epidemiology and risk factors for graft failure after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alanna A; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Zhao, Liping; Owen, Melissa; Raja Laskar, S; David Vega, J; Smith, Andrew; Butler, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiology of chronic graft failure (GF) after heart transplantation (HT) is not well described. Moreover, differences in the epidemiology of GF based on race/ethnicity remain poorly understood, despite clear evidence of inferior survival of ethnic minorities after HT. The incidence of GF and the population-attributable risk (PAR) of independent risk factors for GF were assessed in 15,255 patients (76% men; mean age 52 ± 12 years) who underwent primary HT from 2004 to 2012. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (interquartile range, 2.3-7.1 years), GF developed in 2,926 patients (19.2%), corresponding to an incidence rate of 39.8/1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 38.4-41.3). Blacks were more likely to develop GF than Hispanics or whites, with incidence rates of 55.1, 42.2, and 36.5/1,000 person-years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, black race was associated with a higher risk of GF (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.6; p < 0.001). Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have risk factors for GF, including low education, public insurance, allosensitization, higher human leukocyte antigen mismatch, non-adherence, and history of rejection requiring hospitalization (all p < 0.001). Rejection requiring hospitalization carried the highest population-attributable risk in all groups, with the highest fraction in blacks (25.8%) compared with whites (18.6%) and Hispanics (15.6%). Socioeconomic and donor risk factors conferred relatively less risk of GF. Black HT recipients have the highest risk of GF, with immunologic factors conferring the greatest proportion of that risk. Racial differences in risk factors for GF after HT require further study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The risk of allograft failure and the survival benefit of kidney transplantation are complicated by delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Rose, Caren; Gill, John S

    2016-06-01

    Concern about the long-term impact of delayed graft function (DGF) may limit the use of high-risk organs for kidney transplantation. To understand this better, we analyzed 29,598 mate kidney transplants from the same deceased donor where only 1 transplant developed DGF. The DGF associated risk of graft failure was greatest in the first posttransplant year, and in patients with concomitant acute rejection (hazard ratio: 8.22, 95% confidence interval: 4.76-14.21). In contrast, the DGF-associated risk of graft failure after the first posttransplant year in patients without acute rejection was far lower (hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.29). In subsequent analysis, recipients of transplants complicated by DGF still derived a survival benefit when compared with patients who received treatment with dialysis irrespective of donor quality as measured by the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI). The difference in the time required to derive a survival benefit was longer in transplants with DGF than in transplants without DGF, and this difference was greatest in recipients of lower quality kidneys (difference: 250-279 days for KDPI 20%-60% vs. 809 days for the KDPI over 80%). Thus, the association of DGF with graft failure is primarily limited to the first posttransplant year. Transplants complicated by DGF provide a survival benefit compared to treatment with dialysis, but the survival benefit is lower in kidney transplants with lower KDPI. This information may increase acceptance of kidneys at high risk for DGF and inform strategies to minimize the risk of death in the setting of DGF. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Graft Bending Angle Can Affect Early Graft Healing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: In Vivo Analysis With 2 Years' Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yasutaka; Gale, Tom; Sundaram, Vani; Nagai, Kanto; Irrgang, James J; Anderst, William; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Tashman, Scott; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-07-01

    area. The signal intensity was highest in the proximal region and lowest in the distal region of the reconstructed graft at 6 months postoperatively. A steep GBA was significantly correlated with high signal intensities of the proximal graft in this early period. A steep GBA may negatively affect proximal graft healing after ACL reconstruction.

  4. De novo noncutaneous malignancies after kidney transplantation are associated with an increased risk of graft failure: results from a time-dependent analysis on 672 patients.

    PubMed

    Cena, Tiziana; Musetti, Claudio; Quaglia, Marco; Magnani, Corrado; Stratta, Piero; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cancer occurrence and risk of graft failure in kidney transplant recipients. From November 1998 to November 2013, 672 adult patients received their first kidney transplant from a deceased donor and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (3523 patient-years), 47 patients developed a nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and 40 a noncutaneous malignancy (NCM). A total of 59 graft failures were observed. The failure rate was 6 per 100 patient-year (pt-yr) after NCM versus 1.5 per 100 pt-yr in patients without NCM. In a time-dependent multivariable model, the occurrence of NCM appeared to be associated with failure (HR = 3.27; 95% CI = 1.44-7.44). The effect of NCM on the cause-specific graft failure was different (P = 0.002) when considering events due to chronic rejection (HR = 0.55) versus other causes (HR = 15.59). The reduction of the immunosuppression after NCM was not associated with a greater risk of graft failure. In conclusion, our data suggest that post-transplant NCM may be a strong risk factor for graft failure, particularly for causes other than chronic rejection. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Early excision and grafting versus delayed excision and grafting of deep thermal burns up to 40% total body surface area: a comparison of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, M.; Zaib, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This is a study of 120 patients of either sex and all ages who had sustained deep burns of up to 40% of the total body surface area. Half the patients underwent early excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 4-7 days of sustaining burn injury) while the rest underwent delayed excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 1-4 weeks post-burn). Significant differences were found in favour of the early excision and grafting group with regard to the various burn management outcome parameters taken into consideration, i.e. culture positivity of wounds, graft take, duration of post-graft hospitalization, and mortality. PMID:23467391

  6. Gene expression profiles characterize early graft response in living donor small bowel transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S P; Pahari, M; Uknis, M E; Rastellini, C; Cicalese, L

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and histological events that occur during the regeneration process in invertebrates have been studied in the field of visceral regeneration. We would like to explore the molecular aspects of the regeneration process in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to characterize the gene expression profiles of the intestinal graft to identify which genes may have a role in regeneration of graft tissue posttransplant. In a patient undergoing living related small bowel transplantation (LRSBTx) in our institution, mucosal biopsies were obtained from the recipient intestine and donor graft at the time of transplant and at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 6 posttransplant. Total RNA was isolated from sample biopsies followed by gene expression profiles determined from the replicate samples (n = 3) for each biopsy using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Human GeneChip set. Two profiles were obtained from the data. One profile showed rapid increase of 45 genes immediately after transplant by week 1 with significant changes (P < .05) greater than threefold including the chemokine CXC9 and glutathione-related stress factors, GPX2 and GSTA4. The second profile identified 133 genes that were significantly decreased by threefold or greater immediately after transplant week 1, including UCC1, the human homolog of the Ependymin gene. We have identified two gene expression profiles representing early graft responses to small bowel transplantation. These profiles will serve to identify and study those genes whose products may play a role in accelerating tissue regeneration following segmental LRSBTx.

  7. Early matrix change of a nanostructured bone grafting substitute in the rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiguo; Holzhüter, Gerd; Sorg, Heiko; Wolter, Daniel; Lenz, Solvig; Gerber, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-11-01

    A nanocrystalline bone substitute embedded in a highly porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone) has previously been shown to bridge bone defects by an organic matrix. As the initial host response on the bone graft substitute might be a determinant for subsequent bone formation, our present purpose was to characterize the early tissue reaction on this biomaterial. After implantation of 80 mg of NanoBone into the adipose neck tissue of a total of 35 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis at days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 21. The biomaterial was found encapsulated by granulation tissue which partly penetrated the implant at day 3 and completely pervaded the graft at day 12 on implantation. Histology revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive giant cells covering the biomaterial. ED1 (CD68) immunopositivity of these cells further indicated their osteoclast-like phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy revealed organic tissue components within the periphery of the graft already at day 9, whereas the central hematoma region still presented the silica-surface of the biomaterial. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy further demonstrated that the silica gel was degraded faster in the peripheral granulation tissue than in the central hematoma and was replaced by organic host components by day 12. In conclusion, the silica gel matrix is rapidly replaced by carbohydrate macromolecules. This might represent a key step in the process of graft degradation on its way toward induction of bone formation. The unique composition and structure of this nanoscaled biomaterial seem to support its degradation by host osteoclast-like giant cells.

  8. The effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Riddlesworth, Tonya D; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Benetz, Beth A; Price, Francis W; Sugar, Alan; Terry, Mark A; Soper, Mark; Beck, Roy W

    2015-03-01

    To examine the long-term effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density (ECD) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in the Cornea Donor Study. Multicenter, prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial. One thousand ninety subjects undergoing PK for a moderate risk condition, principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema, were enrolled by 105 surgeons from 80 clinical sites in the United States. Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years of age were assigned by 43 eye banks to participants without respect to recipient factors. Donor and recipient diabetes status was determined from existing medical records. Images of the central endothelium were obtained before surgery (baseline) and at intervals for 10 years after surgery and were analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine ECD. Time to graft failure (regraft or cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months) and ECD. There was no statistically significant association of donor diabetes history with 10-year graft failure, baseline ECD, 10-year ECD, or ECD values longitudinally over time in unadjusted analyses, nor after adjusting for donor age and other significant covariates. The 10-year graft failure rate was 23% in the 199 patients receiving a cornea from a donor with diabetes versus 26% in the 891 patients receiving a cornea from a donor without diabetes (95% confidence interval for the difference, -10% to 6%; unadjusted P=0.60). Baseline ECD (P=0.71), 10-year ECD (P>0.99), and changes in ECD over 10 years (P=0.86) were similar comparing donor groups with and without diabetes. The study results do not suggest an association between donor diabetes and PK outcome. However, the assessment of donor diabetes was imprecise and based on historical data only. The increasing frequency of diabetes in the aging population in the United States affects the donor pool. Thus, the impact of donor diabetes on long-term endothelial health after PK or endothelial

  9. The Effect of Donor Diabetes History on Graft Failure and Endothelial Cell Density Ten Years after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lass, Jonathan H.; Riddlesworth, Tonya D.; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Benetz, Beth A.; Price, Francis W.; Sugar, Alan; Terry, Mark A.; Soper, Mark; Beck, Roy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the long term effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density (ECD) after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in the Cornea Donor Study Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing PKP for a moderate risk condition, principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE), were enrolled by 105 surgeons from 80 clinical sites in the United States. Methods Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years old were assigned by 43 eye banks to participants without respect to recipient factors. Donor and recipient diabetes status was determined from existing medical records. Images of the central endothelium were obtained preoperatively (baseline) and at intervals for ten years postoperatively and analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine ECD. Main Outcome Measure(s) Time to graft failure (regraft or cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months) and ECD. Results There was no statistically significant association of donor diabetes history with 10-year graft failure, baseline ECD, 10-year ECD or ECD values longitudinally over time in unadjusted analyses nor after adjusting for donor age and other significant covariates. The 10-year graft failure rate was 23% in the 199 cases receiving a cornea from a donor with diabetes versus 26% in the 891 cases receiving a cornea from a donor without diabetes (95% confidence interval for the difference: −10% to +6%; unadjusted p = 0.60). Baseline ECD (p=0.71), 10-year ECD (p>0.99), and changes in ECD over 10 years (p=0.86) were similar comparing donor diabetes and no-diabetes groups. Conclusions and Relevance The study results do not suggest an association between donor diabetes and PKP outcome. However, the assessment of donor diabetes was imprecise and based on historical data only. The increasing frequency of diabetes in the aging population in the United States affects the donor pool, thus the

  10. Early outcomes of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ghulam; Azam, Hammad; Baig, Mirza Ahmad Raza; Ahmad, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To see the early post-operative outcomes of off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods: This retrospective analytical study was conducted at Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan, Pakistan. Our Primary outcome variables were; necessity of inotropic support, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ICU stay, nonfatal stroke, new renal failure requiring dialysis and death within 30 days after operation. There were two groups of patients; Group-I (On-pump group) and Group-II (Off-pump Group). SPSS V17 was used for data analysis. Independent sample t-test and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare quantitative Variables. Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze qualitative variables. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Three hundred patients were included in this study. There were no significant difference regarding risk factors except hyper-cholestrolemia which was high in off pump group (p-value 0.05). Angiographic and Echocardiographic characteristics e.g. preoperative ejection fraction, LV function grade and severity of CAD was same between the groups. Mortality risk scores and Priority status for surgery were also same. Regarding post-operative outcomes; Post-op CKMB Levels, need and duration of inotropic support, mechanical ventilation time and ICU stay was significantly less in Off-Pump group (p-value 0.001, <0.0001, 0.006, 0.025 and 0.001 resp.). Peri-operative chest drainage was significantly high in On-pump CABG group (p-value 0.027). Incidence of post-op complications was not statistically different between the groups. Conclusions: At 30 days follow-up, Incidence of myocardial infarction, necessity and duration of inotropic support, ICU stay period and peri-operative bleeding were significantly less in off-pump group. The incidence of neurologic, pulmonary and renal complications was same between the off-pump and on-pump groups. PMID:27648039

  11. Early post-transplant immune monitoring can predict long-term kidney graft survival: soluble CD30 levels, anti-HLA antibodies and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Basiri, Abbas; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Rajabi, Gholamreza; Mohammadiazar, Sina; Solgi, Ghasem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of anti-HLA antibodies, sCD30 levels and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibody before and early after transplantation in relation to long-term kidney allograft survival. Pre- and post-transplant sera samples of 59 living-unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested for above risk factors by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. 15 out of 59 cases experienced rejection episodes (failure group). Pre- and post-transplant high sCD30 levels were significantly associated with graft failure (P=0.02 and P=0.004) and decreased 4 year graft survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001). Higher frequency of post-transplant HLA class-II antibody in the absence of class-I antibody was observed in failure group (P=0.007). Patients with post-transplant HLA class-I and class-II antibodies either alone or in combination showed significant lower 4 year graft survival. Recipients with high sCD30 levels in the presence of HLA class-I or class-II antibodies within 2 weeks post-transplant had poor graft survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). High levels of post-transplant IgA-anti-Fab antibody was more frequent in functioning-graft patients (P = 0.00001), correlated with decreased serum creatinine levels (P = 0.01) and associated with improved graft survival (P = 0.008). Our findings indicate the deleterious effect of early post-transplant HLA antibodies and increased sCD30 levels dependently and protective effect of IgA-anti-Fab antibodies on long-term renal graft outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    So, Stephanie; Patterson, Catherine; Gold, Anna; Rogers, Alaine; Kosar, Christina; de Silva, Nicole; Burghardt, Karolina Maria; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    The survival rate of infants and children with intestinal failure is increasing, necessitating a greater focus on their developmental trajectory. To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with intestinal failure at 0-15months corrected age. Analysis of clinical, demographic and developmental assessment results of 33 children followed in an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2014. Outcome measures included: Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements, Movement Assessment of Infants, Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Clinical factors were correlated with poorer developmental outcomes at 12-15months corrected age. Thirty-three infants (17 males), median gestational age 34weeks (interquartile range 29.5-36.0) with birth weight 1.98kg (interquartile range 1.17-2.50). Twenty-nine (88%) infants had abnormal General Movements. More than half had suspect or abnormal scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and medium to high-risk scores for future neuromotor delay on the Movement Assessment of Infants. Delays were seen across all Mullen subscales, most notably in gross motor skills. Factors significantly associated with poorer outcomes at 12-15months included: prematurity, low birth weight, central nervous system co-morbidity, longer neonatal intensive care admission, necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosis, number of operations and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Multiple risk factors contribute to early developmental delay in children with intestinal failure, highlighting the importance of close developmental follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early infection risk with primary versus staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft implantation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrew S; Gage, Shawn M; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the use of a staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Merit Medical, South Jordan, Utah) implantation strategy incurs increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary HeRO implantation. A retrospective review was performed of 192 hemodialysis patients who underwent HeRO graft implantation: 105 patients underwent primary HeRO implantation in the operating room, and 87 underwent a staged implantation where a previously inserted tunneled central venous catheter was used for guidewire access for the venous outflow component. Within the staged implantation group, 32 were performed via an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter (incidentally staged), and 55 were performed via a tunneled catheter inserted across a central venous occlusion in an interventional radiology suite specifically for HeRO implantation (intentionally staged). Early infection was defined as episodes of bacteremia or HeRO infection requiring resection ≤30 days of HeRO implantation. For staged HeRO implantations, the median interval between tunneled catheter insertion and conversion to a HeRO graft was 42 days. The overall HeRO-related infection rate ≤30 days of implantation was 8.6% for primary HeRO implantation and 2.3% for staged implantations (P = .12). The rates of early bacteremia and HeRO resection requiring surgical resection were not significantly different between groups (P = .19 and P = .065, respectively), nor were age, gender, laterality, anastomosis to an existing arteriovenous access, human immunodeficiency virus status, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy, body mass index, or graft location. None of the patient variables, techniques, or graft-related variables correlated significantly with the early infection rate. The staged HeRO implantation strategy did not result in an increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary implantation and is thus a reasonable strategy for HeRO insertion in hemodialysis patients

  14. Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Leong, Hoe-Nam; Tan, Boon-Huan; Oon, Lynette Lin-Ean; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Chang, Jason Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft. PMID:23198262

  15. Dark Endothelial Spots After Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty May Appear as Recurrent Fuchs Dystrophy or Herald Graft Failure or Rejection.

    PubMed

    Zygoura, Vasiliki; Baydoun, Lamis; Monnereau, Claire; Satué, Maria; Oellerich, Silke; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of dark spots in the donor endothelial cell layer as observed with specular microscopy, in patients who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED). Specular microscopy images of 83 consecutive eyes up to 7 years after DMEK were retrospectively reviewed in a masked fashion for the presence of dark spots and morphologic changes in the endothelial cell layer and processed for endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements. A normal endothelial cell layer was found in 52/83 eyes (62.7%) (group 0). In the remaining 31/83 eyes, various dark discolorations with or without altered endothelial cell morphology were categorized into 4 groups. Dark spots were classified as artifacts in 10/83 (12.0%) eyes (group I) and as "superimposed" dots in 10/83 (12.0%) eyes (group II), that is, optical irregularities slightly anterior to a healthy endothelial cell layer. In 11/83 (13.3%) eyes, endothelial stress was characterized by dark grayish discolorations and/or nuclear activation (group III). Most of the latter eyes also had a significant ECD decrease; 3 of these eyes later developed secondary graft failure, of which one was preceded by allograft rejection. None of the eyes showed recurrent guttae typical for FED (group IV). Dark endothelial spots after DMEK for FED may not represent a recurrent disease, but tissue irregularities just anterior to the graft. However, if associated with changes in endothelial cell morphology, nuclear activation and/or ECD decrease, dark discolorations may reflect "cellular stress" heralding secondary graft failure or (subclinical) allograft rejection.

  16. Hypothermic machine perfusion permits extended cold ischemia times with improved early graft function.

    PubMed

    Guy, Alison; McGrogan, Damian; Inston, Nicholas; Ready, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The logistics of deceased-donor renal transplants are largely affected by cold ischemia time. However, to attain successful outcomes, other issues must be considered. Extending cold ischemia time to accommodate these issues would be valuable. We investigated the role of hypothermic machine perfusion to extend cold ischaemia time. Deceased-donor kidneys were allocated to a storage method, depending on predicted time to operation. Kidneys to be transplanted from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM in the transplant room remained in static cold storage. If predicted operating time was out of hours, the kidney was transferred to hypothermic machine perfusion and transplanted at the earliest opportunity on the dedicated transplant list. There were 74 kidneys transplanted from hypothermic machine perfusion and 101 kidneys from static cold storage. Median cold ischemia time was 23.85 hours in the hypothermic machine perfusion group, compared with 13 hours in the static cold storage group (P ≤ .0001). There were 20 kidneys (27%) from hypothermic machine perfusion that had delayed graft function, compared with 47 kidneys (47%) in the static cold storage group (P = .012). There were no other significant differences in graft or postoperative complications. This study demonstrated that improved early graft outcomes can be achieved following longer cold ischemia time by using hypothermic machine perfusion rather than static cold storage. This effect is likely multifactorial including the inherent effects of hypothermic machine perfusion, improved recipient preparation, and possibly better perioperative conditions.

  17. Early pregnancy failure: factors affecting successful medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Maximovsky, Olga; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    The results of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure are conflicting. To determine whether gestational sac volume measurement as well as other variables can predict the success rate of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. The study group comprised 81 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy who consented to medical treatment. Demographic data were collected and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was documented. Crown-rump length and the sac volume were measured using transvaginal ultrasound. TVU was performed 12-24 hours after intravaginal administration of 800 micro g misoprostol. If the thickness of the uterine cavity was less than 30 mm, the women were discharged. If the sac was still intact or the thickness of the uterine cavity exceeded 30 mm, they were offered an additional dosage of intravaginal misoprostol or surgical uterine evacuation. Medical treatment successfully terminated 32 pregnancies (39.5%), 30 after one dose of misoprostol and 2 after two doses (group A); 49 underwent surgical evacuation (group B), 47 following one dose of misoprostol and 2 following two doses. There were no significant differences between the groups in age and gestational week. Gestational sac volume did not differ between groups A and B (10.03 and 11.98 ml respectively, P = 0.283). Parity (0.87 and 1.43, P = 0.015), previous pregnancies (2.38 and 2.88, P = 0.037), and betahCG concentration (6961 and 28,748 mlU, P = 0.013) differed significantly between the groups. Gestational sac volume is not a predictor of successful medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Previous pregnancies and deliveries and higher betahCG concentration negatively affect the success rate of medical treatment.

  18. Vγ4 γδ T Cells Provide an Early Source of IL-17A and Accelerate Skin Graft Rejection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yashu; Huang, Zhenggen; Yan, Rongshuai; Liu, Meixi; Bai, Yang; Liang, Guangping; Zhang, Xiaorong; Hu, Xiaohong; Chen, Jian; Huang, Chibing; Liu, Baoyi; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; He, Weifeng

    2017-12-01

    Activated γδ T cells have been shown to accelerate allograft rejection. However, the precise role of skin-resident γδ T cells and their subsets-Vγ5 (epidermis), Vγ1, and Vγ4 (dermis)-in skin graft rejection have not been identified. Here, using a male to female skin transplantation model, we demonstrated that Vγ4 T cells, rather than Vγ1 or Vγ5 T cells, accelerated skin graft rejection and that IL-17A was essential for Vγ4 T-cell-mediated skin graft rejection. Moreover, we found that Vγ4 T cells were required for early IL-17A production in the transplanted area, both in skin grafts and in the host epidermis around grafts. Additionally, the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20-chemokine receptor 6 pathway was essential for recruitment of Vγ4 T cells to the transplantation area, whereas both IL-1β and IL-23 induced IL-17A production from infiltrating cells. Lastly, Vγ4 T-cell-derived IL-17A promoted the accumulation of mature dendritic cells in draining lymph nodes to subsequently regulate αβ T-cell function after skin graft transplantation. Taken together, our data reveal that Vγ4 T cells accelerate skin graft rejection by providing an early source of IL-17A. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does preoperative atrial fibrillation influence early and late outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Ngaage, Dumbor L; Schaff, Hartzell V; Mullany, Charles J; Sundt, Thoralf M; Dearani, Joseph A; Barnes, Sunni; Daly, Richard C; Orszulak, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to describe the independent effect of preoperative atrial fibrillation on the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting, including the causes of death (cardiac vs noncardiac). We analyzed the outcome of patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting between 1993 and 2002 and compared them with matched controls in sinus rhythm; matching variables were age, gender, ejection fraction, and numbers of diseased coronary arteries and distal anastomoses. Direct patient follow-up focused on late complications and reinterventions, and we investigated causes for all deaths. Operative mortality (1.6% vs 1.9%, P = .79) was similar in patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation (n = 257) compared with patients in sinus rhythm (n = 269). The patients with atrial fibrillation had longer hospital stays (9 +/- 6 days vs 8 +/- 6 days, P = .0008) and a trend to more frequent early readmissions (13% vs 9%, P = .08). During follow-up (median 6.7 years, maximum 12 years), late hospital admission was more frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation (59% vs 31%, P < .0001). Risk of late mortality (all causes) in patients with atrial fibrillation was increased by 40% compared with patients in sinus rhythm (P = 0.02), and the late cardiac death rate in the atrial fibrillation group was 2.8 times that of the sinus rhythm group (P = .0004). Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 70% of patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation compared with 52% of patients in preoperative sinus rhythm (P < .0001). Subsequent rhythm-related intervention, including pacemaker implantations, was more common in the atrial fibrillation group (relative risk = 2.1, P = .0027). Uncorrected preoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with increased late cardiac morbidity and mortality and poor long-term survival. These data support consideration of atrial fibrillation

  20. Failure-free survival after second-line systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Barry E.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Martin, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to characterize causes of treatment failure, identify associated prognostic factors, and develop shorter-term end points for trials testing investigational products or regimens for second-line systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The study cohort (312 patients) received second-line systemic treatment of chronic GVHD. The primary end point was failure-free survival (FFS) defined by the absence of third-line treatment, nonrelapse mortality, and recurrent malignancy during second-line treatment. Treatment change was the major cause of treatment failure. FFS was 56% at 6 months after second-line treatment. Lower steroid doses at 6 months correlated with subsequent withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that high-risk disease at transplantation, lower gastrointestinal involvement at second-line treatment, and severe NIH global score at second-line treatment were associated with increased risks of treatment failure. These three factors were used to define risk groups, and success rates at 6 months were calculated for each risk group either without or with various steroid dose limits at 6 months as an additional criterion of success. These success rates could be used as the basis for a clinically relevant and efficient shorter-term end point in clinical studies that evaluate agents for second-line systemic treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:23321253

  1. Early outcomes of thoracic endovascular stent-graft repair for acute complicated type B dissection using the Gore TAG endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A; Patterson, Mark A; Taylor, Steve M; Lecroy, Christopher J; Combs, Bart R; Jordan, William D

    2008-11-01

    We assessed the technical success and early outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection treated at a single institution using a commercially available device. All patients with symptomatic complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection treated with TEVAR since Food and Drug Administration approval of the Gore (Flagstaff, AZ) TAG endoprosthesis were identified from a prospectively maintained vascular registry. Clinical indications, operative technique, perioperative complications, follow-up imaging, and mortality were analyzed. Between March 2005 and November 2007, 127 TEVARs using the TAG endoprosthesis were performed, of which 15 (11.8%) were for complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection. Indications for repair were malperfusion (53%), persistent pain (27%), and primary aortic failure (33%). Technical feasibility and success with deployment proximal to the entry tear was 93.3%, requiring at least partial coverage of the left subclavian artery in seven (46.7%). Adjunctive procedures required at the time of TEVAR included renal stent (n = 2), iliac stent (n = 3), and access-artery open repair (n = 2). Twelve patients (80%) had immediate resolution of the malperfusion deficit. Major perioperative complications included paraplegia (13.3%), renal failure requiring hemodialysis (13.3%), and stroke (6.7%). Perioperative mortality was 13.3%, occurring in one patient presenting with rupture and one with profound heart failure on admission. For complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection, TEVAR using commercially available stent grafts showed high technical success, excellent results at resolving malperfusion, and acceptably low complications and perioperative mortality.

  2. Tailored dialysis start may allow persistence of residual renal function after graft failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, G B; Motta, D; Gai, M; Mezza, E; Maddalena, E; Bravin, M; Tattoli, F; Consiglio, V; Burdese, M; Bilucaglia, D; Ferrari, A; Segoloni, G P

    2004-11-01

    Restarting dialysis after kidney transplantation is a critical step with psychological and clinical implications. Maintenance of residual renal function a known factor affecting survival in chronic kidney disease, has so far not been investigated after a kidney transplantation. A 54-year-old woman who started dialysis in 1974 (first graft, 1975-1999) received a second "marginal" kidney graft in February 2001 (donor age, 65 years). Her chronic therapy was tacrolimus and steroids. She had a clinical history as follows: nadir creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dL, moderate-severe hypertension, progressive graft dysfunction, nonresponsiveness to addition of mycophenolate, tapering FK levels, and a rescue switch from tacrolimus to rapamycin. From October to December 2003, the creatinine level increased from 2-2.8 to 7 mg/dL. Biopsy specimen showed malignant and "benign" nephrosclerosis, posttransplantation glomerulopathy, and tacrolimus toxicity. Chronic dialysis was started (GFR <3 mL/min). Rapamycin was discontinued. Dialysis was tailored to reach an equivalent renal clearance of >15 mL/min (2 sessions/wk). Blood pressure control improved, nephrotoxic drugs were avoided, and fluid loss was minimized (maximum 500 mL/hr). By this policy, renal function progressively increased to GFR >10 mL/min in May 2004, allowing a once or twice weekly dialysis schedule, with good clinical balance, and obvious advantages for the quality of life. This long-term patient, who restarted dialysis with severely reduced renal function, regained sufficient renal function to allow once weekly dialysis. Thus, careful tailoring of dialysis sessions at the restart of dialysis may allow preservation of residual kidney function, at least in individuals for whom a subsequent graft is unlikely.

  3. Effect of Clopidogrel on Early Failure of Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dember, Laura M.; Beck, Gerald J.; Allon, Michael; Delmez, James A.; Dixon, Bradley S.; Greenberg, Arthur; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Radeva, Milena K.; Braden, Gregory L.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Rocco, Michael V.; Davidson, Ingemar J.; Kaufman, James S.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Kusek, John W.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2016-01-01

    Context The arteriovenous fistula is the preferred type of vascular access for hemodialysis because of lower thrombosis and infection rates and lower health care expenditures compared with synthetic grafts or central venous catheters. Early failure of fistulas due to thrombosis or inadequate maturation is a barrier to increasing the prevalence of fistulas among patients treated with hemodialysis. Small, inconclusive trials have suggested that antiplatelet agents may reduce thrombosis of new fistulas. Objective To determine whether clopidogrel reduces early failure of hemodialysis fistulas. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 9 US centers composed of academic and community nephrology practices in 2003–2007. Eight hundred seventy-seven participants with end-stage renal disease or advanced chronic kidney disease were followed up until 150 to 180 days after fistula creation or 30 days after initiation of dialysis, whichever occurred later. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose followed by daily dose of 75 mg; n = 441) or placebo (n = 436) for 6 weeks starting within 1 day after fistula creation. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was fistula thrombosis, determined by physical examination at 6 weeks. The secondary outcome was failure of the fistula to become suitable for dialysis. Suitability was defined as use of the fistula at a dialysis machine blood pump rate of 300 mL/min or more during 8 of 12 dialysis sessions. Results Enrollment was stopped after 877 participants were randomized based on a stopping rule for intervention efficacy. Fistula thrombosis occurred in 53 (12.2%) participants assigned to clopidogrel compared with 84 (19.5%) participants assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.46–0.97; P = .018). Failure to attain suitability for dialysis did not differ between the clopidogrel and placebo groups (61

  4. Graft-versus-host disease causes failure of donor hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis in interferon-gamma receptor-deficient hosts.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Jean-Sébastien; Gaboury, Louis; Bélanger, Marie-Pier; Tassé, Eliane; Yagita, Hideo; Perreault, Claude

    2008-09-01

    The immunopathologic condition known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results from a type I T-cell process. However, a prototypical type I cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), can protect against several manifestations of GVHD in recipients of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched hematopoietic cells. We transplanted hematopoietic cells from C3H.SW donors in wild-type (wt) and IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaRKO) MHC-matched C57BL/6 recipients. In IFN-gammaRKO recipients, host cells were unresponsive to IFN-gamma, whereas wt donor cells were exposed to exceptionally high levels of IFN-gamma. From an IFN-gamma perspective, we could therefore evaluate the impact of a loss-of-function on host cells and gain-of-function on donor cells. We found that lack of IFN-gammaR prevented up-regulation of MHC proteins on host cells but did not mitigate damage to most target organs. Two salient phenotypes in IFN-gammaRKO recipients involved donor cells: lymphoid hypoplasia and hematopoietic failure. Lymphopenia was due to FasL-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. Bone marrow aplasia resulted from a decreased proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that was associated with down-regulation of 2 genes negatively regulated by IFN-gamma: Ccnd1 and Myc. We conclude that IFN-gamma produced by alloreactive T cells may entail a severe graft-versus-graft reaction and could be responsible for cytopenias that are frequently observed in subjects with GVHD.

  5. Recovery of Donor Hematopoiesis after Graft Failure and Second Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Intraosseous Administration of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sats, Natalia; Risinskaya, Natalya; Sudarikov, Andrey; Dubniak, Daria; Kraizman, Alina

    2018-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in the formation of bone marrow niches for hematopoietic stem cells. Donor MSCs can serve as a source of recovery for niches in patients with graft failure (GF) after allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Since only few MSCs reach the BM after intravenous injection, MSCs were implanted into the iliac spine. For 8 patients with GF after allo-BMT, another hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with simultaneous implantation of MSCs from their respective donors into cancellous bone was performed. BM was aspirated from the iliac crest of these patients at 1-2, 4-5, and 9 months after the intraosseous injection of donor MSCs. Patients' MSCs were cultivated, and chimerism was determined. In 6 out of 8 patients, donor hematopoiesis was restored. Donor cells (9.4 ± 3.3%) were detected among MSCs. Thus, implanted MSCs remain localized at the site of administration and do not lose the ability to proliferate. These results suggest that MSCs could participate in the restoration of niches for donor hematopoietic cells or have an immunomodulatory effect, preventing repeated rejection of the graft. Perhaps, intraosseous implantation of MSCs contributes to the success of the second transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and patient survival. PMID:29760731

  6. Recovery of Donor Hematopoiesis after Graft Failure and Second Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Intraosseous Administration of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Petinati, Nataliya; Drize, Nina; Sats, Natalia; Risinskaya, Natalya; Sudarikov, Andrey; Drokov, Michail; Dubniak, Daria; Kraizman, Alina; Nareyko, Maria; Popova, Natalia; Firsova, Maya; Kuzmina, Larisa; Parovichnikova, Elena; Savchenko, Valeriy

    2018-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in the formation of bone marrow niches for hematopoietic stem cells. Donor MSCs can serve as a source of recovery for niches in patients with graft failure (GF) after allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Since only few MSCs reach the BM after intravenous injection, MSCs were implanted into the iliac spine. For 8 patients with GF after allo-BMT, another hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with simultaneous implantation of MSCs from their respective donors into cancellous bone was performed. BM was aspirated from the iliac crest of these patients at 1-2, 4-5, and 9 months after the intraosseous injection of donor MSCs. Patients' MSCs were cultivated, and chimerism was determined. In 6 out of 8 patients, donor hematopoiesis was restored. Donor cells (9.4 ± 3.3%) were detected among MSCs. Thus, implanted MSCs remain localized at the site of administration and do not lose the ability to proliferate. These results suggest that MSCs could participate in the restoration of niches for donor hematopoietic cells or have an immunomodulatory effect, preventing repeated rejection of the graft. Perhaps, intraosseous implantation of MSCs contributes to the success of the second transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and patient survival.

  7. A Mathematical Model to Predict Endothelial Cell Density Following Penetrating Keratoplasty With Selective Dropout From Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Riddlesworth, Tonya D.; Kollman, Craig; Lass, Jonathan H.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Stulting, R. Doyle; Benetz, Beth Ann; Gal, Robin L.; Beck, Roy W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We constructed several mathematical models that predict endothelial cell density (ECD) for patients after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema). Methods. In a subset (n = 591) of Cornea Donor Study participants, postoperative ECD was determined by a central reading center. Various statistical models were considered to estimate the ECD trend longitudinally over 10 years of follow-up. A biexponential model with and without a logarithm transformation was fit using the Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares algorithm. To account for correlated data, a log-polynomial model was fit using the restricted maximum likelihood method. A sensitivity analysis for the potential bias due to selective dropout was performed using Bayesian analysis techniques. Results. The three models using a logarithm transformation yield similar trends, whereas the model without the transform predicts higher ECD values. The adjustment for selective dropout turns out to be negligible. However, this is possibly due to the relatively low rate of graft failure in this cohort (19% at 10 years). Fuchs' dystrophy and pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE) patients had similar ECD decay curves, with the PACE group having slightly higher cell densities by 10 years. Conclusions. Endothelial cell loss after PK can be modeled via a log-polynomial model, which accounts for the correlated data from repeated measures on the same subject. This model is not significantly affected by the selective dropout due to graft failure. Our findings warrant further study on how this may extend to ECD following endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25425307

  8. The impact of bacterial colonization on graft success after total pancreatectomy with autologous islet transplantation: considerations for early definitive surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Jolissaint, Joshua S; Langman, Linda W; DeBolt, Claire L; Tatum, Jacob A; Martin, Allison N; Wang, Andrew Y; Strand, Daniel S; Zaydfudim, Victor M; Adams, Reid B; Brayman, Kenneth L

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether bacterial contamination of islets affects graft success after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). Factors associated with insulin independence after TPIAT are inconclusive. Although bacterial contamination does not preclude transplantation, the impact of bacterial contamination on graft success is unknown. Patients who received TPIAT at the University of Virginia between January 2007 and January 2016 were reviewed. Patient charts were reviewed for bacterial contamination and patients were prospectively contacted to assess rates of insulin independence. There was no significant difference in demographic or perioperative data between patients who achieved insulin independence and those who did not. However, six of 27 patients analyzed (22.2%) grew bacterial contaminants from culture of the final islet preparations. These patients had significantly lower islet yield and C-peptide at most recent follow-up (P<.05), and none of these patients achieved insulin independence. Islet transplant solutions are often culture positive, likely secondary to preprocurement pancreatic manipulation and introduction of enteric flora. Although autotransplantation of culture-positive islets is safe, it is associated with higher rates of graft failure and poor islet yield. Consideration should be given to identify patients who may develop refractory chronic pancreatitis and offer early operative management to prevent bacterial colonization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  10. [Heart failure as early manifestation of neonatal hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Alvarado S, Jorge Luis; Fernández V, Zhirly Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism is usually a self-limited condition frequently associated with transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating antibodies secondary to maternal autoimmune disorders. To timely detect mothers with this medical antecedents decreases the risk for fetal adverse events. To report a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism associated with intrauterine growth restriction and heart failure. A 36 week-old newborn with birth weight of 1,240 g. Symptoms were tachycardia, distal coldness, exophthalmos, hepatomegaly and tremors. Echocardiogram ruled out structural heart disorders. Due to maternal symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism, TSH tests were performed showing 0.01 ulU/ml, free T4 7.7 ng/dl, so the diagnosis of neonatal hyperthyroidism was confirmed. It was treated with methimazole and propanol, alleviating the symptoms and decreasing the levels of free T4. To know the maternal history helps identify and manage neonatal complications of hyperthyroidism. Heart failure and other cardiopulmonary disorders are determinants of mortality during early neonatal period. High-risk newborns should receive follow up assessments.

  11. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  12. Early graft dysfunction and mortality rate in marginal donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pmar; Gülcü, Bariş; Işçimen, Remzi; Kiyici, Murat; Türker, Gürkan; Topal, Naile Bolca; Ozen, Yilmaz; Kaya, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of marginal donor livers on mortality and graft survival in liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Donors with any 1 of following were considered marginal donors: age ≥65 years, sodium level ≥ 165 mmol/L and cold ischemia time ≥ 12 h. Donors were classified according to the donor risk index (DRI) < 1.7 and ≥ 1.7. The transplant recipients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were considered low if < 20 and high if ≥ 20. Early graft dysfunction (EGD) and mortality rate were evaluated. During the study period 47 patients underwent cadaveric LT. The mean age of the donors and recipients was 45 years (range: 5-72 years) and 46 years (range: 4-66 years), respectively. In all, there were 15 marginal donors and 18 donors with a DRI > 1.7. In total, 4 LT patients that received livers from marginal donors and 5 that received livers from donors with a DRI ≥ 1.7 had EGD. Among the recipients of marginal livers, 5 died, versus 4 of the recipients of standard livers. There was no significant difference in EGD or mortality rate between the patients that received livers from marginal donors or those with a DRI ≥ 1.7 and patients that received standard donor livers. Marginal and DRI ≥ 1.7 donors negatively affected LT outcomes, but not significantly.

  13. Resorption of Autogenous Bone Graft in Cranioplasty: Resorption and Reintegration Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hoon; Lee, Uhn; Park, Cheol Wan; Lee, Sang Gu; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Re-implantation of autologous skull bone has been known to be difficult because of its propensity for resorption. Moreover, the structural characteristics of the area of the defect cannot tolerate physiologic loading, which is an important factor for graft healing. This paper describes our experiences and results with cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy using autologous bone flaps. Methods In an institutional review, the authors identified 18 patients (11 male and 7 female) in whom autologous cranioplasty was performed after decompressive craniectomy from January 2008 to December 2011. We examined the age, reasons for craniectomy, size of the skull defect, presence of bony resorption, and postoperative complications. Results Postoperative bone resorption occurred in eight cases (44.4%). Among them, two experienced symptomatic breakdown of the autologous bone graft that required a second operation to reconstruct the skull contour using porous polyethylene implant (Medpor®). The incidence of bone resorption was more common in the pediatric group and in those with large cranial defects (>120 cm2). No significant correlation was found with sex, reasons for craniectomy, and cryopreservation period. Conclusion The use of autologous bone flap for reconstruction of a skull defect after decompressive craniectomy is a quick and cost-effective method. But, the resorption rate was greater in children and in patients with large skull defects. As a result, we suggest compressive force of the tightened scalp, young age, large skull defect, the gap between bone flap and bone edge and heat sterilization of autologous bone as risk factors for bone resorption. PMID:27169026

  14. Early diagnosis of orthopedic implant failure using macromolecular imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Dusad, Anand; Zhang, Yijia; Purdue, P Edward; Fehringer, Edward V; Garvin, Kevin L; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong

    2014-08-01

    To develop and evaluate diagnostic tools for early detection of wear particle-induced orthopaedic implant loosening. N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer was tagged with a near infrared dye and used to detect the inflammation induced by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a murine peri-implant osteolysis model. It was established by inserting an implant into the distal femur and challenging with routine PMMA particles infusion. The osteolysis was evaluated by micro-CT and histological analysis at different time points. Significant peri-implant osteolysis was found 3-month post PMMA particle challenge by micro-CT and histological analysis. At 1-month post challenge, when there was no significant peri-implant bone loss, the HPMA copolymer-near infrared dye conjugate was found to specifically target the femur with PMMA particles deposition, but not the contralateral control femur with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) infusion. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the macromolecular diagnostic agent to detect particle-induced peri-implant inflammation prior to the development of detectable osteolysis. Recognition of this early pathological event would provide the window of opportunity for prevention of peri-implant osteolysis and subsequent orthopaedic implant failure.

  15. Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Maluccio, John A; Melgar, Paul; Quisumbing, Agnes R; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D; Yount, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital. PMID:24004889

  16. Basilic vein transposition fistulas versus prosthetic bridge grafts in patients with end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed

    Basel, Halil; Ekim, Hasan; Odabasi, Dolunay; Kiymaz, Adem; Aydin, Cemalettin; Dostbil, Aysenur

    2011-07-01

    Basilic vein transposition fistulas (BVTFs) and prosthetic bridge grafts (PBGs) provide good vascular access for hemodialysis. To evaluate the patency and complication rates after arteriovenous fistula formation, a concurrent series of patients was reviewed. Between September 2003 and September 2009, 147 hemodialysis access procedures were performed in 147 consecutive patients at Van Research and Training Hospital and Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital, Van, Turkey. All access procedures were planned on the basis of preoperative duplex scans of arm and forearm veins. Functional patency was defined as the ability to cannulate hemodialysis patients successfully. Primary and secondary cumulative functional patency rates of BVTFs and PBGs were determined with life-table analysis and differences were analyzed with retrospective study. Differences in revision rates, including thrombolysis thrombectomies and operative revisions, were analyzed with the Fisher exact t-test. Mean follow-up was 15 months (range, 3-24 months). Risk factors were similar between the two groups. BVTFs had better patency at 15 months. The dialysis access complications were higher in the PBG group versus BVTF group, and the PBG group had a higher infection rate than the BVTF group. The primary and secondary patency rates were superior in the BVTF group. Our data strongly support the contention that as long as the patient is a candidate for an upper arm BVTF based on anatomical criteria, BVTF always be considered before a PBG. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Outcome of Second Transplantation Using Umbilical Cord Blood for Graft Failure after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Aplastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yasushi; Mori, Takehiko; Kako, Shinichi; Koh, Hideo; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kato, Koji; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Nakao, Shinji; Yamazaki, Hirohito

    2017-12-01

    Graft failure (GF) is the most critical life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia, for which a second transplantation is the only effective treatment. Optimal procedures have not been established for the second transplantation in this setting, however. Here we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 22 patients with aplastic anemia, age ≥16 years, who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation for GF after the first HSCT using the registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. The median age of patients was 36 years (range, 16 to 72 years), and the median time from the first to the second transplant was 77 days (range, 29 to 1061 days). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 60 post-transplantation was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.6% to 65.0%). With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 4-year overall survival (OS) was 38.5% (95% CI, 18.4% to 58.5%). Mycofenolate mofetil-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis demonstrated greater neutrophil recovery than prophylaxis with calcineurin inhibitor alone or methotrexate-based prophylaxis (66.7% versus 37.5%; P = .04). The use of such conditioning regimens as fludarabine + melphalan or cyclophosphamide + low-dose total body irradiation was associated with better engraftment (58.3% versus 30%; P = .05) and better 4-year OS (55.6% versus 20%; P = .05) than other regimens. Although further investigation is needed, umbilical cord blood could be an effective and promising option for stem cell source for urgent second transplantation in patients with aplastic anemia who develop GF after the first HSCT. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total Artificial Heart as Rescue Therapy for Primary Graft Failure in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Luke A; Sainathan, Sandeep; Morell, Victor O; Sharma, Mahesh S

    2018-04-01

    An infant unable to be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass after orthotopic heart transplantation was cannulated for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During the next 3 days, allograft failure and intracardiac thrombosis necessitated cardiectomy. To provide acute mechanical circulatory support, artificial atrial chambers were constructed with Gore-Tex conduits and PediMag centrifugal pumps were connected to each by Berlin Heart EXCOR cannulae. The PediMag pumps were subsequently exchanged for 10-mL Berlin Heart EXCOR pumps. After 60 days of support by total artificial heart, the patient was bridged successfully to a second heart transplant. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    PubMed

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  20. Associations between inadequate knee function detected by KOOS and prospective graft failure in an anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee.

