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Sample records for early greek medicine

  1. [Early Greek medicine and Plato's cosmology].

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kee-Bag

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of Early greek medicine on Plato's Cosmology. Alcmaeon holds that health depends on proportion (equality; isonomia) or proportioned mixture of opposing factors. This notion dominated nearly all greek medicine, and also influenced Plato's cosmology greatly. Generally each greek doctors believed that man consisted of opposing factors, though these are designated differently. Alcmaeon takes powers - hot and dry, cold and hot, vitter, sweet and the rest as those factors. On the other hand, Philistion of Locri adopts the four element theory of Empedocles. He conceives that human body as a mixture of the four elements, and health consists in proportion of these opposing four element, basically as Alcmaeon. This notion is accepted by Plato. Only Plato differs from Philistion in that he doesn't consider the four elements as the ultimate factors. In Timaeus Plato explain that the Demiourgos constructed the four elements through introducing 'proportion' into the primitive materials (the oppositives) by means of shapes and numbers. And Plato thinks that the cosmic body and soul was constructed basically in the same way as the four elements. This is true of the human body and soul. Also Plato explicates diseases from standpoint of proportion or symmetry. Moreover according to Philebus, the good states (i.e. 'health', 'music', 'season' etc) in the cosmos arises out of the right mixture of the limit and the unlimited. In the other word this mixture is proportioned mixture of the oppositives by aid of ratios. In short Plato believes that both the cosmos itself and the good states s proportioned mixture of the oppositives. Thus Plato' cosmology is fundamentally based upon Alcmaeon's or Philistion's concept of Health.

  2. Medicinal use of leeches in the texts of ancient Greek, Roman and early Byzantine writers.

    PubMed

    Papavramidou, N; Christopoulou-Aletra, H

    2009-09-01

    Blood-letting was a common therapeutic method in antiquity; many means were used to draw blood, including the application of leeches. In this paper, ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine authors up to the 7th century AD were studied, a research that provided us with references that may be divided into two groups: those related to the medicinal use of leeches, and those related to cases in which leeches were swallowed and had to be removed. In the first group, detailed descriptions of the method of usage and of the diseases requiring leeching were found. In the second group, brief reference is made to the problems caused by swallowing leeches, and to the methods used to expel them from the human organism. The earliest references to the medicinal use of leeches may be found in the writings of Theocritus (3rd century BC), Nicander (2nd century BC) and Horace (1st century BC, while the phenomenon of swallowing a leech is first mentioned in one of the Epidaurian 'iamata' dating to the 4th century BC.

  3. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  4. [Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine].

    PubMed

    Marković, Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analysed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  5. [The Greek art of medicine in Rome].

    PubMed

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-06-30

    The term "ancient medicine" is often perceived as tantamount to Greek medicine, as most medical writings from the classical period originate in Greece. These texts later became the basis of Western medical thought. Even though the Romans adopted Greek medicine, it continued to be alien to them; they persisted with their practical approach to medicine alongside the Greeks' more theoretical view. This article deals with how Romans reacted to the invasion of Greek doctors, and how this is portrayed by contemporary Roman authors, especially Pliny and Celsus.

  6. Early Greek Typography in Milan: A Historical Note on a New Greek Typeface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallraff, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of Greek typography, focusing on the first book to be entirely printed in Greek in 1476 and the series of new typefaces that resulted. Cites Milan as a center of Greek printing in the early history of Greek typography. Describes a revival of one of these typefaces created under the name of Milan Greek. (PA)

  7. Early Greek Typography in Milan: A Historical Note on a New Greek Typeface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallraff, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of Greek typography, focusing on the first book to be entirely printed in Greek in 1476 and the series of new typefaces that resulted. Cites Milan as a center of Greek printing in the early history of Greek typography. Describes a revival of one of these typefaces created under the name of Milan Greek. (PA)

  8. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine.

  9. Uterine amulets and Greek uterine medicine.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A E

    1995-01-01

    This article publishes for the first time a hematite uterine amulet in the author's possession. After a brief look at this amulet I offer a summary of previous scholarship on uterine amulets, and then focus on three specific aspects -the amulets' relation to Greek medical texts on gynecological topics; evidence for the use of perishable and non-perishable amulets by Greek women prior to the proliferation of the hematite examples in the Roman period (ca. II CE). I conclude with a discussion of the derivation and meaning of ororiouth, based on my correspondence with Dr. Roy Kotansky.

  10. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    PubMed

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H

    2010-09-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology.

  11. Body symmetry and asymmetry in early Greek anatomical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2008-05-01

    This historical note focuses on some of the earliest reports of human anatomy found in Greek medical literature. These passages testify the initial steps taken by Greek scientists in building a theoretical model of the human body. In these excerpts, one finds erroneous anatomical descriptions, which shed light on the epistemological approach used by these intellectual pioneers. Because of the lack of systematic dissection, it appears that early Greek anatomists developed a somewhat stylized idea of the human body that used a certain degree of symmetry. Overcoming the concept of a strict left-right bilateral parallelism in human body architecture was a challenging intellectual task that required prolonged observation of dissected corpses.

  12. The impact of ancient Greek medicine in India: the birth of Unani medicine.

    PubMed

    Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Karamanou, Marianna; George, Androutsos

    2015-01-01

    Unani Medicine, also called "Unani-tibb", has a long and impressive record in India based on the grecoarabic medicine and teachings of Hippocrates, Galen and Arab physicians. Its main principle is the maintenance of equilibrium among the various aspects of the body, made up of four elements, different temperaments, simple and compound organs, and four humours. The main bibliographic sources concerning the impact of ancient Greek medicine in India and the principles of Unani Medicine have been investigated and analysed. The assimilation of Hippocratic principles in a country with a different philosophy and worldview was successful. The ancient Greek medical system enriched with local elements encountered a large response to the Indian people and to the physicians. Nowadays Unani medicine is not only popular in India where several Unani practitioners are registered but it enjoys a worldwide upsurge of interest.

  13. Greek Parents' Perceptions of Male Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined Greek parents' perceptions of barriers to men entering the early childhood education and care profession and their recommendations for recruiting more males into the field. Parents were asked to respond on a Likert scale to statements regarding males' decision to enter the profession, possible benefits for male…

  14. Pharmacology and psychiatry at the origins of Greek medicine: The myth of Melampus and the madness of the Proetides.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Matteo F; Marzari, Francesca; Kesel, Andreas J; Bonalume, Laura; Saettini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders. The discussion aims at examining the rational aspects of the treatment of mental conditions in Greco-Roman antiquity.

  15. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    PubMed

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one.

  17. The historical origins of the basic concepts of health promotion and education: the role of ancient Greek philosophy and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tountas, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that the basic concepts of 'Health Promotion' have been developed in the last two decades, they have their roots in ancient civilizations and in particular in Greek antiquity. As evident from medical and philosophical documents of the sixth to fourth centuries B.C., the ancient Greeks were the first to break with the supernatural conceptions of health and disease that had so far dominated human societies. The ancient Greeks developed the physiocratic school of thought, realizing that maintaining good health and fighting illness depend on natural causes and that health and disease cannot be dissociated from particular physical and social environments nor from human behavior. In this context, they defined health as a state of dynamic equilibrium between the internal and the external environment, they took under consideration the physical and social determinants of health, they empowered individuals and communities through new democratic and participatory institutions, they gave emphasis in health education and skill development, they recognized the importance of supportive environments and of healthy public policy and they re-oriented medicine toward a more naturalistic and humanistic perspective. The aim of the present study is to highlight such core concepts from these early times that helped establishing the foundations for health promotion and education in the modern era according to the Ottawa Charter.

  18. [Greek medicine in ancient times and its ophthalmological aspects].

    PubMed

    Bieganowski, Lech

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the state of medical knowledge in ancient Greece. Sacred medicine related to the cult of Asclepius and the origin of secular medicine is described. Ophthalmological aspects concerning the anatomy of the eye, diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases are emphasized.

  19. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-10-07

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  20. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness. PMID:19811642

  1. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  2. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  3. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  4. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  5. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    PubMed

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed.

  6. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  7. At the crossroads of Greek and Roman medicine: the contribution of Latin papyri. 1. Medical texts; 2. Iatromagical papyri.

    PubMed

    Marganne, Marie-Hélène; de Haro Sanchez, Magali

    2014-01-01

    1. Far fewer Latin medical papyri, whether paraliterary, documentary or magical, have survived compared to Greek medical papyri, but they nonetheless provide interesting information about medical practices in the Graeco-Roman world, the relationship between Greek and Latin medical languages, and the choices made to use one rather than the other, a subject that has never been exhaustively studied. As part of the update undertaken by CEDOPAL since 2008 of the Corpus papyrorum Latinarum, published fifty years ago by the late Robert Cavenaile, we have inventoried Latin papyri containing medical references, classifying them by type or nature of content, provenance, form, layout, and writing. We finally analyse their content and what it reveals about the reception of Greek medicine by Latin or Latin-speaking writers. 2. The second section presents the only iatromagical papyrus in Latin known at the present time, P. Held. inv. lat. 5 (Suppl. Mag. 1.36, ca. fifth/sixth centuries, Fustat [?]), and compares its content with that of the Greek iatromagical papyri (dating from the first century B.C. to the seventh century A.D.) on one hand, and on the other hand with iatromagical formulae in Latin that have been preserved on metal leaves coming from Italy, Hungary, France, and England.

  8. The centre thought to control sensory and motor activity in the early history of medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Quin, C E

    1992-01-01

    In Ancient Greek medicine the heart instead of the brain was sometimes thought to be the organ co-ordinating sensory and motor activity. The history of the origin of this erroneous idea is outlined. The relative importance of observations and theory in early medical investigations is discussed, and the anatomical dissections leading to the establishment of the brain as the centre of sensory and motor function are described. PMID:1445510

  9. Influence of Judaism and Jewish physicians on Greek and Byzantine medicine and their contribution to nephrology.

    PubMed

    Massry, S G; Smogorzewski, M; Hazani, E; Shasha, S M

    1997-01-01

    Both the Old Testament and the Talmud contain a great deal of information on medicine, nephrology, health and disease. The basic premise of early Jewish medicine is based on the notion that disease is due to structural changes in internal organs. This is in contrast to the mythical dogma of humoralism as the basis of health and disease espoused by Hippocrates and Galen. The Old Testament and the Mosaic Codes provided the basis for modern public health and for the hygienic rules practised in our times. The Talmudists laid the foundations for the science of pathology as we know it today. These issues are discussed in detail and the contributions of three prominent medieval physicians (Asaph Judaeus, Isaac Judaeus and Maimonides) are presented.

  10. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  11. The invention of infertility in the classical Greek world: medicine, divinity, and gender.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when "infertility," understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented.

  12. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  13. Greek Tragedies, Greek Revivals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan

    1999-01-01

    College leaders are cracking down on illegal and destructive behavior by fraternities and other campus groups. In establishing and implementing policy, trustees and presidents should collect data on how Greek life affects education, focus on campus physical conditions, reward appropriate behavior and punish destructive behavior, encourage student…

  14. Some Influences of Greek and Roman Rhetoric on Early Letter Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how letter writing, especially business letters, was influenced by Greek and Roman oral rhetoricians. Discusses three precepts of oral rhetoric--inventio, dispositio, and style--and notes that the classical theories' reflection in written communication can be seen in selected Italian, German, and English epistolographic works. (MM)

  15. What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Horden, Peregrine

    2011-01-01

    The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

  16. The Greek Concept of "Techne."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    The Greek concept of techne can aid in understanding technological society and the way it can generate a separation of business and personal lives. As used by the early Greeks, techne mean the knowledge required to get the job done. The "manager" of today epitomizes this early concept. He is trained to get the job done efficiently,…

  17. Quality of Care and Education Provided by Greek Day-Care Centres: An Approach from Researcher's and Early Childhood Educators' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining the level of quality and care provided by Greek preschool programmes, from the researcher's and early childhood educators' perspectives and verify whether they evaluate with the same way. Research results indicate that according to the researcher's assessment both preschool and infant/toddler classrooms…

  18. [The ideal and practice of Greek medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Sung, Y G

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned not with medical theories, but with practices of Greek physicians, and I have addressed the subject of medical ethics as related to the Hippocratic tradition. And I have attempted a synthetic account of Greek physicians' actual practice and its ideals in the Hippocratic tradition. My understanding of the tradition succeeds the revelations in the first chapter of my doctoral dissertation, one of them is the fact that Hippocratic tradition is amalgamation of ethical code with rational or scientific medical theory. In the first chapter of this paper, I have attempted a social history of Greek physicians by analyzing Hippocratic writings. The Hippocratic collections, Corpus Hippocraticum, throw light not only on the origins and early development of classical medicine, but on its place in Greek Society. In the second chapter, I aim at understanding of the medical morality in its practice by analyzing the Corpus. Particularly the Oath shall be examined. Some questions, above all, such as "Was it ever a reality or merely a 'counsel of perfection'?" can not be answered. But by the way of the examination of the deontological treatises, the characters of the ethics of Greek physicians become clear. It was the result of outward performance in the relation of inner intention. In the result Greek physicians were the first to attempt to establish a code of behavior for the medical profession and to define the doctor's obligations to the society.

  19. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  20. Typical Didactical Activities in the Greek Early-Years Science Classroom: Do They Promote Science Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children's understanding in science. The analysis of didactical…

  1. [The early magazines of traditional Chinese medicine in Fuzhou region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong

    2002-10-01

    The early magazines of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Fuzhou region, Xian dai yi yao (Modern Medicine) and Yi duo (Medical Bell) did play certain historical role in the protection of TCM, dissemination of Chinese medical know - how, and promotion of academic exchanges.

  2. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  3. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  4. A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Pomata, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (tērēsis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of tērēsis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564.

  5. Reconsiderations about Greek homosexualities.

    PubMed

    Percy, William Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Focusing his analysis on (mostly Athenian) vase paintings of the sixth- and early fifth-century and on a handful of texts from the late fifth- and early fourth-century (again Athenian), Dover depicted the pederastic relationship of erastes (age 20 to 30) and eromenos (age 12-18) as defined by sexual roles, active and passive, respectively. This dichotomy he connected to other sexual and social phenomena, in which the active/ penetrating role was considered proper for a male adult Athenian citizen, while the passive/penetrated role was denigrated, ridiculed, and even punished. Constructing various social and psychological theories, Foucault and Halperin, along with a host of others, have extended his analysis, but at the core has remained the Dover dogma of sexual-role dichotomization. Penetration has become such a focal point in the scholarship that anything unable to be analyzed in terms of domination is downplayed or ignored. To reduce homosexuality or same-sex behaviors to the purely physical or sexual does an injustice to the complex phenomena of the Greek male experience. From Sparta to Athens to Thebes and beyond, the Greek world incorporated pederasty into their educational systems. Pederasty became a way to lead a boy into manhood and full participation in the polis, which meant not just participation in politics but primarily the ability to benefit the city in a wide range of potential ways. Thus the education, training, and even inspiration provided in the pederastic relationship released creative forces that led to what has been called the Greek 'miracle.' From around 630 BCE we find the institution of Greek pederasty informing the art and literature to a degree yet to be fully appreciated. Moreover, this influence not only extends to the 'higher' realms of culture, but also can be seen stimulating society at all levels, from the military to athletic games, from philosophy to historiography. An understanding of sexual practices-useful, even essential, to

  6. Using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment to Evaluate the Quality of Early Child Care in Greek Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth of interest in ensuring that child care provision for children is of a high quality. This interest has been stimulated by research evidence according to which good quality child care has a positive influence on children's overall development. The global quality in Greek preschool and…

  7. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  8. Using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment to Evaluate the Quality of Early Child Care in Greek Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth of interest in ensuring that child care provision for children is of a high quality. This interest has been stimulated by research evidence according to which good quality child care has a positive influence on children's overall development. The global quality in Greek preschool and…

  9. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  10. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  11. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-05

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  12. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  13. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Lonnie

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  15. Contemporary Greek Presentations of Ancient Greek Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Confronted with the problems imposed by the stage presentation and interpretation of ancient Greek theatre to contemporary audiences, scholars have developed four major approaches to the presentation of Greek drama over the past 70 years. The first approach, referred to as modificationist or realist, claims that communicating ancient Greek drama…

  16. Greek Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  17. Greek Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine use during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; Mclay, James S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and explore predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use during early pregnancy. A questionnaire survey of pregnant women (500) attending for mid trimester scan at the maternity services in Grampian, North-East Scotland. Outcome measures included; CAM used; vitamins and minerals used; independent predictors of use; views and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The response rate was 66%. Two thirds of respondents (63%) reported using CAM, excluding vitamins and minerals, during early pregnancy. Respondents reported using a total of 28 different CAM modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (37% of respondents, 25 different products). The independent predictors of CAM use identified were: use by family and friends (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.3, p<0.001); ethnicity (non-white British) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.8, p<0.001); and use prior to pregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.014). In comparison to prescribed medicines, most users were uncertain if CAM were safer (63%), more effective (66%), free from possible adverse effects (46%) or drug-CAM interactions (50%). Despite the majority of respondents being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, CAM modalities and CAM products are widely used during the early stages of pregnancy in this study population. The role of family and friends rather than health professionals in the decision to use CAM may be of concern and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  20. RESPONSE OF THE GREEK EARLY WARNING SYSTEM REUTER-STOKES IONIZATION CHAMBERS TO TERRESTRIAL AND COSMIC RADIATION EVALUATED IN COMPARISON WITH SPECTROSCOPIC DATA AND TIME SERIES ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Leontaris, F; Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Maltezos, A; Potiriadis, C; Kiriakopoulos, E; Guilhot, J

    2017-08-10

    The Telemetric Early Warning System Network of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission consists mainly of a network of 24 Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ionization chambers (HPIC) for gamma dose rate measurements and covers all Greece. In the present work, the response of the Reuter-Stokes HPIC to terrestrial and cosmic radiation was evaluated in comparison with spectroscopic data obtained by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable hyper pure Germanium detectors (HPGe), near the Reuter-Stokes detectors and time series analysis. For the HPIC detectors, a conversion factor for the measured absorbed dose rate in air (in nGy h-1) to the total ambient dose equivalent rate Ḣ*(10), due to terrestrial and cosmic component, was deduced by the field measurements. Time series analysis of the mean monthly dose rate (measured by the Reuter-Stokes detector in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, from 2001 to 2016) was performed with advanced statistical methods (Fast Fourier Analysis and Zhao Atlas Marks Transform). Fourier analysis reveals several periodicities (periodogram). The periodogram of the absorbed dose rate in air values was compared with the periodogram of the values measured for the same period (2001-16) and in the same location with a NaI (Tl) detector which in principle is not sensitive to cosmic radiation. The obtained results are presented and discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    PubMed

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt.

  2. Greek Temples and Rituals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutsikas, Efrosyni

    Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.

  3. Smallpox vaccination: an early start of modern medicine in America.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980. Before its eradication thedisease had a mortality rate upwards of 50% and had a significant impact on society. During theAmerican Revolutionary war, smallpox outbreaks were impeding the American war effort until1777 when George Washington carried out a mass inoculation campaign in the ContinentalArmy that reduced the mortality from smallpox to less than 2%. Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease. Washington has been credited with helping to ease the burden ofsmallpox on the Army which improved the odds of success against the British. When EdwardJenner's vaccine reached America it was more readily accepted by political and medical leadersdue the success of Washington's inoculation campaign. The Founding Fathers argued thatsmallpox vaccination was the greatest discovery in modern medicine and they were likely correctthat it helped to usher in the modern era of vaccinology.

  4. WHY NOT GREEK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHRIVER, JOHN R.

    BECAUSE A KNOWLEDGE OF CLASSICAL GREEK IS NECESSARY FOR UNDERSTANDING MODERN THOUGHT AND LITERATURE, IT SHOULD BE PART OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM. A PROBLEM IS GETTING TEACHERS OF GREEK, AND PROBABLY MOST OF THE TEACHING SHOULD BE DONE BY COLLEGE PROFESSORS WHO TEACH THE HIGHLY MOTIVATED STUDENTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL. AN ELEMENTARY COURSE…

  5. Greeks in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazacoufa, Demetrius

    Information is presented on various topics related to Greek-Americans, including the different phases of emigration and immigration, language difficulties and other problems encountered in America, and Greek-American organizations and institutions. Particular attention is given to describing the cultural, social, and political characteristics of…

  6. Early evolution of the thermometer and application to clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F

    2016-02-01

    By the time of Hippocrates and Galen the notion of fevers and temperature were known. Through ensuing centuries, ancient Greek, Roman, and medieval savants and physicians made additional contributions to the understanding of fever, temperature, and thermometry. By the end of that era, there was a working definition of what constitutes a rationale temperature scale, the distinction between fever as a symptom and fever as a disease, an elaborate classification scheme for temperature, hypotheses as to the causes of fever, and methods for measuring fevers. Based on the definition of fever at that time, the 16th century scientist Galileo promulgated production of thermometric instruments hundreds of years before they were routinely used in the clinical setting. In this work we examine the history of fever and clinical thermometry in the ancient world through the end of the eighteenth century with descriptions of instruments for its measure and human relationship to fever.

  7. Ancient Greek terminology in pediatric surgery: about the word meaning.

    PubMed

    Soutis, Michael

    2006-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the medical terminology has its roots in ancient Greek and Latin. Greek words have been used not only in the field of medicine but also in every day language for many centuries. The aim of this article is to provide an abbreviated guide to the etymology and the meaning of Greek words used in the medical literature today, emphasizing on the field of pediatric surgery. Thus, the term paediatric is constructed from the words paedion, meaning "child", and iatriki, meaning "medicine", literally, "medicine for children." Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek term is chirourgiki, derived from cheir and ergon, that is, "hand and action," meaning the action made by hands. This term is also found in the French and German medical literature as chirourgie and chirurgie, respectively. Some general terms in surgery are also of Greek origin. The word trauma has been transferred into the English literature without modification and comes from the verb diatitreno, meaning to "penetrate." Other such terms include diagnosis, from the verb diagignosko, meaning to "discriminate"; symptom, from the verb sympipto, that is, "to coinside"; and the adjectives clinical and clinic, from the noun klini, meaning "bed." Focusing on special fields of pediatric surgery, the etymology and the meaning of Greek words used in the medical literature will be shown and analyzed.

  8. Anti-MCV antibodies predict radiographic progression in Greek patients with very early (<3 months duration) rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barouta, Georgia; Katsiari, Christina G; Alexiou, Ioannis; Liaskos, Christos; Varna, Areti; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Germenis, Anastasios E; Sakkas, Lazaros I

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibodies in very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA) and in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-one patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) of <3 months duration, 141 with established RA, 53 with other rheumatic diseases, and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study. Anti-MCV, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) were determined and hand radiographs were recorded. Patients were assessed prospectively for 2 years, and hand radiographs were repeated. Diagnostic performance of anti-MCV was studied with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Forty-six percent of UA patients progressed to RA at 2 years. In VERA patients, sensitivity of anti-MCV was 52 %, compared to 44 % of anti-CCP and 37 % of RF, while specificity was 91 %, compared to 91 % of RF and 84 % of anti-CCP. Anti-MCV were detected in 25 % of VERA patients negative for both anti-CCP and RF. In established RA, anti-MCV did not sustain its diagnostic performance. By multivariable analysis, anti-MCV, but not anti-CCP or RF, showed significant correlation with radiographic progression in VERA patients. In established RA, anti-MCV, anti-CCP, and RF were associated with active disease (p ≤ 0.03) and joint damage (p ≤ 0.004). By multivariate analysis, the strongest factors for radiographic damage were disease duration (p = 0.000), HAQ score (p = 0.000), and RF (p = 0.002). In conclusion, in patients with very early UA, anti-MCV predict both progression to RA and radiological damage, and therefore, anti-MCV antibody testing may be useful in every day practice.

  9. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    PubMed

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  10. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice.

  11. Sports Medicine and School Nurses: A Growing Need for Further Education and Appropriate Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Cynthia S.; Badros, Karen K.; Madden, Cynthia A.; Drewer, Nancy; Makuchai, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Sports medicine, as a discipline, can be traced back to primitive man. The use of exercise as a prerequisite for conditioning and proper treatment of injuries was first documented in early Greek civilization with the establishment of the Olympics. Today, sports by their very nature invite injury. In 2000, 2.5 million students participated in…

  12. Sports Medicine and School Nurses: A Growing Need for Further Education and Appropriate Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Cynthia S.; Badros, Karen K.; Madden, Cynthia A.; Drewer, Nancy; Makuchai, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Sports medicine, as a discipline, can be traced back to primitive man. The use of exercise as a prerequisite for conditioning and proper treatment of injuries was first documented in early Greek civilization with the establishment of the Olympics. Today, sports by their very nature invite injury. In 2000, 2.5 million students participated in…

  13. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign…

  14. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign…

  15. Ancient Greek Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  16. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  17. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Giovazolias, Theodoros; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Mitsopoulou, Effrosyni

    2017-01-01

    Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265). Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim) as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale’s use in younger populations are also discussed. PMID:28580026

  18. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Giovazolias, Theodoros; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Mitsopoulou, Effrosyni

    2017-05-01

    Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265). Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim) as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale's use in younger populations are also discussed.

  19. ["Non naturals" in Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Naohide

    2010-03-01

    "Non naturals," which appear frequently in the history of Western medicine, means things not controlled by human nature, contrary to natural components of a body. It covers such a wide range of factors as physiological or psychological things, and the external envionment. Generally, these are classified into six categories; ambient air, food and drink, exercise and rest, sleep and wakefulness, excretion and retention, and the passions of soul. In medieval times the knowledge of these "six non naturals" constituted a kind of hygiene or regimen. People cannot avoid the effects of these elements in their lifetime, so physicians were required to learn about them not only to treat diseases but to preserve health and to prevent diseases. This became so common that it was included in the curriculum of medical schools. Although these factors were already known to have an effect on the health of humans in the early stage of Greek medicine, it took a long time to be formed into the theory of "six non naturals." Its origin can be traced back to Galen's "Ars medica," but he does not use the name "non naturals." With the later development of medicine in the Islamic world, which received Greek medicine through translation, the number and the contents of related factors differ from author to author. Moreover, they use different names; few authors use the name "non naturals." It seems that "six non naturals" had not been established as theory until the later stage of the history of medicine in Islam.

  20. Greek and Roman Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  1. Greek and Roman Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  2. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  3. [Textbooks of western medicine in the early modernization period].

    PubMed

    Seo, H G

    1994-01-01

    The first modern hospital, royal Kwang-Hye-Won (House of Extended Grace) was established in April of 1885, whose name was changed into royal Che-Jung-Won (House of Helpfulness) in several days. Private (not royal) Je-Jung-Won opened its Medical School in 1899. And the teachers composed of western missionaries taught some Korean student-assistants the Western medicine with English textbooks in English. With very low effectiveness of teaching due to language barrier, Dr. Avison, the principal of that school decided to write medical textbooks in Korean. At first he tried to translate Henry Gray's Anatomy of 1859. In the effort he referred some Chinese and Japanese medical books. With that reason, we can find many Japanese style medical terms in some medical books of his. On the other hand, Eui-Hak-Kyo (the Medical School) was established by the Government of Dae-Han Empire in 1899. The teaching staff of the school published medical textbooks in Korean, some of which were written by Japanese doctors. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Japanese government forced teachers of the school to teach with Japanese medical books and to speak Japanese in teaching. ...

  4. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    PubMed

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  5. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  6. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  8. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  9. Greek Cosmology and Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alexander

    The structure, composition, and long-term history of the cosmos were prominent topics in many ancient Greek philosophical systems. Philosophers and philosophically informed astronomers differed over whether the cosmos was finite or infinite, eternal or transient, and composed of discrete particles or continuous, homogeneous elements. The Aristotelian cosmology preferred by astronomers following Ptolemy assumed a finite, spherical shell of eternally unalterable matter enclosing a terrestrial globe composed of earth, water, air, and fire.

  10. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected.

  11. "I'm a Greek Kiwi": Constructing "Greekness" in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on the preliminary findings of a project on the constructions of "Greekness" in modern diasporas. The discussion draws on data from the self-identified Greek community of Wellington, New Zealand. Interview data, ethnographic diaries, and everyday real-life spoken interactions were collected. The analysis of the data…

  12. "I'm a Greek Kiwi": Constructing "Greekness" in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on the preliminary findings of a project on the constructions of "Greekness" in modern diasporas. The discussion draws on data from the self-identified Greek community of Wellington, New Zealand. Interview data, ethnographic diaries, and everyday real-life spoken interactions were collected. The analysis of the data…

  13. Early evaluation and value-based pricing of regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Koerber, Florian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Rogowski, Wolf

    2013-11-01

    Since the first pioneering scientists explored the potential of using human cells for therapeutic purposes the branch of regenerative medicine has evolved to become a mature industry. The focus has switched from 'what can be done' to 'what can be commercialized'. Timely health economic evaluation supports successful marketing by establishing the value of a product from a healthcare system perspective. This article reports results from a research project on early health economic evaluation in collaboration with developers, clinicians and manufacturers. We present an approach to determine an early value-based price for a new treatment of cartilage defects of the knee from the area of regenerative medicine. Examples of using evaluation results for the purpose of business planning, market entry, preparing the coverage decision and managed entry are discussed.

  14. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  15. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  16. [On early red-head-style external medicine and the Confucian physician Mukai Gensho].

    PubMed

    Michel, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    In 1656, at the request of the imperial commissioner Inoue Masashige Chikugo-no-kami, the neo-Confucian physician Mukai Genshō compiled medical instructions given to him by the Dejima trading-post surgeon Hans Juriaen Hancke. This was the first text on Western surgery by a trained Japanese specialist. Based on an extensive analysis of related Japanese source material, it is shown that the manuscript Komōryū geka hiyō ("Secret compendium of red-head-style external medicine"), previously considered to represent Mukai's original report, is a rather corrupted version. Other manuscripts, such as Oranda-den geka ruihō ("Arranged formulas of Dutch external medicine"), Oranda geka ihō ("Medical formulas of Dutch external medicine"), or Shōji shinan ("Compass of diagnosis and treatment"), are much more coherent in their contents and fit well with Dutch sources. Furthermore, it is shown how Mukai "identified" and "translated" the Latin names of ulcers, tumours, inflammations, etc., by comparing Hancke's teachings with the most comprehensive Eastern source on surgical matters, the Waìke zhèngzōng (Jap. Geka seisō, "Orthodox manual of external medicine"). His eclectic approach resulted in a combination of Sino-Japanese pathology with Western treatment methods. Mukai had set an example that would dominate the reception of Western medicine in Japan for more than a century. It became widely known as early as 1670, when Yamawaki Dōen included many parts of Mukai's report in his Oranda geka ryōhō ("Good formulas of Dutch external medicine"), the first Japanese book on red-head-style external surgery.