    PubMed

    Granan, Lars-Petter; Baste, Valborg; Engebretsen, Lars; Inacio, Maria C S

    2015-04-01

    First, to evaluate whether the 2 year post-operative Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) was significantly different between patients that did not go on to have a subsequent revision after the 2 year post-operative control and the ones that did. Second, to test whether the "clinically failure" value of KOOS quality of life (QoL) < 44 was indicative of a clinically relevant difference in the risk of subsequent revision ACLR. ACLRs reported to the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between June 2004 and December 2009. 5,517 primary ACLRs with at least 2-year follow-up with KOOS QoL before revision surgery. There were clinically significant differences, adjusted and unadjusted, in both the KOOS Sport and Recreation and QoL subscales in patients with a later revision surgery compared to those that did not have a revision surgery. In adjusted models, the risk of later ACLR revision was 3.7 (95 % CI 2.2-6.0) higher in patients with a 2-year KOOS QoL < 44 compared to patients with a KOOS QoL ≥ 44. For every 10-point reduction in the KOOS QoL, a 33.6 % (95 % CI 21.2-47.5 %) higher risk for later ACLR revision was observed. This study reveals an association between inadequate knee function, as measured by KOOS, and a prospective ACL-reconstructed graft failure. Prognostic study (prospective cohort study), Level II.

  1. Arthroscopic Synovectomy Combined with Autologous Fat Grafting in Early Stages of CMC Osteoarthritis of the Thumb.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Robert; Wirth, Johanna; Baur, Eva-Maria

    2018-04-01

    Background  Minimal invasive treatments such as arthroscopic techniques may be adequate to restore the anatomy and functional integrity of the thumb CMC (carpometacarpal) joint. In this paper, we reported the interposition of autologous fat tissue in combination with arthroscopic synovectomy/debridement for early stage of the thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis. Patients and Methods  Twelve patients with a mean age of 46 years with early radiological stages of thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis were included. Evaluation of outcome was measured prior and 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery including, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), QuickDASH, grip and pinch strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient satisfaction. Results  Pain at rest (or with load) was reduced from preoperative 4,7 (8,7) to 2 (5,9) at 3 to 6 months; 1,4 (4,3) at 12 months; and 0,75 (2,7) at 2 years after the surgery. Initial preoperative QuickDASH value of 52 points reduced to 33 (17-65) at 6 months, 23 (2-70) at 12 months, and 20 (11-29) at 24 months after the surgery. Grip strength and thumb pinch with respect to the contralateral untreated thumb was reduced in the first 12 months but recovered subsequently. ROM was equal to the contralateral thumb. Three patients suffered from tendinitis and required surgical treatment. One patient indicated prolonged pain symptoms. No infections were noted and no donor-site morbidity or side effects were detected. Conclusion  Arthroscopic synovectomy combined with autologous fat graft is a reliable surgical option for early thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis and that effect continues for more than 24 months.

  2. Aortic Replacement with Sutureless Intraluminal Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Lemole, Gerald M.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid the anastomotic complications and long cross-clamp times associated with standard suture repair of aortic lesions, we have implanted sutureless intraluminal grafts in 122 patients since 1976. Forty-nine patients had disorders of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, or both: their operative mortality was 14% (7 patients), and the group's 5-year actuarial survival rate has been 64%. There have been no instances of graft dislodgment, graft infection, aortic bleeding, or pseudoaneurysm formation. Forty-two patients had disorders of the descending aorta and thoracoabdominal aorta: their early mortality was 10% (4 patients), and the group's 5-year actuarial survival rate has been 56%. There was 1 early instance of graft dislodgment, but no pseudoaneurysm formation, graft erosion, aortic bleeding, intravascular hemolysis, or permanent deficits in neurologic, renal, or vascular function. Thirty-one patients had the sutureless intraluminal graft implanted in the abdominal aortic position: their early mortality was 6% (2 patients), and the 5-year actuarial survival rate for this group has been 79%. There were no instances of renal failure, ischemic complication, postoperative paraplegia, pseudoaneurysm, or anastomotic true aneurysm. Our recent efforts have been directed toward developing an adjustable spool that can adapt to the widest aorta or the narrowest aortic arch vessel; but in the meanwhile, the present sutureless graft yields shorter cross-clamp times, fewer intraoperative complications, and both early and late results as satisfactory as those afforded by traditional methods of aortic repair. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990; 17:302-9) Images PMID:15227522

  3. Metronomic chemotherapy in platinum-insensitive failures and/or early failures postmultimodality management in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay M.; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Pinninti, Rakesh; Dhumal, Sachin; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Prabhash, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oral cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease and or early failures have limited treatment options. This analysis was planned to study the efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of oral cancer patients who had squamous cell carcinoma and had an early failure and/or platinum-insensitive failure. Early failure was defined as a failure either within 1-month of adjuvant radiotherapy or within 6 months of chemoradiation (CTRT). A sample size of 100 patients was selected for this study. If ≥39 of 100 patients would have survived at 6 months with metronomic chemotherapy, then additional studies would be warranted. Results: The ECOG PS was 0-1 in 92 patients and 2 in 8 patients. The subsite of primary was buccal mucosa in 38 patients (38%), anterior two-third tongue (oral tongue) in 51 patients (51%), and alveolus in 11 patients (11%). The median estimated overall survival was 110 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85-134 days). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months was 26.4% (95% CI: 17.9-35.6). Conclusion: Metronomic combination of methotrexate and celecoxib failed to meet its prespecified efficacy limit and should not be used in these patients as routine. PMID:26855524

  4. UAV Swarm Behavior Modeling for Early Exposure of Failure Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Systems Center Atlantic, for his patience with me through this two-year process. He worked with my schedule and was very understanding of the...emergence of new failure modes? The MP modeling environment provides a breakdown of all potential event traces. Given that the research questions call...for the revelation of potential failure modes, MP was selected as the modeling environment because it provides a substantial set of results and data

  5. Early experience and results of bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel for recalcitrant nonunions of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chao-Ching; Su, Chen-Yao; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan

    2007-09-01

    Refractory nonunions of the tibia or femur are physically and mentally devastating conditions for the patients, and the treatment is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of surgical treatment in recalcitrant nonunions of a lower extremity with bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel (APG). Twelve patients with four femoral and eight tibial atrophic nonunions after multiple prior procedures were included. All of them were treated with the bone grafting procedures with autograft complex enriched with APG. They were evaluated with radiographs, bone mineral density for bony healing process, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey for functional outcome. Of the 12 patients, 11 healed at an average of 19.7 weeks after the first attempt and 1 healed after the second attempt at 21 weeks. The bone mineral density continued to increase steadily from early healing to the remodeling phase. Functional status was greatly improved at an average follow-up of 32.4 months. The results of this preliminary study implied the possible potential of bone graft enriched with APG in the treatment of recalcitrant nonunions of the lower extremity. More research is necessary to clarify its role in augmentation of bone graft to enhance healing of nonunion.

  6. Early cannulation prosthetic graft (Acuseal) for arteriovenous access: a useful option to provide a personal vascular access solution.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Emma L; Jackson, Andrew J; Kingsmore, David B

    2014-01-01

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs), such as the GORE Acuseal, have "low bleed" properties permitting cannulation within 24 hours of insertion. They may provide an alternative to tunneled central venous catheters (and associated line complications) in patients requiring urgent vascular access. We present our early experience of 37 patients treated with the GORE Acuseal ecAVG. A total of 11 upper limb, 24 lower limb and 2 complex graft procedures were performed. Indications for ecAVG were as follows: bridge to transplantation (21.6%); bridge to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation (8.1%); AVF salvage (8.1%); no native options (67.6%, including 17 patients with bilateral central vein stenosis); 36 AVGs (97.3%) were successfully cannulated. Mean time to first cannulation: 30.4±23.4 hours (range: 2-192). Primary and secondary patency rates at 3, 6 and 12 months were 64.9%, 48.6%, 32.4% and 70.2%, 59.4%, 40.5% respectively. The systemic bacteremia rate was 0.2 per 1,000 access days. There was one perioperative death. Other complications included hematoma at cannulation sites (n=9), pseudoaneurysm (n=3) and local infection at graft site (n=6). A total of 26 of 37 patients (70.6%) achieved a "personal vascular access solution": bridge to transplantation (n=8), bridge to functioning AVF/interposition AVG (n=5), maintenance hemodialysis via ecAVG (n=13); death with functioning AVG (n=1). Early experience with the GORE Acuseal is encouraging. Patency and bacteremia rates are at least comparable to standard polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. ecAVGs have permitted cannulation within 24 hours of insertion and line avoidance in the majority of patients. Nearly three-quarters of patients achieved a definitive "personal vascular access solution" from their ecAVG.

  7. Impact of occult renal impairment on early and late outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-10-01

    High serum creatinine is considered an independent risk factor for poor outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of occult renal impairment (ORI), defined as an impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a normal serum creatinine (SCr) level, remains unclear. Thus, we sought to investigate the impact of ORI on outcomes after CABG. Among patients undergoing their first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 1842 patients with normal SCr levels undergoing CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative estimated GFR calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation: 1339 patients with estimated GFR of ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (normal group) and 503 with estimated GFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (ORI group). Preoperative estimated GFR differed between the groups (51.3 ± 6.6 vs 85.8 ± 23.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P < 0.01). ORI was associated with high in-hospital mortality (3.2 vs 1.0%, P < 0.01) and need for dialysis (2.0 vs 0.2%, P < 0.01). In terms of long-term outcomes, ORI was associated with high mortality compared with the normal (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.72 [1.16-2.54], P < 0.01) and high incidence of composite cardiovascular events (death, stroke or myocardial infarction: 1.53 [1.16-2.02], P < 0.01). ORI was an independent risk factor for early and late death as well as cardiovascular events in patients undergoing CABG with normal SCr levels. A more accurate evaluation of renal function through a combination of SCr and estimated GFR is needed in patients with normal SCr levels.

  8. Role of the Renin–Angiotensin System in the Pathogenesis of Intimal Hyperplasia: Therapeutic Potential for Prevention of Vein Graft Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, Michael J.; Harrison, David G.; Sexton, Kevin W.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Voskresensky, Igor V.; Komalavilas, Padmini; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Guzman, Raul J.; Brophy, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The saphenous vein remains the most widely used conduit for peripheral and coronary revascularization despite a high rate of vein graft failure. The most common cause of vein graft failure is intimal hyperplasia. No agents have been proven to be successful for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia in human subjects. The rennin–angiotensin system is essential in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure in physiologic conditions. However, this system mediates cardiovascular remodeling in pathophysiologic states. Angiotensin II is becoming increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of intimal hyperplasia. Drugs modulating the renin–angiotensin system include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. These drugs are powerful inhibitors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular remodeling, and they are first-line agents for management of several medical conditions based on class I evidence that they delay progression of cardiovascular disease and improve survival. Several experimental models have demonstrated that these agents are capable of inhibiting intimal hyperplasia. However, there are no data supporting their role in prevention of intimal hyperplasia in patients with vein grafts. This review summarizes the physiology of the rennin–angiotensin system, the role of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular remodeling, the medical indications for these agents, and the experimental data supporting an important role of the rennin–angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:22445245

  9. Surgical management of early pregnancy failure: history, politics, and safe, cost-effective care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-05-01

    Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.

  10. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  11. Early Exercise Rehabilitation of Muscle Weakness in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael J.; Morris, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Failure patients experience significant muscle weakness which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments post-hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. Summary Early exercise has the potential to decrease hospital length of stay and improve function in Acute Respiratory Failure patients. PMID:23873130

  12. Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer improves survival and early graft function after ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Markus; Kienle, Klaus; Mueller, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jauch, Karl Walter; Püllmann, Kerstin; Obed, Aiman; Schlitt, Hans J; Beham, Alexander

    2005-11-27

    Primary graft dysfunction due to ischemia and reperfusion injury represents a major problem in liver transplantation. The related cell stress may induce apoptosis, which can be suppressed by bcl-2. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of adenoviral bcl-2 gene transfer on early graft function and survival in rat liver transplantation. An adenoviral construct that transfers bcl-2 under the control of a tetracycline inducible promoter was generated (advTetOn bcl-2) and used with a second adenovirus that transfers the repressor protein (advCMV Rep). Forty-eight hours before explantation, donor rats were treated with advTetOn bcl-2/ advCMV Rep (n=7) and doxycyclin, with the control adenoviral construct advCMV GFP (n=8) or with doxycyclin alone (n=8). Liver transplantation was performed following 16 hours of cold storage (UW). Bcl-2 expression and intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed. Bile flow was monitored 90 min posttransplantation. The endpoint for survival was 7 days. Bcl-2 was expressed in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells. This was associated with a significant reduction of apoptotic sinusoidal lining cells and hepatocytes after 24 hours and 7 days. Bile production was significantly higher following bcl-2 pretreatment. Furthermore, bcl-2 transfer resulted in significantly improved survival (100% vs. 50% both control groups). Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer results in protein expression in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells resulting in early graft function and survival enhancement after prolonged ischemia and reperfusion injury. The inhibition of apoptosis in the context of liver transplantation might be a reasonable approach in the treatment of graft dysfunction.

  13. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  14. Early experience with stretch polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for haemodialysis access surgery: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tordoir, J H; Hofstra, L; Leunissen, K M; Kitslaar, P J

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of standard ePTFE versus stretch ePTFE AV fistulas. Prospective randomised trial. University Hospital. During a 2-year period 37 patients received 17 stretch and 20 standard ePTFE graft AV fistulas. Patients were evaluated for the occurrence of complications and graft patency. Regular Duplex scans were performed to detect stenoses in the fistula circuit. Thrombotic events occurred in 40% of the standard ePTFE grafts, compared to 12% of the stretch ePTFE prostheses (p < 0.001). The incidence of puncture complications was similar in both groups. The cumulative primary patency rate in the stretch ePTFE group was significantly higher compared to the standard ePTFE group (1-year patency rates of 59% and 29%, respectively; p < 0.01). No differences in the duration of puncture site bleeding were observed. Duplex scanning showed a significantly greater number of stenoses in the standard ePTFE grafts. The new stretch ePTFE prosthesis has better primary patency rates and less stenoses due to intimal hyperplasia as compared to standard ePTFE grafts.

  15. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Yaw; Okoro, C A; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.

  16. Risk factors associated with early implant failure: A 5-year retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Gaya, Maris Victoria; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco J; Cañaveral-Cavero, Esther; de Dios Luna-del Castillo, Juan; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The replacement of lost teeth with dental implants is a widespread treatment whose associated problems are also frequently encountered. Nevertheless, the factors associated with early implant failure have not been well documented. Further analyses of the factors influencing osseointegration establishment are required to maximize the predictability of the procedure and minimize implant failures. The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to explore the association between possible risk factors and early implant failure. This retrospective clinical study evaluated 142 participants who received 276 external connection BTI implants between 2007 and 2011. Participant variables (age, sex, systemic disease, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, bruxism, and degree of periodontal disease), implant variables (type of edentulism, localization, area, diameter, length, and bone quality), intervention variables (expansion mechanisms, sinus augmentation techniques, bone regeneration, and implant insertion), and postoperative variables (presence of pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery) were studied. A multilevel logistic regression model (mixed effects-type model) was used to determine the influence of variables on early implant failure. Early implant failure was significantly associated with the male sex (P=.001), severe periodontal disease (P=.005), short implants (P=.001), expansion technique (P=.002), and postoperative pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery (P<.001). Early dental implant failure is more frequent in men and in individuals with severe periodontal disease, short implants, pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery, or bone expansion treatment. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of occult renal impairment on early and late outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marui, Akira; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES High serum creatinine is considered an independent risk factor for poor outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of occult renal impairment (ORI), defined as an impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a normal serum creatinine (SCr) level, remains unclear. Thus, we sought to investigate the impact of ORI on outcomes after CABG. METHODS Among patients undergoing their first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 1842 patients with normal SCr levels undergoing CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative estimated GFR calculated by the Cockcroft–Gault equation: 1339 patients with estimated GFR of ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (normal group) and 503 with estimated GFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (ORI group). RESULTS Preoperative estimated GFR differed between the groups (51.3 ± 6.6 vs 85.8 ± 23.0 ml/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01). ORI was associated with high in-hospital mortality (3.2 vs 1.0%, P < 0.01) and need for dialysis (2.0 vs 0.2%, P < 0.01). In terms of long-term outcomes, ORI was associated with high mortality compared with the normal (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.72 [1.16–2.54], P < 0.01) and high incidence of composite cardiovascular events (death, stroke or myocardial infarction: 1.53 [1.16–2.02], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS ORI was an independent risk factor for early and late death as well as cardiovascular events in patients undergoing CABG with normal SCr levels. A more accurate evaluation of renal function through a combination of SCr and estimated GFR is needed in patients with normal SCr levels. PMID:23793709

  18. Long-term survival of donor bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells implanted into the periosteum of patients with allogeneic graft failure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, L A; Petinati, N A; Sats, N V; Drize, N J; Risinskaya, N V; Sudarikov, A B; Vasilieva, V A; Drokov, M Y; Michalzova, E D; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2016-09-01

    The present study involved three patients with graft failure following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We obtained multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the original hematopoietic cell donors and implanted these cells in the periosteum to treat long-term bone marrow aplasia. The results showed that in all patients endogenous blood formation was recovered 2 weeks after MSC administration. Donor MSCs were found in recipient bone marrow three and 5 months following MSC implantation. Thus, our findings indicate that functional donor MSCs can persist in patient bone marrow.

  19. Circulating AST, H-FABP, and NGAL are early and accurate biomarkers of graft injury and dysfunction in a preclinical model of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, Ina; Lerut, Evelyne; van Pelt, Jos; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To investigate circulating biomarkers of initial graft injury in a porcine kidney autotransplant model. Injury endured by kidney grafts early posttransplant determines their outcome. However, creatinine (clearance) is a poor surrogate of tissue injury and urinary biomarkers are limited by graft anuria or persistent native kidney diuresis. No validated circulating biomarkers quantifying initial graft injury exist. Minimally injured porcine kidney grafts (n = 6) were cold stored (18 hours) and autotransplanted. Moderately (n = 6) and severely injured grafts (n = 7) were exposed to 30 or 60 minutes warm ischemia before storage and autotransplantation. Four biomarkers [aspartate transaminase (AST), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG)] were measured posttransplant and compared with creatinine (clearance) and histology. Diuresis was delayed in moderately [2.5 days (2-3)] and severely [4 days (4-5)] versus minimally injured grafts (P < 0.001). Creatinine peaked later than AST, H-FABP, and NGAL [4 days (3-5) vs 3 hours (3-6), 6 hours (6-24), 2 days (1-3), respectively] and only differentiated minimally from severely injured grafts. Peak AST and H-FABP distinguished all injury grades. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin discriminated initial graft injury 2 days posttransplant. Peak AST, H-FABP, and NGAL correlated with peak creatinine [Pearson coefficients: 0.70 (P = 0.001), 0.85 (P < 0.0001), 0.80 (P < 0.0001)]. N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was not different. Decreased clearance accounted for a small percentage of H-FABP and NGAL increase. Histology was not different among transplanted groups. Plasma AST, H-FABP, and NGAL reflect the severity of initial kidney graft injury and predict graft dysfunction earlier and more accurately than creatinine (clearance) and histology. They represent promising tools to improve patient care after kidney transplantation.

  20. Headsprout Early Reading for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreskey, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of using Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout, 2007) to supplement a balanced literacy curriculum for kindergarten and first grade students in a suburban public school system. Headsprout, which is an example of computer aided instruction (CAI), provided internet-based, supplemental reading instruction that…

  1. Early prophylactic autogenous bone grafting in type III open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Subaşi, Mehmet; Arslan, Huseyin; Necmioğlu, Serdar; Kayikçi, Cuma

    2004-08-01

    The authors report the results achieved in patients with type III open tibial fractures who underwent primary autogenous bone grafting at the time of debridement and skeletal stabilisation. Twenty patients with a mean age of 35.8 years (range, 24-55) were treated between 1996 and 1999. Eight fractures were type IIIA, 11 were type IIIB, and 1 was type IIIC. At the index procedure, wound debridement, external fixation and autogenous bone grafting with bone coverage were achieved. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (range, 34-55). The mean time to fixator removal was 21 weeks (range, 14-35), and the mean time to union was 28 weeks (range, 19-45). Skin coverage was achieved by a myocutaneous flap in 2 patients, late primary closure in 4, and split skin grafting in 14. One (5%) of the patients experienced delayed union, and 1 (5%) developed infection. In tibial type III open fractures, skin coverage may be delayed, using the surrounding soft tissue to cover any exposed bone after thorough débridement and wound cleansing. Primary prophylactic bone grafting performed at the same time reduces the rate of delayed union, shortens the time to union, and does not increase the infection rate.

  2. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed <90 degrees before reaching the proximal fabric edge. Grafts that traversed >90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after

  3. Could anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis explain early mitral valve repair failure?

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Generali, Tommaso; Henaine, Roland; Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anais; Chiari, Pascal; Fran, Jean; Obadia, Jean François

    2014-09-01

    Standardized techniques of mitral valve repair (MVR) have recently witnessed the introduction of a 'respect rather than resect' concept, the strategy of which involves the use of artificial chordae. MVR displays several advantages over mitral valve replacement in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the risk of reoperation for MVR failure must be taken into account. Different mechanisms could be advocated as the leading cause of MVR failure; procedure-related mechanisms are usually involved in early MVR failure, while valve-related mechanisms are common in late failure. Here, the case is reported of an early failure of MVR using artificial chordae that could be explained by an unusual procedure-related mechanism, namely anterior papillary muscle necrosis. MVR failure is a well-known complication after surgical repair of degenerative MR, but anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis might also be considered a possible mechanism of procedure-related MVR failure, especially when considering the increasing use of artificial chordae. Owing to the encouraging results obtained, mitral valve re-repair might be considered a viable solution, but must be selected after only a meticulous evaluation of the underlying mechanism of MVR failure.

  4. Skin grafts: a rural general surgical perspective.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Nigel J; Fancourt, Michael; Gilkison, William; Kyle, Stephen; Mosquera, Damien

    2009-05-01

    Skin grafts are a common method of closing skin defects. The literature comparing methods of graft application and subsequent outcomes is poor, but reports indicate a graft failure rate between 2 and 30%. The aim of this study was to audit our current skin graft practice. Data were collected prospectively on all skin grafts performed by the general surgical department between 1st December 2005 and 1st December 2006. A standardized proforma on each patient included data on age, gender, graft indication, application method, comorbidities, length of stay, and graft outcomes including graft take at 1, 2 and 6 weeks post-operatively. There were 85 grafts performed on 74 patients, median age 72 years (9-102 years), with 10 (12%) acute admissions. Prophylactic antibiotics were given to 50% (38 of 74) of patients. Successful grafts (>80% take) were performed in 68 (80%) patients. The overall graft complication rate was 24.7% (22 of 85 grafts). Infection occurred in 13 of 17 graft failures. No patients underwent re-operation for graft failure. Patients who received prophylactic antibiotics had a reduced risk of graft failure (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.016). Skin grafts were performed successfully in the majority of patients. Graft complication and failure rates compare well with the world literature. The use of prophylactic antibiotics was the only predictor of successful graft take.

  5. Risk factors for early failure after peripheral endovascular intervention: application of a reliability engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Andrew J; Graham, Ashley; Connolly, Peter H; Karwowski, John K; Bush, Harry L; Frazier, Peter I; Schneider, Darren B

    2013-01-01

    We apply an innovative and novel analytic approach, based on reliability engineering (RE) principles frequently used to characterize the behavior of manufactured products, to examine outcomes after peripheral endovascular intervention. We hypothesized that this would allow for improved prediction of outcome after peripheral endovascular intervention, specifically with regard to identification of risk factors for early failure. Patients undergoing infrainguinal endovascular intervention for chronic lower-extremity ischemia from 2005 to 2010 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. The primary outcome of failure was defined as patency loss detected by duplex ultrasonography, with or without clinical failure. Analysis included univariate and multivariate Cox regression models, as well as RE-based analysis including product life-cycle models and Weibull failure plots. Early failures were distinguished using the RE principle of "basic rating life," and multivariate models identified independent risk factors for early failure. From 2005 to 2010, 434 primary endovascular peripheral interventions were performed for claudication (51.8%), rest pain (16.8%), or tissue loss (31.3%). Fifty-five percent of patients were aged ≥75 years; 57% were men. Failure was noted after 159 (36.6%) interventions during a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 0-71 months). Using multivariate (Cox) regression analysis, rest pain and tissue loss were independent predictors of patency loss, with hazard ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.1; P < 0.001) and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-5.2, P < 0.001), respectively. The distribution of failure times for both claudication and critical limb ischemia fit distinct Weibull plots, with different characteristics: interventions for claudication demonstrated an increasing failure rate (β = 1.22, θ = 13.46, mean time to failure = 12.603 months, index of fit = 0.99037, R(2) = 0.98084), whereas interventions for critical limb

  6. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target and risk of ductus arteriosus closure failure.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at <28 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Oxygen saturation target range during the first postnatal 72 h was 84-100% in study period 1 and 85-92% in period 2. Eighty-two infants were included in period 1, and 61 were included in period 2. The lower oxygen saturation target range increased the occurrence of hypoxemia during the first postnatal 72 h. Prevalence of DA closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  8. Effects of a platelet gel on early graft revascularization after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vogrin, M; Rupreht, M; Dinevski, D; Hašpl, M; Kuhta, M; Jevsek, M; Knežević, M; Rožman, P

    2010-01-01

    Slow graft healing in bone tunnels and a slow graft ligamentization process after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are some of the reasons for prolonged rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of platelet gel (PG) accelerates early graft revascularization after ACL reconstruction. PG was produced from autologous platelet-rich plasma and applied locally. We quantitatively evaluated the revascularization process in the osteoligamentous interface zone in the bone tunnels and in the intra-articular part of the graft by means of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After 4-6 weeks, the PG-treated group demonstrated a significantly higher level of vascularization in the osteoligamentous interface (0.33 ± 0.09) than the control group (0.16 ± 0.09, p < 0.001). In the intra-articular part of the graft, we found no evidence of revascularization in either group. Locally applied PG enhanced early revascularization of the graft in the osteoligamentous interface zone after ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation: Is Graft Storage Time Associated With Clinical Outcomes and Graft Survivorship?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth J; Tírico, Luís E; McCauley, Julie C; Bugbee, William D

    2017-08-01

    Regulatory concerns and the popularity of fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation have led to a need for prolonged viable storage of osteochondral grafts. Tissue culture media allow a longer storage time but lead to chondrocyte death within the tissue. The long-term clinical consequence of prolonged storage is unknown. Patients transplanted with OCAs with a shorter storage time would have lower failure rates and better clinical outcomes than those transplanted with OCAs with prolonged storage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A matched-pair study was performed of 75 patients who received early release grafts (mean storage, 6.3 days [range, 1-14 days]) between 1997 and 2002, matched 1:1 by age, diagnosis, and graft size, with 75 patients who received late release grafts (mean storage time, 20.0 days [range, 16-28 days]) from 2002 to 2008. The mean age was 33.5 years, and the median graft size was 6.3 cm 2 . All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Evaluations included pain, satisfaction, function, failures, and reoperations. Outcome measures included the modified Merle d'Aubigné-Postel (18-point) scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, and Knee Society function (KS-F) scale. Clinical failure was defined as revision OCA transplantation or conversion to arthroplasty. Among patients with grafts remaining in situ, the mean follow-up was 11.9 years (range, 2.0-16.8 years) and 7.8 years (range, 2.3-11.1 years) for the early and late release groups, respectively. OCA failure occurred in 25.3% (19/75) of patients in the early release group and 12.0% (9/75) of patients in the late release group ( P = .036). The median time to failure was 3.5 years (range, 1.7-13.8 years) and 2.7 years (range, 0.3-11.1 years) for the early and late release groups, respectively. The 5-year survivorship of OCAs was 85% for the early release group and 90% for the late release group ( P = .321). No differences in postoperative pain and function were

  10. Failure Rate and Clinical Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autograft Hamstring Versus a Hybrid Graft.

    PubMed

    Leo, Brian M; Krill, Michael; Barksdale, Leticia; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M

    2016-11-01

    To compare the revision rate and subjective outcome measures of autograft hamstring versus a soft tissue hybrid graft combining both autograft hamstring and tibialis allograft for isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A single-center retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative study of isolated ACL reconstruction revision rates for subjects who underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL using autograft hamstring or a soft tissue hybrid graft using both autograft hamstring and tibialis allograft was performed. Patients with isolated ACL tears were included and underwent anatomic single-bundle reconstruction using an independent tunnel drilling technique and a minimum of 24 months' follow-up. The primary outcome assessed was the presence or absence of ACL rerupture. Secondary clinical outcomes consisted of the International Knee Documentation Committee, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) ACL quality of life assessment, and the visual analog pain scale. Between February 2010 and April 2013, 95 patients with isolated ACL tears between ages 18 and 40 met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Seventy-one autograft hamstring and 24 soft tissue hybrid graft ACL reconstructions were performed during the course of this study. The follow-up period was 24 to 32 months (mean 26.9 months). There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics or Outerbridge classification. No statistically significant differences in ACL retears (5.6% auto, 4.2% hybrid; P = .57) were found between groups. Clinical International Knee Documentation Committee and UCLA ACL quality of life assessment improvement scores revealed no statistically significant differences in autograft and hybrid graft reconstructions (41 ± 11, 43 ± 13; P = .65) (38 ± 11, 40 ± 10; P = .23). The mean pain level decreased from 8.1 to 2.8 in the autograft group and 7.9 to 2.5 in the hybrid group (P = .18). The use of a hybrid soft tissue graft has a

  11. Infraclavicular versus axillary nerve catheters: A retrospective comparison of early catheter failure rate.

    PubMed

    Quast, Michaela B; Sviggum, Hans P; Hanson, Andrew C; Stoike, David E; Martin, David P; Niesen, Adam D

    2018-05-01

    Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery. Retrospective study. Postoperative recovery unit and inpatient hospital floor. 328 patients who received IC or AX nerve catheters and underwent elbow surgery were identified by retrospective query of our institution's database. Data collected included unplanned catheter dislodgement, catheter replacement rate, postoperative pain scores, and opioid administration on postoperative day 1. Catheter failure was defined as unplanned dislodging within 24 h of placement or requirement for catheter replacement and evaluated using a covariate adjusted model. 119 IC catheters and 209 AX catheters were evaluated. There were 8 (6.7%) failed IC catheters versus 13 (6.2%) failed AX catheters. After adjusting for age, BMI, and gender there was no difference in catheter failure rate between IC and AX nerve catheters (p = 0.449). These results suggest that IC and AX nerve catheters do not differ in the rate of early catheter failure, despite differences in anatomic location and catheter placement techniques. Both techniques provided effective postoperative analgesia with median pain scores < 3/10 for patients following elbow surgery. Reasons other than rate of early catheter failure should dictate which approach is performed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The influence of microstructure on the probability of early failure in aluminum-based interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, V. M.

    2004-09-01

    For electromigration in short aluminum interconnects terminated by tungsten vias, the well known "short-line" effect applies. In a similar manner, for longer lines, early failure is determined by a critical value Lcrit for the length of polygranular clusters. Any cluster shorter than Lcrit is "immortal" on the time scale of early failure where the figure of merit is not the standard t50 value (the time to 50% failures), but rather the total probability of early failure, Pcf. Pcf is a complex function of current density, linewidth, line length, and material properties (the median grain size d50 and grain size shape factor σd). It is calculated here using a model based around the theory of runs, which has proved itself to be a useful tool for assessing the probability of extreme events. Our analysis shows that Pcf is strongly dependent on σd, and a change in σd from 0.27 to 0.5 can cause an order of magnitude increase in Pcf under typical test conditions. This has implications for the web-based two-dimensional grain-growth simulator MIT/EmSim, which generates grain patterns with σd=0.27, while typical as-patterned structures are better represented by a σd in the range 0.4 - 0.6. The simulator will consequently overestimate interconnect reliability due to this particular electromigration failure mode.

  13. Early laparotomy wound failure as the mechanism for incisional hernia formation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Liyu; Culbertson, Eric J.; Wen, Yuan; Franz, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernia is the most common complication of abdominal surgery leading to reoperation. In the United States, 200,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed annually, often with significant morbidity. Obesity is increasing the risk of laparotomy wound failure. Methods We used a validated animal model of incisional hernia formation. We intentionally induced laparotomy wound failure in otherwise normal adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Radio-opaque, metal surgical clips served as markers for the use of x-ray images to follow the progress of laparotomy wound failure. We confirmed radiographic findings of the time course for mechanical laparotomy wound failure by necropsy. Results Noninvasive radiographic imaging predicts early laparotomy wound failure and incisional hernia formation. We confirmed both transverse and craniocaudad migration of radio-opaque markers at necropsy after 28 d that was uniformly associated with the clinical development of incisional hernias. Conclusions Early laparotomy wound failure is a primary mechanism for incisional hernia formation. A noninvasive radiographic method for studying laparotomy wound healing may help design clinical trials to prevent and treat this common general surgical complication. PMID:23036516

  14. Early mobilization reduces the atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Seyed Tayeb; Najafloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Ghiasi, Mohammad Saeid

    2017-09-01

    Atelectasis and pleural effusion are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Longer stay in the bed is one of the most important contributing factors in pulmonary complications. Some studies confirm the benefits of early mobilization (EM) in critically ill patients, but the efficacy of EM on pulmonary complications after CABG is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of EM on the incidence of atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. In a single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned into two groups each consisted of 50 patients. Patients in the experimental group were enrolled in a mobilization protocol consisting of the mobilization from the bed in the first 3 days after surgery in the morning and evening. Patients in the control group were mobilized from bed in third postoperation day, according to the hospital routine. Arterial blood gases, pleural effusion, and atelectasis were compared between groups. Atelectasis and pleural effusion was reduced in experimental group. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood in third postoperative day and the percentage of arterial oxygen saturation in the fourth postoperative day were higher in the intervention group (P value < .05). EM from bed could be an effective intervention in reducing atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  16. Intraoperative Portal Flow of Less Than 1 Liter per Minute After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Is Not Associated Per Se With an Increased Rate of Early Graft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gastaca, M; Prieto, M; Valdivieso, A; Ruiz, P; Ventoso, A; Palomares, I; Matarranz, A; Martinez-Indart, L; Ortiz de Urbina, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a portal flow of <1,000 mL/min in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is associated with a higher incidence of early graft dysfunction (EGD) and graft loss. A retrospective study was performed of 540 OLTs carried out consecutively from December 2004 to December 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, portal flow <1,000 mL/min; and group B, portal flow >1,000 mL/min. We studied the incidence of EGD and graft survival. A subanalysis was performed to define the minimum acceptable portal flow/100 g of liver weight to reduce the development EGD and graft loss. Group A included 29 patients and group B, 511 patients. Group A had significantly lower-weight donors and recipients, female recipients with cholestatic disease, lower MELD scores, and lower hepatic artery flow. EGD occurred in 7 patients in group A (24.1%) versus 101 patients in group B (19.8%; P = .43). No significant differences were found in 1- and 5-year graft survival. A portal flow of <80 mL/min/100 g of liver weight was related to a significantly higher risk of developing EGD (odds ratio, 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-12.91; P = .008) and graft loss (hazard ratio, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.32-12.42; P = .014). Intraoperative portal flow of <1,000 mL/min in OLT was not related per se with a higher incidence of EGD or graft loss. Significantly higher risk of developing EGD and graft loss was associated with a portal flow of <80 mL/min/100 g of liver weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  18. Dynamic Changes of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Markers in the Early Healing Process of Dacron Vascular Grafts in the Dog, Using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ishida; Wu; Shi; Fujita; Sauvage; Hammond; Wijelath

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies of neointima formation on Dacron vascular grafts mainly focused on the late stages using immunohistochemistry staining for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin. However, it is impossible to use immunohistochemistry to study the early events of neointima formation, because graft samples lack sufficient cellular material. Therefore, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate dynamic changes of SM and endothelial markers during the early stages of neointima formation. Preclotted Dacron grafts were implanted in the descending thoracic aorta of 14 mongrel dogs. Specimens were retrieved at 1-4 weeks. Total RNAs were extracted from mid-portion of graft flow surfaces, and RT-PCR for vWF, SM myosin heavy chain (MHC), and SM alpha-actin were performed and expressed as a ratio to the ribosome s17 signal. SM MHC and vWF mRNA expression was low at 1-2 weeks but elevated at 3-4 weeks (P < 0.05). However, SM alpha-actin mRNA levels were expressed consistently throughout the study period. At 3-4 weeks, vWF mRNA expression was inversely correlated to thrombus formation on the graft flow surface. Increased expressions of SM MHC and vWF mRNA corresponded to the formation of neointima and an endothelial layer at the later stages. However, SM alpha-actin mRNA expression did not vary during the healing process. The application of RT-PCR should permit further studies of gene regulation in the early vascular graft healing process in vivo. This model can also be used to study the molecular events that are involved in SM cell differentiation.

  19. Three-year outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with heart failure: from the CREDO-Kyoto percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass graft registry cohort-2†.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-02-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a major risk factor for heart failure. However, long-term benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in those patients has not been well elucidated. Of the 15 939 patients undergoing first myocardial revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2, we identified 1064 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease with a history of heart failure (ACC/AHA Stage C or D). There were 672 patients undergoing PCI and 392 CABG. Preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between PCI and CABG (46.6 ± 15.1 vs 46.6 ± 14.6%, P = 0.89), but the CABG group included more patients with triple-vessel and left main disease (P < 0.01 each). Three-year outcomes revealed that the risk of hospital readmission for heart failure was higher after PCI than after CABG (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]; 1.90 [1.18-3.05], P = 0.01). More importantly, adjusted mortality after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG (1.79 [1.13-2.82], P = 0.01). The risk of cardiac death after PCI was also higher than after CABG (1.98 [1.10-3.55], P = 0.02). Stratified analysis using the SYNTAX score demonstrated that risk of death was not different between PCI and CABG in patients with low (<23) and intermediate (23-32) SYNTAX scores (2.10 [0.57-7.68], P = 0.26 and 1.43 [0.63-3.21], P = 0.39, respectively), whereas those with a high (≥ 33) SYNTAX score, the risk of death was far higher after PCI than after CABG (4.83 [1.46-16.0], P = 0.01). In patients with heart failure with advanced coronary artery disease, CABG was a better option than PCI because CABG was associated with better survival benefit, particularly in more complex coronary lesions stratified by the SYNTAX score. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Early ventricular tachyarrhythmias after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: Is it a real burden?

    PubMed

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Yaksh, Ameeta; Knops, Paul; Kik, Charles; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of ventricular dysrhythmias (VD) [ventricular premature beats (VPBs), ventricular couplets (Vcouplets), ventricular runs (Vruns)] after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has so far not been examined. The goal of this study is to examine characteristics of VD and whether they precede ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) during a postoperative follow-up period of 5 days using continuous rhythm registrations. In addition, we determined predictive factors of VD/VTA. Incidences and burdens of VD/VTA were calculated in patients (N=105, 83 male, 65±9 years) undergoing primary, on-pump CABG. Independent risk factors were examined using multivariate analysis. VPBs, Vcouplets, and Vruns occurred in respectively 100%, 82.9%, and 48.6% with corresponding burdens of 0.05%, 0%, and 0%. Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) did not occur in our cohort. Independent risk factors for VD included male gender, mitral valve insufficiency, hyperlipidemia, and age ≥60 years. VD are common in patients with coronary artery disease after CABG. Despite high incidences of these dysrhythmias, corresponding burdens are low and sustained VT or VF did not occur. Incidences were highest on the first postoperative day and diminished over time. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring and Early Warning of the 2012 Preonzo Catastrophic Rockslope Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Simon; Gschwind, Sophie; Keller-Signer, Alexandra; Valenti, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we describe the accelerated creep stage and early warning system of a 210'000 m3 rock slope failure that occurred in May 2012 above the village of Preonzo (Swiss Alps). The very rapid failure occurred from a larger and retrogressive instability in high-grade metamorphic ortho-gneisses and amphibolites with a total volume of about 350'000 m3 located at an alpine meadow called Alpe di Roscioro. This instability showed clearly visible signs of movements since 1989 and accelerated creep with significant hydro-mechanical forcing since about 1999. Because the instability at Preonzo threatened a large industrial facility and important transport routes a cost-effective early warning system was installed in 2010. The alarm thresholds for pre-alarm, general public alarm and evacuation were derived from 10 years of continuous displacement monitoring with crack extensometers and an automated total station. These thresholds were successfully applied to evacuate the industrial facility and close important roads a few days before the catastrophic slope failure of May 15th, 2012. The rock slope failure occurred in two events, exposing a planar rupture plane dipping 42° and generating deposits in the mid-slope portion with a travel angle of 38°. Two hours after the second rockslide, the fresh colluvial deposits became reactivated in a devastating de-bris avalanche reaching the foot of the slope.

  2. Graft extrusion in both the coronal and sagittal planes is greater after medial compared with lateral meniscus allograft transplantation but is unrelated to early clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Chang-Rack; Jeon, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-01-01

    than lateral MAT in both the coronal and sagittal planes. In the sagittal plane, graft extrusion was greater and more frequent on the anterior than the posterior horn in both medial and lateral MAT. However, graft extrusion was not correlated with early clinical outcomes after both medial and lateral MAT. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  4. Thrombopoietin treatment of one graft in a double cord blood transplant provides early platelet recovery while contributing to long-term engraftment in NSG mice.

    PubMed

    van der Garde, Mark; van Hensbergen, Yvette; Brand, Anneke; Slot, Manon C; de Graaf-Dijkstra, Alice; Mulder, Arend; Watt, Suzanne M; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants demonstrate delayed early neutrophil and platelet recovery and delayed longer term immune reconstitution compared to bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood transplants. Despite advances in enhancing early neutrophil engraftment, platelet recovery after CB transplantation is not significantly altered when compared to contemporaneous controls. Recent studies have identified a platelet-biased murine HSC subset, maintained by thrombopoietin (TPO), which has enhanced capacity for short- and long-term platelet reconstitution, can self-renew, and can give rise to myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs. In previous studies, we have shown that transplantation of human CB CD34(+) cells precultured in TPO as a single graft accelerates early platelet recovery as well as yielding long-term repopulation in immune-deficient mice. In this study, using a double CB murine transplant model, we investigated whether TPO cultured human CB CD34(+) cells have a competitive advantage or disadvantage over untreated human CB CD34(+) cells in terms of (1) short-term and longer term platelet recovery and (2) longer term hematological recovery. Our studies demonstrate that the TPO treated graft shows accelerated early platelet recovery without impairing the platelet engraftment of untreated CD34(+) cells. Notably, this was followed by a dominant contribution to platelet production through the untreated CD34(+) cell graft over the intermediate to longer term. Furthermore, although the contribution of the TPO treated graft to long-term hematological engraftment was reduced, the TPO treated and untreated grafts both contributed significantly to long-term chimerism in vivo.

  5. An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Matthew J.; Özbek, Umut; Holler, Ernst; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Reddy, Pavan; Aziz, Mina; Hogan, William J.; Ayuk, Francis; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Qayed, Muna; Ordemann, Rainer; Wölfl, Matthias; Mielke, Stephan; Chen, Yi-Bin; Devine, Steven; Jagasia, Madan; Kitko, Carrie L.; Litzow, Mark R.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Locatelli, Franco; Morales, George; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Reshef, Ran; Rösler, Wolf; Weber, Daniela; Yanik, Gregory A.; Levine, John E.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. METHODS. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set (n = 309) and validation set (n = 358). RESULTS. A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group (P < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. CONCLUSION. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. FUNDING. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. PMID:28194439

  6. Early initiation of beta blockade in heart failure: issues and evidence.

    PubMed

    Williams, Randall E

    2005-09-01

    Despite clinical trials demonstrating that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems can reduce the mortality and morbidity risk associated with heart failure, these drugs have remained underutilized in general clinical practice. In particular, many patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction fail to receive beta blockers, although this class of drugs, as well as other antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, are recommended as part of routine heart failure therapy by national expert consensus guidelines. In-hospital initiation of beta-blocker therapy may improve long-term utilization by physicians and compliance by patients through obviating many of the misperceived dangers associated with beta blockade. The following review of the clinical trial data from the Randomized Evaluation of Strategies for Left Ventricular Dysfunction (RESOLVD) trial, the Metoprolol Controlled-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF), the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II), the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial, and the Initiation Management Predischarge Process for Assessment of Carvedilol Therapy for Heart Failure (IMPACT-HF) trial on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of beta blockers indicates that early initiation can be safely achieved and can improve patient outcomes.

  7. Factors Affecting the Development of an Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Immunization in Children With Intestinal Failure: Before and After Small Bowel Transplantation (With and Without Liver Graft).