  17. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue.

  18. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European ‘postcode’ lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  19. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  20. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  1. [International exchanges in the early stage of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine under the Ministry of Health was established in 1955. It exerted worldwide influence, and attracted extensive attention internationally. During its early days, lots of letters from abroad asking for TCM consultation were accepted consistently. TCM experts were invited to treat a great number of foreign patients in China or overseas. It also received visits of many foreign government delegations and academic groups. Moreover, physicians were dispatched to visit abroad, international academic conferences were held and training classes were sponsored for returned students and medical interns. Frequent international academic exchanges promoted the friendly intercourse with foreign countries, and the spread of TCM overseas, which displayed the function and value of traditional Chinese medicine, reflecting its unique significance and charm, and its great contributions to the improvement of people's health the world over.

  2. Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Korčula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽić, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽić (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature.

  3. [Greek nannies in Rome?].

    PubMed

    Dasen, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    In Roman society, parents often entrusted their newborn to a wet nurse, usually a slave or a lower-class freeborn woman, who normally lived with them. It was advised to choose with care the right person, as milk is not a neutral bodily substance but transmits many properties, physical and moral. Soranus devotes an entire chapter to the meticulous inspection of the nurse's milk and temper. The nurse's character must be checked as thoroughly as her physical health. The mind of the newborn, compared with wax, is from the start and forever impressed positively or negatively. Mnesitheus and others even advise choosing a woman resembling physically the mother, or a handsome person; Favorinus and others reject violently the recourse to wet nursing as immoral; submitting the child to the pernicious influence of a foreign non-kin person implies the destruction of family ties. Wet nurses had to follow a specific diet and to accept giving up their sexual life, which would corrupt the milk in case of a new pregnancy. Roman upper-class families attributed different qualities to nurses according to their ethnic origin: Egyptians were allegedly fond of children, Thracians robust and devoted, Spartans tough. The best were the Greeks, because they would teach Greek language - and culture - to their nurslings. The nurse's social function was extensive. Her role did not stop at the weaning period. Much evidence shows that she was a lifelong companion. In positive circumstances, she could construct non-kin relationships and became, through connections not of blood but of milk, a member of an extended family. Funerary inscriptions and literary sources show that some nurses were rewarded by freedom. Breast-feeding also created milk-ties between the nurslings, who could gain social elevation thanks to this bonding.

  4. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved “upstream” so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage “upstream” HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers. PMID:26760958

  5. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    PubMed

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers.

  6. [Chinese medicine needs the baptism of science].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tai

    2012-08-01

    All branches of mature practical technologies of both Eastern and Western ancient cultures, such as astronomy, geography, calendar, agriculture, architectonics, medicine, and so on, possess their own scientific connotation, which were derived from gradual accumulation and repeated validation of practical experiences. The ancient Greek medicine has the advantage of easily receiving scientific 'baptism' (reformation). The ontology and logics in ancient Greek philosophy, served as the epistemological and methodological bases, could effectively promote the development of science. Therefore, following the rapid progress of natural sciences since the Renaissance of the West world, the ancient Greek medicine rationally received the scientific "baptism" and gradually transformed into "modern medicine". In recent years, an upsurge to study and reappraise the works of Galen, an outstanding doctor and philosopher of Roman Empire, was evoked to discover and illuminate the practical and historical values of ancient Greek medicine. In ancient times, the medical theories and clinical practice of both Greek medicine and Chinese medicine were quite similar to each other, and they separately produced particular merits of themselves. However, owe to lack in the support of natural philosophy in ancient China, the progress of Chinese medicine, with its original native qualities for thousands of years only showed increase of clinical experiences, rather than scientific reformation of its essences. Therefore, Chinese medicine should also receive scientific "baptism" as Greek medicine. Ebb tide and see the real gold. The valuable medical experiences of Chinese medicine can be picked up for wide application, and its great historical achievements can be revealed for later pondering.

  7. Eclipses and Ancient Greek Philosophers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Rovithis, P.

    2007-05-01

    Eclipses had attracted the interest of many ancient Greek philosophers, independently where they lived: on the mainland, or in the Greek colonies. In this short review their opinions are presented together with some predicted or registered solar or lunar eclipses. Moreover, the way of prediction as well as some other observations -like occultations by the Moon- are noted. Other findings -like the spherical shape of the Earth, the dimensions and the distances of the Moon and the Sun- are also mentioned.

  8. Soul, mind, brain: Greek philosophy and the birth of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2007-01-09

    The nature of "soul" and the source of "psychic life", the anatomical seat of cognitive, motor and sensory functions, and the origin of neural diseases were broadly debated by ancient Greek scientists since the earliest times. Within the space of few centuries, speculation of philosophers and medical thinkers laid the foundations of modern experimental and clinical neuroscience. This review provides a brief history of the leading doctrines on the essence of soul and the properties of mind professed by Greek philosophers and physicians as well as the early attempts to localize brain faculties and to explain neural disorders.

  9. Investigation of the Greek ancestry of populations from northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Atika; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Khaliq, Shagufta; Hameed, Abdul; Rehman, Sadia; Siddiqi, Saima; Papaioannou, Myrto; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Mehdi, S Qasim; Ayub, Qasim

    2004-04-01

    Three populations from northern Pakistan, the Burusho, Kalash, and Pathan, claim descent from soldiers left behind by Alexander the Great after his invasion of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. In order to investigate their genetic relationships, we analyzed nine Alu insertion polymorphisms and 113 autosomal microsatellites in the extant Pakistani and Greek populations. Principal component, phylogenetic, and structure analyses show that the Kalash are genetically distinct, and that the Burusho and Pathan populations are genetically close to each other and the Greek population. Admixture estimates suggest a small Greek contribution to the genetic pool of the Burusho and Pathan and demonstrate that these two northern Pakistani populations share a common Indo-European gene pool that probably predates Alexander's invasion. The genetically isolated Kalash population may represent the genetic pool of ancestral Eurasian populations of Central Asia or early Indo-European nomadic pastoral tribes that became sequestered in the valleys of the Hindu Kush Mountains.

  10. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854.

    .

  11. Emergency department management of early sepsis: a national survey of emergency medicine and intensive care consultants.

    PubMed

    Jiwaji, Zoeb; Brady, Shirin; McIntyre, Lauralyn A; Gray, Alasdair; Walsh, Timothy S

    2014-12-01

    Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) is recommended for sepsis management in current guidelines, but the underpinning evidence is controversial. Clinician beliefs and the capacity to implement all recommended elements of EGDT in emergency departments (EDs) are uncertain. Our study aimed to explore self-reported management of early sepsis by Scottish emergency medicine (EM) and intensive care medicine (ICM) consultants, delineate important differences and determine the guideline recommendations rated most important and deliverable within the ED. A postal survey using a hypothetical patient with septic shock was sent to all EM and ICM consultants practising in Scotland. 67% (76/114) EM and 61% (96/157) ICM consultants responded. Normal saline was preferred by EM respondents ('always/often used': EM 86%, ICM 23%, p<0.0001), whereas ICM respondents preferred Hartmann's solution (EM 42%, ICM 72%, p=0.0164), gelofusin (EM 10%, ICM 63%, p<0.0001) and starch (EM 0%, ICM 24%, p<0.0001). More ICM respondents indicated they used central venous pressure and invasive arterial pressure monitoring in the ED, and initiated vasopressors (EM 57%, ICM 90%, p<0.0001). More ICM consultants used specific haemoglobin transfusion triggers (48% EM, 77% ICM, p=0.0002), but marked variation in haemoglobin triggers and targets was reported. Lactate was rated the most important single resuscitation parameter by both specialties; no ED and only two ICM consultants rated ScVO2 most important. Differences in early fluid and vasopressor management of sepsis exist between Scottish ICM and EM consultants. Transfusion practice is highly variable, suggesting clinical uncertainty. Lactate is considered more important than ScVO2 measurement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. [Plinius and Greek physicians in Rome: the concept of nature and medical critique in Naturalis Historia].

    PubMed

    Hahn, J

    1991-01-01

    Pliny's historical outline of the development of medicine, in Natural History 29.1-27, is our primary source concerning the reception of scientific medicine at Rome during the later Republic and early Empire. Here, as elsewhere, Pliny handles Greek doctors and their medical practices with vehement disapproval. But this attitude, at first glance anti-Hellene, traditionalistic, and critical of his coevals, arises from more deeply rooted notions: a specific conception of nature which can be shown to be the basis of Pliny's critique of medicine and his own times. Reconstruction of this "Plinean" conception reveals a view of nature marked by Stoic terminology and categories, though in fact derivate from various sources, idiosyncratic and characterized by a genuine love of and respect for nature and her creations. True comprehension of the lessons offered by nature, resulting in concrete mores of behaviour and moral categories, as opposed to theory and speculation, is the proper modus operandi for Pliny. And thus, with regard to the human process of self-discovery in the natural world, medicine plays a decisive role--for providential nature displays herself most clearly in the production of healing substances. Pliny notes among the proponents of scientific medicine, a general disregard for nature and her rules, while he finds just the opposite in traditional medicine. His own accomplishment resides not only in the safeguarding of numberless recipies from the world of folk medicine, but also in the facts that he under-pins these traditional methods of healing, and their basic principles, with a specific conception of nature, and that he marks out an exceptionally important place for traditional methods of healing in the canon of general knowledge.

  13. Overcoming early barriers to PCMH practice improvement in family medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Douglas H; Deaner, Nicole; O'Neill, Caitlin; Jortberg, Bonnie T; degruy, Frank Verloin; Dickinson, W Perry

    2011-01-01

    Residency programs face inevitable challenges as they redesign their practices for higher quality care and resident training. Identifying and addressing early barriers can help align priorities and thereby augment the capacity to change. Evaluation of the Colorado Family Medicine Residency PCMH Project included iterative qualitative analysis of field notes, interviews, and documents to identify early barriers to change and strategies to overcome them. Nine common but not universal barriers were identified: (1) a practice's history reflected some negative past experiences with quality improvement or routines incompatible with transformative change, (2) leadership gaps were evident in unprepared practice leaders or hierarchical leadership, (3) resistance and skepticism about change were expressed through cynicism aimed at change or ability to change, (4) unproductive team processes were reflected in patterns of canceled meetings, absentee leaders, or lack of accountability, (5) knowledge gaps about the Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) were apparent from incomplete dissemination about the project or planned changes, (6) EHR implementation distracted focus or stalled improvement activity, (7) sponsoring organizations' constraints emerged from staffing rules and differing priorities, (8) insufficient staff participation resulted from traditional role expectations and structures, and (9) communication was hampered by ineffective methods and part-time faculty and residents. Early barriers responded to varying degrees to specific interventions by practice coaches. Some barriers that interfere with practices getting started with cultural and structural transformation can be addressed with persistent attention and reflection from on-site coaches and by realigning the talents, leaders, and priorities already in these residency programs.

  14. An overview of the Greek pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Kontozamanis, V; Mantzouneas, E; Stoforos, C

    2003-11-01

    This contribution presents the major aspects of the pharmaceutical market in Greece. Total expenditure on pharmaceuticals rose from euro 1.22 billion in 1995 to euro 1.85 billion in 2000. The rise in pharmaceutical expenditure is expected to continue due to factors determining demand (e.g., aging population) and deficiencies in public policy. The latter is related to the pricing and reimbursement of medicinal products. Regarding pricing, the lowest ex-factory price in the EU is applied de facto to imported products but for domestically produced/packaged products is the upper limit. The pharmaceutical market in Greece has a trade deficit, which exceeded euro 953 million in 2000. Finally, parallel trade has received increased attention. The consequences are twofold: shortages in Greek pharmacies and delays in launching new and more effective drugs. The latter is the result of a defensive strategy followed by major companies to minimize the effects of this activity.

  15. The effect of a simple educational intervention on interest in early abortion training among family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Patient Dignity Inventory in Advanced Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Tsilika, Eleni; Galanos, Antonis; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2017-09-01

    The patient dignity inventory (PDI) is an instrument to measure dignity distressing aspects at the end of life. The aims of the present study were the translation of the PDI in Greek language as well as to measure its psychometric aspects in a palliative care unit. A back-translation method was obtained at the Greek version. One hundred twenty advanced cancer patients completed the Greek version of the PDI, the Greek hospital anxiety and depression scale, the Greek schedule of attitudes toward hastened death (SAHD-Gr), and the Greek 12-item short form health survey. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to fit to the original instrument's structure and exploratory factor analysis was conducted revealing five factors ("Psychological Distress," "Body Image and Role Identity," "Self-Esteem," "Physical Distress and Dependency," and "Social Support"). The psychometric analysis of the PDI-Gr demonstrated a good concurrent validity, and the instrument discriminated well between subgroups of patients regarding age differences. Cronbach α were between 0.71 and 0.9 showing a good internal consistency. The Greek version of the PDI showed good psychometric properties in advanced cancer patients, supported the usefulness of the instrument assessing the sense of dignity distressing aspects of the terminally ill cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Introduction of an Evidence-based Medicine Course to Preclinical Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Weiner, Michael; Breitfeld, Philip P; Brahmi, Fran; Dickerson, Keith L; Weiner, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) has been increasingly integrated into medical education curricula. Using an observational research design, we evaluated the feasibility of introducing a 1-month problem-based EBM course for 139 first-year medical students at a large university center. We assessed program performance through the use of a web-based curricular component and practice exam, final examination scores, student satisfaction surveys, and a faculty questionnaire. Students demonstrated active involvement in learning EBM and ability to use EBM principles. Facilitators felt that students performed well and compared favorably with residents whom they had supervised in the past year. Both faculty and students were satisfied with the EBM course. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that early introduction of EBM principles as a short course to preclinical medical students is feasible and practical. PMID:11903776

  18. Precision Medicine for Molecularly Targeted Agents and Immunotherapies in Early-Phase Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Juanita; Harris, Sam; Roda, Desam; Yap, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology promises the matching of genomic, molecular, and clinical data with underlying mechanisms of a range of novel anticancer therapeutics to develop more rational and effective antitumor strategies in a timely manner. However, despite the remarkable progress made in the understanding of novel drivers of different oncogenic processes, success rates for the approval of oncology drugs remain low with substantial fiscal consequences. In this article, we focus on how recent rapid innovations in technology have brought greater clarity to the biological and clinical complexities of different cancers and advanced the development of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies in clinical trials. We discuss the key challenges of identifying and validating predictive biomarkers of response and resistance using both tumor and surrogate tissues, as well as the hurdles associated with intratumor heterogeneity. Finally, we outline evolving strategies employed in early-phase trial designs that incorporate omics-based technologies. PMID:26609214

  19. Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, J. M.

    Astronomy in Babylonia during the first millennium BC developed out of a long tradition of observing and interpreting the sky into a science that was both observational and theoretical. It is well established that these developments influenced the practice of astronomy in neighbouring cultures in the Indus valley, Egypt and the Greco-Roman world. However, it is less clear whether there was any significant input from foreign cultures into the development of Babylonian astronomy. In this paper I examine the evidence for possible traces of Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy during the late first millennium BC. In particular, I discuss two possible cases of Greek influence that have been proposed in recent years: the naming of certain zodiacal signs and a value for the length of the year found on a Babylonian text that may be based upon Greek observations of summer solstices.

  20. Early performance in a humanistic medicine course as a predictor of dental students' later clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Linda Pollak; Maramaldi, Peter; Kinnunen, Taru H; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dental students' early ability to demonstrate a humanistic approach with patients is associated with later clinical performance. A first-year humanistic medicine course, Patient Doctor I (PDI), at Harvard School of Dental Medicine combines training in conducting the medical interview with human values, placing a high value on strengthening relationships with patients and emphasizing empowerment, respect, and strong communication skills. Retrospective data were collected in the following domains: PDI course evaluations, admissions information, National Board Dental Examination Parts I and II scores, and Promotions Committee and faculty evaluation scores for hand skills and humanistic and interactive patient-student skills. Planned linear contrasts comparisons were performed for each clinical outcome variable. Tests to support the a priori hypothesis of linear relationships between PDI evaluation ratings and clinical performance, defined as hand skills and humanistic and interactive patient-student skills scores, were significant, both at p=0.03. This study demonstrated the feasibility of measuring dental students' humanistic qualities during the first year. Humanistic qualities (PDI performance) during the first year were found to be associated with clinical performance in the third year of dental school.

  1. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  2. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  3. Greek Life: A Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park.

    Supporting Greek life has been an important educational initiative for many colleges and universities. Although Greek students are typically involved with the college and community, there are other aspects of Greek culture, such as hazing and alcohol abuse, which are troublesome to university administrators. This document discusses standards, set…

  4. Evidence-based medicine in pre-clinical years: a study of early introduction and usefulness

    PubMed Central

    ACHARYA, YOGESH; RAGHAVENDRA RAO, M.V.; ARJA, SATEESH

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) has established itself as a strong predictor of future medical practice by medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EBM in pre-clinical years and reflect on self-assessment skill of 4th semester medical students regarding the understanding of EBM and its various determinants. Methods: All of the 4th semester (MD4) medical students at the Avalon University of Medical School, Curacao who had completed their EBM curriculum were asked to voluntarily participate in a cross sectional student survey containing qualitative and quantitative questionnaires in a 10-point scale. The students’ responses were analyzed statistically and the results reported. Results: Twenty-three students participated in the survey. 91% of them reported that EBM had helped them to better understand research process and 95% believed that EBM was necessary to develop clinical skills in the future. 78% of the students agreed that they were provided with enough resources for effective implementation of EBM in the university. All participants (100%) self reported that they could appraise the research articles effectively (mean score 8.26, S.D-1.45). Conclusions: EBM is an integrative and comprehensive way to successfully adopt concepts of acquired medical knowledge for effective medical practice. Early introduction of EBM in preclinical years proved favorable in students and better equipped them with the ability to critically apprehend and appraise new research and innovations in medicine for optimal learning experience. There is a definitive need for scientific and systematic design of the curriculum for early introduction of EBM in pre-clinical years, best suited for the students. The principles should be directed towards further research for the effective implementation of EBM to enhance clinical skills. PMID:28761882

  5. A New Synthesis for the Origin of the Greek Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.

    2005-08-01

    different mythology/names; and so these representations must have been added by the Greeks. In addition, the Bear constellations must have originated with Paleolithic hunters in northern Eurasia sometime before 11,000 BC, as shown by the widespread distribution of essentially identical myths for the asterism across Eurasia and North America. This leaves about a dozen old constellations which have no Mesopotamian roots and for which the first reference anywhere is from early Greek sources and which have characteristically Greek flavor. Thus it appears that a substantial fraction of the old Greek constellations are actually Greek in origin, with the majority being older asterisms adopted from Mesopotamia, while the Bear originates at least 13,000 years ago. This research was supported in part by the Herbert C. Pollack Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  6. Use of a Modified Pediatric Early Warning Score in a Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Solevåg, Anne L.; Eggen, Elisabeth H.; Schröder, Judith; Nakstad, Britt

    2013-01-01

    Background Several versions of the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) exist, but there is limited information available on the use of such systems in different contexts. In the present study, we aimed to examine the relationship between a modified version of The Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) and patient characteristics in a Norwegian department of pediatric and adolescent medicine. In addition, we sought to establish guidelines for escalation in patient care based on the PEWS in our patient population. Methods The medical records of patients referred for acute care from March to May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Children with a PEWS ≥3 were compared to children with a PEWS 0–2 with regard to age, diagnostic group and indicators of severe disease. Results A total of 761 patients (0−18 years of age) were included in the analysis. A younger age and diagnostic groups such as lower airway and cardiovascular disease were associated with PEWS ≥3. Upper airway disease and minor injury were more frequent in patients with PEWS 0−2. Children with PEWS ≥3 received fluid resuscitation, intravenous antibiotics, and oxygen supplementation, and were transferred to a higher level of care more often than children with PEWS 0−2. Conclusions A PEWS ≥3 was associated with severe illnesses and surrogate markers of cardio-respiratory compromise. Patients with PEWS ≥3 should be carefully monitored to prevent further deterioration. PMID:23991121

  7. Use of a modified pediatric early warning score in a department of pediatric and adolescent medicine.

    PubMed

    Solevåg, Anne L; Eggen, Elisabeth H; Schröder, Judith; Nakstad, Britt

    2013-01-01

    Several versions of the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) exist, but there is limited information available on the use of such systems in different contexts. In the present study, we aimed to examine the relationship between a modified version of The Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) and patient characteristics in a Norwegian department of pediatric and adolescent medicine. In addition, we sought to establish guidelines for escalation in patient care based on the PEWS in our patient population. The medical records of patients referred for acute care from March to May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Children with a PEWS ≥3 were compared to children with a PEWS 0-2 with regard to age, diagnostic group and indicators of severe disease. A total of 761 patients (0-18 years of age) were included in the analysis. A younger age and diagnostic groups such as lower airway and cardiovascular disease were associated with PEWS ≥3. Upper airway disease and minor injury were more frequent in patients with PEWS 0-2. Children with PEWS ≥3 received fluid resuscitation, intravenous antibiotics, and oxygen supplementation, and were transferred to a higher level of care more often than children with PEWS 0-2. A PEWS ≥3 was associated with severe illnesses and surrogate markers of cardio-respiratory compromise. Patients with PEWS ≥3 should be carefully monitored to prevent further deterioration.

  8. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  9. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  10. Working Students at Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures in engaging young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy targeting that population group, especially university students. This research paper aims to explore the idea…

  11. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

  12. Greek Student Attitudes Towards Hazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Wesley; And Others

    Attitudes of members of Greek fraternities and sororities concerning hazing were studied at the University of North Dakota. A survey instrument was completed by 476 students. Activities considered to be hazing by a majority of respondents were those that are potentially injurious to the physical and/or mental health of the pledges or that could…

  13. Working Students at Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures in engaging young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy targeting that population group, especially university students. This research paper aims to explore the idea…

  14. Available Tools to Facilitate Early Patient Access to Medicines in the EU and the USA: Analysis of Conditional Approvals and the Implications for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Richer, Étienne; Melien, Øyvind; Ballensiefen, Wolfgang; Brand, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and our understanding of the human body and diseases have limited any possible treatment tailoring to each patient. The technological advances enabling the integration of various data sets (e.g. '-omics', microbiome, epigenetics and environmental exposure) have facilitated a greater understanding of the human body, the molecular basis of disease and all the factors influencing disease onset, progression and response to treatment, thereby ushering in the era of personalized medicine. We evaluate the regulatory approaches available to facilitate early patient access to efficacious and safe compounds in the EU and the USA in order to make more informed recommendations in the future as to the gaps in regulations for early patient access. An in-depth analysis of conditional approvals (EU) and accelerated approvals (USA) is performed based on the publicly available information (European public assessment reports and a summary review of products approved under both programmes). The types of product, indications, time to approval and type of evidence submitted were analysed. Between 2007 and early 2015, 17 products were conditionally approved in the EU and 25 in the USA, most of them in the area of oncology and based on evidence from phase II clinical trial data. Early approval of promising products based on data from early phases of development is already possible in the EU and the USA. Some of the improvements could entail implementing a rolling assessment of evidence in Europe and extending the scope of early dialogues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  16. Acoustic characteristics of Greek vowels.

    PubMed

    Fourakis, M; Botinis, A; Katsaiti, M

    1999-01-01

    Five male speakers produced the vowels of Greek at slow and fast tempo, in lexically stressed and unstressed syllables, and in lexically stressed syllables of words appearing in focus position. Duration, fundamental frequency (F(0)), amplitude, and the frequencies of the first (F(1)) and second formant (F(2)) were measured. The effects on these variables of the phonemic category of the vowel, tempo, stress, and focus were examined. The results indicated that the vowel system of Greek follows universal tendencies in terms of duration but not in terms of F(0) and amplitude. Vowels in focus position, when plotted by their F(1) and F(2) frequencies, defined a vowel space larger than that defined by vowels in any other condition.

  17. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  18. [The representation of physical pain in art and the Greek escultural group of the Laocoonte].

    PubMed

    Roqué, M H; Ruival, C; Roqué, C M

    2006-01-01

    It makes reference to the symptoms and signs of external pain and internal man suffering, masterly represented on marble by greek sculptors of Ancient Greece. A demonstration of the importance of literature and sculpture as an humanistic complement for teaching History of Medicine.

  19. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too.

  20. Description and Early Outcomes of a Comprehensive Curriculum Redesign at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Heather L; O'Brien, Celia L; Curry, Raymond H; Green, Marianne M; Baker, James F; Kushner, Robert F; Thomas, John X; Corbridge, Thomas C; Corcoran, Julia F; Hauser, Joshua M; Garcia, Patricia M

    2017-09-26

    In 2012, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine launched a redesigned curriculum addressing the four primary recommendations in the 2010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report on reforming medical education. This new curriculum provides a more standardized evaluation of students' competency achievement through a robust portfolio review process coupled with standard evaluations of medical knowledge and clinical skills. It individualizes learning processes through curriculum flexibility, enabling students to take electives earlier and complete clerkships in their preferred order. The new curriculum is integrated both horizontally and vertically, combining disciplines within organ-based modules and deliberately linking elements (science in medicine, clinical medicine, health and society, professional development) and threads (medical decision making, quality and safety, teamwork and leadership, lifestyle medicine, advocacy and equity) across the three phases that replaced the traditional four-year timeline. It encourages students to conduct research in an area of interest and commit to lifelong learning and self-improvement. The curriculum formalizes the process of professional identity formation and requires students to reflect on their experiences with the informal and hidden curricula, which strongly shape their identities.The authors describe the new curriculum structure, explain their approach to each Carnegie report recommendation, describe early outcomes and challenges, and propose areas for further work. Early data from the first cohort to progress through the curriculum show unchanged United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 scores, enhanced student research engagement and career exploration, and improved student confidence in the patient care and professional development domains.

  1. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  2. Greek's health, waiting for the 'deus ex machina'.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Greece from May 2010 has been following Troika's (European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund) austere policies in all over the public finance sector. Troika's instructions which are adopted by the politicians resulted to depressed and weak citizens. The consequences in health care sector are becoming visible across the society. A big part of Greek's society is uninsured without any access to public health care system. The vulnerable social groups confront catastrophic health care expenditures and impoverishment with no social net protection. Greeks are paying the price of their irrational way of living. The current paper has gathered from the literature the early effects of the implementation of these policies on public health and healthcare.

  3. Greek University Students: A Discouraged Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimtrios M.; Karaliopoulou, Katerina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - The significance of young, well-educated workers in the Greek labour market has been largely neglected in studies addressing the issue of low participation rate in the labour force of the country. This study focuses on the reluctance of Greek students to enter the labour market and combine studies with paid work. This article reports on…

  4. Greek University Students: A Discouraged Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimtrios M.; Karaliopoulou, Katerina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - The significance of young, well-educated workers in the Greek labour market has been largely neglected in studies addressing the issue of low participation rate in the labour force of the country. This study focuses on the reluctance of Greek students to enter the labour market and combine studies with paid work. This article reports on…

  5. Bilingual Word Recognition in English and Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiri, Helena-Fivi; Willows, Dale M.

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated word recognition processes of Greek/English bilinguals in relation to linguistic and syntactic differences in the languages, then compared those processes with those of monolinguals. Bilingual readers performed differently in the languages, conforming more to monolingual patterns in their native language (Greek), interpreted…

  6. The Minimalist Syntax of Control in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapetangianni, Konstantia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Control phenomena in three distinct domains of the grammar of Modem Greek (subjunctive complements, "V-ondas" adjuncts and ke-complements) and proposes a unifying syntactic account of Control by appealing to the tense properties of these domains. I argue that Control in Greek is best analyzed as an instance of…

  7. Modern Greek Diglossia and Its Sociocultural Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrounias, E.

    This article explains the linguistic situation in Greece and the condition of diglossia that has arisen there through the use of common Modern Greek, developing from the Athenian dialect into a medium of communication used by all Greeks, and the use of Katharevusa, the "pure" or "purifying" language which is supposedly an imitation of Ancient…

  8. Historical Digressions in Greek Geometry Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an attempt to combine the history of mathematics of ancient Greece with the course on theoretical geometry taught in Greek secondary schools. Three sections present the history of ancient Greek geometry, geometrical constructions using straightedges and compasses, and an application of Ptolemy's theorem in solving ancient astronomy…

  9. The Minimalist Syntax of Control in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapetangianni, Konstantia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Control phenomena in three distinct domains of the grammar of Modem Greek (subjunctive complements, "V-ondas" adjuncts and ke-complements) and proposes a unifying syntactic account of Control by appealing to the tense properties of these domains. I argue that Control in Greek is best analyzed as an instance of…

  10. Historical Digressions in Greek Geometry Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an attempt to combine the history of mathematics of ancient Greece with the course on theoretical geometry taught in Greek secondary schools. Three sections present the history of ancient Greek geometry, geometrical constructions using straightedges and compasses, and an application of Ptolemy's theorem in solving ancient astronomy…

  11. The Greeks and the Education of Humanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Timothy J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Traces the roots of the concepts of the humanities and liberal arts education to the ancient Greeks, describing how their customs, language, philosophy, and literature have contributed to current concepts of education. Suggests that the Greek idea of education stressed the arts and mathematics but was opposed to all professionalism. (MAB)

  12. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  13. Islamic reception of Greek astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2011-06-01

    Research in Islamic science over the last half century or so has clearly established that such old myths as Islamic science being a preservation of Greek science, or that science was always in conflict with religion in Islamic civilization as it was in Europe, or that the European scientific Renaissance was independent of outside influences -a European phenomenon par excellence- are now all subjects of great dispute if not altogether dead. In what follows I will illustrate the evidence that has put such myths into question with only few examples, since time and space do not allow me to elaborate more.