    PubMed

    Craggs, Helen M; Jackson, Phoebe; Gupte, Girish; Hartley, Jane; Abdel-Hady, Mona; Morton, Rachael; Beath, Sue; Hogg, Lindsay

    2017-08-01

    Small bowel transplant with or without a liver graft (SBTx ± LTx) for children with intestinal failure involves checking their immunity to a range of microorganisms, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), at the time of assessment. HBV vaccination in the United Kingdom is recommended for transplant candidates. The aim of this audit was to find out how many SBTx ± LTx candidates received HBV vaccination before transplantation and how the timing of vaccination influenced the development of immunity. Retrospective review of case notes and hospital microbiology database formed the basis of the study. Vaccination history and serology were available in 56 of 87 subjects who had SBTx ± LTx. All patients were seronegative for HBV when assessed for transplant. HBV vaccination was started before transplant in 25 children and after transplant in 31. Eight children died posttransplant before their immunity could be checked, but of the 48 survivors, 20 children developed immunity, of whom 13 (65%) received at least 1 vaccination before SBTx ± LTx ( P = .008). Lack of response to HBV vaccine was significantly associated with isolated bowel transplantation and intensification of immune suppression. Of 11 children, 5 lost hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb), and 28 never made HBsAb, despite repeated vaccinations. Our study clearly shows that HBV vaccine before transplant is more effective. In line with renal failure patients, we suggest that children with chronic intestinal failure receive HBV vaccine when clinically stable, before referral for transplant. Higher-dose vaccines, accelerated schedules, and more frequent booster vaccinations are also strategies that may improve HBsAb levels after transplant.

  8. Failure to Rescue Rates After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: An Analysis From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Fred H; Ferraris, Victor A; Kurlansky, Paul A; Lobdell, Kevin W; He, Xia; O'Brien, Sean M; Furnary, Anthony P; Rankin, J Scott; Vassileva, Christina M; Fazzalari, Frank L; Magee, Mitchell J; Badhwar, Vinay; Xian, Ying; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Wyler von Ballmoos, Moritz C; Shahian, David M

    2016-08-01

    Failure to rescue (FTR) is increasingly recognized as an important quality indicator in surgery. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database was used to develop FTR metrics and a predictive FTR model for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study included 604,154 patients undergoing isolated CABG at 1,105 centers from January 2010 to January 2014. FTR was defined as death after four complications: stroke, renal failure, reoperation, and prolonged ventilation. FTR was determined for each complication and a composite of the four complications. A statistical model to predict FTR was developed. FTR rates were 22.3% for renal failure, 16.4% for stroke, 12.4% for reoperation, 12.1% for prolonged ventilation, and 10.5% for the composite. Mortality increased with multiple complications and with specific combinations of complications. The multivariate risk model for prediction of FTR demonstrated a C index of 0.792 and was well calibrated, with a 1.0% average difference between observed/expected (O/E) FTR rates. With centers grouped into mortality terciles, complication rates increased modestly (11.4% to 15.7%), but FTR rates more than doubled (6.8% to 13.9%) from the lowest to highest terciles. Centers in the lowest complication rate tercile had an FTR O/E of 1.14, whereas centers in the highest complication rate tercile had an FTR O/E of 0.91. CABG mortality rates vary directly with FTR, but complication rates have little relation to death. FTR rates derived from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons data can serve as national benchmarks. Predicted FTR rates may facilitate patient counseling, and FTR O/E ratios have promise as valuable quality metrics. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Long-Term Survival After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Women and Men With Heart Failure and Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Louise Y; Tu, Jack V; Bader Eddeen, Anan; Liu, Peter P

    2018-06-16

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (rEF) is a widely regarded prognosticator after coronary artery bypass grafting. HF with preserved ejection fraction (pEF) accounts for up to half of all HF cases and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized cohorts. However, HFpEF outcomes have not been elucidated in cardiac surgical patients. We investigated the prevalence and outcomes of HFpEF and HFrEF in women and men following coronary artery bypass grafting. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada, between October 1, 2008, and March 31, 2015, using Cardiac Care Network and Canadian Institute of Health Information data. HF is captured through a validated population-based database of all Ontarians with physician-diagnosed HF. We defined pEF as ejection fraction ≥50% and rEF as ejection fraction <50%. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Analyses were stratified by sex. Mortality rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. The relative hazard of death was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Of 40 083 patients (20.6% women), 55.5% had pEF without HF, 25.7% had rEF without HF, 6.9% had HFpEF, and 12.0% had HFrEF. Age-standardized HFpEF mortality rates at 4±2 years of follow-up were similar in women and men. HFrEF standardized HFpEF mortality rates were higher in women than men. We found a higher prevalence and poorer prognosis of HFpEF in women. A history of HF was a more important prognosticator than ejection fraction. Preoperative screening and extended postoperative follow-up should be focused on women and men with HF rather than on rEF alone. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Simple Predictive Model of Early Failure among Patients Undergoing First-Time Arteriovenous Fistula Creation.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Zhu, Clara K; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2016-08-01

    Native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have a high 1 year failure rate leading to a need for secondary procedures. We set out to create a predictive model of early failure in patients undergoing first-time AVF creation, to identify failure-associated factors and stratify initial failure risk. The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) (2010-2014) was queried to identify patients undergoing first-time AVF creation. Patients with early (within 3 months postoperation) AVF failure (EF) or no failure (NF) were compared, failure being defined as any AVF that could not be used for dialysis. A multivariate logistic regression predictive model of EF based on perioperative clinical variables was created. Backward elimination with alpha level of 0.2 was used to create a parsimonious model. We identified 376 first-time AVF patients with follow-up data available in VSGNE. EF rate was 17.5%. Patients in the EF group had lower rates of hypertension (80.3% vs. 93.2%, P = 0.003) and diabetes (47.0% vs. 61.3%, P = 0.039). EF patients were also more likely to have radial artery inflow (57.6% vs. 38.4%, P = 0.011) and have forearm cephalic vein outflow (57.6% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.008). Additionally, the EF group was noted to have significantly smaller mean diameters of target artery (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.002) and vein (3.1 ± 0.7 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and vein larger than 3 mm were protective of EF (P < 0.05). The discriminating ability of this model was good (C-statistic = 0.731) and the model fits the data well (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.149). β-estimates of significant factors were used to create a point system and assign probabilities of EF. We developed a simple model that robustly predicts first-time AVF EF and suggests that anatomical and clinical factors directly affect early AVF outcomes. The risk score has the potential to be used in clinical settings to stratify risk and make

  11. Early High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure. A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Scot T; Borasino, Santiago; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Diane, Shelley; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for acute respiratory failure in children is prevalent despite the lack of efficacy data. To compare the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory failure managed with HFOV within 24-48 hours of endotracheal intubation with those receiving conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and/or late HFOV. This is a secondary analysis of data from the RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) study, a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013 in 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units. Propensity score analysis, including degree of hypoxia in the model, compared the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality of patients treated with early HFOV matched with those treated with CMV/late HFOV. Among 2,449 subjects enrolled in RESTORE, 353 patients (14%) were ever supported on HFOV, of which 210 (59%) had HFOV initiated within 24-48 hours of intubation. The propensity score model predicting the probability of receiving early HFOV included 1,064 patients (181 early HFOV vs. 883 CMV/late HFOV) with significant hypoxia (oxygenation index ≥ 8). The degree of hypoxia was the most significant contributor to the propensity score model. After adjusting for risk category, early HFOV use was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P = 0.001) but not with mortality (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.79; P = 0.15) compared with CMV/late HFOV. In adjusted models including important oxygenation variables, early HFOV was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. These analyses make supporting the current approach to HFOV less convincing.

  12. Early, de novo atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting: Facts and features.

    PubMed

    Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; van Ettinger, Maarten J B; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism underlying post-operative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) is essential for development of preventive measures. The incidence and characteristics of both PoAF and supraventricular premature beats triggering PoAF, their interrelationship and alterations over time have never been examined. The goal of this study is therefore to examine the correlation between the incidence and characteristics of supraventricular premature beats (SVPBs) and PoAF episodes in patients undergoing CABG in the first five post-operative days. PoAF episodes (N=327) and SVPBs (N=141,873) were characterized in 29 patients (63±9 years; 22 (76%) male) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and compared with a control group of patients without PoAF by using continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring during the first 5 days after surgery. Most patients (N=18, 62%) had multiple PoAF episodes; the median number of PoAF episodes per patient was 3 and varied between 1 and 139. The majority of PoAF episodes developed on the second and third post-operative day (55%). The averaged median duration of PoAF episodes per patient was 469±1085 min. Patients with PoAF had a higher SVPBs burden compared to subjects without PoAF (0.9% vs 0.2%, P<.001). SVPBs initiating PoAF had shorter coupling intervals than SVPBs which did not initiate PoAF episodes (58% vs 64% (P<.001) and were preceded by heart rate acceleration. PoAF episodes are mainly repetitive though transient in nature. There was a considerable inter-individual variation in both AF and SVPB characteristics, despite a similar underlying clinical profile. The SVPB burden is higher in patients with PoAF and the mode of onset is characterized by short coupled SVPBs. Determination of individual post-operative dysrhythmia profiles enables identification of patients at risk for developing PoAF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential Elements of Early Post Discharge Care of Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Soucier, Richard J; Miller, P Elliott; Ingrassia, Joseph J; Riello, Ralph; Desai, Nihar R; Ahmad, Tariq

    2018-06-01

    Heart failure is associated with an enormous burden on both patients and health care systems in the USA. Several national policy initiatives have focused on improving the quality of heart failure care, including reducing readmissions following hospitalization, which are common, costly, and, at least in part, preventable. The transition from inpatient to ambulatory care setting and the immediate post-hospitalization period present an opportunity to further optimize guideline concordant medical therapy, identify reversible issues related to worsening heart failure, and evaluate prognosis. It can also provide opportunities for medication reconciliation and optimization, consideration of device-based therapies, appropriate management of comorbidities, identification of individual barriers to care, and a discussion of goals of care based on prognosis. Recent studies suggest that attention to detail regarding patient comorbidities, barriers to care, optimization of both diuretic and neurohormonal therapies, and assessment of prognosis improve patient outcomes. Despite the fact that the transition period appears to be an optimal time to address these issues in a comprehensive manner, most patients are not referred to programs specializing in this approach post hospital discharge. The objective of this review is to provide an outline for early post discharge care that allows clinicians and other health care providers to care for these heart failure patients in a manner that is both firmly rooted in the guidelines and patient-centered. Data regarding which intervention is most likely to confer benefit to which subset of patients with this disease is lacking and warrants further study.

  15. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of early graft function on 10-year graft survival in recipients of kidneys from standard- or expanded-criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Smail, Nassima; Tchervenkov, Jean; Paraskevas, Steven; Baran, Dana; Mucsi, Istvan; Hassanain, Mazen; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Cantarovich, Marcelo

    2013-07-27

    The use of kidneys from expanded-criteria donors (ECD) is regarded with caution. We compared 279 kidney transplant recipients (KTxR) from standard-criteria donors (SCD) and 237 from ECD, transplanted between January 1990 and December 2006. We evaluated the impact of immediate graft function (IGF), slow graft function (SGF), and delayed graft function (DGF) and the drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) ≤ 30% or > 30% during the first year after transplantation on long-term patient and death-censored graft survival (DCGS). Ten-year patient survival was similar in SCD- or ECD-KTxR (P = 0.38). DCGS was better in SCD-KTxR versus ECD-KTxR (77.3% vs. 67.3%; P = 0.01). DCGS did not differ in either group experiencing IGF (P = 0.17) or DGF (P = 0.12). However, DCGS was worse in ECD-KTxR experiencing SGF (84.9% vs. 73.7%; P = 0.04). Predictors of DCGS were 1-year serum creatinine (hazard ratio, 1.03; P < 0.0001) and ΔeGFR > 30% between 1 and 12 months (Δ1-12eGFR) after transplantation (hazard ratio, 2.2; P = 0.02). In ECD-KTxR with IGF and more than 1-year follow-up, 10-year DCGS was better in those with Δ1-12eGFR ≤ 30% versus those with Δ1-12eGFR > 30% (83.8% vs. 53.6%; P = 0.01). Recipients of SCD or ECD kidneys with IGF or DGF had similar 10-year patient survival and DCGS. SGF had a worse impact on DCGS in ECD-KTxR. In addition to 1-year serum creatinine, Δ1-12eGFR > 30% is a negative predictor of DCGS. Larger studies should confirm if increasing the use of ECD, avoiding factors that contribute to SGF or DGF, and/or a decline in eGFR during the first year after transplantation may expand the donor pool and result in acceptable long-term outcomes.

  17. KIR and HLA-C Interactions Promote Differential Dendritic Cell Maturation and Is a Major Determinant of Graft Failure following Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hanvesakul, Raj; Kubal, Chandrashekhar; Moore, Jason; Neil, Desley; Cook, Mark; Ball, Simon; Briggs, David; Moss, Paul; Cockwell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background HLA-C is an important ligand for killer immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) that regulate natural killer (NK) cell function. Based on KIR specificity HLA-C molecules are allocated into two groups, HLA-C1 or HLA-C2; HLA-C2 is more inhibiting to NK cell function than HLA-C1. We studied the clinical importance of HLA-C genotypes on the long-term graft survival of 760 kidney transplants performed at our centre utilising a population based genetic study and cell culture model to define putative mechanisms. Methods and Findings Genotyping was performed using conventional DNA PCR techniques and correlations made to clinical outcomes. We found that transplant recipients with HLA-C2 had significantly better long-term graft survival than transplant recipients with HLA-C1 (66% versus 44% at 10 years, log-rank p = 0.002, HR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.16–1.97). In in-vitro NK and dendritic cell (DC) co-culture model we made several key observations that correlated with the population based genetic study. We observed that donor derived NK cells, on activation with IL-15, promoted differential HLA-C genotype dependent DC maturation. In NK-DC co-culture, the possession of HLA-C2 by DC was associated with anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1RA/IL-6), diminished DC maturation (CD86, HLA-DR), and absent CCR7 expression. Conversely, possession of HLA-C1 by DC was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis (TNF-α, IL-12p40/p70), enhanced DC maturation and up-regulation of CCR7 expression. By immunohistochemistry the presence of donor NK cells was confirmed in pre-transplant kidneys. Conclusions We propose that after kidney transplantation IL-15 activated donor derived NK cells interact with recipient DC with less activation of indirect allo-reactivity in HLA-C2 positive recipients than HLA-C1 positive recipients; this has implications for long-term graft survival. Early events following kidney transplantation involving NK-DC interaction via KIR and HLA

  18. Expansion of donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells with PIGA mutation associated with late graft failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kanako; Sugimori, Chiharu; Qi, Zhirong; Lu, Xuzhang; Takami, Akiyoshi; Ishiyama, Ken; Kondo, Yukio; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Okumura, Hirokazu; Nakao, Shinji

    2008-09-01

    A small population of CD55(-)CD59(-) blood cells was detected in a patient who developed donor-type late graft failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for treatment of aplastic anemia (AA). Chimerism and PIGA gene analyses showed the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)-type granulocytes to be of a donor-derived stem cell with a thymine insertion in PIGA exon 2. A sensitive mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis detected the mutation exclusively in DNA derived from the donor bone marrow (BM) cells. The patient responded to immunosuppressive therapy and achieved transfusion independence. The small population of PNH-type cells was undetectable in any of the 50 SCT recipients showing stable engraftment. The de novo development of donor cell-derived AA with a small population of PNH-type cells in this patient supports the concept that glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-deficient stem cells have a survival advantage in the setting of immune-mediated BM injury.

  19. Early administration of tolvaptan preserves renal function in elderly patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Momose, Tomoyasu; Hasegawa, Tomoya; Morita, Takehiro; Misawa, Takuo; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-05-01

    Loop diuretics used in the treatment of heart failure often induce renal impairment. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the renal protective effect of adding tolvaptan (TLV), compared to increasing the furosemide (FRM) dose, for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a real-world elderly patient population. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 52 consecutive hospitalized patients (age 83.4±9.6 years) with ADHF. The patients were assigned alternately to either the TLV group (TLV plus conventional treatment, n=26) or the FRM group (increasing the dose of FRM, n=26). TLV was administered within 24h from admission. The incidence of worsening renal function (WRF) within 7 days from admission was significantly lower in the TLV group (26.9% vs. 57.7%, p=0.025). Furthermore, the rates of occurrence of persistent and late-onset (≥5 days from admission) WRF were significantly lower in the TLV group. Persistent and late-onset WRF were significantly associated with a higher incidence of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days following discharge, compared to transient and early-onset WRF, respectively. Early administration of TLV, compared to increased FRM dosage, reduces the incidence of WRF in real-world elderly ADHF patients. In addition, it reduces the occurrence of 'worse' WRF-persistent and late-onset WRF-which are associated with increased rates of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days after discharge. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  1. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  2. Early Beginnings, Success and Failure in Teaching Young Children to Read: Some Abiding Questions and Intriguing Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethurst, Wood

    Questions pertaining to beginning reading, success, and failure are addressed. The issues of concern are: (1) When reading begins? (2) What preschool activities seem to help certain children succeed as readers? (3) What characteristics and conditions are associated with reading failure in first grade? (4) What early experiences might help children…

  3. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  4. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  5. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H

    2007-07-01

    problems. Children in the clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group had fewer teacher-reported internalizing problems and better work habits than the clinical-intervention-only group. Early failure to thrive increased children's vulnerability to short stature, poor arithmetic performance, and poor work habits. Home visiting attenuated some of the negative effects of early failure to thrive, possibly by promoting maternal sensitivity and helping children build strong work habits that enabled them to benefit from school. Findings provide evidence for early intervention programs for vulnerable infants.

  6. Early tension loss in an anterior cruciate ligament graft. A cadaver study of four tibial fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Grover, Dustin M; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2005-02-01

    The tensile force applied to an anterior cruciate ligament graft determines the maximal anterior translation; however, it is unknown whether the tensile force is transferred to the intra-articular portion of the graft and whether the intra-articular tension and maximal anterior translation are maintained shortly after ligament reconstruction. Ten cadaveric knees were reconstructed with a double-looped tendon graft. The graft was looped through a femoral fixation transducer that measured the resultant force on the proximal end of the graft. A pneumatic cylinder applied a tensile force of 110 N to the graft exiting the tibial tunnel with the knee in full extension. The graft was fixed sequentially with four tibial fixation devices (a spiked metal washer, double staples, a bioabsorbable interference screw, and a WasherLoc). Three cyclic loading treatments designed to conservatively load the graft and its fixation were applied. The combined loss in intra-articular graft tension from friction, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and three cyclic loading treatments was 50% for the spiked washer (p = 0.0004), 100% for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 64% for the interference screw (p = 0.0001), and 56% for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tension loss caused an increase in the maximal anterior translation from that of the intact knee of 2.0 mm for the spiked washer (p = 0.005), 7.8 mm for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 2.7 mm for the interference screw (p = 0.001), and 2.1 mm for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tensile force applied to a soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft is not transferred intra-articularly and is not maintained during graft fixation. The loss in tension is caused by friction in the tibial tunnel and wrapping the graft around the shank of the screw of the spiked washer, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and cyclical loading of the knee. The amount of tension loss is sufficient to increase the maximal anterior translation.

  7. Clinical Correlation of Early Atelectasis after Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Dennie, Carole; Gee, Yen-Yen; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Thornhill, Rebecca; Rubens, Fraser

    2016-06-01

    Atelectasis is a significant complication after cardiac surgery. The current study was designed to assess the significance of atelectasis after bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) harvest. The ICU admission chest x-ray of 565 patients undergoing BITA was reviewed. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationship between atelectasis and oxygenation as well as patient variables to length of ventilation and length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Eighty-nine patients (15.8%) had Grade 2/3 atelectasis which was significantly more common on the left as compared to the right (left 0.149 95% CI [0.119-0.178], right 0.027 95% CI [0.013-0.040], p<0.001). Grade 2/3 atelectasis on the right was associated with a significant drop in the pO2 (p=0.001) and the per cent O2-fractional O2 (PF) ratio (p=0.002). Factors associated with increased ventilation time included presence of Grade 2/3 atelectasis (p=0.001) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (p<0.001), both of which were predictors of prolonged ICU length of stay (p=0.002 and p<0.001 respectively). Early atelectasis is related to impaired oxygenation, prolonged ventilation and prolonged ICU stay. Future research should focus on strategies to minimise atelectasis and to determine if these changes translate into better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Graft-Sparing Strategy for Thoracic Prosthetic Graft Infection.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kakii, Bunpachi; Furui, Masato

    2018-04-01

     Thoracic prosthetic graft infection is a rare but serious complication with no standard management. We reported our surgical experience on graft-sparing strategy for thoracic prosthetic graft infection.  This study included patients who underwent graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection at Matsubara Tokushukai Hospital in Japan from January 2000 to October 2017.  There were 17 patients included in the analyses, with a mean age at surgery of 71.0 ± 10.5 years; 11 were men. In-hospital mortality was observed in five patients (29.4%).  Graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection is an alternative option particularly for early graft infection after hemiarch replacement. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-03-27

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate.

  10. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate. PMID:29584699

  11. Early Shear Failure Prediction in Incremental Sheet Forming Process Using FEM and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayedfar, Majid; Hanaei, Hengameh; Majdi Rani, Ahmad; Musa, Mohd Azam Bin; Sadegh Momeni, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The application of incremental sheet forming process as a rapid forming technique is rising in variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive and biomechanical purposes. However, the sheet failure is a big challenge in this process which leads wasting lots of materials. Hence, this study tried to propose a method to predict the early sheet failure in this process using mathematical solution. For the feasibility of the study, design of experiment with the respond surface method is employed to extract a set of experiments data for the simulation. The significant forming parameters were recognized and their integration was used for prediction system. Then, the results were inserted to the artificial neural network as input parameters to predict a vast range of applicable parameters avoiding sheet failure in ISF. The value of accuracy R2 ∼0.93 was obtained and the maximum sheet stretch in the depth of 25mm were recorded. The figures generate from the trend of interaction between effective parameters were provided for future studies.

  12. Distant failure prediction for early stage NSCLC by analyzing PET with sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxia; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely explored for treatment outcome prediction. Radiomicsdriven methods provide a new insight to quantitatively explore underlying information from PET images. However, it is still a challenging problem to automatically extract clinically meaningful features for prognosis. In this work, we develop a PET-guided distant failure predictive model for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) by using sparse representation. The proposed method does not need precalculated features and can learn intrinsically distinctive features contributing to classification of patients with distant failure. The proposed framework includes two main parts: 1) intra-tumor heterogeneity description; and 2) dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. Tumor heterogeneity is initially captured through anisotropic kernel and represented as a set of concatenated vectors, which forms the sample gallery. Then, given a test tumor image, its identity (i.e., distant failure or not) is classified by applying the dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. We evaluate the proposed approach on 48 NSCLC patients treated by SABR at our institute. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve an area under the characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70 with a sensitivity of 69.87% and a specificity of 69.51% using a five-fold cross validation.

  13. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  14. The relationship between early biochemical failure and perineural invasion in pathological T2 prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, J; Seay, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate, in patients with pathologically localized prostate cancer, the relationship between early biochemical failure, i.e. an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and perineural invasion (PNI) on final pathology. The records were reviewed of 171 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy at one institution between January 1992 and December 1995. Data on the histology, therapy and PSA level were collected and evaluated. Of the 171 patients with pathologically localized (pT2) prostate cancer, 131 were evaluable; 17 (13%) had a detectable PSA level in the first 5 years after surgery and 63 had PNI in the pathological specimen. Of those with PSA recurrence, 14 had PNI, one had no PNI and in two there was no comment on PNI. In comparison, only 10 of the 17 patients with recurrence had a Gleason sum of >/= 7. Perineural invasion seems to be an important predictor of early outcome in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer treated by prostatectomy. In this series it was the most sensitive predictor of biochemical failure. A more detailed pathological evaluation of prostate cancer may allow the clinician to provide closer surveillance and better informed clinical decision-making.

  15. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  16. Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts

    SciT

    Fu, Qining, E-mail: cqmufqn@163.com; Meng, Xiyun, E-mail: 383274177@qq.com; Li, Fenghe, E-mail: lfh-cqmu@gmail.com

    PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologicmore » results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment.« less

  17. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  18. Altered LV inotropic reserve and mechanoenergetics early in the development of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, S D; Freeman, G L

    2000-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that alterations in left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics and the LV inotropic response to afterload manifest early in the evolution of heart failure, we examined six anesthetized dogs instrumented with LV micromanometers, piezoelectric crystals, and coronary sinus catheters before and after 24 h of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP). After autonomic blockade, the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR), myocardial O(2) consumption (MVO(2)), and LV pressure-volume area (PVA) were defined at several different afterloads produced by graded infusions of phenylephrine. Short-term RVP resulted in reduced preload with proportionate reductions in stroke work and the maximum first derivative of LV pressure but with no significant reduction in baseline LV contractile state. In response to increased afterload, the baseline ESPVR shifted to the left with maintained end-systolic elastance (E(es)). In contrast, after short-term RVP, in response to comparable increases in afterload, the ESPVR displayed reduced E(es) (P < 0.05) and significantly less leftward shift compared with control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control MVO(2)-PVA relation, short-term RVP significantly increased the MVO(2) intercept (P < 0.05) with no change in slope. These results indicate that short-term RVP produces attenuation of afterload-induced enhancement of LV performance and increases energy consumption for nonmechanical processes with maintenance of contractile efficiency, suggesting that early in the development of tachycardia heart failure, there is blunting of length-dependent activation and increased O(2) requirements for excitation-contraction coupling, basal metabolism, or both. Rather than being adaptive mechanisms, these abnormalities may be primary defects involved in the progression of the heart failure phenotype.

  19. Alpha/Beta T-Cell Depleted Grafts as an Immunological Booster to Treat Graft Failure after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with HLA-Matched Related and Unrelated Donors

    PubMed Central

    Rådestad, E.; Wikell, H.; Engström, M.; Watz, E.; Sundberg, B.; Thunberg, S.; Uzunel, M.; Mattsson, J.; Uhlin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with several complications and risk factors, for example, graft versus host disease (GVHD), viral infections, relapse, and graft rejection. While high levels of CD3+ cells in grafts can contribute to GVHD, they also promote the graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect. Infusions of extra lymphocytes from the original stem cell donor can be used as a treatment after transplantation for relapse or poor immune reconstitution but also they increase the risk for GVHD. In peripheral blood, 95% of T-cells express the αβ T-cell receptor and the remaining T-cells express the γδ T-cell receptor. As αβ T-cells are the primary mediators of GVHD, depleting them from the graft should reduce this risk. In this pilot study, five patients transplanted with HLA-matched related and unrelated donors were treated with αβ T-cell depleted stem cell boosts. The majority of γδ T-cells in the grafts expressed Vδ2 and/or Vγ9. Most patients receiving αβ-depleted stem cell boosts increased their levels of white blood cells, platelets, and/or granulocytes 30 days after infusion. No signs of GVHD or other side effects were detected. A larger pool of patients with longer follow-up time is needed to confirm the data in this study. PMID:25371909

  20. A Failure of Left Temporal Cortex to Specialize for Language Is an Early Emerging and Fundamental Property of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Lisa T.; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Failure to develop normal language comprehension is an early warning sign of autism, but the neural mechanisms underlying this signature deficit are unknown. This is because of an almost complete absence of functional studies of the autistic brain during early development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously observed a trend…

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the saphenous vein graft related to artificial rubber pericardium--a case report.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomohiro; Ida, Takao; Koyanagi, Toshiya; Kasahara, Katsuhiko; Naganuma, Fumio; Hosoda, Saichi

    2002-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm is an unusual complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. Such aneurysms are caused by technical surgical failures, or inflammation of the sternum and mediastinum following sternotomy observed as an early or mid-term complication of cardiac surgery. This case was an 80-year-old man with a piece of artificial rubber pericardium used for complete closure of the pericardium. A large pseudoaneurysm developed in the body of the saphenous vein graft 15 years after surgery. The old rubber synthetic pericardium was severely degenerative, which induced inflammation and disrupted the saphenous vein graft.

  2. Predicting distant failure in early stage NSCLC treated with SBRT using clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Folkert, Michael; Cannon, Nathan; Iyengar, Puneeth; Westover, Kenneth; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Choy, Hak; Timmerman, Robert; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Xian-J; Jiang, Steve; Wang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to predict early distant failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using clinical parameters by machine learning algorithms. The dataset used in this work includes 81 early stage NSCLC patients with at least 6months of follow-up who underwent SBRT between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. The clinical parameters (n=18) for each patient include demographic parameters, tumor characteristics, treatment fraction schemes, and pretreatment medications. Three predictive models were constructed based on different machine learning algorithms: (1) artificial neural network (ANN), (2) logistic regression (LR) and (3) support vector machine (SVM). Furthermore, to select an optimal clinical parameter set for the model construction, three strategies were adopted: (1) clonal selection algorithm (CSA) based selection strategy; (2) sequential forward selection (SFS) method; and (3) statistical analysis (SA) based strategy. 5-cross-validation is used to validate the performance of each predictive model. The accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of the system was also evaluated. The AUCs for ANN, LR and SVM were 0.75, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. The sensitivity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 71.2%, 72.9% and 83.1%, while the specificity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 59.1%, 63.6% and 63.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CSA based strategy outperformed SFS and SA in terms of AUC, sensitivity and specificity. Based on clinical parameters, the SVM with the CSA optimal parameter set selection strategy achieves better performance than other strategies for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microarray Meta-Analysis Identifies Acute Lung Injury Biomarkers in Donor Lungs That Predict Development of Primary Graft Failure in Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Haitsma, Jack J.; Furmli, Suleiman; Masoom, Hussain; Liu, Mingyao; Imai, Yumiko; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Beyene, Joseph; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To perform a meta-analysis of gene expression microarray data from animal studies of lung injury, and to identify an injury-specific gene expression signature capable of predicting the development of lung injury in humans. Methods We performed a microarray meta-analysis using 77 microarray chips across six platforms, two species and different animal lung injury models exposed to lung injury with or/and without mechanical ventilation. Individual gene chips were classified and grouped based on the strategy used to induce lung injury. Effect size (change in gene expression) was calculated between non-injurious and injurious conditions comparing two main strategies to pool chips: (1) one-hit and (2) two-hit lung injury models. A random effects model was used to integrate individual effect sizes calculated from each experiment. Classification models were built using the gene expression signatures generated by the meta-analysis to predict the development of lung injury in human lung transplant recipients. Results Two injury-specific lists of differentially expressed genes generated from our meta-analysis of lung injury models were validated using external data sets and prospective data from animal models of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Pathway analysis of gene sets revealed that both new and previously implicated VILI-related pathways are enriched with differentially regulated genes. Classification model based on gene expression signatures identified in animal models of lung injury predicted development of primary graft failure (PGF) in lung transplant recipients with larger than 80% accuracy based upon injury profiles from transplant donors. We also found that better classifier performance can be achieved by using meta-analysis to identify differentially-expressed genes than using single study-based differential analysis. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggests that microarray analysis of gene expression data allows for the detection of

  4. Ferritin as an early marker of graft rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Feucht, Judith; Queudeville, Manon; Teltschik, Heiko-Manuel; Lang, Peter; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Müller, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of adverse events following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly assigned to clinical symptoms or biopsies and thus rather unspecific and/or invasive. Studies indicate a distinct role of serum ferritin in HSCT and its correlation with adverse events such as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), veno-occlusive disease (VOD), or infections. However, published data on the relevance of ferritin as a prognostic marker for post-transplant adverse events is rare, especially in pediatric patients. The present study analyzes ferritin plasma concentrations of 138 pediatric patients after HSCT between 2007 and 2010 including the control group (n = 21). Given the initial results regarding ferritin as a significant predictor for acute graft rejection after allogeneic HSCT in 9 of the 138 pediatric patients, serum ferritin of all pediatric patients (n = 27) who experienced graft rejection between 2007 and 2014 was analyzed. In addition, laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, and D-dimer as possible differentiation markers for graft rejection were determined. In 24 (88.9 %) of the 27 pediatric patients with graft rejection, a significant increase of ferritin levels was observed 1 to 7 days prior to (P < 0.0001) and at the time of graft rejection (P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was an increase of D-dimer, CRP, LDH, and fibrinogen 1-7 days before graft rejection. Ferritin increased significantly at time of VOD (P = 0.0067), at time of intestinal (P < 0.0001) and skin GvHD (P < 0.0001), and at time of sepsis (P = 0.0005) and bacteremia (P = 0.0029). Ferritin might serve as a readily available identification marker for differentiation and identification of adverse events after HSCT in combination with other laboratory markers.

  5. Age and Early Graft Function Relate With Risk-Benefit Ratio of Allogenic Islet Transplantation Under Antithymocyte Globulin-Mycophenolate Mofetil-Tacrolimus Immune Suppression.

    PubMed

    Lee, DaHae; Keymeulen, Bart; Hilbrands, Robert; Ling, Zhidong; Van de Velde, Ursule; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Maleux, Geert; Lapauw, Bruno; Crenier, Laurent; De Block, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-09-01

    Induction therapy with a T cell-depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. Fifty-one patients (age, between 29 and 63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin-mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus protocol. They were followed up for over 48 months for function of the implant and adverse events. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were absent in patients with functioning graft. Immune suppressive therapy was maintained for 48 months in 29 recipients with sustained function (group A), whereas 16 patients stopped earlier due to graft failure (group B) and in 6 for other reasons. Group A was significantly older at the time of implantation and achieved higher graft function at posttransplantation month 6 under similar dose of IS. Prevalence of IS-related side effects was similar in groups A and B, occurring predominantly during the first year posttransplantation. IS-related serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in 47% of patients, with 4 presenting with cytomegalovirus infection and 4 (age, 42-59 years) diagnosed with cancer. Except in 1 patient with cancer, all SAEs resolved after appropriate treatment. These risk/benefit data serve as a basis for clinical decision-making before entering an intraportal islet transplantation protocol. A longer benefit is observed in recipients of higher age (≥40 years), but it is not associated with more side effects and SAE.

  6. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    PubMed

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  7. Quality of life and acceptability of medical versus surgical management of early pregnancy failure*

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, B; Nansel, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study compares quality of life (QOL) and acceptability of medical versus surgical treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Design A randomised clinical trial of treatment for EPF compared misoprostol vaginally versus vacuum aspiration (VA). Setting A multisite trial at four US Urban University Hospitals. Population A total of 652 women with an EPF were randomised to treatment. Methods Participants completed a daily symptom diary and a questionnaire 2 weeks after treatment. Main outcome measures The questionnaire assessment included subscales of the Short Form-36 Health Survey Revised for QOL and measures of wellbeing, recovery difficulties, and treatment acceptability. Results The two groups did not differ in mean scores for QOL except bodily pain; medical treatment was associated with higher levels of bodily pain than VA (P < 0.001). Success of treatment was not related to QOL, but acceptability of the procedure was decreased for medical therapy if unsuccessful (P = 0.003). Type of treatment was not associated with differences in recovery, and the two groups reported similar acceptability except for cramping (P = 0.02), bleeding (P < 0.001), and symptom duration (P = 0.03). Conclusions Despite reporting greater pain and lower acceptability of treatment-related symptoms, QOL and treatment acceptability were similar for medical and surgical treatment of EPF. Acceptability, but not QOL, was influenced by success or failure of medical management. PMID:18271887

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy in ascending aortic stenosis mice: anoikis and the progression to early failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, B.; Price, R. L.; Goldsmith, E. C.; Borg, T. K.; Yan, X.; Douglas, P. S.; Weinberg, E. O.; Bartunek, J.; Thielen, T.; Didenko, V. V.; hide

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.

  9. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain-Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure.

  11. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain–Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. Objective: To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. Methods: 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Results: Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Conclusion: Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure. PMID:29720799

  12. Early biomarkers of acute kidney failure after heart angiography or heart surgery in patients with acute coronary syndrome or acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Elmlili, Nisrin; Puchades, María Jesús; Solís, Miguel Angel; Sanjuán, Rafael; Blasco, Maria Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; Tomás, Patricia; Ribes, José; Carratalá, Arturo; Juan, Isabel; Miguel, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, which worsens patients' prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the increase in serum creatinine, which is delayed. It is necessary to identify and validate new biomarkers that allow for early and effective interventions. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine (uNGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18) in urine and cystatin C in serum for the early detection of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, and who underwent cardiac surgery or catheterization. The study included 135 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure due to coronary or valvular pathology and who underwent coronary angiography or cardiac bypass surgery or valvular replacement. The biomarkers were determined 12 hours after surgery and serum creatinine was monitored during the next six days for the diagnosis of AKI. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for NGAL was 0.983, and for cystatin C and IL-18 the AUCs were 0.869 and 0.727, respectively. At a cut-off of 31.9 ng/ml for uNGAL the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 91%. uNGAL is an early marker of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure and undergoing cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, with a higher predictive value than cystatin C or IL-18.

  13. Early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome versus stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshihiro; Tabata, Minoru; Morita, Satoshi; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris. From September 2004 to September 2011, 382 patients with acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina pectoris and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) and 851 patients with stable angina pectoris underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at our institute. The early and long-term outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. Patients with acute coronary syndrome were older, were more likely to be women, had a smaller body surface area, and were more likely to have left main coronary artery disease. In both groups, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts were used in approximately 89% of the patients, and off-pump techniques in approximately 97% of the patients. The acute coronary syndrome group had a greater operative death rate (2.6% vs 0.1%) and a greater incidence of low output syndrome (3.1% vs 1.2%) and hemodialysis requirement (2.9% vs 1.1%). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that age, acute coronary syndrome, lower ejection fraction, and higher creatinine level before surgery were independent predictors of operative death. However, among the hospital survivors, no differences were seen in freedom from all death (85.4% ± 2.5% vs 87.7% ± 2.0%), cardiac death (97.4% ± 0.9% vs 96.5% ± 0.9%), or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (78.0% ± 2.9% vs 78.1% ± 2.3%) at 7 years between the patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris. Although acute coronary syndrome is an independent predictor of early mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the long-term outcomes after surgery were similar between patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris who survived the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  14. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    PubMed

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  15. Baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in early heart failure assessed by the sequence method

    PubMed Central

    Lataro, Renata Maria; Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; Salgado, Helio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Key points The integrity of the baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in heart failure (HF) remains under debate.We proposed the use of the sequence method to assess the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA).The sequence method assesses the spontaneous arterial pressure (AP) fluctuations and their related changes in heart rate (or other efferent responses), providing the sensitivity and the effectiveness of the baroreflex. Effectiveness refers to the fraction of spontaneous AP changes that elicits baroreflex‐mediated variations in the efferent response.Using three different approaches, we showed that the baroreflex sensitivity between AP and RSNA is not altered in early HF rats. However, the sequence method provided evidence that the effectiveness of baroreflex in changing RSNA in response to AP changes is markedly decreased in HF.The results help us better understand the baroreflex control of the sympathetic nerve activity. Abstract In heart failure (HF), the reflex control of the heart rate is known to be markedly impaired; however, the baroreceptor control of the sympathetic drive remains under debate. Applying the sequence method to a series of arterial pressure (AP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), we demonstrated a clear dysfunction in the baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in rats with early HF. We analysed the baroreflex control of the sympathetic drive using three different approaches: AP vs. RSNA curve, cross‐spectral analysis and sequence method between AP and RSNA. The sequence method also provides the baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI), which represents the percentage of AP ramps that actually produce a reflex response. The methods were applied to control rats and rats with HF induced by myocardial infarction. None of the methods employed to assess the sympathetic baroreflex gain were able to detect any differences between the control and the HF group. However, rats with HF exhibited a lower BEI

  16. Early Validation of Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Design Using Heterogeneous Modelling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, Peter; Guerriero, Suzanne; Cristiano, Leorato; Rugina, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Modelling and simulation can support a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life-cycle. Given the increasing complexity of space missions, the observed general trend is for a more extensive usage of simulation already in the early phases. A major perceived advantage is that modelling and simulation can enable the validation of critical aspects of the spacecraft design before the actual development is started, as such reducing the risk in later phases.Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) is one of the areas with a high potential to benefit from early modelling and simulation. With the increasing level of required spacecraft autonomy, FDIR specifications can grow in such a way that the traditional document-based review process soon becomes inadequate.This paper shows that FDIR modelling and simulation in a system context can provide a powerful tool to support the FDIR verification process. It is highlighted that FDIR modelling at this early stage requires heterogeneous modelling tools and languages, in order to provide an adequate functional description of the different components (i.e. FDIR functions, environment, equipment, etc.) to be modelled.For this reason, an FDIR simulation framework is proposed in this paper. This framework is based on a number of tools already available in the Avionics Systems Laboratory at ESTEC, which are the Avionics Test Bench Functional Engineering Simulator (ATB FES), Matlab/Simulink, TASTE, and Real Time Developer Studio (RTDS).The paper then discusses the application of the proposed simulation framework to a real case-study, i.e. the FDIR modelling of a satellite in support of actual ESA mission. Challenges and benefits of the approach are described. Finally, lessons learned and the generality of the proposed approach are discussed.

  17. Impact of graft implantation order on graft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Bédat, Benoît; Morel, Philippe; Andres, Axel; Toso, Christian; Berney, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    The optimal order of revascularization for pancreas and kidney grafts in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation has not been established. In this study, we investigate the influence of graft implantation order on graft survival in SPK. 12 700 transplantations from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were analyzed retrospectively. Graft implantation order was determined based on the reported ischemia times of pancreas and kidney grafts. Pancreas and kidney graft survivals were analyzed depending on graft implantation order at 3 months and 5 years using Kaplan-Meier plots. Significance was tested with log-rank test and Cox regression model. In 8454 transplantations, the pancreas was implanted first (PBK), and in 4246 transplantations, the kidney was implanted first (KBP). The proportion of lost pancreas grafts at 3 months was significantly lower in PBK (9.4% vs. 10.8%, P = 0.011). Increasing time lag (>2 h) between kidney and pancreas graft implantation in KBP accentuated the detrimental impact on pancreas graft survival (12.5% graft loss at 3 months, P = 0.001). Technical failure rates were reduced in PBK (5.6 vs. 6.9%, P = 0.005). Graft implantation order had no impact on kidney graft survival. In summary, although observed differences are small, pancreas graft implantation first increases short-term pancreas graft survival and reduces rates of technical failure. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  18. Expandable external support device to improve Saphenous Vein Graft Patency after CABG

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Low patency rates of saphenous vein grafts remain a major predicament in surgical revascularization. We examined a novel expandable external support device designed to mitigate causative factors for early and late graft failure. Methods For this study, fourteen adult sheep underwent cardiac revascularization using two vein grafts for each; one to the LAD and the other to the obtuse marginal artery. One graft was supported with the device while the other served as a control. Target vessel was alternated between consecutive cases. The animals underwent immediate and late angiography and were then sacrificed for histopathologic evaluation. Results Of the fourteen animals studied, three died peri-operatively (unrelated to device implanted), and ten survived the follow-up period. Among surviving animals, three grafts were thrombosed and one was occluded, all in the control group (p = 0.043). Quantitative angiographic evaluation revealed no difference between groups in immediate level of graft uniformity, with a coefficient-of-variance (CV%) of 7.39 in control versus 5.07 in the supported grafts, p = 0.082. At 12 weeks, there was a significant non-uniformity in the control grafts versus the supported grafts (CV = 22.12 versus 3.01, p < 0.002). In histopathologic evaluation, mean intimal area of the supported grafts was significantly lower than in the control grafts (11.2 mm^2 versus 23.1 mm^2 p < 0.02). Conclusions The expandable SVG external support system was found to be efficacious in reducing SVG’s non-uniform dilatation and neointimal formation in an animal model early after CABG. This novel technology may have the potential to improve SVG patency rates after surgical myocardial revascularization. PMID:23641948

  19. Full thickness skin grafts in periocular reconstructions: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Deepa S; Chickadasarahilli, Swaroop; Crossman, Richard; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of eyelid reconstruction in patients who underwent full thickness skin grafts. A retrospective, noncomparative intervention study of patients who underwent periocular reconstruction with full thickness skin grafts between 2005 and 2011. One hundred consecutive Caucasian patients were included in the study, 54 women and 46 men. Mean follow up was 32 months. Indications for full thickness skin grafts were excision of eyelid tumors (98%) and cicatricial ectropion (2%). Site of lid defects were lower lid (60%), medial canthus (32%), upper lid (6%), and lateral canthus (2%). The skin graft donor sites were supraclavicular (44%), upper eyelid (24%), inner brachial (18%), and postauricular (14%).Early postoperative complications included lower eyelid graft contracture (1%) and partial failure (1%). Late sequelae included lower eyelid graft contracture (4%) and hypertrophic scarring (23%). Of the 23 patients with hypertrophic scar, 21 achieved good outcomes following massage with silicone gel and steroid ointment and 2 had persistent moderate lumpiness. No statistically significant association was found between graft hypertrophy and donor site or graft size. As high as 95% of all patients achieved good final eyelid position. Good color match was seen in 94% and graft hypopigmentation in 6%. An association between hypopigmentation and supraclavicular and inner brachial donor site was found to be statistically significant. Most patients (94%) achieved good eyelid position and color match. Majority (91%) of the early postoperative cicatricial sequelae can be reversed by massage, steroid ointment, and silicone gel application. Full thickness skin grafts have excellent graft survival rates and have minimal donor site morbidity.