  14. Further solar alignments of Greek Byzantine churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.; Vasiliou, H.

    Following the recent work on the solar alignment of Greek byzantine churches (Liritzis and Vassiliou 2006 a,b,c) the solar orientations of twenty one more churches are presented. The question examined is if the day of solar rise across the eastern direction of the church is related with the feast day of Patron Saint. Measurements were carried out with magnetic compass, inclinometer, portable GPS and appropriate corrections for the solar declination. The alignments towards eastern sunrise were examined for various angular altitudes of the perceptible horizon. At least for all Rhodean churches the patron's day is met when sun oblique path crosses horizon a few degrees beyond the intersection of extrapolated eastern axis of the church with horizons skyline. Therefore, taken the orientation as the glitter of first sunrays -early dawn- correlation of thirteen present churches are aligned near the autumnal equinox, three have relation with the feast of patron saint, four are related to the other important feast of Christianity and one seem orientated randomly. However accounting for a due east sun position a few degrees above horizon in early liturgy hours (6:30 - 9:30 am) all the Rhodean alignments coincides with Saint's name day.

  15. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  16. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  17. Early traditional Chinese medicine bundle therapy for the prevention of sepsis acute gastrointestinal injury in elderly patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yunhua; Jiang, Ronglin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to study the effect of early traditional Chinese medicine bundle therapy on the prevention of sepsis-associated acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI). This was a multicenter, prospective, observational, non-randomized cohort study of 296 consecutive patients with severe sepsis during 2013/3 and 2014/11; 150 patients received standard treatments (controls) and 146 received traditional Chinese medicine bundle therapy (intervention group) (herbal decoction gavage based on syndrome differentiation, Chinese acupuncture, application of mirabilite, and defecation mixture). D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase, endotoxin, gastrin, motilin, and intra-abdominal pressure were measured. AGI was categorized into four levels. Compared with controls, D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase, endotoxin, gastrin, and intra-abdominal pressure in the intervention group were decreased, and motilin was increased on day 7. AGI incidence in the intervention group was lower than in controls. GIF scores of the intervention AGI II and III groups were lower than in controls. The APACHE II scores of the intervention AGI II, III, and IV groups were lower than in controls. Compared with controls, mechanical ventilation time and ICU stay in the intervention group were shorter, and 28-day overall and AGI-attributed mortality were lower. For elderly patients with severe sepsis, early traditional Chinese medicine bundle therapy could decrease AGI incidence and improve prognosis. PMID:28382954

  18. Morphology of the heart associated with its function as conceived by ancient Greeks.

    PubMed

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George

    2014-03-01

    According to their writings, ancient Greek physicians had explored the anatomy of the heart. Although pre-Hippocratic medicine, which relied on religion and mysticism, has nothing more to present than implausible theories and speculations, younger physicians thanks to their animal dissections were able to depict the heart with detail. Hippocratic "On the Heart", Aristotle's, Herophilus', Erasistratus' and Galen's writings provide us with the necessary data to take a look at the anatomy of the heart as it was described back then. Despite of some confusing passages in their writings and some erroneous notions, the heart was described with relative accuracy. In the years after antiquity and in the Middle Age the only information about the anatomy of the heart could be derived from the ancient Greek works and only anatomists of the Renaissance managed to displace them. In this paper we present the knowledge of all known ancient Greek physicians about the heart, with emphasis on its anatomy.

  19. Mesopotamian medicine.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  20. [Strategies of medical self-authorization in early modern medicine: the example of Volcher Coiter (1534-1576)].

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominik; Steinmetzer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the example of Volcher Coiter--a town physician at Nuremberg and one of the leading anatomists in early modern medicine--, this essay points out that the authoritative status of contemporary physicians mainly was predicated on an interplay of self-fashioning and outside perception. It provides ample evidence that Coiter made use of several characteristic rhetorical and discourse-related strategies of self-authorisation such as the participation in social networks, a highly convincing technique of self-fashioning by emphasizing particular erudition, the presentation of academic medicine as a science authorised by god and the concurrent devaluation of non-academic healers. Furthermore, graphic and visual strategies of self-authorisation could be ascertained: Coiter took care for a premium typography of his books. He also used his talent as a graphic artist in his books to visualise his medical concepts. Moreover, the so-called 'Nuremberg Portrait' of Coiter served to illustrate his outstanding authority.

  1. Greek Physicians' Perceptions on Generic Drugs in the Era of Austerity

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Fanariotis, Michael; Kastanioti, Catherine; Alexias, Georgios; Protopapas, Adonis; Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Niakas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the beliefs and preferences of Greek physicians, regarding generic drugs, in the years of financial crisis. Setting. Multicentered, nationwide survey. Material and Methods. A custom questionnaire based on former similar studies was developed and administered to Greek physicians. The variable “perception on generics” was constructed after an exploratory study and the instrument was validated by conventional and Rasch analysis methods. 22 items formed 5 subscales that constructed the variable in question. Results. 908 physicians successfully participated in the study (response rate: 80%). Mean total scores to the instrument were 60.63 ± 12.12 for men and significantly less (58.24 ± 11.73) for women (p = 0.04). Greek physicians were not persuaded on the potential economic gain (45.79 ± 10.53); moreover they identified that Greek authorities cannot address the increased pharmacovigilance mandates. Physicians working in Athens and those working in surgical units demonstrated significantly worse scores than their colleagues from the rest of Greece and those working in Internal Medicine wards (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Our results suggest an overall poor acceptance of the national initiative on generic drugs by Greek physicians. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01855802. PMID:26457225

  2. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  3. Psychological skills of Greek badminton athletes.

    PubMed

    Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis

    2003-12-01

    The purpose was to examine age and sex differences in psychological skills among Greek badminton players. 85 badminton players completed a Greek version of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek, during the 2002 Greek Men's and Women's National Badminton Championship Tournament. Analysis yielded differences between age groups on two factors (adversity and coachability) but no statistically significant differences between sexes. Older athletes were better prepared to cope with the psychological distress involved in the game of badminton and reported better emotional self-control. Overall, results could help badminton athletes and coaches become more familiar with the sport-specific psychological skills involved in badminton.

  4. Mental health and sexual activity according to ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, Μ-Ι; Karamanou, Μ; Sgantzos, Μ; Androutsos, G

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches

  5. The revised 'Early Learning in Medicine' curriculum at the University of Otago--focusing on students, patients, and community.

    PubMed

    Perez, David; Rudland, Joy R; Wilson, Hamish; Roberton, Gayle; Gerrard, David; Wheatley, Antony

    2009-04-03

    This article describes recent changes to years 2 and 3 of undergraduate medical education at the University of Otago, now termed 'Early Learning in Medicine'. These changes focus on learning that is contextually relevant, student centred, horizontally and vertically integrated, and community based. Three new programmes have been introduced to the course; Integrated Cases, Clinical Skills, and Healthcare in the Community. Innovative teaching and learning activities have been implemented to prepare students for a greater level of interaction with patients, carers, health professionals, and community organisations. This curriculum also aims to increase the relevance of their theoretical learning within and across years, and foster an early appreciation of professional responsibilities. Challenges to facilitating this direction are described and framed by an evolutionary approach that builds upon the strong features of the previous course.

  6. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions.

  7. [The methods of Western medicine in on ancient medicine].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2010-06-30

    The treatise On Ancient Medicine attests that questions of method were being debated both in medicine and in philosophy and is important evidence of cross-discipline methodological controversy. The treatise On Ancient Medicine is the first attempt in the history of Greek thought to provide a detailed account of the development of a science from a starting point in observation and experience. The author of it criticizes philosophical physicians who attempt to systematized medicine by reducing it to the interaction of one or more of the opposites hot, cold, wet, and dry, factors. He regards the theory of his opponents as hypothesis(hypothesis). Medicine has long been in possession of both an archē and a hodos, a principle and a method, which have enabled it to make discoveries over a long period of time. As far as method is concerned, the traditional science of medicine attained the knowledge of the visible by starting from observation and experience, but it recommended the use of reasoning and analogies with familiar objects as a means of learning about the invisible. It also utilized inference from the visible to the visible(epilogismos) and inference from the visible to the invisible(analogismos). The use of analogy as a means of learning about the obscure was also part of the common heritage of early philosophy and medicine. But the author's use of the analogical method distinguishes it from Empedocles' well-known analogy comparisons of the eye to a lantern and the process of respiration to the operations of a clepsydra. According to the author, traditional science of medicine used functional analogy like wine example and cheese example to know the function of humors within the body and utilized structured analogy like a tube example and a cupping instrument example to acknowledge an organ or structure within the body. But the author didn't distinguish between the claim that medicine has a systematic method of making discoveries and very different claim that it

  8. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  9. How different are the Greeks from the Trojans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, J. P.; Henry, T.; Scott, N.; Winters, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Greek and Trojan camps situated at the stable L4 and L5 Lagrangian points of Jupiter are two largely unexamined populations of asteroids that could provide vital clues to the formation and evolution of the solar system. A close examination of the differences and similarities between the camps could hint at the mechanisms responsible for their precarious placement as well as the primordial conditions of the early Solar System within which they formed. Also, their position at Jupiter's orbit means that they are an ideal intermediate population between the inner Main Belt asteroids and the asteroids in the outer Solar System.

  10. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James

    In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture. Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values.

  11. The Function of the Tragic Greek Chorus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the function of the chorus in Greek tragedy and highlights interpretations of Aristotle's statements on the chorus. Concludes that the chorus' role was that of alienating the audience and was basically theatrical, not dramatic. (JMF)

  12. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts.

  13. Aviation medicine in the United Kingdom: early years, 1911-1918.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T Michael; Harrison, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    This is the first of three brief papers that summarize the history of aviation medicine in the Royal Air Force. Just as the generals and politicians were slow to appreciate the potential of the airplane, so the medical establishment was slow in understanding that the flight environment involved medical and physiological challenges. This note outlines the development of research to support British military aviators up to the formation of the Royal Air Force in 1918.

  14. [Medicine in notafilia--part II].

    PubMed

    Babić, Rade R; Stanković Babić, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Only a few countries in the world have issued banknotes featuring portraits of doctors and health workers who have made their people and medicine world famous. The hereby presented banknotes are those issued in Germany featuring the portrait of Dr. Paul Ehrlich, a Nobel laureate; the Austrian banknotes with the portrait of a Nobel laureate Dr. Karl Landsteiner and of Dr. Sigmund Freud, the founder of modern psychoanalysis; the Greek one featuring the portrait of Georgios Nicholas Papanikolaou, who was a pioneer in early detection of pre-cancerous cervix lesions in women and who gave his name to the test "Papa test"; and, the one issued in Sweden featuring the portrait of Carl von Linnd, a court physician and the first President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science.

  15. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  16. The Transmission of Mathematics into Greek Education, 1800-1840: From Individual Initiatives to Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastanis, Iason; Kastanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, a number of Greek communities developed a remarkable education in mathematics. The subject matter for this instruction was drawn mainly from French textbooks, although some teachers displayed a preference for Prussian mathematical sources. These efforts, however, were thwarted by the religious conservatism of the…

  17. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  18. Educational Resources and Implementation of a Greek Sign Language Synthesis Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpouzis, K.; Caridakis, G.; Fotinea, S.-E.; Efthimiou, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present how creation and dynamic synthesis of linguistic resources of Greek Sign Language (GSL) may serve to support development and provide content to an educational multitask platform for the teaching of GSL in early elementary school classes. The presented system utilizes standard virtual character (VC) animation technologies…

  19. Case Morphology and Word Order in Second Language Turkish: Evidence from Greek Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Spyropoulos, Vassilios; Kaili, Hasan; Prokou, Sophia; Revithiadou, Anthi

    2011-01-01

    The optional use of morphology attested in second language learners has been attributed either to a representational deficit or to a "surface" problem with respect to the realization of inflectional affixes. In this article we contribute to this issue by providing empirical data from the early interlanguage of Greek learners of Turkish. Three…

  20. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  1. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us. A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Teacher's Guide - Level Beta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This is a teacher's guide for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: (1) the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; (2) the similarities and…

  2. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us - A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Students' Programmed Text-Level Beta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This is a student's programmed text for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: (1) the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; (2) the…

  3. [Importance of early Anatolian medical books regarding Turkish medical terms and the language of medicine].

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ali Haydar

    Turkish language was under the dominance of Arabian and Persian languages during the Seljukian period in Anatolia. Turkish gained importance at the period of the small Turcomen states, founded after the great Seljukian State had fallen this period some books were written with the countenance of the statesmen, and about thirty of this books were on medicine. These books were written in plain Turkish, and they are important regarding the Turkish language, because of the Turkish medical terms, besides medical knowledge. The development of Turkish in these books and examples of medical terms are given in this study.

  4. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  5. Characteristics of Greek Adolescents in Sydney. A Survey of Greek-Australian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    This report discusses variations in background of Greek-Australian high school students in Sydney, Australia, and examines and describes the pattern of individual responses to the social context. Literature on the ethnic background of Greeks in Australia is briefly reviewed, and previous findings are presented to articulate some of the issues…

  6. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  7. Greek Day Education in and around Montreal: The Case for a Greek Trilingual High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    The history of the education of Montreal's Greek population is traced in this report, which is partly intended to act as a stimulus for future planning and development. Six chapters contain, respectively: (1) a history of Greek day education in and around Montreal, from its origin in 1910 with the founding of the "Plato" school to its…

  8. Ophthalmology in Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9th century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7th century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored. In addition to numerous books and articles in various fields, he authored a great medical Encyclopedia (al-Hawi al-Kabir) in 25 volumes. In this article, we are going to compare Rhazes’ particular viewpoints about ophthalmology with those of other famous Persian physicians and some recent essays and textbooks. For this purpose we reviewed Rhazes’ second volume of al-Hawi that is dedicated exclusively to ophthalmology and contains some major topics of ophthalmology including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diseases, disorders and treatments. Important themes were carefully extracted and compared with the tenets of modern ophthalmology. After collating Rhazes’ viewpoints with the latest findings in this field, it was concluded that he had brilliantly written about the signs and symptoms, etiology and treatment of many eye disorders more than a thousand years ago. The amazing point is that there was no accurate equipment at the time to help him in his investigations. This study proved that Rhazes’ theories conform to recent knowledge about ophthalmology in many aspects, and could therefore be the subject of further investigations. PMID:26587199

  9. Ophthalmology in Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9(th) century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7(th) century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored. In addition to numerous books and articles in various fields, he authored a great medical Encyclopedia (al-Hawi al-Kabir) in 25 volumes. In this article, we are going to compare Rhazes' particular viewpoints about ophthalmology with those of other famous Persian physicians and some recent essays and textbooks. For this purpose we reviewed Rhazes' second volume of al-Hawi that is dedicated exclusively to ophthalmology and contains some major topics of ophthalmology including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diseases, disorders and treatments. Important themes were carefully extracted and compared with the tenets of modern ophthalmology. After collating Rhazes' viewpoints with the latest findings in this field, it was concluded that he had brilliantly written about the signs and symptoms, etiology and treatment of many eye disorders more than a thousand years ago. The amazing point is that there was no accurate equipment at the time to help him in his investigations. This study proved that Rhazes' theories conform to recent knowledge about ophthalmology in many aspects, and could therefore be the subject of further investigations.