  20. Predicting renal graft failure by sCD30 levels and de novo HLA antibodies at 1year post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wu, Guojun; Chen, Jinhua; Yu, Ziqiang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Tan, Jianming

    2012-06-01

    HLA antibodies and sCD30 levels were detected in the serum sampled from 620 renal graft recipients at 1 year post-transplantation, which were followed up for 5 years. Six-year graft and patient survivals were 81.6% and 91.0%. HLA antibodies were detected in 45 recipients (7.3%), of whom there were 14 cases with class I antibodies, 26 cases with class II, and 5 cases with both class I and II. Much more graft loss was record in recipients with HLA antibodies than those without antibodies (60% vs. 15.1%, p<0.001). Significantly higher sCD30 levels were recorded in recipients suffering graft loss than the others (73.9±48.8 U/mL vs. 37.3±14.6 U/mL, p<0.001). Compared with those with high sCD30 levels, recipients with low sCD30 levels (<50 U/mL) had much better 6-year graft survival (92.4% vs. 46.6%, p<0.001). Further statistical analysis showed that detrimental effect of de novo HLA antibodies and high sCD30 on graft survival was not only independent but also additive. Therefore, post-transplantation monitoring of HLA antibodies and sCD30 levels is necessary and recipients with elevated sCD30 level and/or de novo HLA antibody should be paid more attention in order to achieve better graft survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of PPAR-α in the early stage of heart failure maintained myocardial function and energetics in pressure-overload heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kaimoto, Satoshi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Ariyoshi, Makoto; Okawa, Yoshifumi; Tateishi, Shuhei; Ono, Kazunori; Uchihashi, Motoki; Fukai, Kuniyoshi; Iwai-Kanai, Eri; Matoba, Satoaki

    2017-02-01

    Failing heart loses its metabolic flexibility, relying increasingly on glucose as its preferential substrate and decreasing fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) is a key regulator of this substrate shift. However, its role during heart failure is complex and remains unclear. Recent studies reported that heart failure develops in the heart of myosin heavy chain-PPAR-α transgenic mice in a manner similar to that of diabetic cardiomyopathy, whereas cardiac dysfunction is enhanced in PPAR-α knockout mice in response to chronic pressure overload. We created a pressure-overload heart failure model in mice through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and activated PPAR-α during heart failure using an inducible transgenic model. After 8 wk of TAC, left ventricular (LV) function had decreased with the reduction of PPAR-α expression in wild-type mice. We examined the effect of PPAR-α induction during heart failure using the Tet-Off system. Eight weeks after the TAC operation, LV construction was preserved significantly by PPAR-α induction with an increase in PPAR-α-targeted genes related to fatty acid metabolism. The increase of expression of fibrosis-related genes was significantly attenuated by PPAR-α induction. Metabolic rates measured by isolated heart perfusions showed a reduction in FAO and glucose oxidation in TAC hearts, but the rate of FAO preserved significantly owing to the induction of PPAR-α. Myocardial high-energy phosphates were significantly preserved by PPAR-α induction. These results suggest that PPAR-α activation during pressure-overloaded heart failure improved myocardial function and energetics. Thus activating PPAR-α and modulation of FAO could be a promising therapeutic strategy for heart failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study demonstrates the role of PPAR-α activation in the early stage of heart failure using an inducible transgenic mouse model. Induction of PPAR-α preserved heart

  2. Toward early safety alert endpoints: exploring biomarkers suggestive of microbicide failure.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Lai, Jaim Jou; Weiner, Debra H; Chandra, Neelima; Fichorova, Raina N; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Hillier, Sharon L; Archer, David F; Creinin, Mitchell D; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-11-01

    Several microbicides, including nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and cellulose sulfate (CS), looked promising during early trials but failed in efficacy trials. We aimed to identify Phase I mucosal safety endpoints that might explain that failure. In a blinded, randomized, parallel trial, 60 healthy premenopausal sexually abstinent women applied Universal HEC placebo, 6% CS or 4% N-9 gel twice daily for 13½ days. Endpoints included immune biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and endocervical cytobrushes, inflammatory infiltrates in vaginal biopsies, epithelial integrity by naked eye, colposcopy, and histology, CVL anti-HIV activity, vaginal microflora, pH, and adverse events. Twenty women enrolled per group. Soluble/cellular markers were similar with CS and placebo, except secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) levels decreased in CVL, and CD3(+) and CD45(+) cells increased in biopsies after CS use. Increases in interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1, IL-1RA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreases in SLPI were significant with N-9. CVL anti-HIV activity was significantly higher during CS use compared to N-9 or placebo. CS users tended to have a higher prevalence of intermediate Nugent score, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus and fewer gram-negative rods. Most Nugent scores diagnostic for bacterial vaginosis were in N-9 users. All cases of histological inflammation or deep epithelial disruption occurred in N-9 users. While the surfactant N-9 showed obvious biochemical and histological signs of inflammation, more subtle changes, including depression of SLPI, tissue influx of CD45(+) and CD3(+) cells, and subclinical microflora shifts were associated with CS use and may help to explain the clinical failure of nonsurfactant microbicides.

  3. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciT

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu; Li, Tianyu

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which hasmore » been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the

  4. Implementation of predictive data mining techniques for identifying risk factors of early AVF failure in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rezapour, Mohammad; Khavanin Zadeh, Morteza; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an important vascular access for hemodialysis (HD) treatment but has 20-60% rate of early failure. Detecting association between patient's parameters and early AVF failure is important for reducing its prevalence and relevant costs. Also predicting incidence of this complication in new patients is a beneficial controlling procedure. Patient safety and preservation of early AVF failure is the ultimate goal. Our research society is Hasheminejad Kidney Center (HKC) of Tehran, which is one of Iran's largest renal hospitals. We analyzed data of 193 HD patients using supervised techniques of data mining approach. There were 137 male (70.98%) and 56 female (29.02%) patients introduced into this study. The average of age for all the patients was 53.87 ± 17.47 years. Twenty eight patients had smoked and the number of diabetic patients and nondiabetics was 87 and 106, respectively. A significant relationship was found between "diabetes mellitus," "smoking," and "hypertension" with early AVF failure in this study. We have found that these mentioned risk factors have important roles in outcome of vascular surgery, versus other parameters such as "age." Then we predicted this complication in future AVF surgeries and evaluated our designed prediction methods with accuracy rates of 61.66%-75.13%.

  5. Early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure: a systematic literature review of cost-effectiveness models.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque De Almeida, Fernando; Al, Maiwenn; Koymans, Ron; Caliskan, Kadir; Kerstens, Ankie; Severens, Johan L

    2018-04-01

    Describing the general and methodological characteristics of decision-analytical models used in the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients and performing a quality assessment of their methodological characteristics is expected to provide concise and useful insight to inform the future development of decision-analytical models in the field of heart failure management. Areas covered: The literature on decision-analytical models for the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients was systematically reviewed. Nine electronic databases were searched through the combination of synonyms for heart failure and sensitive filters for cost-effectiveness and early warning systems. Expert commentary: The retrieved models show some variability with regards to their general study characteristics. Overall, they display satisfactory methodological quality, even though some points could be improved, namely on the consideration and discussion of any competing theories regarding model structure and disease progression, identification of key parameters and the use of expert opinion, and uncertainty analyses. A comprehensive definition of early warning systems and further research under this label should be pursued. To improve the transparency of economic evaluation publications, authors should make available detailed technical information regarding the published models.

  6. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  7. Early activation of deleterious molecular pathways in the kidney in experimental heart failure with atrial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Tomoko; Huntley, Brenda K; Harty, Gail J; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Burnett, John C

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem with worsening outcomes when renal impairment is present. Therapeutics for early phase HF may be effective for cardiorenal protection, however the detailed characteristics of the kidney in early-stage HF (ES-HF), and therefore treatment for potential renal protection, are poorly defined. We sought to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of specific maladaptive pathways of ES-HF in the kidney and heart. Experimental canine ES-HF, characterized by de-novo HF with atrial remodeling but not ventricular fibrosis, was induced by right ventricular pacing for 10 days. Kidney cortex (KC), medulla (KM), left ventricle (LV), and left atrial (LA) tissues from ES-HF versus normal canines ( n  = 4 of each) were analyzed using RT-PCR microarrays and protein assays to assess genes and proteins related to inflammation, renal injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis. ES-HF was characterized by increased circulating natriuretic peptides and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sodium and water excretion with mild renal injury and up-regulation of CNP and renin genes in the kidney. Compared to normals, widespread genes, especially genes of the inflammatory pathways, were up-regulated in KC similar to increases seen in LA Protein expressions related to inflammatory cytokines were also augmented in the KC Gene and protein changes were less prominent in the LV and KM The ES-HF displayed mild renal injury with widespread gene changes and increased inflammatory cytokines. These changes may provide important clues into the pathophysiology of ES-HF and for therapeutic molecular targets in the kidney of ES-HF. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Early Prediction of Persistent Organ Failure by Serum Angiopoietin-2 in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Ye, Lei; Yu, Na; Ye, Yuan-Ning; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wu, Lin; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Biomarkers for the early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are urgently needed for clinical management of the disease. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), one of the autocrine peptides that reduce endothelial permeability, has been found to be associated with various diseases, including inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to determine whether serum Ang-2 could serve as a noninvasive biomarker for the early prediction of persistent organ failure (POF) in acute pancreatitis. A total of 120 AP patients were prospectively enrolled at Jinling Hospital. Serum samples were collected on admission. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Ang-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 37 patients developed POF and were classified as having severe AP (SAP). Ang-2 was significantly higher on admission in patients who developed POF than in those who did not (p < 0.001 for all). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that Ang-2 could distinguish patients who developed POF from mild AP (MAP, area under ROC curve [AUC] = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.78-0.94) and moderately severe AP patients (MSAP, AUC = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.63-0.83). In addition, multivariate logistic regression showed that increased Ang-2 was an independent predictor of developing POF between subgroups with MSAP and SAP (OR 7.2, 95 % CI 2.7-19.4) and among all AP patients (OR 12.1, 95 % CI 4.8-30.3). Elevated serum Ang-2 levels on admission may be a promising biomarker for the prediction of POF in AP.

  9. Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Plateau Best Predicts Early Death in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James E.; Stringer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The responses of oxygen uptake efficiency (ie, oxygen uptake/ventilation = V˙o2/V˙e) and its highest plateau (OUEP) during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with chronic left heart failure (HF) have not been previously reported. We planned to test the hypothesis that OUEP during CPET is the best single predictor of early death in HF. Methods: We evaluated OUEP, slope of V˙o2 to log(V˙e) (oxygen uptake efficiency slope), oscillatory breathing, and all usual resting and CPET measurements in 508 patients with low-ejection-fraction (< 35%) HF. Each had further evaluations at other sites, including cardiac catheterization. Outcomes were 6-month all-reason mortality and morbidity (death or > 24 h cardiac hospitalization). Statistical analyses included area under curve of receiver operating characteristics, ORs, univariate and multivariate Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: OUEP, which requires only moderate exercise, was often reduced in patients with HF. A low % predicted OUEP was the single best predictor of mortality (P < .0001), with an OR of 13.0 (P < .001). When combined with oscillatory breathing, the OR increased to 56.3, superior to all other resting or exercise parameters or combinations of parameters. Other statistical analyses and morbidity analysis confirmed those findings. Conclusions: OUEP is often reduced in patients with HF. Low % predicted OUEP (< 65% predicted) is the single best predictor of early death, better than any other CPET or other cardiovascular measurement. Paired with oscillatory breathing, it is even more powerful. PMID:22030802

  10. Serum microRNA expression patterns that predict early treatment failure in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant K; Preus, Leah; Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Long, Mark D; Morrison, Carl D; Nesline, Mary; Johnson, Candace S; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Kohli, Manish; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Campbell, Moray J

    2014-02-15

    We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in the serum of prostate cancer (CaP) patients that predict the risk of early treatment failure following radical prostatectomy (RP). Microarray and Q-RT-PCR analyses identified 43 miRNAs as differentiating disease stages within 14 prostate cell lines and reflectedpublically available patient data. 34 of these miRNA were detectable in the serum of CaP patients. Association with time to biochemical progression was examined in a cohort of CaP patients following RP. A greater than two-fold increase in hazard of biochemical progression associated with altered expression of miR-103, miR-125b and miR-222 (p<.0008) in the serum of CaP patients. Prediction models based on penalized regression analyses showed that the levels of the miRNAs and PSA together were better at detecting false positives than models without miRNAs, for similar level of sensitivity. Analyses of publically available data revealed significant and reciprocal relationships between changes in CpG methylation and miRNA expression patterns suggesting a role for CpG methylation to regulate miRNA. Exploratory validation supported roles for miR-222 and miR-125b to predict progression risk in CaP. The current study established that expression patterns of serum-detectable miRNAs taken at the time of RP are prognostic for men who are at risk of experiencing subsequent early biochemical progression. These non-invasive approaches could be used to augment treatment decisions.

  11. First time description of early lead failure of the Linox Smart lead compared to other contemporary high-voltage leads.

    PubMed

    Weberndörfer, Vanessa; Nyffenegger, Tobias; Russi, Ian; Brinkert, Miriam; Berte, Benjamin; Toggweiler, Stefan; Kobza, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Early lead failure has recently been reported in ICD patients with Linox SD leads. We aimed to compare the long-term performance of the following lead model Linox Smart SD with other contemporary high-voltage leads. All patients receiving high-voltage leads at our center between November 2009 and May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Lead failure was defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following: non-physiological high-rate episodes, low- or high-voltage impedance anomalies, undersensing, or non-capture. In total, 220 patients were included (Linox Smart SD, n = 113; contemporary lead, n = 107). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (IQR 1.6-5.9 years), a total of 16 (14 in Linox Smart SD and 2 in contemporary group) lead failures occurred, mostly due to non-physiological high-rate sensing or impedance abnormalities. Lead failure incidence rates per 100 person-years were 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-4.9) and 0.6 (95% CI 0.1-2.3) for Linox Smart SD compared to contemporary leads respectively. Kaplan Meier estimates of 5-year lead failure rates were 14.0% (95% CI 8.1-23.6%) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.2-8.9%), respectively (log-rank p = 0.028). Implantation of a Linox Smart SD lead increased the risk of lead failure with a hazard ratio (HR) of 4.53 (95% CI 1.03-19.95, p = 0.046) and 4.44 (95% CI 1.00-19.77, p = 0.05) in uni- and multivariable Cox models. The new Linox Smart SD lead model was associated with high failure rates and should be monitored closely to detect early signs of lead failure.

  12. Postconditioning effects of argon or xenon on early graft function in a porcine model of kidney autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    De Deken, J; Rex, S; Lerut, E; Martinet, W; Monbaliu, D; Pirenne, J; Jochmans, I

    2018-07-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is inevitable during renal transplantation and can lead to delayed graft function and primary non-function. Preconditioning, reconditioning and postconditioning with argon and xenon protects against renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rodent models. The hypothesis that postconditioning with argon or xenon inhalation would improve graft function in a porcine renal autotransplant model was tested. Pigs (n = 6 per group) underwent left nephrectomy after 60 min of warm ischaemia (renal artery and vein clamping). The procured kidney was autotransplanted in a separate procedure after 18 h of cold storage, immediately after a right nephrectomy. Upon reperfusion, pigs were randomized to inhalation of control gas (70 per cent nitrogen and 30 per cent oxygen), argon (70 per cent and 30 per cent oxygen) or xenon (70 per cent and 30 per cent oxygen) for 2 h. The primary outcome parameter was peak plasma creatinine; secondary outcome parameters included further markers of graft function (creatinine course, urine output), graft injury (aspartate aminotransferase, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, histology), apoptosis and autophagy (western blot, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining), inflammatory mediators and markers of cell survival/growth (mRNA and tissue protein quantification), and animal survival. Results are presented as median (i.q.r.). ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used where indicated. Peak plasma creatinine levels were similar between the groups: control 20·8 (16·4-23·1) mg/dl, argon 21·4 (17·1-24·9) mg/dl and xenon 19·4 (17·5-21·0) mg/dl (P = 0·607). Xenon was associated with an increase in autophagy and proapoptotic markers. Creatinine course, urine output, injury markers, histology, survival and inflammatory mediators were not affected by the intervention. Postconditioning with argon or xenon did not improve kidney graft function in this

  13. Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, is associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life. Multicenter, observational cohort study in 366 US neonatal intensive care units. We evaluated inborn, VLBW infants discharged from 2000 to 2014, who received only CPAP therapy without surfactant treatment on day of life (DOL) 0, had a 5-minute Apgar ≥3, and received caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P < 0.001. The incidence of CPAP failure on DOL 1-6 was similar between the early and routine caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nursing student profiles and occurrence of early academic failure: Findings from an explorative European study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Ferrão, Sónia; Jarosova, Darja; Lancia, Loreto; Nascimento, Carla; Notara, Venetia; Pokorna, Andrea; Rybarova, Lubica; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-03-01

    In the European context regulated by the Bologna Process principles, there is little evidence to date on the different profiles, if any, of nursing students enrolled in the 1st academic year and their academic outcomes. To describe and compare the nursing student profiles and their academic outcomes at the end of the 1st year across European Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNS) courses. An exploratory multicentre cohort study involving five countries: Nursing students who were enrolled in nursing programmes for the academic year 2011/2012 in the participating BNS courses, willing to participate and regularly admitted to the 2nd academic year, were included in this study undertaken in 2013. Individual and faculty level variables were collected after having ensured the validity of the tools developed in English and then appropriately translated into the language of each participating country. A total of 378/710 (53.2%) students participated in the study. They attended from 390 to 810h of lessons, while clinical experience ranged from 162 to 536h. The students reported a mean average age of 21.4 (Confidence of Interval [CI] 95%, 21.0-22.3) and foreign students were limited in number (on average 3.7%). The students reported adopting mainly individual learning strategies (92.9%), duplicating notes or lecture notes prepared by professors (74.4%), and concentrating their study before exams (74.6%). The majority reported experiencing learning difficulties (49.7%) and a lack of academic support (84.9%). Around 33.2% reported economic difficulties and the need to work while studying nursing on average for 24h/week. Personal expectations regarding the nursing role were different (45.6%) than the role encountered during the 1st year, as learning workloads were higher (57.2%) with regard to expectations. Around one-third of students reported the intention to leave nursing education while the proportion of those reporting early academic failure was on average 5.6%. More strategies

  15. Natural killer cells play a critical role in mediating inflammation and graft failure during antibody-mediated rejection of kidney allografts

    PubMed Central

    Kohei, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Kazunari; Masumori, Naoya; Dvorina, Nina; Valujskikh, Anna; Baldwin, William M.; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    While the incidence of antibody-mediated kidney graft rejection has increased, the key cellular and molecular participants underlying this graft injury remain unclear. Rejection of kidney allografts in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 is dependent on production of donor-specific antibody. Here we determine if cells expressing cytotoxic function contributed to antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection in these recipients. Wild type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5−/− and B6.CD8−/−/CCR5−/− mice were transplanted with complete MHC mismatched A/J kidney grafts and intra-graft inflammatory components were followed to rejection. B6.CCR5−/− and B6.CD8−/−/CCR5−/− recipients rejected kidney allografts by day 35 whereas 65% of allografts in wild type recipients survived past day 80 post-transplant. Rejected allografts in wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5−/− and B6.CD8−/−/CCR5−/− recipients expressed high levels of VCAM-1 and MMP7 mRNA that was associated with high serum titers of donor-specific antibody. High levels of perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression peaked on day 6 post-transplant in allografts in all recipients, but were absent in isografts. Depletion of natural killer cells in B6.CD8−/−/CCR5−/− recipients reduced this expression to background levels and promoted the long-term survival of 40% of the kidney allografts. Thus, natural killer cells have a role in increased inflammation during antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury and in rejection of the grafts. PMID:27165816

  16. The use of seasonal forecasts in a crop failure early warning system for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklin, K. J.; Challinor, A.; Tompkins, A.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal rainfall in semi-arid West Africa is highly variable. Farming systems in the region are heavily dependent on the monsoon rains leading to large variability in crop yields and a population that is vulnerable to drought. The existing crop yield forecasting system uses observed weather to calculate a water satisfaction index, which is then related to expected crop yield (Traore et al, 2006). Seasonal climate forecasts may be able to increase the lead-time of yield forecasts and reduce the humanitarian impact of drought. This study assesses the potential for a crop failure early warning system, which uses dynamic seasonal forecasts and a process-based crop model. Two sets of simulations are presented. In the first, the crop model is driven with observed weather as a control run. Observed rainfall is provided by the GPCP 1DD data set, whilst observed temperature and solar radiation data are given by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The crop model used is the groundnut version of the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM), which has been designed to operate on the grids used by seasonal weather forecasts (Challinor et al, 2004). GLAM is modified for use in West Africa by allowing multiple planting dates each season, replanting failed crops and producing parameter sets for Spanish- and Virginia- type West African groundnut. Crop yields are simulated for three different assumptions concerning the distribution and relative abundance of Spanish- and Virginia- type groundnut. Model performance varies with location, but overall shows positive skill in reproducing observed crop failure. The results for the three assumptions are similar, suggesting that the performance of the system is limited by something other than information on the type of groundnut grown. In the second set of simulations the crop model is driven with observed weather up to the forecast date, followed by ECMWF system 3 seasonal forecasts until harvest. The variation of skill with forecast date

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  18. Pancreatic β-Cell-Derived IP-10/CXCL10 Isletokine Mediates Early Loss of Graft Function in Islet Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Saravanan, Prathab Balaji; Shahbazov, Rauf; Chang, Charles; Darden, Carly M; Zurawski, Sandra; Boyuk, Gulbahar; Kanak, Mazhar A; Levy, Marlon F; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Lawrence, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic islets produce and secrete cytokines and chemokines in response to inflammatory and metabolic stress. The physiological role of these "isletokines" in health and disease is largely unknown. We observed that islets release multiple inflammatory mediators in patients undergoing islet transplants within hours of infusion. The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) was among the highest released, and high levels correlated with poor islet transplant outcomes. Transgenic mouse studies confirmed that donor islet-specific expression of IP-10 contributed to islet inflammation and loss of β-cell function in islet grafts. The effects of islet-derived IP-10 could be blocked by treatment of donor islets and recipient mice with anti-IP-10 neutralizing monoclonal antibody. In vitro studies showed induction of the IP-10 gene was mediated by calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in pancreatic β-cells in response to oxidative or inflammatory stress. Sustained association of NFAT and p300 histone acetyltransferase with the IP-10 gene required p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, which differentially regulated IP-10 expression and subsequent protein release. Overall, these findings elucidate an NFAT-MAPK signaling paradigm for induction of isletokine expression in β-cells and reveal IP-10 as a primary therapeutic target to prevent β-cell-induced inflammatory loss of graft function after islet cell transplantation. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Very early great saphenous vein graft aneurysm treated by percutaneous coronary intervention under ChromaFlo imaging guidance.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Kawahatsu, Kandoh; Nozato, Toshihiro

    2017-07-19

    A 73-year-old man, who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) 10 days prior, presented with a great saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA). CT revealed the increasing size of the aneurysm. Since the SVGA occurred immediately after CABG and there were no other complications, the aneurysm was treated percutaneously. While intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography failed to detect the entry point, an IVUS catheter with the addition of ChromaFlo imaging clearly revealed the entry point, size and length of the SVGA. To prevent migration and edge restenosis associated with covered stents, the covered stent (3.0×19 mm) was superimposed on a drug-eluting stent (3.0×28 mm) that covered the entry site. A follow-up study demonstrated the absence of flow into the aneurysm. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation to Prevent Arteriovenous Fistula and Graft Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Irish, Ashley B; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Mori, Trevor A; Pascoe, Elaine M; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Lok, Charmaine E; Palmer, Suetonia C

    2018-07-01

    Arteriovenous access failure frequently occurs in people on hemodialysis and is associated with morbidity, mortality and large healthcare expenditures. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may improve access outcomes via pleiotropic effects on access maturation and function, but may cause bleeding complications. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Adults requiring hemodialysis via arteriovenous fistula or graft. Trials evaluating omega-3 PUFA for arteriovenous access outcomes identified by searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to 24 January 2017. Omega-3 PUFA. Primary patency loss, dialysis suitability failure, access abandonment, interventions to maintain patency or assist maturation, bleeding, gastrointestinal side-effects, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, and treatment adherence. Treatment effects were summarized as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Evidence was assessed using GRADE. Five eligible trials (833 participants) with a median follow-up of 12 months compared peri-operative omega-3 PUFA supplementation with placebo. One trial (n=567) evaluated treatment for fistulae and four (n=266) for grafts. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation prevented primary patency loss with moderate certainty (761 participants, RR 0.81, CI 0.68-0.98). Low quality evidence suggested, that omega-3 PUFA may have had little or no effect on dialysis suitability failure (536 participants, RR 0.95, CI 0.73-1.23), access abandonment (732 participants, RR 0.78, CI 0.59-1.03), need for interventions (732 participants, RR 0.82, CI 0.64-1.04), or all-cause mortality (799 participants, RR 0.99, CI 0.51-1.92). Bleeding risk (793 participants, RR 1.40, CI 0.78-2.49) or gastrointestinal side-effects (816 participants, RR 1.22, CI 0.64-2.34) from treatment were uncertain. There was no evidence of different treatment effects for grafts and fistulae. Small number and methodological limitations of included trials. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation

  1. Corneal graft reversal: Histopathologic report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Qahtani, Abdullah A.; Alkatan, Hind M.

    2014-01-01

    Graft reversal is a rare cause for failed PKP. In this case report we are presenting 2 graft failure cases in which the corneal grafts were reversed unintentionally. The onset of signs of graft failure, however was variable. We have included their clinical course and the histopathologic findings of the removed corneal grafts. A total of 6 cases including ours have been reported so far. The aim of this report is to attract the attention of corneal surgeons to an additional rare cause for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) which is donor graft reversal. PMID:25473355

  2. Corneal graft reversal: Histopathologic report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Qahtani, Abdullah A; Alkatan, Hind M

    2014-10-01

    Graft reversal is a rare cause for failed PKP. In this case report we are presenting 2 graft failure cases in which the corneal grafts were reversed unintentionally. The onset of signs of graft failure, however was variable. We have included their clinical course and the histopathologic findings of the removed corneal grafts. A total of 6 cases including ours have been reported so far. The aim of this report is to attract the attention of corneal surgeons to an additional rare cause for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) which is donor graft reversal.

  3. Renal impairment and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction early post-myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jorapur, Vinod; Lamas, Gervasio A; Sadowski, Zygmunt P; Reynolds, Harmony R; Carvalho, Antonio C; Buller, Christopher E; Rankin, James M; Renkin, Jean; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; White, Harvey D; Vozzi, Carlos; Balcells, Eduardo; Ragosta, Michael; Martin, C Edwin; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S; Wharton III, William W; Abramsky, Staci; Mon, Ana C; Kronsberg, Shari S; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study if impaired renal function is associated with increased risk of peri-infarct heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs) between 1 to 28 d after myocardial infarction (MI) were grouped into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rates of early post-MI HF were compared among eGFR groups. Logistic regression was used to explore independent predictors of HF. RESULTS: Reduced eGFR was present in 71.1% of 2160 patients, with significant renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min every 1.73 m2) in 14.8%. The prevalence of HF was higher with worsening renal function: 15.5%, 17.8% and 29.4% in patients with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 or 4, respectively (P < 0.0001), despite a small absolute difference in mean EF across eGFR groups: 48.2 ± 10.0, 47.9 ± 11.3 and 46.2 ± 12.1, respectively (P = 0.02). The prevalence of HF was again higher with worsening renal function among patients with preserved EF: 10.1%, 13.6% and 23.6% (P < 0.0001), but this relationship was not significant among patients with depressed EF: 27.1%, 26.2% and 37.9% (P = 0.071). Moreover, eGFR was an independent correlate of HF in patients with preserved EF (P = 0.003) but not in patients with depressed EF (P = 0.181). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of post-MI patients with occluded IRAs have impaired renal function. Impaired renal function was associated with an increased rate of early post-MI HF, the association being strongest in patients with preserved EF. These findings have implications for management of peri-infarct HF. PMID:20885993

  4. Length of stay and risk of very early readmission in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Miñana, Gema; Bosch, Maria José; Núñez, Eduardo; Mollar, Anna; Santas, Enrique; Valero, Ernesto; García-Blas, Sergio; Pellicer, Mauricio; Bodí, Vicent; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-07-01

    In patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF), optimal length of stay (LOS) remains controversial. Longer hospitalizations are associated with worse prognosis, but little is known about short hospitalizations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between LOS and the risk of short-term readmission in patients discharged after a hospitalization for AHF. We included 2110 consecutive patients. The independent associations between LOS and unplanned 10, 15 and 30-day readmissions were evaluated by Cox regression analysis adjusted for competing events. LOS was categorized as LOS1: ≤4days, LOS2: 5-7days, LOS3: 8-10days, and LOS4: >10days. The mean age was 73±11years and 52.6% exhibited left ventricle ejection fraction≥50%. The median (IQR) LOS was 7 (5-11) days. At 10, 15 and 30-day follow-up, 130 (6.2%), 181 (8.6%), and 282 (13.4%) unplanned readmissions were registered. Rates of 10 and 15-day readmission among LOS categories showed a J-shaped pattern with lower rates for those in LOS2 and higher at the both extremes (p=0.001). At 30-day, only longer stays showed higher rates of readmission (p=0.002). In the multivariate analysis, the U-shaped curve remained significant for 10 and 15-day readmissions (p<0.05). Compared to LOS2, LOS1, LOS3 and LOS4 showed about two-fold increased risk. At 30-day only longer stays showed a borderline and modest increase of risk. Shorter and longer stays are associated with the risk of very early readmissions after an episode of AHF. These associations are marginal for 30-day readmissions. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early prediction of norepinephrine dependency and refractory septic shock with a multimodal approach of vascular failure.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marie; Perez, Pierre; Thivilier, Carine; Levy, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to improve our ability to detect catecholamine dependency and refractory septic shock. Fifty-one patients with septic shock were studied within the first 4 hours of norepinephrine administration. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their evolution in the intensive care unit, namely, group A, shock reversal, and group B, no shock reversal. Reversal of shock was defined as the maintenance of a systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg without vasopressor support for 24 hours or more. Vascular reactivity was tested using incremental doses of phenylephrine. Muscle tissue oxygen saturation and its changes during a vascular occlusion test were measured. Group B patients had a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and lactate level and more frequently received norepinephrine and renal replacement. Overall mortality was 100% in group B (16/16) and 20% (7/35) in group A. Phenylephrine increased mean arterial pressure in a dose-dependent manner more significantly in group A patients than in group B (P = .0004). Basal tissue oxygen saturation and the recovery slope after vascular occlusion test were lower in group B. In multivariate analysis, 4 parameters remained independently associated with mortality: the increase in mean arterial pressure at phenylephrine 6 μg/kg per minute, the recovery slope, SOFA score, and norepinephrine doses at H0. The intensity of septic shock-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor is tightly linked to septic shock severity and evolution and may potentially be identified early with simple to obtain parameters such as near-infrared spectroscopy value, SOFA score, or norepinephrine dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Autologous transplantation versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma experiencing early treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sonali M; Godfrey, James; Ahn, Kwang Woo; DiGilio, Alyssa; Ahmed, Sairah; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Bachanova, Veronika; Bacher, Ulrike; Bashey, Asad; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Cairo, Mitchell; Chen, Andy; Chhabra, Saurabh; Copelan, Edward; Dahi, Parastoo B; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Farooq, Umar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David; Kanate, Abraham S; Karmali, Reem; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Klein, Andreas; Lazarus, Hillard M; Mei, Matthew; Mussetti, Alberto; Nishihori, Taiga; Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Praveen; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Shah, Nirav; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Vij, Ravi; Vose, Julie; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-15

    Early treatment failure (ETF) in follicular lymphoma (FL), defined as relapse or progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy, is a newly recognized marker of poor survival and identifies a high-risk group of patients with an expected 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 50%. Transplantation is an established option for relapsed FL, but its efficacy in this specific ETF FL population has not been previously evaluated. This study compared autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) with either matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as the first transplantation approach for patients with ETF FL (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2002 and 2014. The primary endpoint was OS. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Four hundred forty FL patients had ETF (auto-HCT, 240; MSD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HCT], 105; and MUD HCT, 95). With a median follow-up of 69 to 73 months, the adjusted probability of 5-year OS was significantly higher after auto-HCT (70%) or MSD HCT (73%) versus MUD HCT (49%; P = .0008). The 5-year adjusted probability of NRM was significantly lower for auto-HCT (5%) versus MSD (17%) or MUD HCT (33%; P < .0001). The 5-year adjusted probability of disease relapse was lower with MSD (31%) or MUD HCT (23%) versus auto-HCT (58%; P < .0001). Patients with high-risk FL, as defined by ETF, undergoing auto-HCT for FL have low NRM and a promising 5-year OS rate (70%). MSD HCT has lower relapse rates than auto-HCT but similar OS. Cancer 2018;124:2541-51. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  7. Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described.

  8. Relationship between Early Physician Follow-Up and 30-Day Readmission after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure are important patient outcome metrics. Early post-discharge physician follow-up has been promoted as a method of reducing 30-day readmission rates. However, the relationships between early post-discharge follow-up and 30-day readmission for AMI and heart failure are inconclusive. We used nationwide population-based data to examine associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission, and further associations of 7-day same physician (during the index hospitalization and at follow-up) and cardiologist follow-up with 30-day readmission for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or heart failure. Methods We analyzed all patients 18 years or older with NSTEMI and heart failure and discharged from hospitals in 2010 in Taiwan through Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich variance estimates and propensity score weighting were performed after adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics to test associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission. Results The study population for NSTEMI and heart failure included 5,008 and 13,577 patients, respectively. Early physician follow-up was associated with a lower hazard ratio of readmission compared with no early physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.57), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48–0.60). Same physician follow-up was associated with a reduced hazard ratio of readmission compared with different physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.48–0.65), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.76). Conclusions For each condition, patients who have an outpatient visit with a physician within 7 days of discharge have a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Moreover

  9. Natural killer cells play a critical role in mediating inflammation and graft failure during antibody-mediated rejection of kidney allografts.

    PubMed

    Kohei, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Kazunari; Masumori, Naoya; Dvorina, Nina; Valujskikh, Anna; Baldwin, William M; Fairchild, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    While the incidence of antibody-mediated kidney graft rejection has increased, the key cellular and molecular participants underlying this graft injury remain unclear. Rejection of kidney allografts in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 is dependent on production of donor-specific antibody. Here we determine if cells expressing cytotoxic function contributed to antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection in these recipients. Wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) mice were transplanted with complete MHC-mismatched A/J kidney grafts, and intragraft inflammatory components were followed to rejection. B6.CCR5(-/-) and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected kidney allografts by day 35, whereas 65% of allografts in wild-type recipients survived past day 80 post-transplant. Rejected allografts in wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients expressed high levels of VCAM-1 and MMP7 mRNA that was associated with high serum titers of donor-specific antibody. High levels of perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression peaked on day 6 post-transplant in allografts in all recipients, but were absent in isografts. Depletion of natural killer cells in B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients reduced this expression to background levels and promoted the long-term survival of 40% of the kidney allografts. Thus, natural killer cells have a role in increased inflammation during antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury and in rejection of the grafts. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Donor Preconditioning After the Onset of Brain Death With Dopamine Derivate n-Octanoyl Dopamine Improves Early Posttransplant Graft Function in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Korkmaz-Icöz, S; Radovits, T; Ruppert, M; Spindler, R; Loganathan, S; Hegedűs, P; Brlecic, P; Theisinger, B; Theisinger, S; Höger, S; Brune, M; Lasitschka, F; Karck, M; Yard, B; Szabó, G

    2017-07-01

    Heart transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage heart failure. However, hemodynamic instability, which has been demonstrated in brain-dead donors (BDD), could also affect the posttransplant graft function. We tested the hypothesis that treatment of the BDD with the dopamine derivate n-octanoyl-dopamine (NOD) improves donor cardiac and graft function after transplantation. Donor rats were given a continuous intravenous infusion of either NOD (0.882 mg/kg/h, BDD+NOD, n = 6) or a physiological saline vehicle (BDD, n = 9) for 5 h after the induction of brain death by inflation of a subdural balloon catheter. Controls were sham-operated (n = 9). In BDD, decreased left-ventricular contractility (ejection fraction; maximum rate of rise of left-ventricular pressure; preload recruitable stroke work), relaxation (maximum rate of fall of left-ventricular pressure; Tau), and increased end-diastolic stiffness were significantly improved after the NOD treatment. Following the transplantation, the NOD-treatment of BDD improved impaired systolic function and ventricular relaxation. Additionally, after transplantation increased interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, NF-kappaB-p65, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-p105 gene expression, and increased caspase-3, TNF-α and NF-kappaB protein expression could be significantly downregulated by the NOD treatment compared to BDD. BDD postconditioning with NOD through downregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NF-kappaB may protect the heart against the myocardial injuries associated with brain death and ischemia/reperfusion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Early Results of Coronary Endarterectomy Combined with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diffused Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Kong, Qing-Yu; Xiao, Wei; Liang, Lin; Chen, Xin-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is still a challenge for the cardiac surgeons to achieve adequate revascularization for diffused coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary endarterectomy (CE) offers an alternative choice of coronary artery reconstruction and revascularization. In this study, short-term result of CE combined with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was discussed in the treatment for the diffused CAD. Methods: From January 2012 to April 2014, 221 cases of CABG were performed by the same surgeon in our unit. Among these cases, 38 cases of CE + CABG were performed, which was about 17.2% (38/221) of the cohort. All these patients were divided into two groups: CE + CABG group (Group A) and CABG alone group (Group B). All clinical data were compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. The categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test respectively. Results: Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease were more common in group A. In this cohort, a total of 50 vessels were endarterectomized. Among them, CE was performed on left anterior descending artery in 11 cases, on right coronary artery in 29 cases, on diagonal artery in 3 cases, on intermediate artery in 2 cases, on obtuse marginal artery in 5 cases. There was no hospital mortality in both groups. The intro-aortic balloon pump was required in 3 cases in Group A (3/38), which was more often than that in Group B (3/183). At the time of follow-up, coronary computed tomography angiogram showed all the grafts with CE were patent (50/50). There is no cardio-related mortality in both groups. All these patients were free from coronary re-intervention. Conclusions: Coronary endarterectomy + CABG can offer satisfactory result for patients with diffused CAD in a short-term after the operation. PMID:26021501

  13. Transposed brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistulas versus prosthetic upper limb grafts: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, M K; Georgiadis, G S; Papasideris, C P; Trellopoulos, G; Tzilalis, V D

    2008-11-01

    Controversy exists regarding the best type of arteriovenous (AV) fistula to be formed in secondary and tertiary access procedures when primary fistulas have failed. This meta-analysis aimed to compare transposed brachial-basilic AV fistulas (BBAVFs) with upper limb AV prosthetic grafts. A literature search of the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases was performed to identify comparative studies reporting outcomes for both BBAVFs with upper limb AV prosthetic grafts. Meta-analysis techniques were applied to identify differences in outcomes between the two groups regarding primary and secondary 1-year failure rates. Eleven relevant studies, involving 1509 patients, met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the final analysis; however, only one was randomised controlled trial. The pooled odds' ratio (OR) estimate for the primary and secondary failure rates at 1 year was 0.67 (CI 0.41-1.09) and 0.88 (CI 0.69-1.12), respectively, showing no difference in the outcome between the two groups. The re-intervention rate was higher for prosthetic grafts (0.54 per BBAVF versus 1.32 per graft). In a small subgroup of two studies comparing BBAVFs with forearm grafts the pooled estimate for 1-year primary failure rate was in favour of the BBAVF group (OR 0.3, CI 0.15-0.58, p=0.0004) suggesting that forearm grafts were inferior having a 3-fold risk of failure at 1 year. This analysis supports the use of BBAVF early in difficult access cases prior to the use of prosthetic grafts. However, the latter conclusion is debatable due to heterogeneity, small size and non-randomised design of the included studies.

  14. Early prognostic markers for fatal fulminant hepatic failure cases with viral hepatitis: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum.

    PubMed

    Bala, Lakshmi; Mehrotra, Mayank; Mohindra, Samir; Saxena, Rajan; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal

    2013-02-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is associated with liver metabolic derangements which could have fatal consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify serum markers for early prediction of the outcome. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum of fulminant hepatic failure patients due to viral hepatitis with grade II/III of encephalopathy (twenty-four: ten prospective and fourteen retrospective) and twenty-five controls were undertaken. Of the twenty-four patients, fifteen survived with medical management alone while nine had fatal outcome. The results demonstrated significantly elevated indices of amino acids (alanine, lysine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and 1,2-propanediol) in fatal cases compared to survivors and controls. Principal component analysis showed clear separation of fatal and surviving cases. Liver function parameters were significantly deranged in patients but they failed to provide early significant differences between surviving and fatal cases. Compared to model for end-stage liver disease scores, principal component analysis appear to be better as an early prognostic indicator. Biochemical mapping of pathways suggested interruptions in amino acid metabolism and urea cycle. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of serum have the potential of rapidly identifying patients with irreversible fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation as life saving option. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  16. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry. Follow instructions about showering. DO NOT smoke. Smoking slows or prevents bone healing. If you smoke, the graft is more likely to fail. Be aware that nicotine patches slow healing just like smoking does.

  17. [The early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in graft after lung transplantation of mouse].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q R; Wang, L F; Zhang, Y M; Xu, J N; Li, H; Ding, Y Z

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts. Methods: The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015. The male C57BL/6 mice ( n =35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group, n =10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group ( n =5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group ( n =10): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group(allogenic group, n =10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3-day and 7-day subgroups ( n =5). Respiratory system resistance and histological features of grafts were assessed, and differences in graft infiltrating γδT lymphocytes and mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-17A were quantified on 3 and 7 days after transplantation. Multiple comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference analysis. Results: (1) The respiratory system resistance of syngenic group and allogenic group were (2.61±0.59) cmH 2 O·s/ml and (2.84±0.31) cmH 2 O·s/ml 3 days post-operation, both of them increased compared to control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml (1 cmH 2 O=0.098 kPa) ( P =0.001, 0.000). The respiratory system resistance of allogenic group were (4.33±0.67) cmH 2 O·s/ml 7 days post-operation, which was significantly higher than that of syngenic 7-day subgroup (1.87±0.27) cmH 2 O·s/ml and control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml ( P =0.000, 0.000). (2) The isografts of syngenic group showed a relatively normal histological appearance with minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the allografts of allogenic group infiltrated apparently by inflammatory cells, especially 7-day subgroup showed acute cellular rejection. (3) The percentage of γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in isografts and allografts were 3.90%±0.86% and 4.40%±0.57%, respectively, which were significantly increased compared to that of control lungs 2

  18. Early Adoption of Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF).

    PubMed

    Luo, Nancy; Fonarow, Gregg C; Lippmann, Steven J; Mi, Xiaojuan; Heidenreich, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W; Greiner, Melissa A; Hammill, Bradley G; Hardy, N Chantelle; Turner, Stuart J; Laskey, Warren K; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Mentz, Robert J; O'Brien, Emily C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and variation in angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) prescription among a real-world population with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved sacubitril/valsartan for patients with HFrEF in July 2015. Little is known about the early patterns of use of this novel therapy. The study included patients discharged alive from hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF), a registry of hospitalized patients with heart failure, between July 2015 and June 2016 who had documentation of whether ARNIs were prescribed at discharge. Patient and hospital characteristics were compared among patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%) with and without ARNI prescription at discharge, excluding those with documented contraindications to ARNIs. To evaluate hospital variation, hospitals with at least 10 eligible hospitalizations during the study period were assessed. Of 21,078 patients hospitalized with HFrEF during the study period, 495 (2.3%) were prescribed ARNIs at discharge. Patients prescribed ARNIs were younger (median age 65 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.001), had lower ejection fractions (median 23% vs. 25%; p < 0.001), and had higher use of aldosterone antagonists (45% vs. 31%; p < 0.001) at discharge. At the 241 participating hospitals with 10 or more eligible admissions, 125 (52%) reported no discharge prescriptions of ARNIs. Approximately 2.3% of patients hospitalized for HFrEF in a national registry were prescribed ARNI therapy in the first 12 months following Food and Drug Administration approval. Further study is needed to identify and overcome barriers to implementing new evidence into practice, such as ARNI use among eligible patients with HFrEF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thrombin Injection Failure with Subsequent Successful Stent-Graft Placement for the Treatment of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Pseudoaneurysm in a 5-Year-Old Child

    SciT

    Garcia-Monaco, R. D.; Kohan, A. A., E-mail: andreskohan1@gmail.com; Martinez-Corvalan, M. P.

    Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare life-threatening condition that may develop in different clinical situations. We report the case of an extracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to a throat infection in a pediatric patient that was initially treated with percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance. However, recanalization occurred at 48 h, and definitive treatment was then performed by endovascular stent-graft placement. We briefly review the clinical characteristics of this uncommon clinical condition as well as the treatment options.

  20. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference

  1. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi

  2. Coexistence of Bilirubin ≥10 mg/dL and Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio ≥1.6 on Day 7: A Strong Predictor of Early Graft Loss After Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yusuke; Yagi, Shintaro; Sato, Toshiya; Hata, Koichiro; Ogawa, Eri; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Kamo, Naoko; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Okajima, Hideaki; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) defined by serum total bilirubin (TB) of 10 mg/dL or greater or prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) of 1.6 or greater on postoperative day 7 (POD 7) or aminotransferase greater than 2000 IU/L within the first week, is associated with early graft loss after deceased-donor liver transplantation. We aimed to determine the prognostic impact of the EAD definition in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We analyzed the validity of the EAD definition and its impact on early graft survival in 260 adult recipients who underwent primary LDLT. Eighty-four (32.3%) patients met the EAD criteria; 59 (22.7%) and 46 (17.7%) patients had TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater on POD 7, respectively, and 22 (8.5%) patients satisfied both criteria. Graft survival differed significantly when stratified according to TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater (P < 0.0001). PT-INR of 1.6 or greater resulted in higher graft mortality (risk ratio [RR], 3.87; P < 0.0001 at 90 days; RR, 2.97; P < 0.0001 at 180 days), as did TB of 10 mg/dL or greater (RR, 1.89; P = 0.027 at 90 days; RR, 1.91; P = 0.006 at 180 days). Coexistence of TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater was strongly associated with early graft loss (59.1%, RR, 6.97 at 90 days; 68.2%; RR, 5.75 at 180 days). In Cox regression analysis, PT-INR of 1.6 or greater and TB of 10 mg/dL or greater on POD 7 were significant risk factors for early graft loss (hazard ratio, 4.10; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-7.18; P < 0.0001, and hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.24; P = 0.0018, respectively). TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and/or PT-INR of 1.6 or greater on POD 7 predicted early graft loss after LDLT, and their coexistence worsened patient outcomes.