  10. Reforming the Greek health system: a role for non-medical, clinical bioscientists.

    PubMed

    Kazanis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of the recent debt crisis and the subsequently adopted austerity measures, the Greek health system faces important challenges including the necessity to rationalize public spending. One domain where there is scope for reducing expenses is laboratory medicine services, that are provided by both public and private facilities. Specialized non-medical, clinical bioscientists (such as molecular biologists, biochemists and geneticists) massively participate in the provision of laboratory medicine services in both sectors; however, they are excluded from key positions, such as the direction of laboratories and sitting in regulatory bodies. This is in breach with European standards of practice and also constitutes an impediment to the much anticipated rationalization of spending; therefore has to be addressed by the Greek health services authorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Search of an Audience: Popular Pharmacies and the Limits of Literate Medicine in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Russia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the limits of literate medicine in Europe, through an examination of the Russian literate medical world of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Russian courtly medicine had been dominated by Western Europeans from the 1480s, but in the early eighteenth century new licensing arrangements solidified the presence of these foreigners in the wider Russian medical world. Foreign medical practitioners took advantage of this development, aiming works at an increasingly large proportion of Russian literate society. These works, along with satirical and religious works emulating or deriding medical texts, show how by the 1720s the limits of literate medicine in Russia lay not at the edges of official court medicine, but rather at the edges of literate society.

  12. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  13. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study

    PubMed Central

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin. PMID:28103258

  14. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

    PubMed

    Lykouras, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Ploumpidis, D

    2013-12-01

    We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin.

  16. 'Abhorreas pinguedinem': Fat and obesity in early modern medicine (c. 1500-1750).

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Contrary to a widely held belief, the medicalization of obesity is not a recent development. Obesity was extensively discussed in leading early modern medical textbooks, as well as in dozens of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century dissertations. Drawing upon ancient and medieval writings, these works discussed the negative impact of obesity upon health and linked it with premature death. Obesity was particularly associated with apoplexy, paralysis, asthma and putrid fevers, and a range of therapeutic options was proposed. This paper offers a first survey of the medical understanding of the causes, effects and treatment of obesity in the early modern period. It examines the driving forces behind the physicians' interest and traces the apparently rather limited response to their claims among the general public. Comparing early modern accounts of obesity with the views and stereotypes prevailing today, it notes the impact of changing medical, moral and aesthetic considerations and identifies, among other things, a shift in the early modern period from concepts of pathological compression to images of the obese body as lax and boundless. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Minireview: Multiomic candidate biomarkers for clinical manifestations of sickle cell severity: Early steps to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Betty S; Hansen, Kirk C; D’alessandro, Angelo; Xia, Yang; Daescu, Ovidiu; Glatt, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide a description of those candidate biomarkers which have been demonstrated by multiple-omics approaches to vary in correlation with specific clinical manifestations of sickle cell severity. We believe that future clinical analyses of severity phenotype will require a multiomic analysis, or an omics stack approach, which includes integrated interactomics. It will also require the analysis of big data sets. These candidate biomarkers, whether they are individual or panels of functionally linked markers, will require future validation in large prospective and retrospective clinical studies. Once validated, the hope is that informative biomarkers will be used for the identification of individuals most likely to experience severe complications, and thereby be applied for the design of patient-specific therapeutic approaches and response to treatment. This would be the beginning of precision medicine for sickle cell disease. PMID:27022133

  18. [Physician from Constance doctor of medicine Georg Vogelin (1508-1542), an early follower of Copernicus].

    PubMed

    Burmeister, K H

    1999-01-01

    Georg Vogelin was born in Constance as the son of the town clerk. He studied the artes liberales and medicine at Wittenberg (since 1523) and Montpellier (since 1527). From 1531 onwards he practiced as a medical doctor in Constance. In 1542 Vogelin died of the plague in Constance. Vogelin was very close friends with the medical doctor Achilles Pirmin Gasser (1505-1577) and Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574), a well known pupil of Copernicus. He was amongst the first supporters of the teachings of Copernicus. Gasser, who published the second edition of Rheticus' "Narratio prima" (Basle 1541), dedicated this edition to Georg Vogelin. In this book Vogelin published a poem in Latin. In the poem he described the teachings of Copernicus ("Terraque iam currit, credita stare prius") and recommended the academic community to approve Copernicus' theory.

  19. Early Career Outcomes of Family Medicine Residency Graduates Exposed to Innovative Flexible Longitudinal Tracks.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A; Casey, Dan; Singer, Diana; Waller, Elaine; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-05-01

    The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project used a case series design to study innovations in the content, length, structure, and location of residency training in 14 geographically diverse family medicine programs between 2007 and 2012. We aimed to explore how offering flexible longitudinal tracks (FLT) affected graduates' scope of practice, particularly in maternal child health (MCH), which included at least 17 months of focused training that increased each year over 4 years. We administered a cross-sectional survey to graduates of P4 residencies approximately 18 months after they completed training (2011-2014) and compared graduates of the John Peter Smith (JPS) Family Medicine Residency MCH FLT to all other P4 graduates. The overall response rate was 81.8% (365/446). JPS graduates who completed the flexible MCH track (n=15) compared to all other P4 graduates (n=332) were more likely to deliver babies (13/15, 86.7% versus 48/324, 14.6%) and perform C-sections as the primary surgeon (12/15, 80.0% versus 15/322, 4.7%). Additional areas of expanded scope associated with the MCH track included endoscopy (4/15, 26.7% versus 10/323, 3.1%), the care of hospitalized adults and associated procedures (central lines, eg: 8/15, 53.3% versus 47/322, 14.6%), and the care of hospitalized children (13/15, 86.7% versus 111/323, 34.4%). Graduating from the JPS MCH FLT was associated with a higher provision of maternal, child, and ill adult patient care services, including associated procedures.

  20. Insights from early experience of a Rare Disease Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Mackley, Michael P; Blair, Edward; Craft, Jude; Knight, Julian C; Taylor, John; Taylor, Jenny C; Wilkie, Andrew Om; Watkins, Hugh

    2017-06-01

    Whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) has the potential to enhance genetic diagnosis of rare disease, and is increasingly becoming part of routine clinical care in mainstream medicine. Effective translation will require ongoing efforts in a number of areas including: selection of appropriate patients, provision of effective consent, pre- and post-test genetic counselling, improving variant interpretation algorithms and practices, and management of secondary findings including those found incidentally and those actively sought. Allied to this is the need for an effective education programme for all members of clinical teams involved in care of patients with rare disease, as well as to maintain public confidence in the use of these technologies. We established a Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team (GM-MDT) in 2014 to build on the experiences of earlier successful research-based WES/WGS studies, to address these needs and to review results including pertinent and secondary findings. Here we report on a qualitative study of decision-making in the GM-MDT combined with analysis of semi-structured interviews with GM-MDT members. Study findings show that members appreciate the clinical and scientific diversity of the GM-MDT and value it for education and oversight. To date, discussions have focussed on case selection including the extent and interpretation of clinical and family history information required to establish likely monogenic aetiology and inheritance model. Achieving a balance between effective use of WES/WGS - prioritising cases in a diverse and highly complex patient population where WES/WGS will be tractable - and meeting the recruitment targets of a large project is considered challenging.

  1. Performing arts medicine-a bibliographic retrospective of the early literature: an historical examination of bibliographic references pre-1975.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2013-03-01

    Performing arts medicine (PAM) emerged as a medical specialty around 1985. Prior to this time, relatively few publications addressed the identification and concerns of musicians' and dancers' medical problems. To determine what number and types of publications occurred prior to the actual beginnings of PAM as a discipline, and to determine how these original topics compared with present-day publications, a retrospective review of the current bibliographic database of the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) was undertaken. Out of a total of 12,600 entries to date, 489 references were found published from 1798 through 1974, which represent only 3.9% of the current database listings. One-sixth of the references were originally written in a language other than English. Journal articles were by far the most numerous type of publication. Topics with the highest number of entries included the neurobiology of music (n=77), dental/orofacial matters (71), and biographical accounts of composers or musicians and their illnesses (59). Other frequently published topics included hearing loss, physiology of playing instruments, and instrumental technique and teaching. Early topics with multiple publications included composers' biographies, dystonias, and surgery to improve finger independence for playing piano. Subjects whose publications occurred principally in the last two decades of this review included dermatological disorders, hearing loss, and ballet physiology, teaching, and technique. Those which remain popular to the present day include hearing loss, performance anxiety, focal dystonia, and dental/orofacial problems.

  2. [Neurosurgery in antique medicine].

    PubMed

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-12-15

    Trepanation and craniotomy are two of the oldest surgical procedures known, and extensive archaeological evidence of trepanation exists in ancient cultures. However, the first descriptions of the surgical techniques are from Greek and Roman medicine, where cranial surgery was used to treat head trauma. This article concerns neurosurgery in ancient medicine, with an emphasis on "De Medicina" by Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC-50 AD) and the Corpus Hippocraticum (about 400 BC). These texts are further considered in the light of excavated surgical instruments from Pompeii.

  3. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  4. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  5. Health Behavior and College Students: Does Greek Affiliation Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a student's risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed. PMID:17999173

  6. Health behavior and college students: does Greek affiliation matter?

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a students' risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1,595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1,330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed.

  7. A review of Greek law on human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    The creation of Dolly, a cloned lamb from adult cells was a major scientific breakthrough, which opened new avenues for many research fields such as reproductive medicine, transplantation and biotechnology. However this achievement brought to public attention the theoretical possibility of human reproductive cloning. Inevitably heated debate occurred on several ethical and legal consequences of the prospect of human cloning. At the present time there is no legal framework in any country to respond to this challenge in a pragmatic way in order to protect human rights and at the same time to allow science to work for the best interests of mankind. Greece is a European Union country with its own traditions, history, culture and beliefs but without political and legislative experience in the handling of medical and biotechnological matters. This paper aims to discuss the legal issues likely to be raised by the prospect of human reproductive cloning in relation to the current state of the Greek legal system.

  8. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    PubMed

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  9. South Africa's early experiment in social medicine: its pioneers and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, S

    1997-01-01

    The election of a democratic, nonracial government in South Africa has moved the health needs of the majority of the population to center stage. In the search for precedents, health policymakers have turned to South Africa's pioneering of health centers and social medicine in the 1940s. This paper looks at the intellectual context in which these ideas were first developed; the particular political circumstances and relationships between doctors and the state in the late 1930s, which facilitated the establishment of health centers; the role that the health centers were intended to play in South Africa's wider postwar health plans; and the reasons for the centers' failure. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it argues that the failure of the health centers and the wider health plans predated the advent of the National Party to power in 1948, and resulted mainly from the marginalization of the centers as a low-cost option for the poor, which was itself a consequence of underfunding and the vested interests of local health authorities and private practitioners. PMID:9096553

  10. Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek–English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals’ discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group. PMID:23556605

  11. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  12. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    PubMed

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  13. The Semantic Adaptation of Turkish Loanwords in Cypriot-Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlou, Pavlos Y.

    This paper examines the Turkish origins of a number of Cypriot-Greek words, explaining how some of these words have undergone a semantic shift. Words of Turkish origin can be divided into three classes: (1) culturally borrowed, those words that introduced a new concept into Cypriot-Greek and have no purely Greek equivalent; (2) doublets, those…

  14. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  15. Greek Affiliation and Attitude Change in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Extends the work of Wilde et al. (1978), in a longitudinal study of attitude change in college students (N=2,178). Compares "Greeks,""ex-Greeks," and independents on family and peer independence, liberalism, cultural sophistication, and social conscience. Found that year of enrollment was more prominent than was Greek affiliation in inhibiting…

  16. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  17. The Classical Greek Program in the School District of Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    Classical Greek is taught as an elective to over 200 students in seven secondary schools of the School District of Philadelphia. In the past decade the restoration of Greek studies to the classical curriculum was called for, and in 1968 a Greek Curriculum Committee was established in Philadelphia to develop a program and instructional materials.…

  18. In Search of Excellence: Historical Roots of Greek Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    This paper seeks to discover conditions that motivate people to achieve excellence and uses the Greek culture as an example of excellence. The document addresses the basic questions: (1) What were the social conditions that resulted in what is widely known as the "Greek Miracle"?; (2) What motivated the ancient Greeks to excel,…

  19. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  20. Management of organic impurities in small molecule medicinal products: Deriving safe limits for use in early development.

    PubMed

    Harvey, James; Fleetwood, Andrew; Ogilvie, Ron; Teasdale, Andrew; Wilcox, Phil; Spanhaak, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Management of organic non-mutagenic impurities (NMIs) in medicinal products is regulated by the ICH Q3A, B and C guidelines that are applicable at late stages of clinical development (Phase III onwards) and as a consequence there is no guidance for the assessment and control of NMIs in early clinical trials. An analysis of several key in vivo toxicology databases supports the ICH Q3A defined concept that a lifetime dose to 1 mg/day of a NMI would not represent a safety concern to patients. In conjunction with routine (Q)SAR approaches, this 1 mg/day value could be used as a universal qualification threshold for a NMI during any stage of clinical development. This analysis also proposes that modification of this 1 mg/day dose using an established methodology (i.e. Modified Haber's Law) could support 5 mg/day or 0.7% (whichever is lower) as an acceptable limit for a NMI in a drug substance or product in early clinical studies (<6 months). Given the controlled nature of clinical development and the knowledge that most toxicities are dose and duration dependent, these proposed NMI limits provide assurance of patient safety throughout clinical development, without the requirement to commission dedicated in vivo toxicology impurity qualification studies.

  1. Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Needham, Dale M; Korupolu, Radha; Zanni, Jennifer M; Pradhan, Pranoti; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Brower, Roy G; Fan, Eddy

    2010-04-01

    To (1) reduce deep sedation and delirium to permit mobilization, (2) increase the frequency of rehabilitation consultations and treatments to improve patients' functional mobility, and (3) evaluate effects on length of stay. Seven-month prospective before/after quality improvement project. Sixteen-bed medical intensive care unit (MICU) in academic hospital. 57 patients mechanically ventilated 4 days or longer. A multidisciplinary team focused on reducing heavy sedation and increasing MICU staffing to include full-time physical and occupational therapists with new consultation guidelines. Sedation and delirium status, rehabilitation treatments, functional mobility. Compared with before the quality improvement project, benzodiazepine use decreased markedly (proportion of MICU days that patients received benzodiazepines [50% vs 25%, P=.002]), with lower median daily sedative doses (47 vs 15 mg midazolam equivalents [P=.09] and 71 vs 24 mg morphine equivalents [P=.01]). Patients had improved sedation and delirium status (MICU days alert [30% vs 67%, P<.001] and not delirious [21% vs 53%, P=.003]). There were a greater median number of rehabilitation treatments per patient (1 vs 7, P<.001) with a higher level of functional mobility (treatments involving sitting or greater mobility, 56% vs 78%, P=.03). Hospital administrative data demonstrated that across all MICU patients, there was a decrease in intensive care unit and hospital length of stay by 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.4-3.8) and 3.1 (0.3-5.9) days, respectively, and a 20% increase in MICU admissions compared with the same period in the prior year. Using a quality improvement process, intensive care unit delirium, physical rehabilitation, and functional mobility were markedly improved and associated with decreased length of stay. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pioneering early Intensive Care Medicine by the 'Scandinavian Method' of treatment for severe acute barbiturate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2015-07-01

    Between the 1920s and the mid-1950s, barbiturates were the sedative-hypnotic agents most used in clinical practice. Their ready availability and narrow therapeutic margin accounted for disturbingly high rates of acute poisoning, whether suicidal or accidental. Until the late 1940s, medical treatment was relatively ineffective, with mortality subsequently high - not only from the effects of coma, respiratory depression and cardiovascular shock with renal impairment, but also from complications of the heavy use in the 1930s and 1940s of analeptic stimulating agents. Incidence of barbiturate intoxication increased substantially following World War II and this paper details development of what became known as the 'Scandinavian Method' of treatment, which contributed substantially to the earliest establishment of intensive care units and to the practice and methods of intensive care medicine. Three names stand out for the pioneering of this treatment. Successively, psychiatrist, Aage Kirkegaard, for introducing effective anti-shock fluid therapy; anaesthetist, Eric Nilsson, for introducing anaesthesiologic principles, including manual intermittent positive pressure ventilation into management; and, psychiatrist, Carl Clemmesen, for introducing centralisation of seriously poisoned patients in a dedicated unit. Clemmesen's Intoxication Unit opened at the Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1949. ICU pioneer Bjørn Ibsen suggested it was the initial ICU, while noting that it supplied Intensive Therapy for one type of disorder only (as had HCA Lassen's Blegdam Hospital unit for Denmark's 1952 to 1953 polio epidemic). Treatment for barbiturate poisoning during the 1950s in some other Scandinavian hospitals will also be considered briefly.