  3. Early failure mechanisms of constrained tripolar acetabular sockets used in revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Christopher C; Hozack, William; Lavernia, Carlos; Sharkey, Peter; Shastri, Shani; Rothman, Richard H

    2003-10-01

    Fifty-eight patients received an Osteonics constrained acetabular implant for recurrent instability (46), girdlestone reimplant (8), correction of leg lengthening (3), and periprosthetic fracture (1). The constrained liner was inserted into a cementless shell (49), cemented into a pre-existing cementless shell (6), cemented into a cage (2), and cemented directly into the acetabular bone (1). Eight patients (13.8%) required reoperation for failure of the constrained implant. Type I failure (bone-prosthesis interface) occurred in 3 cases. Two cementless shells became loose, and in 1 patient, the constrained liner was cemented into an acetabular cage, which then failed by pivoting laterally about the superior fixation screws. Type II failure (liner locking mechanism) occurred in 2 cases. Type III failure (femoral head locking mechanism) occurred in 3 patients. Seven of the 8 failures occurred in patients with recurrent instability. Constrained liners are an effective method for treatment during revision total hip arthroplasty but should be used in select cases only.

  4. Analysis of the influence of respiratory disorders observed in preoperative spirometry on the dynamics of early inflammatory response in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Szylińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Mariusz J; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Biskupski, Andrzej; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative spirometry provides measurable information about the occurrence of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between preoperative spirometry abnormalities and the intensification of early inflammatory responses in patients following coronary artery bypass graft in extracorporeal circulation. Material and methods The study involved 810 patients (625 men and 185 women) aged 65.4±7.9 years who were awaiting isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. On the basis of spirometry performed on the day of admittance to the hospital, the patients were divided into three groups. Patients without respiratory problems constituted 78.8% of the entire group. Restricted breathing was revealed by spirometry in 14.9% and obstructive breathing in 6.3% of patients. Results Inter-group analysis showed statistically significant differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) between patients with restrictive spirometry abnormalities and patients without any pulmonary dysfunction. CRP concentrations differed before surgery (P=0.006) and on the second (P<0.001), fourth (P=0.005) and sixth days after surgery (P=0.029). There was a negative correlation between CRP levels and FEV1. Conclusion In our study, the most common pulmonary disorders in the coronary artery bypass graft patients were restrictive. Patients with abnormal spirometry results from restrictive respiratory disorders have an elevated level of generalized inflammatory response both before and after the isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, this group of patients should be given special postoperative monitoring and, in particular, intensive respiratory rehabilitation immediately after reconstitution. PMID:28769557

  5. Influence of surgical implantation angle of left ventricular assist device outflow graft and management of aortic valve opening on the risk of stroke in heart failure patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, V. Keshav; McGah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony; Beckman, Jennifer; Mokadam, Nanush; Mahr, Claudius; Aliseda, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Flow in the aortic vasculature may impact stroke risk in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to severely altered hemodynamics. Patient-specific 3D models of the aortic arch and great vessels were created with an LVAD outflow graft at 45, 60 and 90° from centerline of the ascending aorta, in order to understand the effect of surgical placement on hemodynamics and thrombotic risk. Intermittent aortic valve opening (once every five cardiac cycles) was simulated and the impact of this residual native output investigated for the potential to wash out stagnant flow in the aortic root region. Unsteady CFD simulations with patient-specific boundary conditions were performed. Particle tracking for 10 cardiac cycles was used to determine platelet residence times and shear stress histories. Thrombosis risk was assessed by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian metrics and a newly developed thrombogenic potential metric. Results show a strong influence of LVAD outflow graft angle on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta and consequently on stroke risk, with a highly positive impact of aortic valve opening, even at low frequencies. Optimization of LVAD implantation and management strategies based on patient-specific simulations to minimize stroke risk will be presented

  6. SheppHeartCABG trial—comprehensive early rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass grafting: a protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels Viggo; La Cour, Søren; Olsen, Peter Skov; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Lindschou, Jane; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Egerod, Ingrid; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of symptoms. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation have a positive physiological and psychological effect in early outpatient rehabilitation. The SheppHeartCABG trial will investigate the effect of early comprehensive rehabilitation in early phase rehabilitation versus usual care. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol for the SheppHeartCABG trial. Methods/analysis SheppHeartCABG is an investigator-initiated randomised clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment, employing 1:1 central randomisation to rehabilitation plus usual care versus usual care alone. On the basis of a sample size calculation, 326 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting will be included from two clinical sites. All patients receive usual care and patients allocated to the experimental intervention follow 4 weeks rehabilitation consisting of an exercise programme, psycho-educative consultations and a compact mindfulness programme. The primary outcome is physical function measured by the 6-min walk test. The secondary outcomes are mental health and physical activity measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-12), anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, physical, emotional and global scores by the HeartQoL questionnaire, sleep measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, pain measured by the Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire and muscle endurance measured by the sit-to-stand test. A number of explorative analyses will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination SheppHeartCABG is approved by the regional ethics committee (no. H-4-2014-109) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no. 30-1309) and is performed in accordance with good clinical practice and the Declaration of Helsinki in its latest form. Positive, neutral and

  7. Landslide early warning based on failure forecast models: the example of the Mt. de La Saxe rockslide, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, A.; Giordan, D.

    2015-07-01

    We apply failure forecast models by exploiting near-real-time monitoring data for the La Saxe rockslide, a large unstable slope threatening Aosta Valley in northern Italy. Starting from the inverse velocity theory, we analyze landslide surface displacements automatically and in near real time on different temporal windows and apply straightforward statistical methods to obtain confidence intervals on the estimated time of failure. Here, we present the result obtained for the La Saxe rockslide, a large unstable slope located in Aosta Valley, northern Italy. Based on this case study, we identify operational thresholds that are established on the reliability of the forecast models. Our approach is aimed at supporting the management of early warning systems in the most critical phases of the landslide emergency.

  8. Landslide early warning based on failure forecast models: the example of Mt. de La Saxe rockslide, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, A.; Giordan, D.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the use of landslide failure forecast models by exploiting near-real-time monitoring data. Starting from the inverse velocity theory, we analyze landslide surface displacements on different temporal windows, and apply straightforward statistical methods to obtain confidence intervals on the estimated time of failure. Here we describe the main concepts of our method, and show an example of application to a real emergency scenario, the La Saxe rockslide, Aosta Valley region, northern Italy. Based on the herein presented case study, we identify operational thresholds based on the reliability of the forecast models, in order to support the management of early warning systems in the most critical phases of the landslide emergency.

  9. Agenesis of the ductus venosus-A case with favorable outcome after early signs of cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sigrun R; Heilmann, Antje; Häusler, Hans J; Kamin, Gabriele; Nitzsche, Katharina I

    2013-01-01

    Absence of the ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare vascular anomaly. Its prognosis depends on the pathway of the umbilical flow to the systemic venous circulation, and the presence or absence of associated structural or chromosomal anomalies, sometimes resulting in hydrops fetalis. In cases with isolated ADV in the absence of associated anomalies, survival rates are as high as 85%, depending on the shunt situation. Here, we report a patient with ADV and extrahepatic umbilical vein drainage with favorable outcome after intrauterine reversal of early signs of cardiac failure. Diagnosis was made after the appearance of moderate cardiomegaly in the 25th gestational week. Thus, in the case of cardiomegaly with or without further signs of cardiac failure, ultrasound imaging of the venous duct should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of Early Vasopressin vs Norepinephrine on Kidney Failure in Patients With Septic Shock: The VANISH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Thirunavukkarasu, Neeraja; Perkins, Gavin D; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cepkova, Magda; Pogson, David G; Aya, Hollmann D; Anjum, Aisha; Frazier, Gregory J; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-08-02

    Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock. Patients were randomly allocated to vasopressin (titrated up to 0.06 U/min) and hydrocortisone (n = 101), vasopressin and placebo (n = 104), norepinephrine and hydrocortisone (n = 101), or norepinephrine and placebo (n = 103). The primary outcome was kidney failure-free days during the 28-day period after randomization, measured as (1) the proportion of patients who never developed kidney failure and (2) median number of days alive and free of kidney failure for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both. Rates of renal replacement therapy, mortality, and serious adverse events were secondary outcomes. A total of 409 patients (median age, 66 years; men, 58.2%) were included in the study, with a median time to study drug administration of 3.5 hours after diagnosis of shock. The number of survivors who never developed kidney failure was 94 of 165 patients (57.0%) in the vasopressin group and 93 of 157 patients (59.2%) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -2.3% [95% CI, -13.0% to 8.5%]). The median number of kidney failure-free days for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to -24) in the vasopressin group and 13 days (IQR, 1 to -25) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -4 days [95% CI, -11 to 5]). There was less use of renal replacement therapy in the vasopressin group

  11. Primary Prevention of Reading Failure: Effect of Universal Peer Tutoring in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Giavana; Ostojic, Dragana; Menard, Jessica; Picard, Erin; Miller, Carlin J.

    2017-01-01

    Reading is typically considered a survival skill in our technology- and literacy-bound culture. Individuals who struggle with learning to read are at significantly elevated risk for a number of negative outcomes, including school failure, under- and unemployment, and special education placement. Thus, those who do not learn to read fluently will…

  12. Prediction and prevention of failure: an early intervention to assist at-risk medical students.

    PubMed

    Winston, Kalman A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2014-01-01

    Consistent identification and prevention of failure for at-risk medical students is challenging, failing courses is costly to all stakeholders, and there is need for further research into duration, timing and structure of interventions to help students in difficulty. To verify the value of a new exam two weeks into medical school as a predictor of failure, and explore the requirements for a preventative intervention. Students who failed the two-week exam were invited to a series of large-group workshops and small-group follow-up meetings. Participants' subsequent exam performance was compared with non-participants. About 71% of students who performed poorly in the new exam subsequently failed a course. Attendance at the workshops made no difference to short- or long-term pass rates. Attendance at more than three follow-up small group sessions significantly improved pass rates two semesters later, and was influenced by teacher experience. Close similarity between predictor task and target task is important for accurate prediction of failure. Consideration should be given to dose effect and class size in the prevention of failure of at-risk students, and we recommend a systemic approach to intervention/remediation programmes, involving a whole semester of mandatory, weekly small group meetings with experienced teachers.

  13. Success after Failure: Academic Effects and Psychological Implications of Early Universal Algebra Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Keith A.; Scott, Allison; Romero, Martin; Saddler, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors use the High School Longitudinal Study 2009 (HSLS:09) national database to analyze the relationships between algebra failure, subsequent performance, motivation, and college readiness. Students who failed eighth-grade Algebra I did not differ significantly in mathematics proficiency from those who passed lower-level…

  14. USE OF CORTICAL BONE FENESTRATION, AUTOGENOUS FREE SKIN GRAFT, AND THERMOGRAPHY FOR WOUND TREATMENT AND MONITORING IN A RED WOLF (CANIS RUFUS GREGORYI).

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Sladky, Kurt K; Nolan, Elizabeth C; Loomis, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    A 2-yr-old female red wolf (Canis rufus gregoryi) sustained a degloving injury to the left thoracic limb while in a display habitat. Initial attempts to resolve the extensive wound by using conservative measures were unsuccessful. Subsequent treatment using a free skin graft consisted first of establishment of an adequate granulation bed via cortical bone fenestration. After establishment of a healthy granulation bed was achieved, free skin graft was harvested and transposed over the bed. To monitor viability and incorporation of the graft, serial thermographic imaging was performed. Thermography noninvasively detects radiant heat patterns and can be used to assess vascularization of tissue, potentially allowing early detection of graft failure. In this case, thermography documented successful graft attachment.

  15. Early management of patients with acute heart failure: state of the art and future directions. A consensus document from the society for academic emergency medicine/heart failure society of America acute heart failure working group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean; Storrow, Alan B; Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hiestand, Brian; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David E; Levy, Phillip D; Pang, Peter S; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) afflicts nearly 6 million Americans, resulting in one million emergency department (ED) visits and over one million annual hospital discharges. An aging population and improved survival from cardiovascular diseases is expected to further increase HF prevalence. Emergency providers play a significant role in the management of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). It is crucial that emergency physicians and other providers involved in early management understand the latest developments in diagnostic testing, therapeutics and alternatives to hospitalization. Further, clinical trials must be conducted in the ED in order to improve the evidence base and drive optimal initial therapy for AHF. Should ongoing and future studies suggest early phenotype-driven therapy improves in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes, ED treatment decisions will need to evolve accordingly. The potential impact of future studies which incorporate risk-stratification into ED disposition decisions cannot be underestimated. Predictive instruments that identify a cohort of patients safe for ED discharge, while simultaneously addressing barriers to successful outpatient management, have the potential to significantly impact quality of life and resource expenditures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An XRCC4 Splice Mutation Associated With Severe Short Stature, Gonadal Failure, and Early-Onset Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Mericq, Verónica; Andrew, Shayne F.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Losekoot, Monique; Porollo, Aleksey; Garcia, Hernán; Kuang, Yi; Hanson, Dan; Clayton, Peter; van Gent, Dik C.; Wit, Jan M.; Hwa, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe short stature can be caused by defects in numerous biological processes including defects in IGF-1 signaling, centromere function, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. Many syndromic causes of short stature are associated with medical comorbidities including hypogonadism and microcephaly. Objective: To identify an underlying genetic etiology in two siblings with severe short stature and gonadal failure. Design: Clinical phenotyping, genetic analysis, complemented by in vitro functional studies of the candidate gene. Setting: An academic pediatric endocrinology clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Two adult siblings (male patient [P1] and female patient 2 [P2]) presented with a history of severe postnatal growth failure (adult heights: P1, −6.8 SD score; P2, −4 SD score), microcephaly, primary gonadal failure, and early-onset metabolic syndrome in late adolescence. In addition, P2 developed a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor at age 28. Intervention(s): Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and exome sequencing. Results: Combined microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing of the two affected siblings and one unaffected sister identified a homozygous variant in XRCC4 as the probable candidate variant. Sanger sequencing and mRNA studies revealed a splice variant resulting in an in-frame deletion of 23 amino acids. Primary fibroblasts (P1) showed a DNA damage repair defect. Conclusions: In this study we have identified a novel pathogenic variant in XRCC4, a gene that plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining DNA repair. This finding expands the spectrum of DNA damage repair syndromes to include XRCC4 deficiency causing severe postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, gonadal failure, metabolic syndrome, and possibly tumor predisposition. PMID:25742519

  17. Early MRI Detection and Closed Bone Graft Epiphysiodesis May Alter the Course of Avascular Necrosis Following Unstable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Napora, Joshua K; Gilmore, Allison; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Grimberg, Dominic C; Thompson, George H; Liu, Raymond W

    2018-04-01

    Unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) has an increased incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN). Early identification and surgical intervention for AVN may help preserve the femoral head. We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients (50 hips) with unstable SCFE managed between 2000 and 2014. AVN was diagnosed based on 2 different postoperative protocols. Seventeen patients (17 hips) had a scheduled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between 1 and 6 months from initial surgery, and the remaining 31 patients (33 hips) were evaluated by plain radiographs alone. If AVN was diagnosed, we offered core decompression and closed bone graft epiphysiodesis (CBGE) to mitigate its affects. At final follow-up, we assessed progression of AVN using the Steinberg classification. Overall 13 hips (26%) with unstable SCFEs developed AVN. MRI revealed AVN in 7 of 17 hips (41%) at a mean of 2.5 months postoperatively (range, 1.0 to 5.2 mo). Six hips diagnosed by MRI received surgical intervention (4 CBGE, 1 free vascularized fibula graft, and 1 repinning due to screw cutout) at a mean of 4.1 months (range, 1.3 to 7.2 mo) postoperatively. None of the 4 patients treated with CBGE within 2 months postoperatively progressed to stage IVC AVN. The 2 patients treated after 4 months postoperatively both progressed to stage VC AVN.Plain radiographs demonstrated AVN in 6 of 33 hips (18%) at a mean of 6.8 months postoperatively (range, 2.1 to 21.1 mo). One patient diagnosed with stage IVB AVN at 2.4 months had screw cutout and received CBGE at 2.5 months from initial pinning. The remaining 5 were not offered surgical intervention. Five of the 6 radiographically diagnosed AVN, including the 1 treated with CBGE, progressed to stage IVC AVN or greater. Although all patients with positive MRI scans developed radiographic AVN, none of the 4 patients treated with CBGE within 2 months after pinning developed grade IVC or greater AVN. Early MRI detection and CBGE may mitigate the effects of AVN after

  18. Editorial Commentary: Size Does Matter-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Diameter Affects Biomechanical and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft strength is related to graft diameter and how ACL grafts heal. All grafts appear to lose strength during healing. Clinical studies have documented that hamstring grafts less than 8 mm wide are more vulnerable to failure. Tripling the semitendinosus allows to increase the graft diameter and strength. A recent study documents a semitendinosus tripling technique with excellent clinical results. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Presence and Implication of Temporal Nonuniformity of Early Diastolic Left Ventricular Wall Expansion in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Daisuke; Fox, Ervin R; Hall, Michael E; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C

    2016-12-01

    Early-diastolic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal expansion is delayed with diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of LV ejection fraction (EF), there is diastolic temporal nonuniformity with a delay of longitudinal relative to circumferential expansion. Echocardiography was performed in 143 HF patients-50 with preserved EF (HFpEF) and 93 with reduced EF (HFrEF)-as well as 31 normal control subjects. The delay of early-diastolic mitral annular velocity from the mitral Doppler E (T E-e' ) was measured as a parameter of the longitudinal expansion delay. The delay of the longitudinal early-diastolic global strain rate (SR E ) relative to circumferential SR E (Delay C-L ) was calculated as a parameter of temporal nonuniformity. Intra-LV pressure difference (IVPD) was estimated with the use of color M-mode Doppler data as a parameter of LV diastolic suction. Although normal control subjects had symmetric LV expansion in early diastole, T E-e' and Delay C-L were significantly prolonged in HF regardless of EF (P < .01 vs control for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that Delay C-L was the independent determinant of IVPD among the parameters of LV geometry and contraction (β = -0.21; P < .05). An abnormal temporal nonuniformity of early-diastolic expansion is present in HF regardless of EF, which was associated with reduced LV suction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Early Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy in Fat Embolism Syndrome to Prevent Right Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Koyfman, Leonid; Kutz, Ruslan; Frenkel, Amit; Gruenbaum, Shaun E.; Zlotnik, Alexander; Klein, Moti

    2014-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a life-threatening condition in which multiorgan dysfunction manifests 48–72 hours after long bone or pelvis fractures. Right ventricular (RV) failure, especially in the setting of pulmonary hypertension, is a frequent feature of FES. We report our experience treating 2 young, previously healthy trauma patients who developed severe hypoxemia in the setting of FES. Neither patient had evidence of RV dysfunction on echocardiogram. The patients were treated with inhaled nitric oxide (NO), and their oxygenation significantly improved over the subsequent few days. Neither patient developed any cardiovascular compromise. Patients with FES that have severe hypoxemia and evidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are likely at risk for developing RV failure. We recommend that these patients with FES and severe refractory hypoxemia should be treated with inhaled NO therapy prior to the onset of RV dysfunction. PMID:25180103

  1. Patients with the worst outcomes after paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver failure have an early monocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Moore, J K; MacKinnon, A C; Man, T Y; Manning, J R; Forbes, S J; Simpson, K J

    2017-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited. The peripheral blood monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, circulating cytokines quantified by protein array and monocyte gene expression array performed and related to outcome. On admission, patients with worst outcomes after POD-ALF had a significant monocytopenia, characterised by reduced classical and expanded intermediate monocyte population. This was associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and natural killer cells, peripheral cytokine patterns suggestive of a 'cytokine storm' and increased concentrations of cytokines associated with monocyte egress from the bone marrow. Gene expression array did not differentiate patient outcome. At day 4, there was no significant difference in monocyte, lymphocyte or natural killer cells between survivors and the patients with adverse outcomes. Severe paracetamol liver failure is associated with profound changes in the peripheral blood compartment, particularly in monocytes, related with worse outcomes. This is not seen in patients with non-paracetamol-induced liver failure. Significant monocytopenia on admission may allow earlier clarification of prognosis, and it highlights a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum Phosphorus and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause Mortality, or Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: An Ancillary Study of the FAVORIT Trial Cohort.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Basma; Shireman, Theresa; Carpenter, Myra A; Kusek, John W; Jacques, Paul; Pfeffer, Marc; Rao, Madhumathi; Foster, Meredith C; Kim, S Joseph; Pesavento, Todd E; Smith, Stephen R; Kew, Clifton E; House, Andrew A; Gohh, Reginald; Weiner, Daniel E; Levey, Andrew S; Ix, Joachim H; Bostom, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Mild hyperphosphatemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease [CVD], loss of kidney function, and mortality. Very limited data are available from sizable multicenter kidney transplant recipient (KTR) cohorts assessing the potential relationships between serum phosphorus levels and the development of CVD outcomes, transplant failure, or all-cause mortality. Cohort study. The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial, a large, multicenter, multiethnic, controlled clinical trial that provided definitive evidence that high-dose vitamin B-based lowering of plasma homocysteine levels did not reduce CVD events, transplant failure, or total mortality in stable KTRs. Serum phosphorus levels were determined in 3,138 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the cohort had 436 CVD events, 238 transplant failures, and 348 deaths. Proportional hazards modeling revealed that each 1-mg/dL higher serum phosphorus level was not associated with a significant increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.22), but increased transplant failure (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62) and total mortality risk associations (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40) when adjusted for treatment allocation, traditional CVD risk factors, kidney measures, type of kidney transplant, transplant vintage, and use of calcineurin inhibitors, steroids, or lipid-lowering drugs. These associations were strengthened in models without kidney measures: CVD (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31), transplant failure (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.46-2.01), and mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.15-1.54). We lacked data for concentrations of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, or vitamin D metabolites. Serum phosphorus level is marginally associated with CVD and more strongly associated with transplant failure and total mortality in long-term KTRs. A randomized controlled clinical trial in KTRs that assesses the potential impact of phosphorus

  3. Serum Phosphorus and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause Mortality, or Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: An Ancillary Study of the FAVORIT Trial Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Basma; Shireman, Theresa; Carpenter, Myra A.; Kusek, John W.; Jacques, Paul; Pfeffer, Marc; Rao, Madhumathi; Foster, Meredith C.; Kim, S. Joseph; Pesavento, Todd E.; Smith, Stephen R.; Kew, Clifton E.; House, Andrew A.; Gohh, Reginald; Weiner, Daniel E.; Levey, Andrew S.; Ix, Joachim H.; Bostom, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Mild hyperphosphatemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease [CVD], loss of kidney function, and mortality. Very limited data are available from sizable multicenter kidney transplant recipient (KTR) cohorts assessing the potential relationships between serum phosphorus levels and the development of CVD outcomes, transplant failure, or all-cause mortality. Study Design Cohort study. Setting & Participants The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial, a large, multicenter, multiethnic, controlled clinical trial that provided definitive evidence that high-dose vitamin B–based lowering of plasma homocysteine levels did not reduce CVD events, transplant failure, or total mortality in stable KTRs. Predictor Serum phosphorus levels were determined in 3,138 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. Results During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the cohort had 436 CVD events, 238 transplant failures, and 348 deaths. Proportional hazards modeling revealed that each 1-mg/dL higher serum phosphorus level was not associated with a significant increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92–1.22), but increased transplant failure (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15–1.62) and total mortality risk associations (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04–1.40) when adjusted for treatment allocation, traditional CVD risk factors, kidney measures, type of kidney transplant, transplant vintage, and use of calcineurin inhibitors, steroids, or lipid-lowering drugs. These associations were strengthened in models without kidney measures: CVD (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00–1.31), transplant failure (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.46–2.01), and mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.15–1.54). Limitations We lacked data for concentrations of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, or vitamin D metabolites. Conclusions Serum phosphorus level is marginally associated with CVD and more strongly associated with transplant failure and total mortality in long-term KTRs

  4. Hyaluronic acid enhancement of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for small diameter vascular grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nicole R.

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States and other developed countries. In the United States alone, 8 million people are diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease per year and over 250,000 patients have coronary bypass surgery each year. Autologous blood vessels are the standard graft used in small diameter (<6mm) arterial bypass procedures. Synthetic small diameter grafts have had limited success. While polyethylene (Dacron) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) are the most commonly used small diameter synthetic vascular graft materials, there are significant limitations that make these materials unfavorable for use in the low blood flow conditions of the small diameter arteries. Specifically, Dacron and ePTFE grafts display failure due to early thrombosis or late intimal hyperplasia. With the shortage of tissue donors and the limited supply of autologous blood vessels available, there is a need for a small diameter synthetic vascular graft alternative. The aim of this research is to create and characterize ePTFE grafts prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA), evaluate thrombogenic potential of ePTFE-HA grafts, and evaluate graft mechanical properties and coating durability. The results in this work indicate the successful production of ePTFE-HA materials using a solvent infiltration technique. Surface interactions with blood show increased platelet adhesion on HA-modified surfaces, though evidence may suggest less platelet activation and erythrocyte lysis. Significant changes in mechanical properties of HA-modified ePTFE materials were observed. Further investigation into solvent selection, uniformity of HA, endothelialization, and dynamic flow testing would be beneficial in the evaluation of these materials for use in small diameter vascular graft bypass procedures.

  5. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  6. Retransplantation in Late Hepatic Artery Thrombosis: Graft Access and Transplant Outcome.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bettina M; Khan, Shakeeb; David, Miruna D; Gunson, Bridget K; Isaac, John R; Roberts, Keith J; Muiesan, Paolo; Mirza, Darius F; Tripathi, Dhiraj; Perera, M Thamara P R

    2017-08-01

    Definitive treatment for late hepatic artery thrombosis (L-HAT) is retransplantation (re-LT); however, the L-HAT-associated disease burden is poorly represented in allocation models. Graft access and transplant outcome of the re-LT experience between 2005 and 2016 was reviewed with specific focus on the L-HAT cohort in this single-center retrospective study. Ninety-nine (5.7%) of 1725 liver transplantations were re-LT with HAT as the main indication (n = 43; 43%) distributed into early (n = 25) and late (n = 18) episodes. Model for end-stage liver disease as well as United Kingdom model for end-stage liver disease did not accurately reflect high disease burden of graft failure associated infections such as hepatic abscesses and biliary sepsis in L-HAT. Hence, re-LT candidates with L-HAT received low prioritization and waited longest until the allocation of an acceptable graft (median, 103 days; interquartile range, 28-291 days), allowing for progression of biliary sepsis. Balance of risk score and 3-month mortality score prognosticated good transplant outcome in L-HAT but, contrary to the prediction, the factual 1-year patient survival after re-LT was significantly inferior in L-HAT compared to early HAT, early non-HAT and late non-HAT (65% vs 82%, 92% and 95%) which was mainly caused by sepsis and multiorgan failure driving 3-month mortality (28% vs 11%, 16% and 0%). Access to a second graft after a median waitlist time of 6 weeks achieved the best short- and long-term outcome in re-LT for L-HAT (3-month mortality, 13%; 1-year survival, 77%). Inequity in graft access and peritransplant sepsis are fundamental obstacles for successful re-LT in L-HAT. Offering a graft for those in need at the best window of opportunity could facilitate earlier engrafting with improved outcomes.

  7. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures? A Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Loli, Vasiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2010-01-01

    Marco Esposito is the first author of two of the included studies; however, he was not involved in the quality assessment of these trials. This review is based on a Cochrane systematic review entitled 'Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications' published in The Cochrane Library (see http://www.cochrane.org for more information). Cochrane systematic reviews are regularly updated to include new research, and in response to comments and criticisms from readers. If you wish to comment on this review, please send your comments to the Cochrane website or to Marco Esposito. The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. The results of a Cochrane Review can be interpreted differently, depending on people's perspectives and circumstances. Please consider the conclusions presented carefully. They are the opinions of the review authors, and are not necessarily shared by the Cochrane Collaboration. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to 2 June 2010 for randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Meta-analyses were

  8. Possibilities And Influencing Parameters For The Early Detection Of Sheet Metal Failure In Press Shop Operations

    SciT

    Gerlach, Joerg; Kessler, Lutz; Paul, Udo

    2007-05-17

    The concept of forming limit curves (FLC) is widely used in industrial practice. The required data should be delivered for typical material properties (measured on coils with properties in a range of +/- of the standard deviation from the mean production values) by the material suppliers. In particular it should be noted that its use for the validation of forming robustness providing forming limit curves for the variety of scattering in the mechanical properties is impossible. Therefore a forecast of the expected limit strains without expensive cost and time-consuming experiments is necessary. In the paper the quality of a regressionmore » analysis for determining forming limit curves based on tensile test results is presented and discussed.Owing to the specific definition of limit strains with FLCs following linear strain paths, the significance of this failure definition is limited. To consider nonlinear strain path effects, different methods are given in literature. One simple method is the concept of limit stresses. It should be noted that the determined value of the critical stress is dependent on the extrapolation of the tensile test curve. When the yield curve extrapolation is very similar to an exponential function, the definition of the critical stress value is very complicated due to the low slope of the hardening function at large strains.A new method to determine general failure behavior in sheet metal forming is the common use and interpretation of three criteria: onset on material instability (comparable with FLC concept), value of critical shear fracture and the value of ductile fracture. This method seems to be particularly successful for newly developed high strength steel grades in connection with more complex strain paths for some specific material elements. Nevertheless the identification of the different failure material parameters or functions will increase and the user has to learn with the interpretation of the numerical results.« less

  9. Acute allograft failure in thoracic organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jahania, M S; Mullett, T W; Sanchez, J A; Narayan, P; Lasley, R D; Mentzer, R M

    2000-01-01

    Thoracic organ transplantation is an effective form of treatment for end-stage heart and lung disease. Despite major advances in the field, transplant patients remain at risk for acute allograft dysfunction, a major cause of early and late mortality. The most common causes of allograft failure include primary graft failure secondary to inadequate heart and lung preservation during cold storage, cellular rejection, and various donor-recipient-related factors. During cold storage and early reperfusion, heart and lung allografts are vulnerable to intracellular calcium overload, acidosis, cell swelling, injury mediated by reactive oxygen species, and the inflammatory response. Brain death itself is associated with a reduction in myocardial contractility, and recipient-related factors such as preexisting pulmonary hypertension can lead to acute right heart failure and the pulmonary reimplantation response. The development of new methods to prevent or treat these various causes of acute graft failure could lead to a marked improvement in short- and long-term survival of patients undergoing thoracic organ transplantation.

  10. Early Ambulation Among Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients Is Associated With Reduced Length of Stay and 30-Day Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lisa M; Zhao, Xin; DeVore, Adam D; Heidenreich, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W; Fonarow, Gregg C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kociol, Robb D

    2018-04-01

    Early ambulation (EA) is associated with improved outcomes for mechanically ventilated and stroke patients. Whether the same association exists for patients hospitalized with acute heart failure is unknown. We sought to determine whether EA among patients hospitalized with heart failure is associated with length of stay, discharge disposition, 30-day post discharge readmissions, and mortality. The study population included 369 hospitals and 285 653 patients with heart failure enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. We used multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations at the hospital level to identify predictors of EA and determine the association between EA and outcomes. Sixty-five percent of patients ambulated by day 2 of the hospital admission. Patient-level predictors of EA included younger age, male sex, and hospitalization outside of the Northeast ( P <0.01 for all). Hospital size and academic status were not predictive. Hospital-level analysis revealed that those hospitals with EA rates in the top 25% were less likely to have a long length of stay (defined as >4 days) compared with those in the bottom 25% (odds ratio, 0.83; confidence interval, 0.73-0.94; P =0.004). Among a subgroup of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, we found that hospitals in the highest quartile of rates of EA demonstrated a statistically significant 24% lower 30-day readmission rates ( P <0.0001). Both end points demonstrated a dose-response association and statistically significant P for trend test. Multivariable-adjusted hospital-level analysis suggests an association between EA and both shorter length of stay and lower 30-day readmissions. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  12. A comparison of graft and patient outcomes following kidney transplantation in extended hour and conventional haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    See, Emily J; Hawley, Carmel M; Cho, Yeoungjee; Toussaint, Nigel D; Agar, John Wm; Pascoe, Elaine M; Lim, Wai H; Francis, Ross S; Collins, Michael G; Johnson, David W

    2018-01-08

    Differences in early graft function between kidney transplant recipients previously managed with either haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis are well described. However, only two single-centre studies have compared graft and patient outcomes between extended hour and conventional HD patients, with conflicting results. This study compared the outcomes of all extended hour (≥24 hours/week) and conventional HD patients transplanted in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2014. The primary outcome was delayed graft function (DGF), defined in an ordinal manner as either a spontaneous fall in serum creatinine of less than 10% within 24 hours, or the need for dialysis within 72 hours following transplantation. Secondary outcomes included the requirement for dialysis within 72 hours post-transplant, acute rejection, estimated glomerular filtration rate at 12 months, death-censored graft failure, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and a composite of graft failure and mortality. A total of 4,935 HD patients (378 extended hour HD, 4,557 conventional HD) received a kidney transplant during the study period. Extended hour HD was associated with an increased likelihood of DGF compared with conventional HD (adjusted proportional odds ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.67). There was no significant difference between extended hour and conventional HD in terms of any of the secondary outcomes. Compared to conventional HD, extended hour HD was associated with DGF, although long-term graft and patient outcomes were not different. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  14. Bovine and PTFE vascular graft results in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sert, S; Demirogullari, B; Ziya Anadol, A; Guvence, N; Dalgic, A

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. There are many reports of patency periods, failure rates, thrombosis and infection attacks connected with vascular grafts. In this article, the results of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Bovine grafts were compared in a forty-four month period. Methods. 61 vascular grafts (29 PTFE, 32 bovine) were placed in 49 patients. The grafts were compared in different ways, such as survival, complication rates and placement area using life survey analysis. Results. Mean survival time was 17 mo (SE +/- 2.8) for PTFE grafts and 11 mo (SE +/- 1.1) for bovine grafts. A failure rate of 34% due only to graft complications were found in PTFE and 25% in bovine grafts. All graft complications were seen in the first year. Comparison of the cumulative survival rates of the groups were found to be insignificant during the study period and the first year ( p>0.05). Regardless of the type, there was no signif-icant difference between the grafts placed in the forearm and the grafts in the thigh (p>0.05). Conclusions. There is no survival difference between PTFE and bovine grafts. First year of the grafts is important for developing complications.

  15. Design and fabrication of prototype system for early warning of impending bearing failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacher, J.; Chen, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted with the objective of developing a method and equipment for on-line monitoring of installed ball bearings to detect deterioration or impending failure of the bearings. The program was directed at the spin-axis bearings of a control moment gyro. The bearings were tested at speeds of 6000 and 8000 rpm, thrust loads from 50 to 1000 pounds, with a wide range of lubrication conditions, with and without a simulated fatigue spall implanted in the inner race ball track. It was concluded that a bearing monitor system based on detection and analysis of modulations of a fault indicating bearing resonance frequency can provide a low threshold of sensitivity.

  16. EARLY-ESLI study: Long-term experience with eslicarbazepine acetate after first monotherapy failure.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, V; Bermejo, P; Montoya, J; Toledo, M; Gómez-Ibáñez, A; Garcés, M; Vilella, L; López-González, F J; Rodriguez-Osorio, X; Campos, D; Martínez, P; Giner, P; Zurita, J; Rodríguez-Uranga, J; Ojeda, J; Mauri, J A; Camacho, J L; Ruiz-Giménez, J; Poza, J J; Massot-Tarrús, A; Galiano, M L; Bonet, M

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate real-life experience with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) after first monotherapy failure in a large series of patients with focal epilepsy. Multicentre, retrospective, 1-year, observational study in patients older than 18 years, with focal epilepsy, who had failed first antiepileptic drug monotherapy and who received ESL. Data from clinical records were analysed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess effectiveness and tolerability. Eslicarbazepine acetate was initiated in 253 patients. The 1-year retention rate was 92.9%, and the final median dose of ESL was 800 mg. At 12 months, 62.3% of patients had been seizure free for 6 months; 37.3% had been seizure free for 1 year. During follow-up, 31.6% of the patients reported ESL-related adverse events (AEs), most commonly somnolence (8.7%) and dizziness (5.1%), and 3.6% discontinued due to AEs. Hyponatraemia was observed in seven patients (2.8%). After starting ESL, 137 patients (54.2%) withdrew the prior monotherapy and converted to ESL monotherapy; 75.9% were seizure free, 87.6% were responders, 4.4% worsened, and 23.4% reported ESL-related AEs. Use of ESL after first monotherapy failure was associated with an optimal seizure control and tolerability profile. Over half of patients were converted to ESL monotherapy during follow-up. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Incidence, degree, and development of graft hypertrophy 24 months after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation: association with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Smith, Anne; Fallon, Michael; Butler, Rodney; Nairn, Robert; Breidahl, William; Wood, David J

    2015-09-01

    more common on the femoral condyles, and overall was not associated with clinical outcome at 24 months after surgery. However, further research with longer term follow-up is required to evaluate the effect of persistent hypertrophy on graft stability and to assess the use of early surgical intervention to prevent such failure. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Outcomes after aortic graft-to-graft anastomosis with an automated circular stapler: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Jay J; Yazdchi, Farhang; Soltesz, Edward G; Vekstein, Andrew M; Rodriguez, Christopher; Roselli, Eric E

    2016-10-01

    Patients with complex aortic disease often require multistaged repairs with numerous anastomoses. Manual suturing can be time consuming. To reduce ischemic time, a circular stapling device has been used to facilitate prosthetic graft-to-graft anastomoses. Objectives are to describe this technique and assess outcomes. From February 2009 to May 2014, 44 patients underwent complex aortic repair with a circular end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapler at Cleveland Clinic. All patients had extensive aneurysms: 17 after ascending dissection repair, 10 chronic type B dissections, and 17 degenerative aneurysms. Stapler was used during total arch repair as an end-to-side anastomosis (n = 36; including first stage elephant trunk [ET] in 32, frozen ET in 3) and an end-to-end anastomosis during redo thoracoabdominal repair (n = 11). Three patients had the stapler used during both stages of repair. Patients underwent early and annual follow-ups with computed tomography analysis. There were no bleeds, ruptures, or leaks at the stapled site, but 2 patients died. Complications included 7 reoperations not related to the site of stapled anastomosis and 6 tracheostomies, but there was no paralysis or renal failure. Mean circulatory arrest time was 16 ± 5 minutes. Mean follow-up was 26 ± 17 months and consisted of imaging before discharge, at 3 to 6 months, and at 1 year. Planned reinterventions included 21 second-stage ET completion: Endovascular (n = 18) and open (n = 3). There were 4 late deaths. Use of an end-to-end anastomotic automated circular stapler is safe, effective, and durable in performing graft-to-graft anastomoses during complex thoracic aortic surgery. Further evaluation and refinement of this technique are warranted. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanofat grafting under a split-thickness skin graft for problematic wound management.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu, Cemal Alper

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and certain medical disorders make the reconstruction of skin defects challenging. Different kind of procedure can be used for these defect, besides, skin grafting is one of the most common and simplest procedure. Fat grafting and stem cells which are located in the adipose tissue have been commonly used in plastic surgery for regeneration and rejuvenation purposes. To decrease graft failure rate we performed nanofat grafting under an autologous split-thickness skin graft in our patient who had a problematic wound. The case of a 35-year-old female patient with a traumatic skin defect on her left anterior crural region is described herein. After subsequent flap reconstruction, the result was disappointing and the defect size was widened. The defect was treated with combined grafting (nanofat grafting under an autologous split-thickness skin graft). At the 6 months follow-up assessment after combined grafting, the integrity of the skin graft was good with excellent pliability. Combined grafting for problematic wounds seems to be a useful technique for cases requiring reconstruction. The potential existence of stem cells may be responsible for the successful result in our patient.

  20. Xenon treatment protects against cold ischemia associated delayed graft function and prolongs graft survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Watts, H R; Chong, M; Huang, H; Tralau-Stewart, C; Maxwell, P H; Maze, M; George, A J T; Ma, D

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged hypothermic storage causes ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the renal graft, which is considered to contribute to the occurrence of the delayed graft function (DGF) and chronic graft failure. Strategies are required to protect the graft and to prolong renal graft survival. We demonstrated that xenon exposure to human proximal tubular cells (HK-2) led to activation of range of protective proteins. Xenon treatment prior to or after hypothermia-hypoxia challenge stabilized the HK-2 cellular structure, diminished cytoplasmic translocation of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and suppressed NF-κB activation. In the syngeneic Lewis-to-Lewis rat model of kidney transplantation, xenon exposure to donors before graft retrieval or to recipients after engraftment decreased caspase-3 expression, localized HMGB-1 within nuclei and prevented TLR-4/NF-κB activation in tubular cells; serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced and renal function was preserved. Xenon treatment of graft donors or of recipients prolonged renal graft survival following IRI in both Lewis-to-Lewis isografts and Fischer-to-Lewis allografts. Xenon induced cell survival or graft functional recovery was abolished by HIF-1α siRNA. Our data suggest that xenon treatment attenuates DGF and enhances graft survival. This approach could be translated into clinical practice leading to a considerable improvement in long-term graft survival. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Xenon Treatment Protects Against Cold Ischemia Associated Delayed Graft Function and Prolongs Graft Survival in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H; Watts, H R; Chong, M; Huang, H; Tralau-Stewart, C; Maxwell, P H; Maze, M; George, A J T; Ma, D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged hypothermic storage causes ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the renal graft, which is considered to contribute to the occurrence of the delayed graft function (DGF) and chronic graft failure. Strategies are required to protect the graft and to prolong renal graft survival. We demonstrated that xenon exposure to human proximal tubular cells (HK-2) led to activation of range of protective proteins. Xenon treatment prior to or after hypothermia–hypoxia challenge stabilized the HK-2 cellular structure, diminished cytoplasmic translocation of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and suppressed NF-κB activation. In the syngeneic Lewis-to-Lewis rat model of kidney transplantation, xenon exposure to donors before graft retrieval or to recipients after engraftment decreased caspase-3 expression, localized HMGB-1 within nuclei and prevented TLR-4/NF-κB activation in tubular cells; serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced and renal function was preserved. Xenon treatment of graft donors or of recipients prolonged renal graft survival following IRI in both Lewis-to-Lewis isografts and Fischer-to-Lewis allografts. Xenon induced cell survival or graft functional recovery was abolished by HIF-1α siRNA. Our data suggest that xenon treatment attenuates DGF and enhances graft survival. This approach could be translated into clinical practice leading to a considerable improvement in long-term graft survival. PMID:23710625

  2. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  3. Early identification of acute heart failure at the time of presentation: do natriuretic peptides make the difference?

    PubMed

    Möckel, Martin; von Haehling, Stephan; Vollert, Jörn O; Wiemer, Jan C; Anker, Stefan D; Maisel, Alan

    2018-06-01

    The early identification of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is challenging as many other diseases lead to a clinical presentation with dyspnea. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of natriuretic peptides at common HF study cut-offs on the diagnosis of patients with dyspnea at admission. For this post hoc analysis, we analysed n = 726 European Union (EU) patients from the prospective BACH (Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure) study. Cut-offs were 350 ng/L (BNP), 300 pmol/L [pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP)], and 1800 ng/L (NT-proBNP). These cut-offs had equivalent 90 days' mortality in the EU cohort of BACH. We analysed the effect of selection using these cut-offs on the prevalence of the gold standard diagnoses made in the BACH study and the respective mortality. The prevalence of AHF is increased from 47.5 to 75.6% (NT-proBNP criteria) up to 79.7% (BNP criteria). With the use of the proANP criteria, 90 days' mortality of patients with AHF rose from 14 to 17% (P = 0.029). In the group with no-AHF diagnoses, mortality rose from 10 to 25% (P < 0.001). The prevalence of patients with the gold standard diagnoses of AHF among those presenting with dyspnea to the emergency department is significantly increased by the use of natriuretic peptides with common cut-offs used in prospective HF studies. Nevertheless, in the selected groups, patients with no AHF diagnosis have the highest mortality, and therefore, the addition of a natriuretic peptide alone is insufficient to start specific therapies. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, William M; Hynan, Linda S; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Fontana, Robert J; Stravitz, R Todd; Larson, Anne M; Davern, Timothy J; Murray, Natalie G; McCashland, Timothy; Reisch, Joan S; Robuck, Patricia R

    2009-09-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. In a prospective, double-blind trial, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence of acetaminophen overdose were stratified by site and coma grade and assigned randomly to groups that were given NAC or placebo (dextrose) infusion for 72 hours. The primary outcome was overall survival at 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included transplant-free survival and rate of transplantation. A total of 173 patients received NAC (n = 81) or placebo (n = 92). Overall survival at 3 weeks was 70% for patients given NAC and 66% for patients given placebo (1-sided P = .283). Transplant-free survival was significantly better for NAC patients (40%) than for those given placebo (27%; 1-sided P = .043). The benefits of transplant-free survival were confined to the 114 patients with coma grades I-II who received NAC (52% compared with 30% for placebo; 1-sided P = .010); transplant-free survival for the 59 patients with coma grades III-IV was 9% in those given NAC and 22% in those given placebo (1-sided P = .912). The transplantation rate was lower in the NAC group but was not significantly different between groups (32% vs 45%; P = .093). Intravenous NAC generally was well tolerated; only nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more frequently in the NAC group (14% vs 4%; P = .031). Intravenous NAC improves transplant-free survival in patients with early stage non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. Patients with advanced coma grades do not benefit from NAC and typically require emergency liver transplantation.