  3. Some cultural aspects of Greek male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    1980-01-01

    A brief examination of Greek social structures, history, and cosmology reveals several points about the nature of, and attitudes towards, male homosexual practices in the classical period. First, due to the overwhelming importance of the Hellenic family, few men seem to have engaged exclusively in homosexual acts. Second, historical sources for Attica indicate that, although most men may have married, homosexual behavior was widespread among all levels of society and was considered no more opprobrious than heterosexual behavior. Third, the Greek cosmology, with its unbounded sexuality and constant blurring of sex roles, provided an atmosphere in which homosexuality was regarded by Athenians as neither irreligious nor unnatural.

  4. The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alun M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

  5. The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alun M

    2009-11-19

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

  6. The Greek medical texts and the sexual ethos of ancient Athens.

    PubMed

    Keuls, E C

    1995-01-01

    After at least a century of institutionalized pederasty Athenian society developed legal and moral sanctions against this practice at the end of the fifth century BC as the indirect result of the introduction of medicine. Viewing the sex drive as a bodily need, analogous to hunger and thirst, it cast a disparaging light on the role played by the passive partner. It is here argued that the principal catalyst of the transformation of biology into prescriptive ethics was Democritus of Abdera, whose preoccupation with medicine is known. Democritus probably influenced Aristotle, who articulated the harshest condemnation of pederasty found in Greek texts.

  7. "Can We Play Again with Picasso Miss?" The Effects of the Arts in Children's Involvement during Literacy Activities in the Early Years Settings: A Case Study in the Greek Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    Involvement is the cornerstone of the educational process, especially in the early years settings. It is a fundamental factor in people's actions particularly when they are deeply concentrated in an activity. However, little research has been conducted in the early years settings, with focus on teaching and learning. This piece of research…

  8. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated.

  9. [Health behavior, preventative medicine, early detection, and utilization of women's health services among Ethiopian women immigrants in Israel].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nivi; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2013-01-01

    Immigrants differ in morbidity and mortality characteristics, as well as health services and preventative medicine utilization, compared with the non-immigrant population. As the Length of stay in the host country increases, these patterns become similar to the Local population, due to the acculturation process. Immigrant women's prenatal care is often partial and inadequate, usually occurring late in pregnancy, their contraceptive use is lower and the rate of abortions is higher. They have less screening tests for cancer detection, are diagnosed at advanced stages and their survival and cure probabilities are lower Facilitators and barriers to immigrant women's health behaviors include cultural beliefs and perceptions, length of stay in the host country, degree of acculturation, Language barriers, accessibility, primary physician involvement, role burdens, knowledge and awareness. Ethiopian women experienced a sharp transition in a variety of life aspects following their immigration to Israel. Studies show that Ethiopian women's health and health behavior are typical to those encountered among immigrant women. Their birth patterns are becoming similar to local women as their years in Israel increase, and veteran's patterns are closer to the local population. Data regarding contraceptive use is lacking; the abortion rate is four times higher in comparison with Israeli-born Jewish women, and preventive medicine, referral and early detection rates for cancer are lower. Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are at high risk regarding their health. Understanding the underlying causes, the changes that occur as time in Israel increases, and identifying the accessibility barriers to services experienced by these women, will assist in planning cultural and needs sensitive services, including health promotion programs.

  10. Biomarker discovery by proteomics-based approaches for early detection and personalized medicine in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Claudia; Cevenini, Armando; Salvatore, Francesco

    2016-12-26

    About one million people per year develop colorectal cancer (CRC) and approximately half of them die. The extent of the disease (i.e. local invasion at the time of diagnosis) is a key prognostic factor. The 5-year survival rate is almost 90% in the case of delimited CRC and 10% in the case of metastasized CRC. Hence, one of the great challenges in the battle against CRC is to improve early diagnosis strategies. Large-scale proteomic approaches are widely used in cancer research to search for novel biomarkers. Such biomarkers can help in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis and in the optimization of personalized therapy. Herein, we provide an overview of studies published in the last 5 years on CRC that led to the identification of protein biomarkers suitable for clinical application by using proteomic approaches. We discussed these findings according to biomarker application, including also the role of protein phosphorylation and cancer stem cells in biomarker discovery. Our review provides a cross section of scientific approaches and can furnish suggestions for future experimental strategies to be used as reference by scientists, clinicians and researchers interested in proteomics for biomarker discovery.

  11. [Hermaphroditos in Greek mythology--DSD in moderne medicine].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, A; Mullis, P E; Stanga, Z

    2009-01-07

    We report a case of 34 year old woman how has been hospitalized at the age of 6 month with persistent vomitus. The vomitus was found to be caused by adrenal insufficiency with lack of all hormones of steroidobiosynthesis. The phenotypical femal child was diagnosed to have congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XY DSD. 24 years later a homozygote mutation in the StAR-gene (L260P), which was first described in Switzerland, has been identified.

  12. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  13. Development of Voice Onset Time in Standard-Greek and Cypriot-Greek-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni; Karasimou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the development of voice onset time (VOT) in Standard-Greek (SG) and Cypriot-Greek (CG)-speaking children at age levels 2;0-2;5, 2;6-2;11, 3;0-3;5, and 3;6-4;0 years. SG presents with a two-way voicing contrast (voiced and voiceless unaspirated stops) whereas CG is a three-way contrast dialect containing…

  14. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  15. Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

  16. Internships at Greek Universities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures so as to engage young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy at present targeting that population group, especially university students. This paper explores university…

  17. The Patchwork Text in Teaching Greek Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the rewards and challenges of using the Patchwork Text to teach Greek Tragedy to Cambridge University English final-year students. The article uses close reading of the students' texts, analysis and reflection to discuss both the products and the process of Patchwork writing. (Author/AEF)

  18. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  19. Greek Advisors' Perceptions of Sorority Hazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deborah Lee; Morgan, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Examined Greek advisors' opinions on several issues related to sorority hazing. Results from 283 members of the Association of Fraternity Advisors revealed that, although almost all campuses had a hazing policy, over half of advisors felt that hazing still existed in some of their groups. Policies for handling hazing incidents were varied.…

  20. Ideas for Strengthening Mathematics Skills. Greek Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    Presented is an overview of some specific schemes that have been used successfully by teachers throughout New York State to strengthen basic mathematics skills. Components offer ideas that have been successful with primary, intermediate and secondary students. The contents of this Greek language edition are identical to the English language and…

  1. Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

  2. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  3. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  4. Temperament Styles of Greek and US Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2010-01-01

    Age, gender and cross-national differences of children ages 8 through 16 in Greece (n = 400) and the United States (n = 5,400) are examined on four temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…

  5. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  6. The Greek Education System, Brussels 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational policy of the Greek government rests on the basic assumption that education is a social good and something to which every citizen has a right. The state has an obligation to ensure this provision for every young person with the same level and quality of preparation. This brief but full description of the state educational system…

  7. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  8. Internships at Greek Universities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures so as to engage young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy at present targeting that population group, especially university students. This paper explores university…

  9. Solar Alignments of Greek Temples Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.

    2005-08-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces approximately north-south, are noted in the literature, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations but predominately (about 80 Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan, Roman and Greek temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken three field seasons in Greece in order to check previously reported alignments. Where possible, in addition to determining the orientation of foundations, we have attempted to determine the, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues, horizon altitudes etc. In this preliminary study we hope to be able to discover patterns in the orientation of these temples which relate solar observations to temple ritual and thus extend Dinmoor's hypothesis. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our three field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with possible application. 1. Dinsmoor, W.B., The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1975. 2. Nissen, H.,Das Templum,Antiquarische Untesuchungon (Berlin, 1896). 3. Penrose, F.C., Trans. Roy

  10. Knowledge of Greek adolescents on human papilloma virus (HPV) and vaccination: A national epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Vaidakis, Dennis; Moustaki, Irini; Zervas, Ioannis; Barbouni, Anastasia; Merakou, Kyriaki; Chrysi, Maria S; Creatsa, George; Panoskaltsis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the sexual behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focused on human papilloma virus (HPV) in the Greek adolescent population. The participants were 4547 adolescents, a representative sample for Greek territory with a mean age of 17 years. After written permission from Greek ministry of education each student completed a questionnaire with 36 questions. The fields covered were demographic characteristics, sexual life data, and basic knowledge on HPV. In the present study, 43% and 75% of the participants knew about HPV or cervical cancer, while more than 6 out of 10 did not know the association between the 2. More than 60% of the participants could not answer correctly neither about HPV infection and cervical cancer frequency in sexually active women, nor about protection methods against HPV and cervical cancer. This study shows that the low vaccination coverage of the Greek population may be due to lack of information and awareness of the adolescents and their parents. It is our duty to increase our efforts in order to better educate the population and vaccinate the population as early as possible in their reproductive years.

  11. Knowledge of Greek adolescents on human papilloma virus (HPV) and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Vaidakis, Dennis; Moustaki, Irini; Zervas, Ioannis; Barbouni, Anastasia; Merakou, Kyriaki; Chrysi, Maria S.; Creatsa, George; Panoskaltsis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify the sexual behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focused on human papilloma virus (HPV) in the Greek adolescent population. The participants were 4547 adolescents, a representative sample for Greek territory with a mean age of 17 years. After written permission from Greek ministry of education each student completed a questionnaire with 36 questions. The fields covered were demographic characteristics, sexual life data, and basic knowledge on HPV. In the present study, 43% and 75% of the participants knew about HPV or cervical cancer, while more than 6 out of 10 did not know the association between the 2. More than 60% of the participants could not answer correctly neither about HPV infection and cervical cancer frequency in sexually active women, nor about protection methods against HPV and cervical cancer. This study shows that the low vaccination coverage of the Greek population may be due to lack of information and awareness of the adolescents and their parents. It is our duty to increase our efforts in order to better educate the population and vaccinate the population as early as possible in their reproductive years. PMID:28072683

  12. Circadian rhythms and sleep patterns in urban Greek couples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Beyene, Yewoubdar; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas J; Dikeos, Dimitris G; Soldatos, Constantin R

    2007-07-01

    A convenience sample of 14 adults (seven couples) who intentionally nap regularly was recruited to describe circadian rhythms and sleep patterns in a culture in which afternoon naps are routine. Participants wore a wrist actigraph for 48 hr during May to obtain two peaks and troughs of activity data. Peak activity, estimated by cosinor analysis (acrophase), occurred at 1542 hours for men and at 1600 hours for women. Compared to their male partners, women had a later acrophase and a significantly stronger 24-hr rhythm, despite similar nap and nighttime sleep schedules. Men had more awakenings during the night and slightly shorter naps than did women. For the 24-hr period, men averaged 6.8 +/- 1.0 hr of sleep and women averaged 7.4 +/- 1.1 hr. Results indicate that Greek adults delay sleep onset at night and awaken early in the morning. Among this small group, naps are an accepted cultural behavior.

  13. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    PubMed

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  14. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  15. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  16. [From the physician heros to lifestyle medicine].

    PubMed

    Groák, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    Author sketches the development of medicine in the Greek world from the mythic beginnings up to the Corpus Hippocraticum. He emphasizes the importance of the presocratic natural philosophy regarding its making. The article derives main theories of the so called humoral pathology and those of the ancient dietetics also from this heritage.

  17. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  18. Homer and Herodotus to Egyptian medicine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marco

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine is the base of Greek medicine. Egyptian people and their medical knowledge are often mentioned in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer (VIII sec. BCE). Many Greek doctors, such as Melampus, Asclepius as well as Hippocrates visited Egypt to study and understand medicine. This work intends to focus particularly on Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch's letters, where the importance of Egypt in religion, science and medicine is clear. Herodotus (484-420 BCE) in the second book of "The Histories" describes Egypt and the medical knowledge of its doctors. Plutarch (I-II sec CE) in "The virtues of Sparta" and "Life of Lycurgus", tells about an energy beverage, named nepenthe, made with drugs from Egypt.

  19. Origins of the historiography of modern Greek science.

    PubMed

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine how Greek historians account for the presence of modern scientific ideas in the intellectual environment of eighteenth-century Greek-speaking society. It will also discuss the function of the history of modern Greek science in the context of Greek national historiography. As will be shown, the history of modem Greek science spent most of its life under the shadow of the history of ideas. Despite its seemingly secondary role, however, it occupied a distinctive place within national historiography because it formed the ground upon which different perceptions of the country's European identity converged. In this respect, one of the main goals of this paper is to outline the particular ideological presumptions, which shaped the historiography of modern Greek science under different historical circumstances. At the end an attempt will be made to articulate a viewpoint more in tandem with the recent methodological developments in the history of science.

  20. Bullying in Greek Primary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapouna, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The problem of school bullying among Greek primary and secondary school children was investigated by using a translated version of the Olweus Questionnaire with a total of 1,758 students, mainly aged 10-14, from 20 schools in the greater Thessaloniki area. Overall, 8.2 percent of all students were victims, 5.8 percent were bullies and 1.1 percent…

  1. Smoking behavior of Greek warship personnel.

    PubMed

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Vlachonikolis, Ioannis G; Lionis, Christos D

    2003-11-01

    The results from a study undertaken to assess the smoking behavior of Greek warship personnel found that of the 274 participants, ages 19 to 38 years, 59.5% were current smokers who started the habit between the ages of 15 and 21 years. However, 33.1% of these current smokers started smoking after entering the Greek Navy. There were statistically significant associations between the habit of smoking and the occurrences of respiratory tract infections, alcohol consumption, lack of aerobic exercise during leisure time, and educational level of the personnel. Another significant association was between the age of introduction into the habit of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, with the level of education being a contributing factor. The method of entry into the Greek Navy and the rank held made a significant contribution to the time period of initiation into the habit of smoking. The impact of military life on the smoking behavior of the shipboard personnel is discussed and suitable intervention strategies have been recommended.

  2. Whistleblowing in medicine and in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Rodulson, Victoria; Marshall, Robert; Bleakley, Alan

    2015-12-01

    'Thinking with Homer', or drawing creatively on themes and scenes from Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, can help us to better understand medical culture and practice. One current, pressing, issue is the role of the whistleblower, who recognises and exposes perceived poor practice or ethical transgressions that compromise patient care and safety. Once, whistleblowers were ostracised where medical culture closed ranks. However, in a new era of public accountability, medicine looks to formally embrace whistleblowing to the point that not reporting transgressions can now constitute a transgression of professionalism. Where medical students identify with the history and traditions of medical culture, they inevitably find themselves in situations of conflicting loyalties if they encounter senior clinicians behaving unprofessionally. What are the implications of facing these dilemmas for students in terms of role modelling and shaping of character as a doctor, and how might a study of Homer help with such dilemmas? We suggest that a close reading of an opening scene in Homer's the Iliad can help us to better appreciate such ethical dilemmas. We link this with the early Greek tradition of parrhesia or 'truth telling', where frankly speaking out against perceived injustice is encouraged as resistance to power and inappropriate use of authority. We encourage medical educators to openly discuss perceived ethical dilemmas with medical students, and medicine as a culture to examine its conscience in a transition from an authoritarian to an 'open' society, where whistleblowing becomes as acceptable and necessary as good hygiene on the wards.