  5. Are early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVG) a viable alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs)? An observational "virtual study" and budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Emma; Iqbal, Kashfa; Thomson, Peter; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David

    2016-05-07

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are advocated as an alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs). A real-time observational "virtual study" and budget impact model was performed to evaluate a strategy of ecAVG as a replacement to TCVC as a bridge to definitive access creation. Data on complications and access-related bed days was collected prospectively for all TCVCs inserted over a six-month period (n = 101). The feasibility and acceptability of an alternative strategy (ecAVGs) was also evaluated. A budget impact model comparing the two strategies was performed. Autologous access in the form of native fistula was the goal wherever possible. We found 34.7% (n = 35) of TCVCs developed significant complications (including 17 culture-proven bacteraemia and one death from line sepsis). Patients spent an average of 11.9 days/patient/year in hospital as a result of access-related complications. The wait for TCVC insertion delayed discharge in 35 patients (median: 6 days). The ecAVGs were a practical and acceptable alternative to TCVCs in over 80% of patients. Over a 6-month period, total treatment costs per patient wereGBP5882 in the TCVC strategy and GBP4954 in the ecAVG strategy, delivering potential savings ofGBP927 per patient. The ecAVGs had higher procedure and re-intervention costs (GBP3014 vs. GBP1836); however, these were offset by significant reductions in septicaemia treatment costs (GBP1322 vs. GBP2176) and in-patient waiting time bed costs (GBP619 vs. GBP1870). Adopting ecAVGs as an alternative to TCVCs in patients requiring immediate access for haemodialysis may provide better individual patient care and deliver cost savings to the hospital.

  6. Early failure of total hip replacements implanted at distant hospitals to reduce waiting lists.

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolini, Jac; Hubble, Matthew J. W.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In the years 1990-1993, in an effort to reduce waiting-list time, a small number of patients were sent from Exeter to hospitals in London to undergo elective total hip replacement. No medium- or long-term follow-up was arranged. Our aim was to audit the outcome of these hip replacements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of the records of the referring medical practices, Regional Health Authority, local orthopaedic hospital and the distant centres at which the surgery was performed identified 31 cases. A total of 27 hip replacements in 24 patients were available for clinical and radiological review. RESULTS: 12 (44%) hips have so far required revision surgery, at a mean of 6.5 years. Of these, three (11%) have been for deep infection. A further three hips (11%) are radiologically loose and are being closely monitored. Two patients (7%) suffered permanent sciatic nerve palsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients whose surgery was performed locally over a similar time period have a published failure rate of only 4.9%. This difference is highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The causes for such a difference in outcome were analysed and include surgical technique, implant selection and absence of follow-up. In the light of this evidence, we would like to urge the government to address waiting list problems by investing in the local infrastructure. Expanding those facilities where properly audited and fully accountable surgeons operate must be the way forward. PMID:15720905

  7. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p<0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p<0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p<0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.

  8. Can we predict failure in couple therapy early enough to enhance outcome?

    PubMed

    Pepping, Christopher A; Halford, W Kim; Doss, Brian D

    2015-02-01

    Feedback to therapists based on systematic monitoring of individual therapy progress reliably enhances therapy outcome. An implicit assumption of therapy progress feedback is that clients unlikely to benefit from therapy can be detected early enough in the course of therapy for corrective action to be taken. To explore the possibility of using feedback of therapy progress to enhance couple therapy outcome, the current study tested whether weekly therapy progress could detect off-track clients early in couple therapy. In an effectiveness trial of couple therapy, 136 couples were monitored weekly on relationship satisfaction and an expert derived algorithm was used to attempt to predict eventual therapy outcome. As expected, the algorithm detected a significant proportion of couples who did not benefit from couple therapy at Session 3, but prediction was substantially improved at Session 4 so that eventual outcome was accurately predicted for 70% of couples, with little improvement of prediction thereafter. More sophisticated algorithms might enhance prediction accuracy, and a trial of the effects of therapy progress feedback on couple therapy outcome is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

    2013-12-15

    In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Early detection of nonneurologic organ failure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: Multiple organ dysfunction score or sequential organ failure assessment?

    PubMed

    Ramtinfar, Sara; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Chari, Aliakbar Jafari; Reihanian, Zoheir; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Alizadeh, Arsalan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the discriminant function of multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) components in predicting the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality and neurologic outcome. A descriptive-analytic study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Data were collected from patients with severe traumatic brain injury admitted to the neurosurgical ICU. Basic demographic data, SOFA and MOD scores were recorded daily for all patients. Odd's ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relationship of each component score to mortality, and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to compare the discriminative ability of two tools with respect to ICU mortality. The most common organ failure observed was respiratory detected by SOFA of 26% and MODS of 13%, and the second common was cardiovascular detected by SOFA of 18% and MODS of 13%. No hepatic or renal failure occurred, and coagulation failure reported as 2.5% by SOFA and MODS. Cardiovascular failure defined by both tools had a correlation to ICU mortality and it was more significant for SOFA (OR = 6.9, CI = 3.6-13.3, P < 0.05 for SOFA; OR = 5, CI = 3-8.3, P < 0.05 for MODS; AUROC = 0.82 for SOFA; AUROC = 0.73 for MODS). The relationship of cardiovascular failure to dichotomized neurologic outcome was not significant statistically. ICU mortality was not associated with respiratory or coagulation failure. Cardiovascular failure defined by either tool significantly related to ICU mortality. Compared to MODS, SOFA-defined cardiovascular failure was a stronger predictor of death. ICU mortality was not affected by respiratory or coagulation failures.

  11. Reducing Readmissions among Heart Failure Patients Discharged to Home Health Care: Effectiveness of Early and Intensive Nursing Services and Early Physician Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Christopher M; Deb, Partha; Zhu, Carolyn; Peng, Timothy R; Barrón, Yolanda; Shah, Shivani; Moore, Stanley M; Bowles, Kathryn H; Kalman, Jill; Feldman, Penny H; Siu, Albert L

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two "treatments"-early, intensive home health nursing and physician follow-up within a week-versus less intense and later postacute care in reducing readmissions among heart failure (HF) patients discharged to home health care. National Medicare administrative, claims, and patient assessment data. Patients with a full week of potential exposure to the treatments were followed for 30 days to determine exposure status, 30-day all-cause hospital readmission, other health care use, and mortality. An extension of instrumental variables methods for nonlinear statistical models corrects for nonrandom selection of patients into treatment categories. Our instruments are the index hospital's rate of early aftercare for non-HF patients and hospital discharge day of the week. All hospitalizations for a HF principal diagnosis with discharge to home health care between July 2009 and June 2010 were identified from source files. Neither treatment by itself has a statistically significant effect on hospital readmission. In combination, however, they reduce the probability of readmission by roughly 8 percentage points (p < .001; confidence interval = -12.3, -4.1). Results are robust to changes in implementation of the nonlinear IV estimator, sample, outcome measure, and length of follow-up. Our results call for closer coordination between home health and medical providers in the clinical management of HF patients immediately after hospital discharge. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Bone Graft Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  13. Prolonged immunosuppression preserves nonsensitization status after kidney transplant failure.

    PubMed

    Casey, Michael J; Wen, Xuerong; Kayler, Liise K; Aiyer, Ravi; Scornik, Juan C; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf

    2014-08-15

    When kidney transplants fail, transplant medications are discontinued to reduce immunosuppression-related risks. However, retransplant candidates are at risk for allosensitization which prolonging immunosuppression may minimize. We hypothesized that for these patients, a prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal after graft failure preserves nonsensitization status (PRA 0%) better than early immunosuppression withdrawal. We retrospectively examined subjects transplanted at a single center between July 1, 1999 and December 1, 2009 with a non-death-related graft loss. Subjects were stratified by timing of immunosuppression withdrawal after graft loss: early (≤3 months) or prolonged (>3 months). Retransplant candidates were eligible for the main study where the primary outcome was nonsensitization at retransplant evaluation. Non-retransplant candidates were included in the safety analysis only. We found 102 subjects with non-death-related graft loss of which 49 were eligible for the main study. Nonsensitization rates at retransplant evaluation were 30% and 66% for the early and prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal groups, respectively (P=0.01). After adjusting for cofactors such as blood transfusion and allograft nephrectomy, prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal remained significantly associated with nonsensitization (adjusted odds ratio=5.78, 95% CI [1.37-24.44]). No adverse safety signals were seen in the prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal group compared to the early immunosuppression withdrawal group. These results suggest that prolonged immunosuppression may be a safe strategy to minimize sensitization in retransplant candidates and provide the basis for larger or prospective studies for further verification.

  14. Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Derived Stem Cells Transduced With BMP2 Accelerate Graft-Bone Integration After ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yohei; Takayama, Koji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing; Mifune, Yutaka; Cummins, James H; Warth, Ryan J; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Fu, Freddie H; Huard, Johnny

    2017-03-01

    failure was significantly greater in the groups containing stem cells at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Tensile strength was greatest in the CD34+BMP2 (100%) group at 4 weeks, and in the CD34+BMP2 (25%) group at 8 weeks. ACL-derived CD34+ cells transduced with BMP2 accelerated graft-bone integration after ACL reconstruction using soft tissue autografts in a rat model, as evidenced by improved histological appearance and graft-bone interface biology along with tensile load to failure at each time point up to 8 weeks after surgery. A primary disadvantage of using soft tissue grafts for ACL reconstruction is the prolonged time required for bony ingrowth, which delays the initiation of midsubstance graft remodeling. The lack of consistent correlation between the appearance of a "healed" ACL on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and readiness to return to sport results in athletes being released to sport before the graft is ready to handle high-intensity loading. Therefore, it is desirable to identify strategies that accelerate graft-bone integration, which would reduce the time to biologic fixation, improve the reliability of biologic fixation, allow for accelerated rehabilitation, and potentially reduce the incidence of early graft pullout and late midsubstance failure.

  15. Lessons learnt from early failure of a patient trial with a polymer-on-polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Van Susante, Job L C; Verdonschot, Nico; Bom, L Paul A; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Campbell, Pat; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Schreurs, B Wim

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip resurfacing (HR) is a treatment option promoted for hip arthritis in young and active patients. However, adverse reactions to metal are a concern and the search for non-metallic bearing options proceeds. We present the first clinical study performed in patients using a newly developed hydrophilic polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. Patients and methods After performing extensive hip simulator tests, biocompatibility testing and animal tests (ISO 14242-1,3; 10993-3,4,5,10,11), approval was obtained from the IRB committee to enroll 15 patients in the first clinical study in humans using this experimental polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. All surgeries were done by 2 experienced hip resurfacing surgeons. Clinical scores and standard radiographs as well as routine MRIs were obtained at regular intervals. Results The surgical technique proved feasible with successful implantation of the new device using PMMA cement fixation on both sides without complications. Postoperative imaging revealed a well-positioned and well-fixed polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty in all 4 initial cases. All 4 patients were free of pain and had good function for the first 2 months. However, in all 4 cases early cup loosening occurred between 8 and 11 weeks after surgery, necessitating immediate closure of the study. All 4 patients had a reoperation and were revised to a conventional THA. Retrieval analyses confirmed early cup loosening at the implant–cement interface in all 4 cases. The femoral components remained well attached to the cement. The periprosthetic tissues showed only small amounts of polymeric wear debris and there was only a very mild inflammatory reaction to this. Interpretation Early cup loosening mandated a premature arrest of this study. After additional laboratory testing this failure mode was found to be the result of a small, yet measurable contraction in the cup size after exposing these implants to biological fluid divalent

  16. Lessons learnt from early failure of a patient trial with a polymer-on-polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Susante, Job L C; Verdonschot, Nico; Bom, L Paul A; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Campbell, Pat; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Schreurs, B Wim

    2018-02-01

    Background and purpose - Hip resurfacing (HR) is a treatment option promoted for hip arthritis in young and active patients. However, adverse reactions to metal are a concern and the search for non-metallic bearing options proceeds. We present the first clinical study performed in patients using a newly developed hydrophilic polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. Patients and methods - After performing extensive hip simulator tests, biocompatibility testing and animal tests (ISO 14242-1,3; 10993-3,4,5,10,11), approval was obtained from the IRB committee to enroll 15 patients in the first clinical study in humans using this experimental polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. All surgeries were done by 2 experienced hip resurfacing surgeons. Clinical scores and standard radiographs as well as routine MRIs were obtained at regular intervals. Results - The surgical technique proved feasible with successful implantation of the new device using PMMA cement fixation on both sides without complications. Postoperative imaging revealed a well-positioned and well-fixed polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty in all 4 initial cases. All 4 patients were free of pain and had good function for the first 2 months. However, in all 4 cases early cup loosening occurred between 8 and 11 weeks after surgery, necessitating immediate closure of the study. All 4 patients had a reoperation and were revised to a conventional THA. Retrieval analyses confirmed early cup loosening at the implant-cement interface in all 4 cases. The femoral components remained well attached to the cement. The periprosthetic tissues showed only small amounts of polymeric wear debris and there was only a very mild inflammatory reaction to this. Interpretation - Early cup loosening mandated a premature arrest of this study. After additional laboratory testing this failure mode was found to be the result of a small, yet measurable contraction in the cup size after exposing these implants to biological fluid

  17. Early signs of cardiac failure: a clue for parvovirus infection screening in the first trimester?

    PubMed

    Carraca, Teresa; Matias, Alexandra; Brandão, Otília; Montenegro, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Although adult disease is generally mild, fetal parvovirus B19 infection can cause spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy and aplastic anemia, nonimmune hydrops fetalis and in utero fetal demise. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 maternal infection during pregnancy is about 1-2%. The vertical transmission occurs in 10-35%, being highest in the first and second trimesters. The risk of adverse fetal outcome is 10%. In contrast to the second or third trimester, in pregnancies affected by increased nuchal translucency (NT) in the late first trimester, the prevalence of maternal infection was not higher than in the general population. We report a case of first-trimester parvovirus B19 infection with increased NT and reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus (DV) at 11 weeks, with fetal demise 2 weeks later. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Slippage theory and the flanker paradigm: an early-selection account of selective attention failures.

    PubMed

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Jung, Kyunghun

    2014-06-01

    In the flanker paradigm, participants identify a target letter while attempting to ignore an irrelevant flanker. When the identity of this flanker mismatches the target, target identification is slowed (called the flanker compatibility effect). Interestingly, reducing the array set size greatly increases flanker compatibility effects. This finding inspired 2 prominent explanations: perceptual load (mandatory capacity spillover) and dilution (visual interference). However, an alternative explanation, based on early selection theory and attention capture research, can also explain the data pattern. According to this "slippage" account, observers sometimes accidentally allocate spatial attention to the flanker (see Lachter, Forster, & Ruthruff, 2004), especially when the flanker has the property used to find the target (cf. contingent capture). In Experiments 1 through 4, deterring slippage to the flanker nearly eliminated flanker compatibility effects, even at the low set size. In Experiment 5, promoting slippage to the flanker dramatically enhanced compatibility effects, even at the high set size. Thus, slippage strongly modulates flanker effects and can, by itself, readily explain the impact of set size. The perceptual load and dilution accounts are, at best, incomplete, and, at worst, not needed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Very early screening for sleep-disordered breathing in acute coronary syndrome in patients without acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Van den Broecke, Sandra; Jobard, Olivier; Montalescot, Gilles; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Attali, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Screening of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has not been previously evaluated in ACS within 72 h in intensive care settings and its management could potentially enhance patients' prognosis. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of SDB screening at the early phase of ACS. All consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) for ACS without acute heart failure underwent one overnight-attended polysomnography (PSG) within 72 h after admission. A telemonitoring (TM) system was set up to remotely monitor the signals and repair faulty sensors. The 27 recordings were analyzed as respiratory polygraphy (RP) and as PSG, and the results were compared. The TM system allowed successful intervention in 48% of recordings, resulting in excellent quality PSG for 89% of cases. The prevalence of SDB [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h] was 82% and mainly consisted of central SDB and periodic breathing, except three patients with OSA. Compared with PSG, RP underestimated AHI, probably due to the poor sleep efficiency, reduction of slow-wave sleep, and alteration of rapid eye movement sleep. An early SDB screening by remote-attended PSG is feasible in ACS patients shortly after admission to CCU. The TM enhanced the quality of PSG. A high prevalence of central SDB was noticed, for which the etiology remains unknown. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine whether central SDB is an incidental finding in early ACS and whether the presence and severity of SDB have a prognostic impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Left Atrial Remodeling and Atrioventricular Coupling in a Canine Model of Early Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Rosita; Moulay, Gilles; Chai, Qiang; Ogut, Ozgur; Hussain, Saad; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Lu, Tong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Lee, Hon-Chi; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Left atrial (LA) compliance and contractility influence left ventricular (LV) stroke volume. We hypothesized that diminished LA compliance and contractile function occur early during development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and impair overall cardiac performance. Method and Results Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, LV and LA pressure-volume studies, and tissue analyses were performed in a model of early HFpEF (elderly dogs, renal wrap-induced hypertension, exogenous aldosterone; n=9) and young control dogs (sham surgery; n=13). Early HFpEF was associated with LA enlargement, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and enhanced LA contractile function (median active emptying fraction 16% [95% CI 13–24] vs 12[10–14]%, p=0.008; end-systolic pressure-volume relationship slope 2.4[1.9–3.2]mmHg/mL HFpEF vs 1.5[1.2–2.2]mmHg/mL controls, p=0.01). However, atrioventricular coupling was impaired and the curvilinear LA end-reservoir pressure-volume relationship was shifted upward/leftward in HFpEF (LA stiffness constant, βLA, 0.16[0.11–0.18]mmHg/mL vs 0.06[0.04–0.10]mmHg/mL controls, p=0.002) indicating reduced LA compliance. Impaired atrioventricular coupling and lower LA compliance correlated with lower LV stroke volume. Total fibrosis and titin isoform composition were similar between groups, however titin was hyperphosphorylated in HFpEF and correlated with βLA. LA microvascular reactivity was diminished in HFpEF versus controls. LA microvascular density tended to be lower in HFpEF and inversely correlated with βLA. Conclusions In early-stage hypertensive HFpEF, LA cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, titin hyperphosphorylation and microvascular dysfunction occur in association with increased systolic and diastolic LA chamber stiffness, impaired atrioventricular coupling and decreased LV stroke volume. These data indicate that maladaptive LA remodeling occurs early during HFpEF development, supporting a concept of global

  2. A test of grafting ponderosa pine.

    Edwin L. Mowat; Roy R. Silen

    1957-01-01

    Cleft grafting ponderosa pine proved best of five methods of vegetative propagation tested for field use in the dry hot climate of eastern Oregon. Ponderosa pine has been successfully grafted under many conditions elsewhere, but first trials in this area during 1955 were a failure. This study was made in 1956 at the U.S. Forest Service nursery at Bend, Oreg., to find a...

  3. Evaluation of synthetic vascular grafts in a mouse carotid grafting model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alex H P; Tan, Richard P; Michael, Praveesuda L; Lee, Bob S L; Vanags, Laura Z; Ng, Martin K C; Bursill, Christina A; Wise, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Current animal models for the evaluation of synthetic grafts are lacking many of the molecular tools and transgenic studies available to other branches of biology. A mouse model of vascular grafting would allow for the study of molecular mechanisms of graft failure, including in the context of clinically relevant disease states. In this study, we comprehensively characterise a sutureless grafting model which facilitates the evaluation of synthetic grafts in the mouse carotid artery. Using conduits electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) we show the gradual development of a significant neointima within 28 days, found to be greatest at the anastomoses. Histological analysis showed temporal increases in smooth muscle cell and collagen content within the neointima, demonstrating its maturation. Endothelialisation of the PCL grafts, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and CD31 staining, was near complete within 28 days, together replicating two critical aspects of graft performance. To further demonstrate the potential of this mouse model, we used longitudinal non-invasive tracking of bone-marrow mononuclear cells from a transgenic mouse strain with a dual reporter construct encoding both luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP). This enabled characterisation of mononuclear cell homing and engraftment to PCL using bioluminescence imaging and histological staining over time (7, 14 and 28 days). We observed peak luminescence at 7 days post-graft implantation that persisted until sacrifice at 28 days. Collectively, we have established and characterised a high-throughput model of grafting that allows for the evaluation of key clinical drivers of graft performance.

  4. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    vesicles during flowage downslope after eruption in shallow water. The glass volatile compositions suggest that the tholeiitic lavas that drape the slump blocks were erupted either (1) early during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism prior to emergence of a large subaerial edifice, or alternatively (2) from submarine radial vents during subaerial shield-building. Because no radial vents have been documented on land or underwater for the unbuttressed flanks of any Hawaii volcano, alternative (1) is favored. In comparison to other well-documented Hawaiian slumps and landslides, North Kona structures suggest a more incipient slump event, with smaller down-slope motions and lateral displacements.

  5. Early and late recipient graft function and donor outcome after laparoscopic vs open adult live donor nephrectomy for pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Christoph; Pierce, Jonathan L; Wiesmann, Kevin M; Butani, Lavjay; Makker, Sudesh P; McVicar, John P; Wolfe, Bruce M; Perez, Richard V

    2002-08-01

    Laparoscopically procured live donor kidney grafts are increasingly transplanted into pediatric recipients. The safety and efficacy of this changed surgical practice are unknown. Outcomes of laparoscopic vs open donor grafts in recipients 18 years and younger are equivalent. Retrospective review at an academic tertiary care referral center. Eleven consecutive pediatric recipients of laparoscopically procured kidneys between April 1, 1997, and December 31, 2001, were pair matched for age with 11 recipients of openly procured kidneys between December 1, 1991, and March 31, 1997; the 22 adult donors were also studied. Recipients: surgical complications, graft function and survival. Donors: perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. Twenty (91%) of 22 kidneys were donated by a parent of the recipient. In recipients of laparoscopically procured grafts, we observed significantly lower creatinine clearances and higher creatinine levels on days 1, 4, and 6, but by 1 month, graft function was similar in both groups. No significant differences in surgical complications, delayed function, acute and chronic rejection, and graft survival rates were found. No laparoscopic or open donor required blood transfusion, reoperation, or hospital readmission. One laparoscopic donor (9%) was converted to open nephrectomy. For laparoscopic vs open donors, median operative time was longer (difference, 67 min; P =.08), but median postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter (3 vs 5 days; P =.02). Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy has no adverse impact on pediatric recipient outcomes. For donors, the laparoscopic operation is safe and the hospital stay is shortened. These results support the continued use of laparoscopically procured live donor kidneys in pediatric renal transplantation.

  6. Keratocyte Apoptosis and Not Myofibroblast Differentiation Mark the Graft/Host Interface at Early Time-Points Post-DSAEK in a Cat Model

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Adam J.; Huxlin, Krystel R.; Callan, Christine L.; DeMagistris, Margaret A.; Hindman, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate myofibroblast differentiation as an etiology of haze at the graft-host interface in a cat model of Descemet’s Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK). Methods DSAEK was performed on 10 eyes of 5 adult domestic short-hair cats. In vivo corneal imaging with slit lamp, confocal, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed twice weekly. Cats were sacrificed and corneas harvested 4 hours, and 2, 4, 6, and 9 days post-DSAEK. Corneal sections were stained with the TUNEL method and immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin with DAPI counterstain. Results At all in vivo imaging time-points, corneal OCT revealed an increase in backscatter of light and confocal imaging revealed an acellular zone at the graft-host interface. At all post-mortem time-points, immunohistochemistry revealed a complete absence of α-SMA staining at the graft-host interface. At 4 hours, extracellular fibronectin staining was identified along the graft-host interface and both fibronectin and TUNEL assay were positive within adjacent cells extending into the host stroma. By day 2, fibronectin and TUNEL staining diminished and a distinct acellular zone was present in the region of previously TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusions OCT imaging consistently showed increased reflectivity at the graft-host interface in cat corneas in the days post-DSAEK. This was not associated with myofibroblast differentiation at the graft-host interface, but rather with apoptosis and the development of a subsequent acellular zone. The roles of extracellular matrix changes and keratocyte cell death and repopulation should be investigated further as potential contributors to the interface optical changes. PMID:24098706

  7. Homozygous EEF1A2 mutation causes dilated cardiomyopathy, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, epilepsy and early death.

    PubMed

    Cao, Siqi; Smith, Laura L; Padilla-Lopez, Sergio R; Guida, Brandon S; Blume, Elizabeth; Shi, Jiahai; Morton, Sarah U; Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H; Kruer, Michael C; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2017-09-15

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (EEF1A), is encoded by two distinct isoforms, EEF1A1 and EEF1A2; whereas EEF1A1 is expressed almost ubiquitously, EEF1A2 expression is limited such that it is only detectable in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord. Currently, the role of EEF1A2 in normal cardiac development and function is unclear. There have been several reports linking de novo dominant EEF1A2 mutations to neurological issues in humans. We report a pair of siblings carrying a homozygous missense mutation p.P333L in EEF1A2 who exhibited global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dilated cardiomyopathy and epilepsy, ultimately leading to death in early childhood. A third sibling also died of a similar presentation, but DNA was unavailable to confirm the mutation. Functional genomic analysis was performed in S. cerevisiae and zebrafish. In S. cerevisiae, there was no evidence for a dominant-negative effect. Previously identified putative de novo mutations failed to complement yeast strains lacking the EEF1A ortholog showing a major growth defect. In contrast, the introduction of the mutation seen in our family led to a milder growth defect. To evaluate its function in zebrafish, we knocked down eef1a2 expression using translation blocking and splice-site interfering morpholinos. EEF1A2-deficient zebrafish had skeletal muscle weakness, cardiac failure and small heads. Human EEF1A2 wild-type mRNA successfully rescued the morphant phenotype, but mutant RNA did not. Overall, EEF1A2 appears to be critical for normal heart function in humans, and its deficiency results in clinical abnormalities in neurologic function as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle defects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exome sequencing identifies titin mutations causing hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) in families of diverse ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Toro, Camilo; Olivé, Montse; Dalakas, Marinos C; Sivakumar, Kumaraswami; Bilbao, Juan M; Tyndel, Felix; Vidal, Noemí; Farrero, Eva; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2013-03-20

    Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) was described in several North European families and recently linked to a titin gene (TTN) mutation. We independently studied HMERF-like diseases with the purpose to identify the cause, refine diagnostic criteria, and estimate the frequency of this disease among myopathy patients of various ethnic origins. Whole exome sequencing analysis was carried out in a large U.S. family that included seven members suffering from skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Subsequent mutation screening was performed in further 45 unrelated probands with similar phenotypes. Studies included muscle strength evaluation, nerve conduction studies and concentric needle EMG, respiratory function test, cardiologic examination, and muscle biopsy. A novel TTN p.Gly30150Asp mutation was identified in the highly conserved A-band of titin that co-segregated with the disease in the U.S. family. Screening of 45 probands initially diagnosed as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) but excluded based on molecular screening for the known MFM genes led to the identification of a previously reported TTN p.Cys30071Arg mutation in one patient. This same mutation was also identified in a patient with suspected HMERF. The p.Gly30150Asp and p.Cys30071Arg mutations are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin. Missense mutations in TTN are the cause of HMERF in families of diverse origins. A comparison of phenotypic features of HMERF caused by the three known TTN mutations in various populations allowed to emphasize distinct clinical/pathological features that can serve as the basis for diagnosis. The newly identified p.Gly30150Asp and the p.Cys30071Arg mutation are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin.

  9. Graft flow assessment using a transit time flow meter in fractional flow reserve-guided coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kentaro; Okamura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Uchita, Shunji; Yuzaki, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuko; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between preoperative severity of coronary stenosis occurring with fractional flow reserve (FFR), and the intraoperative bypass graft flow pattern. In all, 72 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The FFR value of the left anterior descending artery was evaluated, and data on "in situ" bypass grafting from the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to preoperative FFR values (Group S: FFR < 0.70; group M: 0.70 ≤ FFR < 0.75; and group N: FFR ≥ 0.75). In groups S, M, and N, respectively, mean graft flow was 24.7 ± 10.6 mL/minute, 19.2 ± 14.0 mL/minute, and 16.0 ± 9.7 mL mL/minute; pulsatility index was 2.35 ± 0.6, 3.02 ± 1.1, and 5.51 ± 8.20; and number of patients with systolic reverse flow was 3 (6.8%), 5 (35.7%), and 4 (28.6%). Significant differences were observed in graft flow (P = .009), pulsatility index (P = .038), and proportion of systolic reverse flow (P = .023) among the 3 groups. In all patients, graft patency was confirmed with intraoperative fluorescence imaging; postoperative graft patency was confirmed with multislice computed tomography or coronary angiography in 69 patients (follow-up interval: 213 days). Early graft failure occurred in 1 patient. As coronary stenosis severity increased, graft flow increased, pulsatility index decreased, and proportion of patients with systolic reverse flow increased. In mild coronary artery stenosis, the chance of flow competition between the native coronary artery and the bypass graft increased. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth hormone treatment of early growth failure in toddlers with Turner syndrome: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Marsha L; Crowe, Brenda J; Travers, Sharon H; Rubin, Karen; Ross, Judith L; Fechner, Patricia Y; Gunther, Daniel F; Liu, Chunhua; Geffner, Mitchell E; Thrailkill, Kathryn; Huseman, Carol; Zagar, Anthony J; Quigley, Charmian A

    2007-09-01

    Typically, growth failure in Turner syndrome (TS) begins prenatally, and height sd score (SDS) declines progressively from birth. This study aimed to determine whether GH treatment initiated before 4 yr of age in girls with TS could prevent subsequent growth failure. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with treatment response, to determine whether outcome could be predicted by a regression model using these factors, and to assess the safety of GH treatment in this young cohort. This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial (Toddler Turner Study, August 1999 to August 2003). The study was conducted at 11 U.S. pediatric endocrine centers. Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 yr, were enrolled. Interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 mug/kg.d; n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 yr. The main outcome measure was baseline-to-2-yr change in height SDS. Short stature was evident at baseline (mean length/height SDS = -1.6 +/- 1.0 at mean age 24.0 +/- 12.1 months). Mean height SDS increased in the GH group from -1.4 +/- 1.0 to -0.3 +/- 1.1 (1.1 SDS gain), whereas it decreased in the control group from -1.8 +/- 1.1 to -2.2 +/- 1.2 (0.5 SDS decline), resulting in a 2-yr between-group difference of 1.6 +/- 0.6 SDS (P < 0.0001). The baseline variable that correlated most strongly with 2-yr height gain was the difference between mid-parental height SDS and subjects' height SDS (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). Although attained height SDS at 2 yr could be predicted with good accuracy using baseline variables alone (R(2) = 0.81; P < 0.0001), prediction of 2-yr change in height SDS required inclusion of initial treatment response data (4-month or 1-yr height velocity) in the model (R(2) = 0.54; P < 0.0001). No new or unexpected safety signals associated with GH treatment were detected. Early GH treatment can correct growth failure and normalize height in infants and toddlers with TS.

  11. A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Failure to develop normal language comprehension is an early warning sign of autism, but the neural mechanisms underlying this signature deficit are unknown. This is because of an almost complete absence of functional studies of the autistic brain during early development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously observed a trend for abnormally lateralized temporal responses to language (i.e. greater activation on the right, rather than the expected left) in a small sample (n = 12) of sleeping 2–3 year olds with autism in contrast to typically developing children, a finding also reported in autistic adults and adolescents. It was unclear, however, if findings of atypical laterality would be observed in a larger sample, and at even earlier ages in autism, such as around the first birthday. Answers to these questions would provide the foundation for understanding how neurofunctional defects of autism unfold, and provide a foundation for studies using patterns of brain activation as a functional early biomarker of autism. To begin to examine these issues, a prospective, cross-sectional design was used in which brain activity was measured in a large sample of toddlers (n = 80) during the presentation of a bedtime story during natural sleep. Forty toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and 40 typically developing toddlers ranging in age between 12–48 months participated. Any toddler with autism who participated in the imaging experiment prior to final diagnosis was tracked and diagnoses confirmed at a later age. Results indicated that at-risk toddlers later diagnosed as autistic display deficient left hemisphere response to speech sounds and have abnormally right-lateralized temporal cortex response to language; this defect worsens with age, becoming most severe in autistic 3- and 4-year-olds. Typically developing children show opposite developmental trends with a tendency towards greater temporal cortex response with increasing age and

  12. A multilayered polyurethane foam technique for skin graft immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoki; Ito, Erika; Kato, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shoichi; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-02-01

    Several techniques are applicable for skin graft immobilization. Although the sponge dressing is a popular technique, pressure failure near the center of the graft is a weakness of the technique that can result in engraftment failure. To evaluate the efficacy of a new skin graft immobilization technique using multilayered polyurethane foam in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six patients underwent a full-thickness skin graft. Multiple layers of a hydrocellular polyurethane foam dressing were used for skin graft immobilization. In addition, we created an in vitro skin graft model that allowed us to estimate immobilization pressure at the center and edges of skin grafts of various sizes. Overall mean graft survival was 88.9%. In the head and neck region (19 patients), mean graft survival was 93.6%. Based on the in vitro outcomes, this technique supplies effective pressure (<30 mmHg) to the center region of the skin graft. This multilayered polyurethane foam dressing is simple, safe, and effective for skin graft immobilization. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kettering, K

    2008-12-01

    Recently minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) grafting has become an interesting alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting, especially in patients with a high-grade left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis unsuitable for balloon angioplasty. Although MIDCAB offers several advantages such as the avoidance of sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass, concerns have been raised about the technical accuracy of the anastomoses that can be performed on a beating heart. Therefore, clinical and angiographic outcomes after MIDCAB are the subject of current controversy. A literature search for all published outcome studies of MIDCAB grafting was performed for the period from January 1995 through October 2007. Seventeen articles were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The data presented in the studies was analyzed with regard to clinical and angiographic results. Early and late (>30 days after MIDCAB) death rates were 1.3% (51/4081 patients) and 3.2% (130/4081 patients), respectively. The infarct rate was 0.8% (32/4081 patients; non-fatal myocardial infarction). Other minor or major complications (e.g. reoperation for management of bleeding, chest wound problems, arrhythmias, cerebrovascular accident, pericardial effusion, pulmonary complications) were reported in 781 cases. The conversion rate to sternotomy/cardiopulmonary bypass was 1.8% (74/4081 patients). A re-intervention due to graft failure was necessary in 134/4081 patients (3.3%). A total of 2556 grafts were studied angiographically immediately after surgery. One hundred and six grafts (4.2%) were occluded and 169 grafts (6.6 %) had a significant stenosis (50-99%). At 6-month follow-up, 445 grafts were studied angiographically. Sixteen grafts (3.6%) were occluded and 32 grafts (7.2%) had a significant stenosis. Clinical outcomes and immediate graft patency after MIDCAB are acceptable. However, long-term follow-up results and further randomized prospective clinical trials

  14. Alveolar graft in the cleft lip and palate patient: Review of 104 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tobella-Camps, María L.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting is a vital part of the rehabilitation of cleft patients. The factors that have been most frequently associated with the success of the graft are the age at grafting and the pre-grafting orthodontic treatment. Objectives: 1) Describe the cases of alveolar bone grafts performed at the Maxilofacial Unit of Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (HSJD); and 2) Analyze the success/failure of alveolar grafts and related variables. Material and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study using a sample of 104 patients who underwent a secondary alveolar graft at the Craniofacial Unit of HSJD between 1998 and 2012. The graft was done by the same surgeon in all patients using bone from the iliac crest. Results: 70% of the patients underwent the procedure before the age of 15 (median 14.45 years); 70% of the graft patients underwent pre-graft maxillary expansion. A total of 100 cases were recorded as successful (median age of 14.58 years, 68 underwent pre-graft expansion) and only 4 were recorded as failures (median age of 17.62 years, 3 underwent pre-graft expansion). We did not find statistically significant differences in age at the time of grafting or pre-surgical expansion when comparing the success and failure groups. We found the success rate of the graft to be 96.2%. Conclusions: The number of failures was too small to establish a statistically significant conclusion in our sample regarding the age at grafting and pre-grafting expansion. The use of alveolar bone grafting from the iliac crest has a very high success rate with a very low incidence of complications. Existing controversies regarding secondary bone grafting and the wide range of success rates found in the literature suggest that it is necessary to establish a specific treatment protocol that ensures the success of this procedure. Key words:Alveolar graft, cleft lip and palate, alveolar cleft, alveolar defect. PMID:24880440

  15. Comparison of the Walz Nomogram and Presence of Secondary Circulating Prostate Cells for Predicting Early Biochemical Failure after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Orellana, Nelson; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Jacob, Omar

    2015-01-01

    To determine the utility of secondary circulating prostate cells for predicting early biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and compare the results with the Walz nomagram. A single centre, prospective study of men with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy between 2004 and 2014 was conducted, with registration of clinical-pathological details, total serum PSA pre-surgery, Gleason score, extracapsular extension, positive surgical margins, infiltration of lymph nodes, seminal vesicles and pathological stage. Secondary circulating prostate cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and assessed using standard immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA >0.2ng/ml, predictive values werecalculated using the Walz nomagram and CPC detection. A total of 326 men participated, with a median follow up of 5 years; 64 had biochemical failure within two years. Extracapsular extension, positive surgical margins, pathological stage, Gleason score ≥ 8, infiltration of seminal vesicles and lymph nodes were all associated with higher risk of biochemical failure. The discriminative value for the nomogram and circulating prostate cells was high (AUC >0.80), predictive values were higher for circulating prostate cell detection, with a negative predictive value of 99%, sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 75%. The nomagram had good predictive power to identify men with a high risk of biochemical failure within two years. The presence of circulating prostate cells had the same predictive power, with a higher sensitivity and negative predictive value. The presence of secondary circulating prostate cells identifies a group of men with a high risk of early biochemical failure. Those negative for secondary CPCs have a very low risk of early biochemical failure.

  16. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score.

    PubMed

    Löwik, Claudia A M; Jutte, Paul C; Tornero, Eduard; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Knobben, Bas A S; de Vries, Astrid J; Zijlstra, Wierd P; Dijkstra, Baukje; Soriano, Alex; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan

    2018-03-27

    Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C-reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort. We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after debridement. A total of 386 patients were included. Failure occurred in 148 patients (38.3%). Patients with KLIC scores of ≤2, 2.5-3.5, 4-5, 5.5-6.5, and ≥7 had failure rates of 27.9%, 37.1%, 49.3%, 54.5%, and 85.7%, respectively (P < .001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.59-0.69). A KLIC score higher than 6 points showed a specificity of 97.9%. The KLIC score is a relatively good preoperative risk score for DAIR failure in patients with early acute PJI and appears to be most useful in clinical practice for patients with low or high KLIC scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early warning indicators for first-line virologic failure independent of adherence measures in a South African urban clinic.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Vincent C; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Singh, Dinesh; John, Sally; Gordon, Michelle; Hare, Anna; Murphy, Richard; Nachega, Jean; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; del Rio, Carlos; Sunpath, Henry

    2013-12-01

    We sought to develop individual-level Early Warning Indicators (EWI) of virologic failure (VF) for clinicians to use during routine care complementing WHO population-level EWI. A case-control study was conducted at a Durban clinic. Patients after ≥ 5 months of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) were defined as cases if they had VF [HIV-1 viral load (VL)>1000 copies/mL] and controls (2:1) if they had VL ≤ 1000 copies/mL. Pharmacy refills and pill counts were used as adherence measures. Participants responded to a questionnaire including validated psychosocial and symptom scales. Data were also collected from the medical record. Multivariable logistic regression models of VF included factors associated with VF (p<0.05) in univariable analyses. We enrolled 158 cases and 300 controls. In the final multivariable model, male gender, not having an active religious faith, practicing unsafe sex, having a family member with HIV, not being pleased with the clinic experience, symptoms of depression, fatigue, or rash, low CD4 counts, family recommending HIV care, and using a TV/radio as ART reminders (compared to mobile phones) were associated with VF independent of adherence measures. In this setting, we identified several key individual-level EWI associated with VF including novel psychosocial factors independent of adherence measures.

  18. The early history of dialysis for chronic renal failure in the United States: a view from Seattle.

    PubMed

    Blagg, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Forty-seven years have passed since the first patient started treatment for chronic renal failure by repeated hemodialysis (HD) at the University of Washington Hospital in Seattle in March 1960, and some 34 years have elapsed since the United States Congress passed legislation creating the Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease Program. Many nephrologists practicing today are unfamiliar with the history of the clinical and political developments that occurred during the 13 years between these 2 dates and that led to dialysis as we know it today in this country. This review briefly describes these events. Clinical developments following introduction of the Teflon shunt by Belding Scribner and Wayne Quinton included empirical observations leading to better understanding of HD and patient management, out-of-hospital dialysis by nurses, bioethical discussions of the problems of patient selection, home HD, improved dialysis technology, intermittent peritoneal dialysis, including automated equipment for home use and an effective peritoneal access catheter, the arteriovenous fistula for more reliable blood access, dialyzer reuse, the first for-profit dialysis units, understanding of many of the complications of treatment, the first considerations of dialysis adequacy, early development of other technologies, and more frequent HD. Political developments began less than 3 years after the first Seattle patient began dialysis, but it took another 10 years of intermittent activities before Congress acted on legislation to provide almost universal Medicare entitlement to patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.

  19. The role of suture cutout in the failure of meniscal root repair during the early post-operative period: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blanca, Ana; Prado Nóvoa, María; Lombardo Torre, Maximiano; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    To assess the role of suture cutout in the mechanics of failure of the repaired posterior meniscal root during the early post-operative period when using sutures of different shape. Twenty medial porcine menisci were randomized in two groups depending on the suture shape used to repair the posterior root: thread or tape. The sutured menisci were subjected to cyclic loading (1000 cycles, (10, 30) N) followed by load-to-failure testing. Residual displacements, stiffness, and ultimate failure load were determined. During tests, the tissue-suture interface was recorded using a high-resolution camera. In cyclic tests, cutout progression at the suture insertion points was not observed for any specimen of either group and no differences in residual displacements were found between use of thread or tape. In load-to-failure tests, suture cutout started in all menisci at a load close to the ultimate failure and all specimens failed by suture pullout. Suture tape had a greater ultimate load with no other differences. In a porcine model of a repaired posterior meniscal root subjected to cyclic loads representative of current rehabilitation protocols in the early post-operative period under restricted loading conditions, suture cutout was not found as a main source of permanent root displacement when using suture thread or tape. Suture cutout progression started at high loading levels close to the ultimate load of the construct. Tape, with a meniscus-suture contact area larger than thread, produced higher ultimate load.

  20. Microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate implants for press-fit fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts: strength and healing in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Dietrich, Markwart; Fraedrich, Franz; Hube, Robert; Nerlich, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Hein, Werner; Bernstein, Anke

    2009-09-01

    A sheep study was conducted to test a press-fit technique using microporous pure beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) dowels for fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft. Microporous (5 mum) cylindrical plugs of beta-TCP (diameter, 7 mm; length, 25 mm) with interconnecting pores were used. The material featured a novel configuration of structure and surface geometry. Implants were tested by use of press-fit fixation of ACL grafts with and without bone blocks in 42 sheep over a period of 24 weeks. Biomechanical, radiologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. In load-to-failure tests at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, the intra-articular graft always failed, not the fixation. Grafts showed bony fixation in the tunnel at 6 weeks and primary healing at the junction of the tunnel and joint after 24 weeks. Tricalcium phosphate was resorbed and simultaneously replaced by bone. Remodeling was still incomplete at 24 weeks. In the sheep model microporous beta-TCP implants used with press-fit fixation of ACL grafts permit early functional rehabilitation. After 6 weeks, the graft is fixed by woven bone or bony integration. Implanted microporous tricalcium phosphate is resorbed and replaced by bone. In a sheep model we showed that primary healing of ACL grafts with resorption and bony replacement of the fixating implant can be achieved by means of press-fit fixation with pure beta-TCP.

  1. Adherence to Drug-Refill Is a Useful Early Warning Indicator of Virologic and Immunologic Failure among HIV Patients on First-Line ART in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    El-Khatib, Ziad; Katzenstein, David; Marrone, Gaetano; Laher, Fatima; Mohapi, Lerato; Petzold, Max; Morris, Lynn; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2011-01-01

    Background Affordable strategies to prevent treatment failure on first-line regimens among HIV patients are essential for the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends using routinely collected data such as adherence to drug-refill visits as early warning indicators. We examined the association between adherence to drug-refill visits and long-term virologic and immunologic failure among non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) recipients in South Africa. Methods In 2008, 456 patients on NNRTI-based ART for a median of 44 months (range 12–99 months; 1,510 person-years) were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study in Soweto. Charts were reviewed for clinical characteristics before and during ART. Multivariable logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis assessed associations with virologic (two repeated VL>50 copies/ml) and immunologic failure (as defined by WHO). Results After a median of 15 months on ART, 19% (n = 88) and 19% (n = 87) had failed virologically and immunologically respectively. A cumulative adherence of <95% to drug-refill visits was significantly associated with both virologic and immunologic failure (p<0.01). In the final multivariable model, risk factors for virologic failure were incomplete adherence (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.2–6.7), and previous exposure to single-dose nevirapine or any other antiretrovirals (adj. OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2–3.9), adjusted for age and sex. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the virologic failure rate by month 48 was 19% vs. 37% among adherent and non-adherent patients respectively (logrank p value = 0.02). Conclusion One in five failed virologically after a median of 15 months on ART. Adherence to drug-refill visits works as an early warning indicator for both virologic and immunologic failure. PMID:21408071

  2. Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An electrostrictive graft elastomer has a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules. The polar graft moieties have been rotated by an applied electric field, e.g., into substantial polar alignment. The rotation is sustained until the electric field is removed. In another embodiment, a process for producing strain in an elastomer includes: (a) providing a graft elastomer having a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules; and (b) applying an electric field to the graft elastomer to rotate the polar graft moieties, e.g., into substantial polar alignment.

  3. The effect of delayed graft function on graft and patient survival in kidney transplantation: an approach using competing events analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Isabel; Teixeira, Laetitia; Malheiro, Jorge; Martins, La Salete; Dias, Leonídio; Castro Henriques, António; Mendonça, Denisa

    2015-06-01

    In kidney transplantation, the impact of delayed graft function (DGF) on long-term graft and patient survival is controversial. We examined the impact of DGF on graft and recipient survival by accounting for the possibility that death with graft function may act as a competing risk for allograft failure. We used data from 1281 adult primary deceased-donor kidney recipients whose allografts functioned at least 1 year. The probability of graft loss occurrence is overestimated using the complement of Kaplan-Meier estimates (1-KM). Both the cause-specific Cox proportional hazard regression model (standard Cox) and the subdistribution hazard regression model proposed by Fine and Gray showed that DGF was associated with shorter time to graft failure (csHR = 2.0, P = 0.002; sHR = 1.57, P = 0.009), independent of acute rejection (AR) and after adjusting for traditional factors associated with graft failure. Regarding patient survival, DGF was a predictor of patient death using the cause-specific Cox model (csHR = 1.57, P = 0.029) but not using the subdistribution model. The probability of graft loss from competing end points should not be reported with the 1-KM. Application of a regression model for subdistribution hazard showed that, independent of AR, DGF has a detrimental effect on long-term graft survival, but not on patient survival. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) Correlates With the Speed of Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) Proximal Anchor Failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Howard Y; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Feinberg, Nicholas; Roye, David P; Kanj, Wajdi W; Betz, Randal R; Cahill, Patrick J; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Luhmann, Scott J; Garg, Sumeet; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Smith, John T; Flynn, John M; Vitale, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) was developed by a consortium of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgeons. This study aims to examine if the C-EOS classification correlates with the speed (failure/unit time) of proximal anchor failure in EOS surgery patients. A total of 106 EOS patients were retrospectively queried from an EOS database. All patients were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib and experienced proximal anchor failure. Patients were classified by the C-EOS, which includes a term for etiology [C: Congenital (54.2%), M: Neuromuscular (32.3%), S: Syndromic (8.3%), I: Idiopathic (5.2%)], major curve angle [1: ≤20 degrees (0%), 2: 21 to 50 degrees (15.6%), 3: 51 to 90 degrees (66.7%), 4: >90 degrees (17.7%)], and kyphosis ["-": ≤20 (13.5%), "N": 21 to 50 (42.7%), "+": >50 (43.8%)]. Outcome was measured by time and number of lengthenings to failure. Analyzing C-EOS classes with >3 subjects, survival analysis demonstrates that the C-EOS discriminates low, medium, and high speed of failure. The low speed of failure group consisted of congenital/51-90/hypokyphosis (C3-) class. The medium-speed group consisted of congenital/51-90/normal and hyperkyphosis (C3N, C3+), and neuromuscular/51-90/hyperkyphosis (M3+) classes. The high-speed group consisted of neuromuscular/51-90/normal kyphosis (M3N), and neuromuscular/>90/normal and hyperkyphosis (M4N, M4+) classes. Significant differences were found in time (P<0.05) and number of expansions (P<0.05) before failure between congenital and neuromuscular classes.As isolated variables, neuromuscular etiology experienced a significantly faster time to failure compared with patients with idiopathic (P<0.001) and congenital (P=0.026) etiology. Patients with a major curve angle >90 degrees demonstrated significantly faster speed of failure compared with patients with major curve angle 21 to 50 degrees (P=0.011). The ability of the C-EOS to discriminate the speeds of failure of the

  5. The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) Correlates With the Speed of Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) Proximal Anchor Failure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Howard Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Feinberg, Nicholas; Roye, David P.; Kanj, Wajdi W.; Betz, Randal R.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Luhmann, Scott J.; Garg, Sumeet; Sawyer, Jeffrey R.; Smith, John T.; Flynn, John M.; Vitale, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) was developed by a consortium of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgeons. This study aims to examine if the C-EOS classification correlates with the speed (failure/unit time) of proximal anchor failure in EOS surgery patients. Methods A total of 106 EOS patients were retrospectively queried from an EOS database. All patients were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib and experienced proximal anchor failure. Patients were classified by the C-EOS, which includes a term for etiology [C: Congenital (54.2%), M: Neuromuscular (32.3%), S: Syndromic (8.3%), I: Idiopathic (5.2%)], major curve angle [1: ≤20 degrees (0%), 2: 21 to 50 degrees (15.6%), 3: 51 to 90 degrees (66.7%), 4: >90 degrees (17.7%)], and kyphosis [“−”: ≤20 (13.5%), “N”: 21 to 50 (42.7%), “+”: >50 (43.8%)]. Outcome was measured by time and number of lengthenings to failure. Results Analyzing C-EOS classes with >3 subjects, survival analysis demonstrates that the C-EOS discriminates low, medium, and high speed of failure. The low speed of failure group consisted of congenital/51-90/hypokyphosis (C3−) class. The medium-speed group consisted of congenital/51-90/normal and hyperkyphosis (C3N, C3+), and neuromuscular/51-90/hyperkyphosis (M3+) classes. The high-speed group consisted of neuromuscular/51-90/normal kyphosis (M3N), and neuromuscular/>90/normal and hyperkyphosis (M4N, M4+) classes. Significant differences were found in time (P < 0.05) and number of expansions (P < 0.05) before failure between congenital and neuromuscular classes. As isolated variables, neuromuscular etiology experienced a significantly faster time to failure compared with patients with idiopathic (P < 0.001) and congenital (P = 0.026) etiology. Patients with a major curve angle >90 degrees demonstrated significantly faster speed of failure compared with patients with major curve angle 21 to 50 degrees (P = 0.011). Conclusions The

  6. Low-Level Laser Application in the Early Myocardial Infarction Stage Has No Beneficial Role in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Manchini, Martha T; Antônio, Ednei L; Silva Junior, José Antônio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Albertini, Regiane; Pereira, Fernando C; Feliciano, Regiane; Montemor, Jairo; Vieira, Stella S; Grandinetti, Vanessa; Yoshizaki, Amanda; Chaves, Marcio; da Silva, Móises P; de Lima, Rafael do Nascimento; Bocalini, Danilo S; de Melo, Bruno L; Tucci, Paulo J F; Serra, Andrey J

    2017-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been targeted as a promising approach that can mitigate post-infarction cardiac remodeling. There is some interesting evidence showing that the beneficial role of the LLLT could persist long-term even after the end of the application, but it remains to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that LLLT beneficial effects in the early post-infarction cardiac remodeling could remain in overt heart failure even with the disruption of irradiations. Female Wistar rats were subjected to the coronary occlusion to induce myocardial infarction or Sham operation. A single LLLT application was carried out after 60 s and 3 days post-coronary occlusion, respectively. Echocardiography was performed 3 days and at the end of the experiment (5 weeks) to evaluate cardiac function. After the last echocardiographic examination, LV hemodynamic evaluation was performed at baseline and on sudden afterload increases. Compared with the Sham group, infarcted rats showed increased systolic and diastolic internal diameter as well as a depressed shortening fraction of LV. The only benefit of the LLLT was a higher shortening fraction after 3 days of infarction. However, treated-LLLT rats show a lower shortening fraction in the 5th week of study when compared with Sham and non-irradiated rats. A worsening of cardiac function was confirmed in the hemodynamic analysis as evidenced by the higher LV end-diastolic pressure and lower +dP/dt and -dP/dt with five weeks of study. Cardiac functional reserve was also impaired by infarction as evidenced by an attenuated response of stroke work index and cardiac output to a sudden afterload stress, without LLLT repercussions. No significant differences were found in the myocardial expression of Akt 1 /VEGF pathway. Collectively, these findings illustrate that LLLT improves LV systolic function in the early post-infarction cardiac remodeling. However, this beneficial effect may

  7. A pilot study to explore the effectiveness of "early" rehabilitation after a hospital admission for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Houchen, Linzy; Watt, Amye; Boyce, Sally; Singh, Sally

    2012-07-01

    People with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience acute exacerbations of their symptoms. These episodes are costly to patients and the health service. The study was a single group, pretest and posttest design. Seventeen patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) started rehabilitation within 4 weeks of hospital discharge. The 6 week rehabilitation programme included exercise and self-management education. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), the incremental and endurance shuttle walking tests (ISWT/ESWT) were assessed at baseline and after rehabilitation. The number and duration of any CHF admissions in the year before and the year after rehabilitation were also recorded. Improvements in the ISWT, ESWT, and depression were, mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 60.6 (36.0-85.2) metres, 356.0 (173.0-539.0) seconds (both p≤0.001) and (-)1.0 ((-)1.8-(-)0.2) points (p<0.05), respectively. HADS anxiety improvements failed to reach significance. At 1 year, there was a significant decrease in CHF-related hospitalisations, mean change (95% CI) (-)0.8 ((-)1.1-(-)0.4), p≤0.001 and CHF bed days (-)13.0 ((-)24.4-(-)1.6), p<0.05. Early rehabilitation significantly improved exercise capacity and depression and reduced CHF-associated health care utilisation in patients who had recently been hospitalised. The intervention was safe. However, the sample size was small and results were not compared to a control group. Therefore, the effects of natural recovery are unknown.

  8. Effects of post-discharge management on rates of early re-admission and death after hospitalisation for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan; Negishi, Kazuaki; De Pasquale, Carmine; Hare, James; Leung, Dominic; Stanton, Tony; Marwick, Thomas H

    2018-06-18

    To investigate whether enrolment of patients in management programs after hospitalisation for heart failure (HF) reduces the likelihood of post-hospital adverse outcomes. Cohort study in which associations between adverse outcomes at 30 and 90 days for people hospitalised for HF and baseline clinical, socio-demographic and blood pathology factors, and with post-discharge management strategies, were assessed. Setting, participants: 906 patients with HF were prospectively enrolled in five Australian states at cardiology departments with expertise in treating people with HF. All-cause re-admissions and deaths at 30 and 90 days after discharge from the index admission. 58% of patients were men; the mean age was 72.5 years (SD, 13.9 years). By hospital, 30-day re-admission rates ranged from 17% to 33%, and 90-day rates from 40% to 55%; 30-day mortality rates were 0-13%, 90-day rates 4-24%. Factors associated with increased odds of re-admission or death at 30 or 90 days included living alone, cognitive impairment, depression, NYHA classification, left atrial volume index, and Charlson index score. Nurse-led disease management programs and reviews within 7 days were associated with reduced odds of re-admission (but not of death) at 30 and 90 days; exercise programs were associated with reduced odds at 90 days. Significant between-hospital differences in re-admission rates were reduced after adjustment for post-discharge management programs, and abolished by further adjustment for echocardiography findings. Between-hospital differences in mortality were largely explained by differences in echocardiographic findings. Differences in early re-admission rates after hospitalisation for HF are primarily explained by differences in post-discharge management.

  9. Loss of desmoplakin isoform I causes early onset cardiomyopathy and heart failure in a Naxos‐like syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uzumcu, A; Norgett, E E; Dindar, A; Uyguner, O; Nisli, K; Kayserili, H; Sahin, S E; Dupont, E; Severs, N J; Leigh, I M; Yuksel‐Apak, M; Kelsell, D P; Wollnik, B

    2006-01-01

    Background Desmosomes are cellular junctions important for intercellular adhesion and anchoring the intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton to the cell membrane. Desmoplakin (DSP) is the most abundant desmosomal protein with 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Methods We describe a patient with a recessively inherited arrhythmogenic dilated cardiomyopathy with left and right ventricular involvement, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, and woolly hair. The patient showed a severe heart phenotype with an early onset and rapid progression to heart failure at 4 years of age. Results A homozygous nonsense mutation, R1267X, was found in exon 23 of the desmoplakin gene, which results in an isoform specific truncation of the larger DSPI isoform. The loss of most of the DSPI specific rod domain and C‐terminal area was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We further showed that the truncated DSPI transcript is unstable, leading to a loss of DSPI. DSPI is reported to be an obligate constituent of desmosomes and the only isoform present in cardiac tissue. To address this, we reviewed the expression of DSP isoforms in the heart. Our data suggest that DSPI is the major cardiac isoform but we also show that specific compartments of the heart have detectable DSPII expression. Conclusions This is the first description of a phenotype caused by a mutation affecting only one DSP isoform. Our findings emphasise the importance of desmoplakin and desmosomes in epidermal and cardiac function and additionally highlight the possibility that the different isoforms of desmoplakin may have distinct functional properties within the desmosome. PMID:16467215

  10. Early serum creatinine changes and outcomes in patients admitted for acute heart failure: the cardio-renal syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Julio; Garcia, Sergio; Núñez, Eduardo; Bonanad, Clara; Bodí, Vicent; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Escribano, David; Bayes-Genis, Antonio; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan

    2017-08-01

    The changes in renal function that occurred in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are prevalent, and have multifactorial etiology and dissimilar prognosis. To what extent the prognostic role of such changes may vary according to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission is not clear. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether early creatinine changes (ΔCr) (admission to 48-72 hours) had an effect on 1-year mortality relative to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission. We included 705 consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of ADHF. Admission renal insufficiency was defined as serum creatinine ≥1.4mg/dl (A-RI cr ) or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60ml/min/1.73m 2 (A-RI GFR ). Appropriate survival regression techniques were used. The mean age was 72.9±11.4 years and 51.2% were males. Patients with admission renal insufficiency (24.7% and 42.8% for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively) had higher prevalence of extreme values in ΔCr in either direction (increasing/decreasing). At 1-year follow-up, 114 (16.2%) deaths were registered. The multivariable analysis showed a significant interaction between admission renal insufficiency and ΔCr ( p=0.004 and p=0.019 for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively). In the presence of renal insufficiency, the continuum of ΔCr followed a positive and almost linear relationship with mortality risk. Conversely, in patients without renal insufficiency, those changes adopted a 'J-shape' trajectory with increased mortality at both ends of the curve distribution. In patients with ADHF the effect of ΔCr on 1-year mortality varied according to its magnitude and the presence of admission renal insufficiency. There was a graded-association with mortality when renal insufficiency was present on admission.

  11. Risk factors for implant failure: a retrospective study in an educational institution using GEE analyses.

    PubMed

    Borba, Marcelo; Deluiz, Daniel; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Oliveira, Luciano; Tannure, Patrícia Nivoloni

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to evaluate dental implant outcomes and to identify risk factors associated with implant failure over 12 years via dental records of patients attending an educational institution. Dental records of 202 patients receiving 774 dental implants from 2002 to 2014 were analyzed by adopting a more reliable statistical method to evaluate risk factors with patients as the unit [generalized estimating equation (GEE)]. Information regarding patient age at implantation, sex, use of tobacco, and history of systemic diseases was collected. Information about implant location in the arch region and implant length, diameter, and placement in a grafted area was evaluated after 2 years under load. Systemic and local risk factors for early and late implant failure were studied. A total of 18 patients experienced 25 implant failures, resulting in an overall survival rate of 96.8% (2.84% and 0.38% early and late implant failures, respectively). The patient-based survival rate was 91.8%. GEE univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that a significant risk factor for implant failure was the maxillary implant (p = 0.006 and p = 0.014, respectively). Bone grafting appeared to be a risk factor for implant failure (p = 0.054). According to GEE analyses, maxillary implants had significantly worse outcomes in this population and were considered to be a risk factor for implant failure. Our results suggested that implants placed in a bone augmentation area had a tendency to fail.

  12. Case Series With Histopathologic and Radiographic Analyses Following Failure of Fresh Osteochondral Allografts of the Talus.

    PubMed

    Pomajzl, Ryan Joseph; Baker, Erin Ann; Baker, Kevin Charles; Fleischer, Mackenzie Marie; Salisbury, Meagan R; Phillips, Dylan M; Fortin, Paul Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Fresh osteochondral allografting of the talus is one treatment option for large chondral defects. Following positive early term results, failure rates of up to 35% have been reported. A retrieval study was performed to characterize failed talar allografts. Failed fresh osteochondral allografts of the talus were retrieved on revision. Cases of deep infection were excluded. After tissue fixation, samples were decalcified, embedded, and stained with Safranin-O/Fast Green, osteocalcin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CD4, CD8, and CD68. Slides were graded according to the modified Mankin scoring system or severity scale. Medical record review was performed. Eight allografts (7 patients) were retrieved from patients, following an average term of implantation of 31 months (range, 12-58). There were 3 types of allografts in this series (hemidome, n=5; segmental, n=2; bipolar, n=1). Reasons for transplantation were post-traumatic arthritis or osteonecrosis; reasons for revision were graft failure/collapse, nonunion, progressive arthritis, and/or pain. Prior to revision, all grafts exhibited collapse and subchondral lucencies. At the graft host interface, Safranin-O staining demonstrated substantial loss of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, Osteocalcin immunostaning was nearly absent, CD68 (indicating osteoclast activity) was predominantly exhibited, and CD4+ helper T cells as well as CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells-cell types commonly implicated in allogeneic organ transplant rejection-were found in high concentrations. TNF-α was present throughout the graft. A histopathologic analysis of 8 retrieved, failed talar allografts was performed. Graft failure appeared to be primarily biologic, with an extensive loss of viable cartilaginous and osseous tissue at the graft-host interface. This study provides the first evidence of a potential CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte-mediated failure mechanism in fresh osteochondral allografts that were revised following collapse. Level IV

  13. Comparison of 5-Year Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Heart Failure Patients With Versus Without Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (from the CREDO-Kyoto CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Tanaka, Shiro; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-08-15

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFrEF) is regarded as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) still has been unclear. We identified 1,877 patients who received isolated CABG of 15,939 patients who underwent first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto (Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto) Registry Cohort-2. Of them, 1,489 patients had normal LV function (LVEF >50% without a history of HF; Normal group), 236 had HFrEF (LVEF ≤50% with HF), and 152 had HFpEF (LVEF >50% with HF). Preoperative LVEF was the lowest in the HFrEF group (62 ± 12%, 36 ± 9%, and 61 ± 7% for the Normal, HFrEF, and HFpEF groups, respectively; p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was the highest in the HFrEF group (0.5%, 3.0%, and 0.7%; p = 0.003). However, cumulative incidences of all-cause death at 5-year was the highest in the HFpEF group (14%, 27%, and 32%, respectively; p <0.001). After adjusting confounders, the risk of all-cause death in the HFpEF group was greater than the Normal group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.97; p = 0.04). The risk of all-cause death was not different between the HFpEF and the HFrEF groups (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.29; p = 0.52). In addition, the risks of cardiac death and sudden death in the HFpEF group were greater than the Normal group (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.49, p = 0.002; and HR 3.60, 95% CI 1.55 to 8.36, p = 0.003, respectively), and the risks of those end points were not different between the HFrEF and the HFpEF groups. Despite low 30-day mortality rate after CABG in patients with HFpEF, HFpEF was associated with high risks of long-term death and cardiovascular events. Patients with HFpEF, as well as HFrEF, should be carefully operated and followed up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Italian case of hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) not associated with the titin kinase domain R279W mutation.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Monforte, Mauro; Sabatelli, Mario; Biscione, Gian Luca; Piluso, Giulio; Gualandi, Francesca; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Udd, Bjarne; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a rare disorder characterized by severe respiratory involvement at onset, muscle weakness starting in the early adulthood, and cytoplasmic bodies with peculiar immunohistochemical reactivity on muscle biopsy. Here we describe a patient who presented with hypercapnic coma at age 32. A detailed light and electron microscopy analysis on muscle biopsy was performed and, together with clinical data, led to the diagnosis. The R279W mutation in the TTN gene was excluded. This report expands the geographical region of incidence and encourages additional studies to clarify the genetic heterogeneity of the condition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin graft - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  16. Gum Graft Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... gum line and reduce sensitivity. What are the benefits of gum graft surgery? A gum graft can ... improve function or esthetics, patients often receive the benefits of both: a beautiful new smile and improved ...

  17. Right ventricular response to pulsatile load is associated with early right heart failure and mortality after left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Grandin, E Wilson; Zamani, Payman; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Troutman, Gregory S; Birati, Edo Y; Vorovich, Esther; Chirinos, Julio A; Tedford, Ryan J; Margulies, Kenneth B; Atluri, Pavan; Rame, J Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) adaptation to afterload is crucial for patients undergoing continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD) implantation. We hypothesized that stratifying patients by RV pulsatile load, using pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC), and RV response to load, using the ratio of central venous to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (CVP:PCWP), would identify patients at high risk for early right heart failure (RHF) and 6-month mortality after cf-LVAD. During the period from January 2008 to June 2014, we identified 151 patients at our center with complete hemodynamics prior to cf-LVAD. Pulsatile load was estimated using PAC indexed to body surface area (BSA), according to the formula: indexed PAC (PACi) = [SV / (PA systolic - PA diastolic )] / BSA, where SV is stroke volume and PA is pulmonary artery. Patients were divided into 4 hemodynamic groups by PACi and CVP:PCWP. RHF was defined as the need for unplanned RVAD, inotropic support ≥14 days or death due to RHF within 14 days. Risk factors for RHF and 6-month mortality were examined using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Sixty-one patients (40.4%) developed RHF and 34 patients (22.5%) died within 6 months. Patients with RHF had lower PACi (0.92 vs 1.17 ml/mm Hg/m 2 , p = 0.008) and higher CVP:PCWP (0.48 vs 0.37, p = 0.001). Higher PACi was associated with reduced risk of RHF (adjusted odds ratio [adj-OR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.94, p = 0.025) and low PACi with increased risk of 6-month mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [adj-HR] 3.18, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.25, p = 0.006). Compared to patients with low load (high PACi) and adequate right heart response to load (low CVP:PCWP), patients with low PACi and high CVP:PCWP had an increased risk of RHF (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.23 to 18.24, p = 0.02) and 6-month mortality (HR 8.68, 95% CI 2.79 to 26.99, p < 0.001). A hemodynamic profile combining RV pulsatile load and response to load identifies patients at high

  18. Patients with pathological stage N2 rectal cancer treated with early adjuvant chemotherapy have a lower treatment failure rate.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Ru; Jin, Jing; Ren, Hua; Wang, Xin; Wang, Shu-Lian; Wang, Wei-Hu; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning; Liu, Xin-Fan; Fang, Hui; Yu, Zi-Hao; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2017-03-09

    In this era of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy, the optimal sequence in which chemoradiotherapy should be administered for pathological stage N2 rectal cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate this sequence. In the primary adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (A-CRT) group (n = 71), postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered before adjuvant chemotherapy. In the primary adjuvant chemotherapy (A-CT) group (n = 43), postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered during or after adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy comprised 45-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy comprised two cycles of oral capecitabine (1,600 mg/m 2 ) on days 1-14 and 22-35. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with four or more cycles of XELOX (oxaliplatin plus capecitabine) or eight or more cycles of FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) were included. Between June 2005 and December 2013, data for 114 qualified rectal cancer patients were analyzed. The percentages of patients in whom treatment failed in the A-CRT and A-CT groups were 33.8% and 16.3%, respectively (p = 0.042). More patients had distant metastases in the A-CRT group than in the A-CT group (32.4% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.028). Multivariate analysis indicated that the sequence in which chemoradiotherapy was administered (A-CT vs. A-CRT) was an independent prognostic factor for both estimated disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.345, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.137-0.868, p = 0.024] and estimated distant metastasis-free survival (HR 0.366, 95% CI 0.143-0.938, p = 0.036). In pathological stage N2 rectal cancer patients, administering adjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy led to a lower rate of treatment failure, especially with respect to distant metastasis. Adjuvant chemotherapy prescribed as early as possible might benefit this cohort of patients in this era of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy.

  19. Early management of patients with acute heart failure: state of the art and future directions--a consensus document from the SAEM/HFSA acute heart failure working group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean P; Storrow, Alan B; Levy, Phillip D; Albert, Nancy; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hiestand, Brian; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David E; Pang, Peter S; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) afflicts nearly 6 million Americans, resulting in 1 million emergency department (ED) visits and over 1 million annual hospital discharges. The majority of inpatient admissions originate in the ED; thus, it is crucial that emergency physicians and other providers involved in early management understand the latest developments in diagnostic testing, therapeutics, and alternatives to hospitalization. This article discusses contemporary ED management as well as the necessary next steps for ED-based acute HF research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. Early Improvement in Marrow Fibrosis Following Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shuichiro; Tsumanuma, Riko; Aizawa, Keiko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Maeda, Kunihiko; Omoto, Ejiro

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis for myelodysplastic syndrome with bone marrow fibrosis (MDS-F) is worse than the prognosis of MDS without fibrosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy; however, the indications and the procedures involved in HSCT remain unclear. We herein describe a 69-year-old Japanese man with MDS-F who received haploidentical HSCT and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. Although the first HSCT resulted in secondary graft failure, the second HSCT using PTCy led to successful engraftment after early improvement in fibrosis. Since the incidence of graft failure is high in myelofibrosis patients, a secondary HSCT using PTCy may be successful if employed. PMID:27853082

  1. Thymopericardial augmented encasement for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of 245 cases.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshiya; Ninomiya, Mikio; Nonaka, Takahiro

    2009-07-01

    : A pedicled prepericardial fat flap was created to augment the pericardial cavity and applied for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The efficacy and durability of this method were investigated. : Between July 2005 and November 2008, the present technique was applied for consecutive 245 patients (165 men and 80 women, aged 67 ± 8.3 years) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in which 240 (98.0%) were off-pump cases. The left and/or right internal thoracic artery and the gastroepiploic artery were used in 244 and 160 patients, respectively, and the saphenous vein and the radial artery were used in 51 and 10 patients, respectively. Ninety-seven (40.0%) patients had been diabetic, 18 (7.3%) had had chronic renal failure, and three were redo cases. The prepericardial soft tissue, involving the pedicled thymic gland, was dissected en bloc and sewn with pericardiotomies to wrap the heart and the grafts. Angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography was used to assess the intrapericardial pathways of each graft and a long-term durability of the fat pad. : Early angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography proved that the graft pathways were unaffected by the encasements. Resternotomies in two patients and sternal treatments for infectious dehiscence in two patients were safely achievable. Five-year postoperative computed tomography showed the intact fat pad in the retrosternal space. : The present technique can encase the heart not the least jeopardizing each pathway of the grafts, and the durable fat pad functions protectively when the sternotomy is either reopened or infected.

  2. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy for assessing progress of bone-graft incorporation in bone reconstruction and repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okagbare, Paul I.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2011-03-01

    Allografts and other bone-grafts are frequently used for a variety of reconstructive approaches in orthopaedic surgery. However, successful allograft incorporation remains uncertain. Consequently, there is significant need for methods to monitor the fate of these constructs. Only few noninvasive methods can fully assess the progress of graft incorporation and to provide information on the metabolic status of the graft, such as the mineral and matrix composition of the regenerated-tissue that may provide early indications of graft success or failure. For example, Computed-tomography and MRI provide information on the morphology of the graft/host interface. Limited information is also available from DXA. To address this challenge, we present here the implementation of a noninvasive Raman spectroscopy technique for in-vivo assessment of allograft incorporation in animal-model. In an animal use committee approved osseointegration experiment, a 3mm defect is created in rat's tibia. The defect is reconstructed using auto or allograft and Raman spectra are collected at several time-points during healing using an array of optical-fibers in contact with the skin of the rat over the tibia while the rat is anaesthetized. The array allows excitation and collection of Raman spectra through the skin at various positions around the tibia. Raman parameters such as mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and cross-linking are recovered and monitored. The system is calibrated against locally-constructed phantoms that mimic the morphology, optics and spectroscopy of the rat. This new technology provides a non-invasive method for in-vivo assessment of bone-graft incorporation in animal-models and can be adapted for similar study in human subjects.

  3. Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

    PubMed

    Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ahn, Kwang W; Flowers, Christopher; DiGilio, Alyssa; Smith, Sonali M; Ahmed, Sairah; Inwards, David; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chen, Andy I; Choe, Hannah; Cohen, Jonathon; Copelan, Edward; Farooq, Umar; Fenske, Timothy S; Freytes, Cesar; Gaballa, Sameh; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Jethava, Yogesh; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Lazarus, Hillard; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Olsson, Richard F; Rezvani, Andrew R; Rizzieri, David; Seo, Sachiko; Shah, Gunjan L; Shah, Nina; Solh, Melham; Sureda, Anna; William, Basem; Cumpston, Aaron; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Link, Brian K; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Indications and results of omental pedicle grafts in oncology

    SciT

    Petit, J.Y.; Lacour, J.; Margulis, A.

    1979-12-01

    Sixty omental grafts were performed in our department. Sixty-two percent concerned breast cancer patients. Other grafts were undertaken for other cancers: head and neck, gynecologic urologic and intestinal, skin and soft tissue tumors. These grafts were indicated for radionecrosis or chemonecrosis in 33 cases and for cancer recurrence in 26 cases (among whom 24 were previously irradiated). Only one graft was performed for lymphoedema treatment. Overall, fifty four patients (83.5%) had successful grafts, and six (16.5%) had graft failures. According to the treated lesion we obtained 82% of successful treatment among patients treated for radio or chemonecrosis, and 92% formore » patients treated for recurrences.« less

  5. Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    limited the usefulness of living porcine grafts, since the lack of blood supply soon lead to desiccation and avascular necrosis . Failure of...porcine grafts, since the lack of blood supply soon lead to desiccation and avascular necrosis . Failure of vascularization of xenografts is largely

  6. Effects of Dopamine Donor Pretreatment on Graft Survival after Kidney Transplantation: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Schnuelle, Peter; Schmitt, Wilhelm H; Weiss, Christel; Habicht, Antje; Renders, Lutz; Zeier, Martin; Drüschler, Felix; Heller, Katharina; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Banas, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Jung, Matthias; Lopau, Kai; Olbricht, Christoph J; Weihprecht, Horst; Schenker, Peter; De Fijter, Johan W; Yard, Benito A; Benck, Urs

    2017-03-07

    Donor dopamine improves initial graft function after kidney transplantation due to antioxidant properties. We investigated if a 4 µ g/kg per minute continuous dopamine infusion administered after brain-death confirmation affects long-term graft survival and examined the exposure-response relationship with treatment duration. Five-year follow-up of 487 renal transplant patients from 60 European centers who had participated in the randomized, multicenter trial of dopamine donor pretreatment between 2004 and 2007 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00115115). Follow-up was complete in 99.2%. Graft survival was 72.6% versus 68.7% ( P =0.34), and 83.3% versus 80.4% ( P =0.42) after death-censoring in treatment and control arms according to trial assignment. Although infusion times varied substantially in the treatment arm (range 0-32.2 hours), duration of the dopamine infusion and all-cause graft failure exhibited an exposure-response relationship (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.92 to 1.00, per hour). Cumulative frequency curves of graft survival and exposure time of the dopamine infusion indicated a maximum response rate at 7.10 hours (95% CI, 6.99 to 7.21), which almost coincided with the optimum infusion time for improvement of early graft function (7.05 hours; 95% CI, 6.92 to 7.18). Taking infusion time of 7.1 hours as threshold in subsequent graft survival analyses indicated a relevant benefit: Overall, 81.5% versus 68.5%; P =0.03; and 90.3% versus 80.2%; P =0.04 after death-censoring. We failed to show a significant graft survival advantage on intention-to-treat. Dopamine infusion time was very short in a considerable number of donors assigned to treatment. Our finding of a significant, nonlinear exposure-response relationship disclosed a threshold value of the dopamine infusion time that may improve long-term kidney graft survival. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Corneal graft rejection in African Americans at Howard University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Larry; Ngakeng, Vanessa; Copeland, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There is scarcity of data in the literature on cornel graft rejection rate in patients exclusively of African ancestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rejection rate of corneal transplant surgery performed at Howard University Hospital on such patients over a 15 year period. Design A retrospective evaluation was performed of the cornea graft rejection and corneal graft failure rate in 125 penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs) done by one corneal specialist at Howard University Hospital from January 1, 1990 to August 31, 2005. Methods Of the 125 patients, 62 were eliminated from the study because of re-grafted eyes, non-African descent, primary graft failures, follow-up less than 1 month and lack of availability of charts. This study, therefore, studied and recorded data from 63 penetrating keratoplasties of 63 eyes from 60 patients. Results Episodes of graft rejection were documented in 23 eyes (36.5% of cases). Nine out of the 23 graft rejections manifested to secondary graft failure (39%). Overall, there were nine out of the 63 PKPs (14.3%) that resulted in secondary graft failure over the past 15 years. The major diagnostic categories were bullous keratopathy 24 (38%), keratoconus 10 (15.8%), Fuch’s dystrophy 4 (6.3%), other 20 (31.7%). Of the cases with episodes of rejection and failure, 4.3% and none were attributable to keratoconus, 30.4% and 22.2% for bullous keratopathy, and 8.7% and 22.2% for Fuch’s dystrophy, respectively. Also, best visual acuity was looked at in patients with rejection episodes. None of the patients had a pre-op visual acuity 20/40 or better; however, post-op PKP 2 (8.7%) of patients achieved 20/40 or better. Also, 4 (17.4%) of patients had a pre-op visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150, but post-op PKP best visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150 was increased to 9 (39.1%). Conclusion At 36% the prevalence of corneal graft rejection was one of the highest in the reported literature. But only 14% of those

  8. Corneal graft rejection in African Americans at Howard University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Larry; Ngakeng, Vanessa; Copeland, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    There is scarcity of data in the literature on cornel graft rejection rate in patients exclusively of African ancestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rejection rate of corneal transplant surgery performed at Howard University Hospital on such patients over a 15 year period. A retrospective evaluation was performed of the cornea graft rejection and corneal graft failure rate in 125 penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs) done by one corneal specialist at Howard University Hospital from January 1, 1990 to August 31, 2005. Of the 125 patients, 62 were eliminated from the study because of re-grafted eyes, non-African descent, primary graft failures, follow-up less than 1 month and lack of availability of charts. This study, therefore, studied and recorded data from 63 penetrating keratoplasties of 63 eyes from 60 patients. Episodes of graft rejection were documented in 23 eyes (36.5% of cases). Nine out of the 23 graft rejections manifested to secondary graft failure (39%). Overall, there were nine out of the 63 PKPs (14.3%) that resulted in secondary graft failure over the past 15 years. The major diagnostic categories were bullous keratopathy 24 (38%), keratoconus 10 (15.8%), Fuch's dystrophy 4 (6.3%), other 20 (31.7%). Of the cases with episodes of rejection and failure, 4.3% and none were attributable to keratoconus, 30.4% and 22.2% for bullous keratopathy, and 8.7% and 22.2% for Fuch's dystrophy, respectively. Also, best visual acuity was looked at in patients with rejection episodes. None of the patients had a pre-op visual acuity 20/40 or better; however, post-op PKP 2 (8.7%) of patients achieved 20/40 or better. Also, 4 (17.4%) of patients had a pre-op visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150, but post-op PKP best visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150 was increased to 9 (39.1%). At 36% the prevalence of corneal graft rejection was one of the highest in the reported literature. But only 14% of those episodes resulted in graft failure which is one of

  9. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO 2 (FX CO 2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO 2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO 2 , and PDL + FX CO 2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO 2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO 2 , or PDL + FX CO 2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO 2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO 2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO 2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  10. Early warning indicators for process failure due to organic overloading by rapeseed oil in one-stage continuously stirred tank reactor, sewage sludge and waste digesters.

    PubMed

    Kleyböcker, A; Liebrich, M; Verstraete, W; Kraume, M; Würdemann, H

    2012-11-01

    Early warning indicators for process failures were investigated to develop a reliable method to increase the production efficiency of biogas plants. Organic overloads by the excessive addition of rapeseed oil were used to provoke the decrease in the gas production rate. Besides typical monitoring parameters, as pH, methane and hydrogen contents, biogas production rate and concentrations of fatty acids; carbon dioxide content, concentrations of calcium and phosphate were monitored. The concentration ratio of volatile fatty acids to calcium acted as an early warning indicator (EWI-VFA/Ca). The EWI-VFA/Ca always clearly and reliably indicated a process imbalance by exhibiting a 2- to 3-fold increase 3-7days before the process failure occurred. At this time, it was still possible to take countermeasures successfully. Furthermore, increases in phosphate concentration and in the concentration ratio of phosphate to calcium also indicated a process failure, in some cases, even earlier than the EWI-VFA/Ca. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CD3+/CD19+-depleted grafts in HLA-matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation lead to early NK cell cytolytic responses and reduced inhibitory activity of NKG2A.

    PubMed

    Eissens, D N; Schaap, N P M; Preijers, F W M B; Dolstra, H; van Cranenbroek, B; Schattenberg, A V M; Joosten, I; van der Meer, A

    2010-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have an important function in the anti-tumor response early after stem cell transplantation (SCT). As part of a prospective randomized phase III study, directly comparing the use of CD3(+)/CD19(+)-depleted peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) harvests with CD34(+)-selected PBSC harvests in allogeneic human leukocyte antigen-matched SCT, we here show that the use of CD3(+)/CD19(+)-depleted PBSC grafts leads to early NK cell repopulation and reconstitution of the CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cell subsets, with concomitant high cytolytic capacity. In the CD34 group, this process took significantly longer. Moreover, in the CD3/19 group after reconstitution, a higher percentage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-positive NK cells was found. Although similar percentages of CD94-positive NK cells were found in both groups, in the CD34 group, almost all expressed the inhibitory CD94:NKG2A complex, whereas in the CD3/19 group, the inhibitory CD94:NKG2A and the activating CD94:NKG2C complex were equally distributed. This preferential development of NKG2C-expressing NK cells in the CD3/19 group was paralleled by a loss of NKG2A-mediated inhibition of NK cell degranulation. These results show that the use of CD3(+)/CD19(+)-depleted grafts facilitates strong NK cell cytolytic responses directly after SCT, and the rapid emergence of an NK cell receptor phenotype that is more prone to activation.

  12. Pre-transplant angiotensin II type 1receptor antibodies: a risk factor for decreased kidney graft function in the early post-transplant period?

    PubMed

    Hernández-Méndez, Erick Alejandro; Arreola-Guerra, José Manuel; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E; Ramírez, Julia B; Calleja, Said; Castelán, Natalia; Salcedo, Isaac; Vilatobá, Mario; Contreras, Alan G; Gabilondo, Bernardo; Granados, Julio; Alberú, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1Rab) are associated to a significantly lower graft survival and a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate graft function and BPAR during the 1st year post-transplant (PT) in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR), between 03/2009 and 08/2012. Pre-KT sera were screened for AT1Rab (ELISA) and HLA-DSA (Luminex). Three groups were analyzed: AT1Rab only (n = 13); HLA-DSA only (n = 8); and no AT1Rab or HLA-DSA (n = 90). No differences were observed in clinical characteristics across groups. A higher percentage of BPAR was observed in the AT1Rab positive group, but this difference was not significant. KTR with AT1Rab had a lower mean eGFR (20 mL/min/1.73m2) when compared to KTR with no Abs at 12 months. The significant difference in eGFR was observed since the 1st month PT. Multivariate analysis showed 4 factors independently and significantly associated with eGFR at 12mos PT: BPAR (-18.7 95%, CI -28.2 to -9.26, p<0.001), AT1Rab (-10.51, CI -20.9 to -0.095, p = 0.048), donor age (-0.42, CI -0.75 to -0.103 p = 0.010), and recipient age (-0.36, CI -0.67 to -0.048, p = 0.024). In this study AT1Rab in pre-transplant sera from KTR, was an independent and significant risk factor contributing to a lower eGFR 12 months. PT. This finding deserves to be confirmed in a larger KTR population.

  13. Management of Men with Prostate-specific Antigen Failure After Prostate Radiotherapy: The Case Against Early Androgen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Douglas; Parker, Chris

    2018-04-01

    In men with prostate-specific antigen failure after radical radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be delayed until the site of recurrence is known to allow consideration of curative treatment options, to delay androgen deprivation therapy-related morbidity, and to enable earlier access to abiraterone and docetaxel. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Oría, Reinaldo B.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Moore, Sean R.; Luna, Max A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses–and potentially young children—undergo adaptive epigenetic changes with longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following malnutrition. In the developing world there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting—linear growth failure due to inadequate calories that may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption from intestinal mucosa changes now termed “environmental enteropathy.” Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with increased CVD risk factors in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation or both. Given increases in CVD in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early life infections and increased CVD risk factors underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide. PMID:23110643

  15. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure: background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study.

    PubMed

    Alings, M; Smit, M D; Moes, M L; Crijns, H J G M; Tijssen, J G P; Brügemann, J; Hillege, H L; Lane, D A; Lip, G Y H; Smeets, J R L M; Tieleman, R G; Tukkie, R; Willems, F F; Vermond, R A; Van Veldhuisen, D J; Van Gelder, I C

    2013-07-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early AF in heart failure (RACE 3) study hypothesises that aggressive upstream rhythm control increases persistence of sinus rhythm compared with conventional rhythm control in patients with early AF and mild-to-moderate early systolic or diastolic heart failure undergoing electrical cardioversion. RACE 3 is a prospective, randomised, open, multinational, multicenter trial. Upstream rhythm control consists of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, statins, cardiac rehabilitation therapy, and intensive counselling on dietary restrictions, exercise maintenance, and drug adherence. Conventional rhythm control consists of routine rhythm control therapy without cardiac rehabilitation therapy and intensive counselling. In both arms, every effort is made to keep patients in the rhythm control strategy, and ion channel antiarrhythmic drugs or pulmonary vein ablation may be instituted if AF relapses. Total inclusion will be 250 patients. If upstream therapy proves to be effective in improving maintenance of sinus rhythm, it could become a new approach to rhythm control supporting conventional pharmacological and non-pharmacological rhythm control.

  16. Can baseline ultrasound results help to predict failure to achieve DAS28 remission after 1 year of tight control treatment in early RA patients?

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, D F; Jacobs, J W G; Swen, W A A; Hazes, J M W; de Jager, M H; Basoski, N M; Haagsma, C J; Luime, J J; Gerards, A H

    2018-01-30

    At present, there are no prognostic parameters unequivocally predicting treatment failure in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We investigated whether baseline ultrasonography (US) findings of joints, when added to baseline clinical, laboratory, and radiographical data, could improve prediction of failure to achieve Disease Activity Score assessing 28 joints (DAS28) remission (<2.6) at 1 year in newly diagnosed RA patients. A multicentre cohort of newly diagnosed RA patients was followed prospectively for 1 year. US of the hands, wrists, and feet was performed at baseline. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographical parameters were recorded. Primary analysis was the prediction by logistic regression of the absence of DAS28 remission 12 months after diagnosis and start of therapy. Of 194 patients included, 174 were used for the analysis, with complete data available for 159. In a multivariate model with baseline DAS28 (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2), the presence of rheumatoid factor (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.1), and type of monitoring strategy (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.85), the addition of baseline US results for joints (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.04) did not significantly improve the prediction of failure to achieve DAS28 remission (likelihood ratio test, 1.04; p = 0.31). In an early RA population, adding baseline ultrasonography of the hands, wrists, and feet to commonly available baseline characteristics did not improve prediction of failure to achieve DAS28 remission at 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01752309 . Registered on 19 December 2012.

  17. [Renal failure in patients with liver transplant: incidence and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Gerona, S; Laudano, O; Macías, S; San Román, E; Galdame, O; Torres, O; Sorkin, E; Ciardullo, M; de Santibañes, E; Mastai, R

    1997-01-01

    Renal failure is a common finding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic value of pre, intra and postoperative factors and severity of renal dysfunction in patients who undergo liver transplantation. Therefore, the records of 38 consecutive adult patients were reviewed. Renal failure was defined arbitrarily as an increase in creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dl) and/or blood urea (> 80 mg/dl). Three patients were excluded of the final analysis (1 acute liver failure and 2 with a survival lower than 72 hs.) Twenty one of the 35 patients has renal failure after orthotopic liver transplantation. Six of these episodes developed early, having occurred within the first 6 days. Late renal impairment occurred in 15 patients within the hospitalization (40 +/- 10 days) (Mean +/- SD). In he overall series, liver function, evaluated by Child-Pugh classification, a higher blood-related requirements and cyclosporine levels were observed more in those who experienced renal failure than those who did not (p < 0.05). Early renal failure was related with preoperative (liver function) and intraoperative (blood requirements) factors and several causes (nephrotoxic drugs and graft failure) other than cyclosporine were present in patients who developed late renal impairment. No mortality. No mortality was associated with renal failure. We conclude that renal failure a) is a common finding after liver transplantation, b) the pathogenesis of this complication is multifactorial and, c) in not related with a poor outcome.

  18. Beneficial Role of Low-Dose Antithymocyte Globulin in Unrelated Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Patients with Acquired Severe Aplastic Anemia: Reduction of Graft-versus-Host Disease and Improvement of Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free, Failure-Free Survival Rate.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Soo; Kwak, Dae Hun; Jeon, Young-Woo; Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Seok; Min, Chang-Ki; Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jong Wook

    2017-09-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) is often considered in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) whom immunosuppressive therapy failed and matched sibling donor is not available. To reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in URD SCT, introducting antithymocyte globulin (ATG) into the conditioning regimen has been proposed. Although ATG was shown to play a role in reducing GVHD in a cohort with diverse hematologic diseases, its role in SAA remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of ATG in URD SCT for adult patients with SAA. We investigated 83 adult patients with SAA who underwent URD SCT between 2003 and 2014. The transplantation strategy consisted of total body irradiation (total 800 cGy) and cyclophosphamide (total 100 mg/kg to 120 mg/kg), followed by tacrolimus and a short-term methotrexate. We divided patients into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 25), which received HLA-matched (8/8) bone marrow (BM) without ATG, and group 2 (n = 58), which received SCT from either an HLA-mismatched donor or peripheral blood (PB). Thereafter, group 2 was subdivided according to ATG use into group 2A (without ATG, n = 26), which served as a historical cohort, and group 2B (with ATG, n = 32). Rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin; Genzyme-Sanofi, Lyon, France) was used in group 2B at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. The median age of all patients was 30 years (range, 17 to 59 years). The incidence of GVHD was significantly lower in group 2B than group 2A, as demonstrated by the rate of grade II to IV acute GVHD at day 100 (31.2% versus 61.5%, P = .003) and the rate of chronic GVHD at 3 years (21.9% versus 65.4%, P = .002). The overall survival rates of the 3 groups were similar. However, GVHD-free, failure-free survival (GFFS) was significantly higher in group 2B than group 2A (P = .034). A multivariable model identified use of ATG as an independent factor affecting grades II to IV acute

  19. Distraction osteogenesis of costochondral bone grafts in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Stelnicki, Eric J; Hollier, Larry; Lee, Catherine; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Grayson, Barry; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2002-03-01

    graft distraction complications included pin tract infections in two patients, hardware failure with premature pin pullout in one patient, and evidence of fibrous nonunions in three young patients with single, diminutive rib grafts. In group 2, there were no distraction failures. Distraction osteogenesis can be successfully performed on costochondral rib grafts of the mandible; however, the complication rate is higher than in non-rib-graft patients. Performing the technique on older, more cooperative individuals seems to reduce this risk. In addition, placement of a double rib graft or an iliac bone graft of sufficient volume to create a neomandible with greater bone stock is an absolute requirement to decrease the risk of fibrous nonunion and provide a bone base of sufficient size for retention of the distraction device and manipulation of the regenerate.

  20. Evaluation of interleukin 12 and CD56+ lymphocyte cells in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for early diagnosis of acute graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Tootoonchian, Raziyeh; Pak, Fatemeh; Ardekani, Ali M; Sehati, Nasrin; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr; Kokhaei, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The present study tried to explain CD56+ lymphocyte cells activities and possible prognostic role of these cells in Graft-Versus-Host-Disease (GVHD). The role of IL-12 activation and function is of interest in this study. Peripheral blood samples of 51 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) recipients collected at before (day -8) and after (days 7 and 14). PBMC were collected by Ficoll separation and analyzed by Flow Cytometry using triple antibody (CD45-PerCP, CD56-FITC, and CD69-PE staining and control antibody. Levels of the cytokine IL-12 in the patient's serum were evaluated by ELISA. Percentage of CD56+ lymphocytes (CD56+ bright ) cells was significantly increased at day 14 in patients with acute GVHD and percentage of lymphocytes expressing CD69 was significantly increased at days 7 and 14 posts HSCT in patients with acute GVHD in comparison to those in non-GVHD patients. Baseline serum IL-12 levels (pre-HSCT, day -8) were significantly higher in those HSCT recipients who did not develop GVHD. This study showed that post-transplant CD56+ lymphocytes and pre-transplant serum levels of IL-12 play significant roles in the induction of and protection against GVHD, respectively. The increase in the percentage of CD69+ cells indicates the activation of lymphocyte in acute GVHD group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation of Tc17 cells at early stages after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Peng; Song, Lingling; Yan, Fahong; Shi, Chunlei; Li, Ying; Han, Mingzhe; Lan, Ketao

    2016-12-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is associated with an immune dysregulation usually mediated by T lymphocytes. Recently, IL-17-producing T cells including Th17 and Tc17 cells have been implicated in immune-related diseases. However, their roles in aGVHD remain uncertain. In the study, we analyzed IL-17-producing cell recovery and association with the occurrence of aGVHD. While Th17 cells steadily recovered, Tc17 cell numbers remained unaltered during the first 3months after transplantation. Occurrence of aGVHD was correlated with increased level of Tc17 cells at the second months after allo-SCT. Interestingly, Tc17 cells were negatively associated with CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, which was an important prognostic predictor in patients with aGVHD. In addition, we found that Tc17 numbers increased as the increased concentrations of TGF-β and IL-6, which are known to drive Th17 polarization. These finding supported that Tc17 subset is involved in the immunopathology of aGVHD. Blocking the abnormally increased number of Tc17 may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for aGVHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of early use of different doses of enteral nutrition on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianting; Wang, Qiuyan

    2017-11-01

    To observe the impact of initial low-dose (trophic type) enteral nutrition (EN) support on mechanical ventilation (MV) time, the incidence of complications and survival rate in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). A prospective study was conducted. Forty-four patients with ARF undergoing MV admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Hangzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital from September 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into a trophic feeding group (n = 23, study group) and a standard-dose feeding group (n = 21, control group). In the two groups, the EN support feeding was given to the patients through a nasogastric tube within 24-hour MV for consecutive 7 days, the protein supply to each one of all of them was 1.2-1.6 g×kg -1 ×d -1 . The study group received EN according to non-protein calories of 41.84-83.68 kJ×kg -1 ×d -1 to calculate, while the control group accepted EN according to non-protein calories of 104.60-125.50 kJ×kg -1 ×d -1 to calculate. The serum albumin (Alb) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured in two groups 1 day before EN treatment and at 1, 2, 3, 7 days of treatment, and the energy levels in initial 3 days and 7 days of MV and the 24-hour urine creatinine (UCr) level on the 7th day after treatment were recorded. The creatinine-height index (CHI, CHI = actual UCr/standard UCr) was calculated. The incidence of intestinal intolerance (vomiting, gastric retention, diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding, etc.) in 7 days of treatment, MV time, the length of stay in ICU, the total length of stay in the hospital and the 28-day incidence of new infections (pulmonary, hematogenous, urinary, abdominal, and other infections) and 60-day survival rate were observed between the two groups. The EN supplies within 3 days and 7 days in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group [within 3 days (kJ/d): 1 710.58±703.96 vs. 4 152.79±1 334.65, 7 days (kJ/d): 2 471.28

  3. Development of models to predict early post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma that also integrate the quality and characteristics of the liver graft: A national registry study in China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qi; Liu, Jimin; Zhuo, Jianyong; Zhuang, Runzhou; Huang, Haitao; He, Xiangxiang; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-27

    Donor characteristics and graft quality were recently reported to play an important role in the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. Our aim was to establish a prognostic model by using both donor and recipient variables. Data of 1,010 adult patients (training/validation: 2/1) undergoing primary liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma were extracted from the China Liver Transplant Registry database and analyzed retrospectively. A multivariate competing risk regression model was developed and used to generate a nomogram predicting the likelihood of post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Of 673 patients in the training cohort, 70 (10.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with a median recurrence time of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-25 months). Cold ischemia time was the only independent donor prognostic factor for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.234, P = .007). The optimal cutoff value was 12 hours when patients were grouped according to cold ischemia time at 2-hour intervals. Integrating cold ischemia time into the Milan criteria (liver transplantation candidate selection criteria) improved the accuracy for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in both training and validation sets (P < .05). A nomogram composed of cold ischemia time, tumor burden, differentiation, and α-fetoprotein level proved to be accurate and reliable in predicting the likelihood of 1-year hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. Additionally, donor anti-hepatitis B core antibody positivity, prolonged cold ischemia time, and anhepatic time were linked to the intrahepatic recurrence, whereas older donor age, prolonged donor warm ischemia time, cold ischemia time, and ABO incompatibility were relevant to the extrahepatic recurrence. The graft quality integrated models exhibited considerable predictive accuracy in early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk

  4. [Early implementation of home care and 30 day readmissions in >65 years Veneto region patients discharged for heart failure and with disability].

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Pellizzari, Michele; Carlucci, Francesco; Pilotto, Alberto; Saugo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Early implementation of home care and 30 day readmissions in >65 years Veneto region patients discharged for heart failure and with disability. The effectiveness of Home care (HC) on preventing rehospitalizations in patients discharged for heart failure (HF) are uncertain. The aim of the study was to measure the impact of HC on early rehospitalizations of patients discharged for HF and with disabilities. Cohort retrospective study on >65 years patients, discharged at home and with a Barthel index <50. Variables considered were: previous hospitalizations for ischaemic cardiopathy ad/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, number of hospital admissions in the previous year, length of index hospitalization; outcomes considered were: hospital readmissions and days of hospitalizations 30 days from hospital discharge in patients with or without a home care visit within two days from hospital discharge. Of the 5.094 patients (60%>85 years), 14.8% received a HC visit within 2 days from discharge (43.7% from a nurse); 18.3% of patients (933) were readmitted within one month. In multivariate analyses an HC access within 2 days did not reduce the risk for readmission (although with better results in younger males but not in older women). An early HC visit reduced the days of hospital stay in males of all ages (65-74 years IRR 0.53 CI 95% 0.37-0.75; 75-84 years IRR 0.71 CI95% 0.60-0.83; 85+ years IRR 0.79 CI 95% 0.67-0.93) while in >75 years females there was a significant increase. An early HC visit (within two days from discharge) may have positive effects on males, but not in older women, possibly for the coexistence of socio-economic factors.

  5. The combination of indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score predicts early graft outcome after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yunhua, Tang; Weiqiang, Ju; Maogen, Chen; Sai, Yang; Zhiheng, Zhang; Dongping, Wang; Zhiyong, Guo; Xiaoshun, He

    2018-06-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and early postoperative complications are two important clinical endpoints when evaluating clinical outcomes of liver transplantation (LT). We developed and validated two ICGR15-MELD models in 87 liver transplant recipients for predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT by incorporating the quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) into the MELD score. Eighty seven consecutive patients who underwent LT were collected and divided into a training cohort (n = 61) and an internal validation cohort (n = 26). For predicting EAD after LT, the area under curve (AUC) for ICGR15-MELD score was 0.876, with a sensitivity of 92.0% and a specificity of 75.0%, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone. The recipients with a ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.243 have a higher incidence of EAD than those with a ICGR15-MELD score <0.243 (P <0.001). For predicting early postoperative complications, the AUC of ICGR15-MELD score was 0.832, with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 71.0%. Those recipients with an ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.098 have a higher incidence of early postoperative complications than those with an ICGR15-MELD score <0.098 (P < 0.001). Finally, application of the two ICGR15-MELD models in the validation cohort still gave good accuracy (AUC, 0.835 and 0.826, respectively) in predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT. The combination of quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) and the preoperative MELD score is a reliable and effective predictor of EAD and early postoperative complications after LT, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone.

  6. Photoacoustic detection of neovascularities in skin graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Mutsuo; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizo; Ishihara, Miya; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    We previously proposed a new method for monitoring adhesion of skin graft by measuring photoacoustic (PA) signal originated from the neovascularities. In this study, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with CD31 antibody was performed for grafted skin tissue to observe neovascularity, and the results were compared with PA signals. We also used a laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to observe blood flow in the grafted skin, and sensitivity of PA measurement and that of LDI were compared. In rat autograft models, PA signals were measured for the grafted skin at postgrafting times of 0-48 h. At 6 h postgrafting, PA signal was observed in the skin depth region of 500-600 mm, while the results of IHC showed that angiogenesis occurred at the depth of about 600 mm. Depths at which PA signal and angiogenesis were observed decreased with postgrafting time. These indicate that the PA signal observed at 6 h postgrafting originated from the neovascularities in the skin graft. Results of LDI showed no blood-originated signal before 48 h postgrafting. These findings suggest that PA measurement is effective in monitoring the adhesion of skin graft in early stage after transplantation.

  7. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction with Early Systolic Dysfunction Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Canine Heart Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Chun; Ma, Hong; Xie, Rong-Ai; Gao, Li-Jian; Tang, Yue; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) for predicting left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in pacing-induced canine heart failure. Pacing systems were implanted in 8 adult mongrel dogs, and continuous rapid right ventricular pacing (RVP, 240 beats/min) was maintained for 2 weeks. The obtained measurements from 2DSTE included global strain rate during early diastole (SRe) and during late diastole (SRa) in the longitudinal (L-SRe, L-SRa), circumferential (C-SRe, C-SRa), and radial directions (R-SRe, R-SRa). Changes in heart morphology were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy at 2 weeks. The onset of LV diastolic dysfunction with early systolic dysfunction occurred 3 days after RVP initiation. Most of the strain rate imaging indices were altered at 1 or 3 days after RVP onset and continued to worsen until heart failure developed. Light and transmission electron microscopy showed myocardial vacuolar degeneration and mitochondrial swelling in the left ventricular at 2 weeks after RVP onset. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that parameters of conventional echocardiography and 2DSTE showed moderate correlation with LV pressure parameters, including E/Esep' (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), L-SRe (r = -0.58, P < 0.01), E/L-SRe (r = 0.65, P < 0.01), and R-SRe (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). ROC curves analysis showed that these indices of conventional echocardiography and strain rate imaging could effectively predict LV diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve: E/Esep' 0.78; L-SRe 0.84; E/L-SRe 0.80; R-SRe 0.80). 2DSTE was a sensitive and accurate technique that could be used for predicting LV diastolic dysfunction in canine heart failure model. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Calcar bone graft

    SciT

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months inmore » the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.« less

  9. Early non-response to certolizumab pegol in rheumatoid arthritis predicts treatment failure at one year. Data from a randomised phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Francis; Pham, Thao; Claudepierre, Pascal; de Chalus, Thibault; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Saadoun, Carine; Riou França, Lionel; Fautrel, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    To compare different early clinical criteria of non-response determined at three months as predictors of clinical failure at one year in patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting therapy with certolizumab pegol. Data were derived from a randomised Phase III clinical trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed to respond to methotrexate monotherapy. Patients included in this post-hoc analysis were treated with certolizumab pegol (400mg qd reduced to 200mg qd after one month) and with methotrexate. The study duration was twelve months. Response at three months was determined with the American College of Rheumatology-50, Disease Assessment Score-28 ESR, Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Clinical Disease Activity Index. The performance of these measures at predicting treatment failure at twelve months defined by the American College of Rheumatology-50 criteria was determined, using the positive predictive values as the principal evaluation criterion. Three hundred and eighty two patients were available for analysis and 225 completed the twelve-month follow-up. At Week 52, 149 (38.1%) patients met the American College of Rheumatology-50 response criterion. Positive predictive values ranged from 81% for a decrease in Health Assessment Questionnaire- Disability index score since baseline >0.22 to 95% for a decrease in Disease Assessment Score-28 score since baseline≥1.2. Sensitivity was≤70% in all cases. Performance of these measures was similar irrespective of the definition of treatment failure at 12months. Simple clinical measures of disease activity can predict future treatment failure reliably and are appropriate for implementing treat-to-target treatment strategies in everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Virological Failure in Naive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients Receiving Saquinavir (Soft Gel Capsule)-Stavudine-Zalcitabine (MIKADO Trial) Is Not Associated with Mutations Conferring Viral Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mouroux, M.; Yvon-Groussin, A.; Peytavin, G.; Delaugerre, C.; Legrand, M.; Bossi, P.; Do, B.; Trylesinski, A.; Diquet, B.; Dohin, E.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Katlama, C.; Calvez, V.

    2000-01-01

    The MIKADO trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of stavudine-zalcitabine-saquinavir (soft gel capsule) [d4T-ddC-SQV(SGC)] in 36 naive patients (−3.3 log10 units at week 24 [W24]). Among the 29 patients remaining on d4T-ddC-SQV(SGC) until W24, 10 harbored a virological failure (viral load of >200 copies/ml at W24) (group 1). To determine the reasons for therapeutic failure, genotypic and phenotypic resistance test results and SQV concentrations in plasma were analyzed and compared to those in successfully treated patients (viral load of <200 copies/ml at W24) (group 2). Reverse transcriptase and protease genotypic analyses in group 1 revealed the acquisition of only one SQV-associated mutation (L90M) in only two patients. There was no significant increase in the 50 or 90% inhibitory concentration of SQV in patients with or without the L90M mutation. However, the fact that two patients developed an L90M mutation only 4 weeks after relapse points to the need for genotypic resistance testing in the context of an initial failure of the antiretroviral regimen. At W24, the median SQV concentration in group 1 (71 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in group 2 (475 ng/ml), and the plasma SQV concentration was correlated with the viral load at W24 (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) and with the drop in viral load between day 0 and W24 (r = −0.5; P < 0.01). These results and the fact that the plasma SQV concentrations in the two groups prior to relapse (W12) were not significantly different strongly suggest that the early failure of this combination is not due to viral resistance but to a lack of compliance, pharmacological variability, and drug interactions or a combination of these factors. PMID:10878071

  11. Predictors of early dyspnoea relief in acute heart failure and the association with 30-day outcomes: findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Felker, G. Michael; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Atar, Dan; Teerlink, John R.; Califf, Robert M.; Massie, Barry M.; Hasselblad, Vic; Starling, Randall C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the characteristics associated with early dyspnoea relief during acute heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and its association with 30-day outcomes. Methods and results ASCEND-HF was a randomized trial of nesiritide vs. placebo in 7141 patients hospitalized with acute HF in which dyspnoea relief at 6 h was measured on a 7-point Likert scale. Patients were classified as having early dyspnoea relief if they experienced moderate or marked dyspnoea improvement at 6 h. We analysed the clinical characteristics, geographical variation, and outcomes (mortality, mortality/HF hospitalization, and mortality/hospitalization at 30 days) associated with early dyspnoea relief. Early dyspnoea relief occurred in 2984 patients (43%). In multivariable analyses, predictors of dyspnoea relief included older age and oedema on chest radiograph; higher systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and natriuretic peptide level; and lower serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), sodium, and haemoglobin (model mean C index = 0.590). Dyspnoea relief varied markedly across countries, with patients enrolled from Central Europe having the lowest risk-adjusted likelihood of improvement. Early dyspnoea relief was associated with lower risk-adjusted 30-day mortality/HF hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68–0.96] and mortality/hospitalization (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.99), but similar mortality. Conclusion Clinical characteristics such as respiratory rate, pulmonary oedema, renal function, and natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early dyspnoea relief, and moderate or marked improvement in dyspnoea was associated with a lower risk for 30-day outcomes. PMID:23159547

  12. Novel Risk Stratification Score for Predicting Early Distant Brain Failure and Salvage Whole Brain Radiotherapy after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Press, Robert H.; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Nickleach, Dana C.; Liu, Yuan; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Kandula, Shravan; Patel, Kirtesh R.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of early distant brain failure (DBF) and salvage whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases and create a clinically relevant risk score in order to stratify patients’ risk of these events. Methods We reviewed records of 270 patients with brain metastases treated with SRS between 2003-2012. Pre-treatment patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed by univariate and multivariable analyses. Cumulative incidence (CI) of first DBF and salvage WBRT were calculated. Significant factors were used to create a score for stratifying early (6-month) DBF risk. Results No prior WBRT, total lesion volume <1.3 cm3, primary breast cancer or malignant melanoma histology, and multiple metastases (≥2) were found to be significant predictors for early DBF. Each factor was ascribed one point due to similar hazard ratios. Scores of 0-1, 2, and 3-4 were considered low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively. This correlated with 6-month CI of DBF of 16.6%, 28.8%, and 54.4%, respectively (p<0.001). For patients without prior WBRT, the 6-month CI of salvage WBRT by 6-months was 2%, 17.7%, and 25.7%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion Early DBF after SRS requiring salvage WBRT remains a significant clinical problem. Patient stratification for early DBF can better inform the decision for initial treatment strategy for brain metastases. The provided risk score may help predict for early DBF and subsequent salvage WBRT if initial SRS is used. External validation is needed prior to clinical implementation. PMID:26242475

  13. The "thirsty dropsy": Early descriptions in medical and non-medical authors of thirst as symptom of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Cesana, F; Achilli, F; Scordo, F; Cesana, G

    2017-10-15

    Patients with chronic heart failure may suffer from severe thirst, even if mechanisms that cause thirst in subjects affected by this condition are not clear. Medical and non-medical authors may have already recognized this symptom during the classical age. We analyzed association between thirst and dropsy (an ancient medical term used to indicate different conditions including chronic heart failure) in past medical and non-medical literature. Hippocrates and Celsus first recognized thirst as a symptom of dropsy in the classical age. Greco-Roman intellectuals (Polybius, Ovid, Horace) and theologians belonging to the first years of the Christian era (Augustine, Caesarius, Gregory I) showed to know that dropsy people were often thirsty. These authors also influenced medieval poets and writers, including Dante Alighieri. In the Renaissance, the physician and alchemist Paracelsus again evidenced this symptom and the iatrochemist Robert Fludd tried to explain pathophysiology of dropsy, basing on thirst. The relationship between thirst and dropsy was well known by physicians and intellectuals in the classical age and in the first years of the Christian era, so influencing the Renaissance physicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Of cuts and cracks: data analytics on constrained graphs for early prediction of failure in cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahagalage, Sanath; Tordesillas, Antoinette; Nitka, Michał; Tejchman, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Using data from discrete element simulations, we develop a data analytics approach using network flow theory to study force transmission and failure in a `dog-bone' concrete specimen submitted to uniaxial tension. With this approach, we establish the extent to which the bottlenecks, i.e., a subset of contacts that impedes flow and are prone to becoming overloaded, can predict the location of the ultimate macro-crack. At the heart of this analysis is a capacity function that quantifies, in relative terms, the maximum force that can be transmitted through the different contacts or edges in the network. Here we set this function to be solely governed by the size of the contact area between the deformable spherical grains. During all the initial stages of the loading history, when no bonds are broken, we find the bottlenecks coincide consistently with, and therefore predict, the location of the crack that later forms in the failure regime after peak force. When bonds do start to break, they are spread throughout the specimen: in, near, and far from, the bottlenecks. In one stage leading up to peak force, bonds collectively break in the lower portion of the specimen, momentarily shifting the bottlenecks to this location. Just before and around peak force, however, the bottlenecks return to their original location and remain there until the macro-crack emerges right along the bottlenecks.

  15. Costochondral grafts replacing the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Ross, R B

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the success rate of costochondral bone grafts used to replace absent or nonfunctioning temporomandibular joints and the subsequent growth of these grafts when placed in young children. This is a retrospective study of all cases with adequate follow-up records that were treated at the Craniofacial Centre at Toronto's The Hospital for Sick Children from 1974-1986. A total of 55 patients were evaluated, of whom 13 were growing children. The findings suggest that there was increased success when surgery was performed at an early age. Poorer results were achieved when previous surgery had been performed or when pathology was present. Growth of the graft did not always equal the growth of the "normal" side, but in most cases a satisfactory symmetry was achieved. Several cases exhibited excessive overgrowth. Surgery at 4 to 5 years of age will alleviate the impact of a severe facial deformity on the child during the early school years, when self-esteem is fragile and patterns of social interactions are developing. Development of the dentition is better if the jaw relationship is close to normal at an early age. It would appear that early temporomandibular joint (TMJ) construction by costochondral grafting is, at present, the method of choice for severe hemifacial microsomia.

  16. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  17. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    PubMed

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  18. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ <-2 using WHO growth standards. Eight rural, indigenous Mam-Mayan villages (n 200, 100% of Mayan indigenous origin) and an urban clinic of Quetzaltenango (n 106, 27% of Mayan indigenous origin), Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  19. A prospective study of external stenting of saphenous vein grafts to the right coronary artery: the VEST II study.

    PubMed

    Taggart, David P; Amin, Sanaz; Djordjevic, Jasmina; Oikonomou, Evangelos K; Thomas, Sheena; Kampoli, Anna-Maria; Sabharwal, Nikant; Antoniades, Charalambos; Krasopoulos, George

    2017-05-01

    External stents significantly reduce intimal hyperplasia and improve lumen uniformity and flow pattern in saphenous vein grafts (SVG) 1 year after coronary artery bypass grafting. However, recent studies have shown that at 1 year there is a lower patency of externally stented SVG to the right coronary artery (RCA) (55-60%) when compared to the left sided coronary arteries (85-90%). In the current study, we investigated whether avoidance of both fixation of the external stent to the anastomoses and the use of metal clips to ligate SVG side branches would improve the early patency of externally stented SVG to the RCA. Thirty patients received a SVG to the right territory supported with an external stent. Graft patency was confirmed at the end of surgery in all patients. The primary endpoint was SVG patency assessed by computed tomography angiography (CTA) at 3-6 months. Graft failure was defined as > 50% stenosis. Twenty-nine patients (96.6%) completed the follow up period and CT angiography data was available for a total of 43 SVGs, (29 supported and 14 unsupported SVGs) and 47 arterial grafts. Patency of stented SVGs was 86.2% (25/29 on CTA). All non-stented SVGs to the left territory were patent. Patency rates of the left internal mammary arteries and right internal mammary arteries grafts were 96.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Avoidance of both metallic clips to ligate side branches and of fixation of venous external support trial (VEST) stents to the anastomoses mark a significant improvement in patency of stented SVG to the right coronary territory. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction is Important for Improving Patient and Graft Survival After Ligation and Bypass Surgery for Popliteal Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dattani, N; Ali, M; Aber, A; Kannan, R Yap; Choke, E C; Bown, M J; Sayers, R D; Davies, R S

    2017-07-01

    To report outcomes following ligation and bypass (LGB) surgery for popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) and study factors influencing patient and graft survival. A retrospective review of patients undergoing LGB surgery for PAA between September 1999 and August 2012 at a tertiary referral vascular unit was performed. Primary graft patency (PGP), primary-assisted graft patency (PAGP), and secondary graft patency (SGP) rates were calculated using survival analyses. Patient, graft aneurysm-free survival (GAFS), aneurysm reperfusion-free survival (ARFS), and amputation-free survival (AFS) rates were also calculated. Log-rank testing and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to perform univariate and multivariate analysis of influencing factors, respectively. Eighty-four LGB repairs in 69 patients (mean age 71.3 years, 68 males) were available for study. The 5-year PGP, PAGP, SGP, and patient survival rates were 58.1%, 84.4%, 85.2%, and 81.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the principal determinants of PGP were urgency of operation ( P = .009) and smoking status ( P = .019). The principal determinants of PAGP were hyperlipidemia status ( P = .048) and of SGP were hyperlipidemia ( P = .042) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) status ( P = .045). The principal determinants of patient survival were previous myocardial infarction ( P = .004) and CVD ( P = .001). The 5-year GAFS, ARFS, and AFS rates were 87.9%, 91.6%, and 96.1%, respectively. This study has shown that traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as a smoking and ischemic heart disease, are the most important predictors of early graft failure and patient death following LGB surgery for PAA.

  1. The Endurant Stent Graft System: 15-month follow-up report in patients with challenging abdominal aortic anatomies.

    PubMed

    Hyhlik-Dürr, Alexander; Weber, Tim F; Kotelis, Drossos; Rengier, Fabian; Gahlen, Johannes; Böck, Stefanie; Köhler, Jürgen; Ratusinski, Christoph-M; Böckler, Dittmar

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to report a 15-month follow-up with the Endurant Stent Graft System in patients with challenging aortic anatomies. At three German clinics, a consecutive series of 50 patients underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR) for challenging abdominal aortic aneurysm with the Endurant stent graft between November 2008 and May 2009. EVAR was elective in 48 cases and emergent in two. Patients had short (≤15 mm) aortic necks, severe suprarenal/infrarenal angulation, and/or small (<8 mm), calcified, severely angulated, or tortuous iliac or femoral access vessels. Additionally, a cohort of 40 patients without challenging anatomies were retrospectively analysed to clarify differences concerning technical success, mortality, and morbidity between these groups. The primary technical success rate was 92% (46/50). The 30-day mortality rate was 2% (1/50), the death due to multiorgan failure. Intraoperative angiograms revealed three type I endoleaks (2 proximal and 1 distal), and one of those was persisting at 30 days (30-day rate, 2%). Postoperative imaging discovered no further type I or type III endoleaks. The 30-day rate of the type II endoleak was 6% (3/50). There were two cases of graft limb occlusion, both requiring reintervention within 30 days. Follow-up was available in all of the 50 patients (100%) over a median of 15 months (1-25). During this time, seven patients died (overall mortality, 16%; 8/50), besides the above-described patient, all of them unrelated to the procedure. Compared to the 30-day results with the Endurant stent graft in non-challenging anatomies (no type I endoleak; no graft limb occlusion; all-cause mortality, 0%), procedure-related complications in challenging anatomies are increasing. Early and 15-month results with the Endurant stent graft in patients with challenging aortic anatomies are encouraging.

  2. Long-term failure of alveologenesis after an early short-term exposure to a PDGF-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mandy; Masood, Azhar; Yi, Man; Belcastro, Rosetta; Li, Jun; Tanswell, A Keith

    2011-04-01

    Survivors of moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia have impaired alveologenesis lasting at least into early adult life. The mechanisms underlying this long-term effect are unknown. We hypothesized that short-term inhibition of growth factor-mediated early alveolar formation would result in a long-term impairment of subsequent alveologenesis. Neonatal rats were injected daily with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor antagonist, imatinib mesylate, from day 1-7 of life, to inhibit the early alveolar formation occurring by in-growth of secondary crests into precursor saccules. The pups were then allowed to recover for 7, 14, 21, or 58 days. In imatinib-treated pups, DNA synthesis in total lung cells, and specifically in cells of secondary crests, was reduced at day 8 of life, had rebounded on day 14 of life but was then again reduced by day 28 of life. At day 8 of life, imatinib-treated pups had impaired alveologenesis as reflected by a decrease in secondary crests, an increase in alveolar size, and an overall decrease in both estimated alveolar number and generations compared with age-matched controls. No meaningful recovery was observed, even after a 21- or 58-day recovery period. The lungs of imatinib-treated pups had increased fibulin-5 content and an abnormal deposition of elastin. We conclude that reduced signaling through the PDGF pathways, at an early stage of alveologenesis, can result in long-lasting changes in lung architecture. A likely mechanism is through impaired formation of the elastin scaffold required for alveolarization.

  3. New therapeutic possibilities for vein graft disease in the post-edifoligide era.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xinjiang; Freedman, Neil J

    2006-07-01

    Vein graft neointimal hyperplasia involves proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells into the vessel intima, and ultimately engenders accelerated atherosclerosis and vein graft failure. Since a myriad of stimuli provoke smooth muscle cell proliferation, molecular therapies for vein graft disease have targeted mechanisms fundamental to all cell proliferation - the 'cell-cycle' machinery. Preclinically, the most successful of these therapies has been edifoligide (E2F decoy), a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide that binds to the transcription factor known as E2F. Recently, PRoject of Ex vivo vein GRaft Engineering via Transfection (PREVENT) III and IV demonstrated that edifoligide failed to benefit human vein grafts employed to treat lower-extremity ischemia and coronary heart disease, respectively. The clinical failure of edifoligide calls into question previous models of vein graft disease and lends credence to recent animal studies demonstrating that vein graft arterialization substantially involves the immigration into the vein graft of a variety of vascular progenitor cells. Future vein graft disease therapies will likely target not only proliferation of graft-intrinsic cells, but also immigration of graft-extrinsic cells.

  4. Skin grafting the contaminated wound bed: reassessing the role of the preoperative swab.

    PubMed

    Aerden, D; Bosmans, I; Vanmierlo, B; Spinnael, J; Keymeule, B; Van den Brande, P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate use of the preoperative wound swab to predict graft failure compared with establishing the indication for skin grafting on clinical grounds alone. Patients requiring meshed split-thickness skin grafting were prospectively included; the indication for grafting was established on clinical grounds exclusively. A preoperative swab of the wound bed was taken, but its result was concealed to prevent it influencing clinical decision-making. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was used for both wound bed preparation and graft fixation.After 2 months, graft area take percentage was measured using digital image processing software and the results validated against the result of the preoperative wound swab. Eighty-seven wounds were included in the study. Mean graft area take percentage was 88%,with five grafts considered complete failures(< 25% take).A posteriori analysis of the wound cultures showed that 53% had been contaminated on grafting, but these did not fare any worse than near-sterile wounds. Qualitative analysis of cultures showed that wounds containing either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus did have inferior outcome (mean take percentage 78.9% vs 91.3%; p=0.038).Diabetes was also a deteriorating factor (mean take percentage 83.0% vs 90.7%; p=0.004). Establishing the indication for skin grafting on clinical grounds exclusively does not yield grossly inferior results. In light of recent advances in skin grafting, including use of NPWT as adjuvant therapy, the requirement for routine preoperative wound swabs may be questioned.

  5. Compliance effects on small diameter polyurethane graft patency.

    PubMed

    Uchida, N; Kambic, H; Emoto, H; Chen, J F; Hsu, S; Murabayshi, S; Harasaki, H; Nosé, Y

    1993-10-01

    Microporous compliance matched and noncompliant grafts were compared in a dog carotid artery interposition model. We fabricated 4 mm diameter sponge type polyurethane (Biomer) tubes 5 cm in length with a 0.5 mm wall thickness. The luminal surface was covered with a 50 microns coating of cross-linked gelatin. Compliance was measured in vitro and in vivo by volume and vessel diameter changes. Over a mean arterial pressure range of 55-155 mm Hg, the diameter changes of grafts and stump arteries were measured in situ using an ultrasonic Hokanson device. Compliance matched grafts were found to have the same in vitro compliance values as the natural canine carotid at a mean arterial pressure of 100 mm Hg. Compliance matched and noncompliant grafts had values of 10.3 +/- 1.3 and 0.9 +/- 0.1 x 10(-2) mm Hg, respectively. End to end arterial anastomoses were constructed between the graft and the host arteries. The use of synthetic grafts with matched compliance to the adjacent natural vessels has been advocated as the ideal solution to circumvent the problems of graft failure. These studies indicate that compliance values for compliance matched grafts decreased immediately after implantation (from 10.3 to 6.5 x 10(-2) %/mm Hg) and within 6 weeks decreased to 3.6 x 10(-2) %/mm Hg. The compliance values for noncompliant grafts remained constant throughout the test period. At autopsy all grafts showed a tightly adhered tissue capsule. The thickness of the anastomotic hyperplasia at the distal sites of compliance matched grafts was significantly different (P < .05) than that of the adjacent artery. The patency for compliant and noncompliant grafts was 64% and 50%, respectively. Evidence for polyurethane graft degradation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography analysis of patent explants. Compliance mismatch alone does not contribute to graft failure, however, material degradation, suture technique and/or capsule formation can

  6. Grafting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Katherine; Bennett, Tom; Crisp, Peter; Leyser, Ottoline; Turnbull, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Grafting provides a simple way to generate chimeric plants with regions of different genotypes and thus to assess the cell autonomy of gene action. The technique of grafting has been widely used in other species, but in Arabidopsis, its small size makes the process rather more demanding. However, there are now several well-established grafting procedures available, which we described here, and their use has already contributed greatly to understanding of such processes as shoot branching control, flowering, disease resistance, and systemic silencing.

  7. The impact of viral load and time to onset of cytomegalovirus replication on long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reischig, Tomas; Kacer, Martin; Hruba, Petra; Jindra, Pavel; Hes, Ondrej; Lysak, Daniel; Bouda, Mirko; Viklicky, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with graft dysfunction and failure. However, no study assessed CMV viral load in terms of the risk for graft failure. In a prospective cohort of kidney transplant recipients, we assessed the impact of CMV DNAemia on the overall graft survival and the incidence of moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in protocol biopsy at 36 months. CMV DNAemia was stratified by viral load in whole blood. A total of 180 patients transplanted from October 2003 through January 2011 were included and followed for 4 years; 87 (48%) patients received 3-month prophylaxis with valacyclovir and 45 (25%) with valganciclovir; 48 (27%) were managed by pre-emptive therapy. Within 12 months of transplantation, CMV DNAemia developed in 102 (57%) patients with 36 (20%) having a viral load of ≥2,000 copies/ml. Multivariate Cox analysis identified CMV DNAemia as an independent risk factor for graft loss (hazard ratio 3.42; P=0.020); however, after stratification by viral load, only CMV DNAemia ≥2,000 copies/ml (hazard ratio 7.62; P<0.001) remained significant. Both early-onset (<3 months; P=0.048) and late-onset (>3 months; P<0.001) CMV DNAemia ≥2,000 copies/ml were risk factors for graft loss. The incidence of moderate-to-severe IF/TA was not significantly influenced by CMV DNAemia. Kidney transplant recipients having CMV DNAemia with a higher viral load irrespective of the time to onset are at increased risk for graft loss.

  8. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Kidney Failure (ESRD) Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments www.kidneyfund.org > ... Disaster preparedness Kidney failure/ESRD diet What causes kidney failure? In most cases, kidney failure is caused ...

  9. Vein Graft Preservation Solutions, Patency, and Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Alexander, John H.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Brophy, Colleen M.; Mack, Michael J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Williams, Judson B.; Gibson, C. Michael; Califf, Robert M.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Harrington, Robert A.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Lopes, Renato D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In vitro and animal model data suggest that intraoperative preservation solutions may influence endothelial function and vein graft failure (VGF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Clinical studies to validate these findings are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of vein graft preservation solutions on VGF and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data from the Project of Ex-Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) study, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 3014 patients at 107 US sites from August 1, 2002, through October 22, 2003, were used. Eligibility criteria for the trial included CABG surgery for coronary artery disease with at least 2 planned vein grafts. INTERVENTIONS Preservation of vein grafts in saline, blood, or buffered saline solutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES One-year angiographic VGF and 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction, and subsequent revascularization. RESULTS Most patients had grafts preserved in saline (1339 [44.4%]), followed by blood (971 [32.2%]) and buffered saline (507 [16.8%]). Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. One-year VGF rates were much lower in the buffered saline group than in the saline group (patient-level odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.45-0.78; P < .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001]) or the blood group (patient-level OR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.48-0.81; P < .001]). Use of buffered saline solution also tended to be associated with a lower 5-year risk for death, myocardial infarction, or subsequent revascularization compared with saline (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P = .08]) and blood (0.81 [0.63-1.03; P = .09]) solutions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients undergoing CABG whose vein grafts were preserved in a buffered saline solution had lower VGF rates and trends

  10. Baseline severity but not gender modulates quantified Crataegus extract effects in early heart failure--a pooled analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Thomas; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Zimmermann, Andrea; Burkart, Martin

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of quantified Crataegus extract in chronic heart failure (CHF) has been assessed in numerous clinical studies. The present pooled analysis evaluates the impact of baseline severity and gender on objective and patient-reported endpoints and associations between both types of outcomes in patients with early CHF. Available data from 687 individual patients treated with quantified Crataegus extract or placebo in ten studies were pooled. Treatment effects on physiologic outcome parameters and on symptoms were analysed for their association with baseline severity and gender. Changes in symptom scores were investigated with respect to their relation to physiologic outcome parameters. Results were compared with observations in a 3-year cohort study. Physiologic outcome parameters maximal workload (MWL), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pressure-heart rate product increase (PHRPI) at 50 W ergometric exercise improved more in active treatment than in placebo patients. Magnitude of improvement was independent from baseline for LVEF but increased for MWL and PHRPI with baseline severity. Improvement of typical symptoms like reduced exercise tolerance, exertional dyspnea, weakness, fatigue, and palpitations improved more with active treatment and in patients with more severe symptoms. A weak association between improvements in MWL, PRHP, and symptoms could be demonstrated. Gender differences in treatment effects could be explained by baseline differences. Results of the pooled analysis are in agreement with observations in the cohort study. Crataegus extract treatment effects on physiologic outcomes and typical symptoms were modulated by baseline severity. Taking baseline differences into account, benefits were comparable in male and female patients with impaired exercise-tolerance in early chronic heart-failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A population based study of variations in operation rates for breast cancer, of comorbidity and prognosis at diagnosis: failure to operate for early breast cancer in older women.

    PubMed

    Bates, T; Evans, T; Lagord, C; Monypenny, I; Kearins, O; Lawrence, G

    2014-10-01

    Older women are less likely to have surgery for operable breast cancer. This population-based study examines operation rates by age and identifies groups which present with early or late disease. 37 000 cancer registrations for 2007 were combined with Hospital Episode Statistics comorbidity data for England. Operation rates were examined by age, ethnicity, deprivation, comorbidity, screen-detection, tumour size, grade and nodal status. Early and late presentation were correlated with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) groups and tumour size. The proportion of women not having surgery increased from 7-10% at ages 35-69 to 82% from age 90. From age 70, the proportion not having surgery rose by an average of 3.1% per year of age. Women with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of ≥1 (which increased with age), with tumours >50 mm or who were node positive, were less likely to have surgery. Although women aged 70-79 were more likely to have larger tumours, their tumours were also more likely to have an excellent or good NPI (p < 0.001). Good prognosis tumours were more likely to be screen-detected, and less likely in women aged 0-39, the deprived and certain ethnic groups (p < 0.02). From age 70 there is an increasing failure to operate for breast cancer. Younger women and certain ethnic groups presented with more advanced tumours. Older women had larger tumours which were otherwise of good prognosis, and this would not account for the failure to operate which may in part be related to comorbidity in this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    PubMed

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Graft survival of diabetic versus nondiabetic donor tissue after initial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Vislisel, Jesse M; Liaboe, Chase A; Wagoner, Michael D; Goins, Kenneth M; Sutphin, John E; Schmidt, Gregory A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Greiner, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    To compare corneal graft survival using tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic donors in patients undergoing initial Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). A retrospective chart review of pseudophakic eyes that underwent DSAEK or PKP was performed. The primary outcome measure was graft failure. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare diabetic versus nondiabetic donor tissue for all keratoplasty cases. A total of 183 eyes (136 DSAEK, 47 PKP) were included in the statistical analysis. Among 24 procedures performed using diabetic donor tissue, there were 4 cases (16.7%) of graft failure (3 DSAEK, 1 PKP), and among 159 procedures performed using nondiabetic donor tissue, there were 18 cases (11.3%) of graft failure (12 DSAEK, 6 PKP). Cox proportional hazard ratio of graft failure for all cases comparing diabetic with nondiabetic donor tissue was 1.69, but this difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval, 0.56-5.06; P = 0.348). There were no significant differences in Kaplan-Meier curves comparing diabetic with nondiabetic donor tissue for all cases (P = 0.380). Statistical analysis of graft failure by donor diabetes status within each procedure type was not possible because of the small number of graft failure events involving diabetic tissue. We found similar rates of graft failure in all keratoplasty cases when comparing tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic donors, but further investigation is needed to determine whether diabetic donor tissue results in different graft failure rates after DSAEK compared with PKP.

  14. Early-term and mid-term histologic events during single-level posterolateral intertransverse process fusion with rhBMP-2/collagen carrier and a ceramic bulking agent in a nonhuman primate model: implications for bone graft preparation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Safdar N; Toth, Jeffrey M; Gupta, Kavita; Glassman, Steven D; Gupta, Munish C

    2014-06-01

    We used a nonhuman primate lumbar intertransverse process arthrodesis model to evaluate biological cascade of bone formation using different carrier preparation methods with a single dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) at early time points. To examine early-term/mid-term descriptive histologic and computerized tomographic events in single-level uninstrumented posterolateral nonhuman primate spinal fusions using rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) combined with ceramic bulking agents in 3 different configurations. rhBMP-2 on an ACS carrier alone leads to consistent posterolateral lumbar spine fusions in lower-order animals; however, these results have been difficult to replicate in nonhuman primates. Twelve skeletally mature, rhesus macaque monkeys underwent single-level posterolateral arthrodesis at L4-L5. A hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic bulking agent in 3 formulations was used in the treatment groups (n=3). When used, rhBMP-2/ACS at 1.5 mg/cm (3.0 mg rhBMP-2) was combined with 2.5 cm of ceramic bulking agent per side. Animals were euthanized at 4 and 12 weeks postoperative. Computerized tomography scans were performed immediately postoperatively and every 4 weeks until they were euthanized. Sagittal histologic sections were evaluated for bone histogenesis and location, cellular infiltration of the graft/substitute, and bone remodeling activity. Significant histologic differences in the developing fusion appeared between the 3 rhBMP-2/ACS treatment groups at 4 and 12 weeks. At 4 weeks, bone formation appeared to originate at the transverse process and the intertransverse membrane. Cellular infiltration was greatest in granular ceramic groups compared with matrix ceramic group. Minimal to no residual ACS was identified at the early time point. At 12 weeks, marked ceramic remodeling was observed with continued bone formation noted in all carrier groups. At the early time period, histology showed that bone formation

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in late adolescence and long-term risk of early heart failure in Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Åberg, Maria; Schaufelberger, Maria; Åberg, David; Schiöler, Linus; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2017-05-01

    Aims To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle strength in late adolescence and the long-term risk of heart failure (HF). Methods A cohort was created of Swedish men enrolled in compulsory military service between 1968 and 2005 with measurements for CRF and muscle strength ( n = 1,226,623; mean age 18.3 years). They were followed until 31 December 2014 for HF hospitalization as recorded in the Swedish national inpatient registry. Results During the follow-up period (median (interquartile range) 28.4 (22.0-37.0) years), 7656 cases of first HF hospitalization were observed (mean ± SD age at diagnosis 50.1 ± 7.9 years). CRF and muscle strength were estimated by maximum capacity cycle ergometer testing and strength exercises (knee extension, elbow flexion and hand grip). Inverse dose-response relationships were found between CRF and muscle strength with HF as a primary or contributory diagnosis with an adjusted hazards ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.60 (1.44-1.77) for low CRF and 1.45 (1.32-1.58) for low muscle strength categories. The associations of incident HF with CRF and muscle strength persisted, regardless of adjustments for the other potential confounders. The highest risk was observed for HF associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes or hypertension. Conclusions In this longitudinal study of young men, we found inverse and mutually independent associations between CRF and muscle strength with risk of hospitalization for HF. If causal, these results may emphasize the importance of the promotion of CRF and muscle strength in younger populations.

  16. Penetrating keratoplasty in infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Reidy, J J

    2001-08-01

    Penetrating keratoplasty in infants and young children is performed on an infrequent basis. The most common indication is visually significant congenital corneal opacity. Surgery must be performed early to avoid amblyopia. Surgical techniques differ from those used in adult penetrating keratoplasty because of the reduced ocular rigidity encountered in infants and young children. Use of a multispecialty team approach is important to improve visual outcome. Poor prognostic indicators include bilateral disease, concomitant infantile glaucoma, lensectomy and vitrectomy at the time of surgery, previous graft failure, extensive goniosynechiae, and extensive corneal vascularization. Prompt postoperative optical rehabilitation, combined with occlusion therapy when appropriate, is an important determinant of success.

  17. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice. © 2015 The Authors. Eu