  3. The Kantian Peace and Greek-Turkish Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    E . CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................21 III. GREEK-TURKISH RELATIONS: THE...36 e . Demilitarization of Eastern Aegean Islands ..........................37 3. Minorities...37 E . FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGIES

  4. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-05-17

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharides promote the content of polyphenols in Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum).

    PubMed

    Yin, Heng; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-01-11

    Greek oregano is commonly used as a spice and in traditional medicine in Eurasia. The plant is rich in secondary metabolites, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyphenols. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) are used as a plant elicitor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of COS on the growth and content of secondary metabolites in Greek oregano. Four COS treatments (50, 200, 500, and 1000 ppm) were used in a field experiment. The 200 and 500 ppm COS treatments promoted plant height growth, whereas 50 and 200 ppm COS upregulated the content of polyphenols significantly (38 and 29%, respectively). The COS treatments induced H(2)O(2) generation in Greek oregano leaves; thus, the effect of H(2)O(2) treatment was studied to investigate the possible role of H(2)O(2) in growth and polyphenol production. A low concentration of H(2)O(2) also promoted plant height growth, but only tendencies to higher polyphenol content were seen.

  6. [Dreams and medicine in the pergamum asklepieion].

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the main aspects of the onirical theraphy in Greek theurgical medicine, practised, as well known, in Asklepius' temples all over Greek territories. Iamata, written sources and chronicles furnish reliable testimonies of activities performed in the sacred structures, most of which concerning the reading and interpretations of dreams. A privileged witness of these practices is Aelius Aristides, in the Ieroi Logoi describing the particular link connecting his psychological and metaphorical diseases to the divine power of Asklepius, revealing his healing terrific capacities mainly through therapeutic dreams.

  7. [Early encounters of German-language explorers with the Tibetan medicine in Siberia in the modern era].

    PubMed

    Surkova, Natalia; Chekhirova, Galina V; Aseeva, Tamara; Nikolaev, Sergey; Agalzew, Grigori; Melzer, Jörg; Vennos, Cécile; Schwabl, Herbert; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The spreading of Tibetan Buddhism and with it the Tibetan medicine in the region east of Lake Baikal, goes back to the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, German speaking scholars were among the first to undertake scientific expeditions through Siberia. As such they were amongst the first scientists of the modern era who encountered the traditions, concepts, and therapeutic methods of Tibetan medicine. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze these first encounters with Tibetan medicine by the example of selected men of science of the 18th and 19th century. This work is based on extensive studies of sources in archives and libraries in Russia and Switzerland. We found documents related to the following scientists: Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (1685-1735), Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), Erik Laxmann (1737-1796), Friedrich Adelung (1768-1843), and Joseph Rehmann (1779-1831). They mentioned the distribution of Tibetan medicine within Russia, the use of medicinal plants and formulas as well as therapeutic techniques. For the scientific community of the time these first encounters of Europeans with practitioners of Tibetan medicine could not lift Tibetan medicine out of other exotic context in the field of ethnography. For today's researchers, these encounters are an important evidence for more than 300 years of development of Tibetan medicine on the vast territory of Siberia. The practice and the scientific examination of Tibetan medicine in Siberia is an active endeavor until today. The present work shows that it is possible and rewarding to follow up the historic and cultural connections from Europe to Asia via the Siberian link.

  8. Odontology and the history of medicine at the Royal Society of Medicine 1907-1960 and the contributions of Lilian Lindsay--Part One. The early years of the Royal Society of Medicine and the Section of Odontology.

    PubMed

    Papworth, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine and the Sections of Odontology. It considers the remarkable achievements of Lilian Lindsay which were made at a time when the medical world was almost entirely dominated by men.

  9. Early history and iconography of lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fatovic-Ferencic, Stella; Holubar, Karl

    2004-01-01

    In analyzing the history of a certain disease, not only must the particular disease be investigated, but related pathological conditions that exist in a population at a given time must also be addressed. Also, the prevalence of other diseases should be explored, which may have a bearing on the problem under discussion. The history of medicine can help in this respect, revealing the circumstances or the environment when certain diseases (dis)appeared. Terminology must also be explored, and is the point with which we will begin. With regard to lupus, this again is the case (Latin for wolf; lykos ___ in Greek). Taboo and fantasy border semantics because in the naming of the wolf, the image of "tearing apart" or "pulling or ripping off" (a destructive phenomenon) comes into play. Even the Sanskrit word allows such a relation (v_ik, varkate, v_íkah [symbols: see text]). As a consequence, processes of various origin but characterized by ulceration or necrosis (neoplastic, infectious, traumatic, etc), were labeled lupus before the mid-19th century, and no specific pathogenesis was implied. This resulted in considerable confusion, as the books of Willan, Alibert, Cazenave, Schedeland, Hebra, and others prove. We see no purpose in delving further into the history of ulcerative lesions and what was understood early on to be their presumed cause, eg, back to Paracelsus and to the Old Testament ("shekhin" [see text] Hebrew, meaning "ulcer"); or, "cancer," another such descriptive term relating to destruction, taken from the Greek).

  10. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    PubMed

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development.

  11. Big 5 Personality changes in Greek bvFTD, AD, and MCI patients

    PubMed Central

    Lykou, Evdoxia; Rankin, Katherine P.; Chatziantoniou, Lina; Boulas, Chrysanthos; Papatriantafyllou, Olga; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Neuhaus, John; Karageorgiou, Clementine; Miller, Bruce L.; Papatriantafyllou, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurodegenerative disease show distinct patterns of personality change, some of which may be traced to focal neurologic damage, while others may be mediated by cultural reactions to functional impairment. While such changes are early and pervasive in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and milder changes are seen in Alzheimer’s (AD), no study has examined all Big 5 factors of personality in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Also, the influence of culture and ethnicity on disease-related personality changes has seldom been examined. Premorbid and current personality were measured in 47 Greek patients with bvFTD, AD, and MCI according to informant reports using the TPQue5, a 5-factor inventory in the Greek language and accounting for Greek cultural factors. bvFTDs showed greater decreases in conscientiousness than ADs and MCIs. ADs and MCIs showed increased neuroticism, while the bvFTD patients were rated as having become much less neurotic in the course of their disease. The pattern of personality change in MCIs was very similar to that of ADs, supporting recent evidence that personality changes occur as early as the MCI disease stage. In all groups, personality changes were similar to those previously described in non-Mediterranean cultures, supporting the hypothesis that they may result directly from disease-specific neurologic processes. PMID:23060360

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greek population of Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Bonafede, R P; Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1984-04-07

    A sample of 250 unrelated members of the Greek community of Cape Town was studied in order to establish the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in the community. A gene frequency of 0,067 in males and a prevalence of 6,7% are estimated for this group. It is recommended that persons with G-6-PD deficiency should have access to a list of medicinal agents which have the potential for precipitating acute haemolytic crises and that they should wear Medic-Alert discs bearing information concerning the disorder.

  13. Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived "a" Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.

  14. Maritime Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, J. Worth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a fascinating look at the practice of medicine aboard commercial and military ships in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Contemporary medical practice believed all diseases were created by one of four "humors." In spite of this, and the constant presence of disease, most seamen led relatively healthy lives. (MJP)

  15. Armenian medicine and diseases of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2009-01-01

    The history of Armenian medicine is that of the common practice of medicine in caring for the sick through the ages, using mainly local medicinal herbs and natural products. Over the years, its practitioners persistently collected and recorded an expanding body of information on therapeutics and put it to use for the daily medical care of ordinary folks. Armenian medicine developed around the church and monasteries, which flourished during episodic periods of peace in an otherwise tumultuous and warring region. However, unlike the monastic medicine that developed in Europe, Armenian medicine maintained the rationality it had acquired from Greek medicine, and never resorted to magic, myth or amulets. Nor did it acquire or import saints. Armenian medicine is a classic example of the evolving art of therapeutics, whose record is preserved in extant manuscripts, saved over the centuries in monasteries, and now preserved in accessible collections.

  16. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  17. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  18. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  19. Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

  20. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Greek Turkish friendship cannot be threatened or disturbed by the Cyprus question."(Alexandris, 1992, p.267) Both countries were seen as "... Siamese ... twins guarding the vital gates of warm water entry and exit into the Black 7 Robert McDonald in Adelphi Papers 229, London:IISS, Spring 1988, p. 7 2 8 The

  1. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  2. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  3. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  4. The art of providing resuscitation in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Samonis, George

    2014-12-01

    We reviewed Greek mythology to accumulate tales of resuscitation and we explored whether these tales could be viewed as indirect evidence that ancient Greeks considered resuscitation strategies similar to those currently used. Three compendia of Greek mythology: The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, The Greek Myths by Robert Graves, and Greek Mythology by Ioannis Kakridis were used to find potentially relevant narratives. Thirteen myths that may suggest resuscitation (including 1 case of autoresuscitation) were identified. Methods to attempt mythological resuscitation included use of hands (which may correlate with basic life support procedures), a kiss on the mouth (similar to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), application of burning torches (which might recall contemporary use of external defibrillators), and administration of drugs (a possible analogy to advanced life support procedures). A careful assessment of relevant myths demonstrated that interpretations other than medical might be more credible. Although several narratives of Greek mythology might suggest modern resuscitation techniques, they do not clearly indicate that ancient Greeks presaged scientific methods of resuscitation. Nevertheless, these elegant tales reflect humankind's optimism that a dying human might be restored to life if the appropriate procedures were implemented. Without this optimism, scientific improvement in the field of resuscitation might not have been achieved.

  5. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  6. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  7. Evaluating and Recommending Greek Newspapers' Websites Using Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Kotsiantis, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate Greek newspaper websites using clustering and a number of criteria obtained from the Alexa search engine. Furthermore, a recommendation approach is proposed for matching Greek online newspapers with the profiles of potential readers. The paper presents the implementation and validation of a recommender…

  8. Greek Membership: The Relationship with First-Year Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBard, Robert; Sacks, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for student involvement to build a sense of belonging on college campuses. However, when it comes to membership in Greek social organizations, such involvement has been largely cast as negative. Unlike many of the anecdotal articles critical of the influence joining a Greek social organization can have on…

  9. The Standardization of the Concepts about Print into Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and standardize Concepts About Print (C.A.P.) into Greek, and to assess its psychometric properties. Particularly, this study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Greek version of C.A.P., and item difficulty and discrimination index and examined whether there were differences between boys and…

  10. Evaluating and Recommending Greek Newspapers' Websites Using Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Kotsiantis, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate Greek newspaper websites using clustering and a number of criteria obtained from the Alexa search engine. Furthermore, a recommendation approach is proposed for matching Greek online newspapers with the profiles of potential readers. The paper presents the implementation and validation of a recommender…

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of Greek Special Education Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Morfidi, Eleni; Soulis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Special education teachers and related service providers were interviewed for their perspectives on Greek special education policies and practices and how these influenced their job preparation and duties. Specifically, they were asked about the impact of the following on their jobs: Greek law related to the education of students with…

  12. Home Space: Youth Identification in the Greek Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study on schooling and diaspora using the case of the Greek community of Melbourne, Australia to examine processes of identification of young people with access to minority cultures. The Melbourne Greek community is long-standing, diverse, and well-established. Because of this, the young people involved in this study…

  13. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  14. Home Space: Youth Identification in the Greek Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study on schooling and diaspora using the case of the Greek community of Melbourne, Australia to examine processes of identification of young people with access to minority cultures. The Melbourne Greek community is long-standing, diverse, and well-established. Because of this, the young people involved in this study…

  15. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2016-09-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM)-derived products have been successfully used in ophthalmology, plastic surgery, and wound care, but little is known about their potential applications in orthopaedic sports medicine. To provide an updated review of the basic science and preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of AM-derived products and to review their current applications in sports medicine. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The search term amniotic membrane was used alone and in conjunction with stem cell, orthopaedic, tissue engineering, scaffold, and sports medicine. The search identified 6870 articles, 80 of which, after screening of the titles and abstracts, were considered relevant to this study. Fifty-five articles described the anatomy, basic science, and nonorthopaedic applications of AM-derived products. Twenty-five articles described preclinical and clinical trials of AM-derived products for orthopaedic sports medicine. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the anatomy, physiology, and clinical uses of AM-derived products is presented. Amniotic membranes have many promising applications in sports medicine. They are a source of pluripotent cells, highly organized collagen, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulators, and matrix proteins. These properties may make it beneficial when applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, improving tissue organization in healing, and treatment of the arthritic joint. The current body of evidence in sports medicine is heavily biased toward in vitro and animal studies, with little to no human clinical data. Nonetheless, 14 companies or distributors offer commercial AM products. The preparation and formulation of these products alter their biological and mechanical properties, and a thorough understanding of these

  16. [Theriac: medicine and antidote].

    PubMed

    Parojcic, Dusanka; Stupar, Dragan; Mirica, Milica

    2003-06-01

    Theriac was an ancient multi-ingredient preparation; originating as a cure for the bites of serpents, mad dogs and wild beasts, it later became an antidote to all known poisons. The name theriac (treacle), (Greek theriake, Latin theriaca, French thériaque) was derived from the Greek for wild beast - theriakos. The first formula was created by Mithridates Vl, King of Pontus, a skillful ruler but a monster of cruelty, who, living in such a fear of being poisoned, took a great interest in toxicology. In the 1st century AD, Nero's personal physician Andromachus improved the formula of Antidotum Mithridatium by adding flesh of vipers, which was commonly believed to be the best antidote against snakebite, and by increasing the proportion of opium. It became known as Theriac of Andromachus, and contained 64 ingredients including various minerals, herbals, poisons and animal flesh and blood, all combined with honey in the form of electuarium. Later it became the cure-all medicine which, accumulating all the simples into one form, was supposed to be a universal panacea against all diseases. In the Middle Ages this famous electuarium become a patent medicine and entered official dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. The most famous and expensive Theriac in Europe was that of Venice. It was not until the l8th century that it was excluded from medical use.

  17. Dietetics in ancient Greek philosophy: Plato's concepts of healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Skiadas, P K; Lascaratos, J G

    2001-07-01

    Plato (5th-4th century BC), one of the most important philosophers of Greek antiquity, left a valuable spiritual heritage, compiled in his famous dialogues. His teachings extend to almost every single field of human knowledge. Among other philosophical concepts, Plato's works are imbued with the fundamental principle of moderation. This spirit is characteristically evident in his references to human diet. According to the philosopher, a moderate and thus a healthy diet, consists of cereals, legumes, fruits, milk, honey and fish. However, meat, confectionery and wine should be consumed only in moderate quantities. Excesses in food lead to ailments and therefore should be avoided. Plato considers physicians responsible for the regulation of human diet, for medicine is a science and not merely an art as in the case of cookery. The dietary pattern presented in Platonic dialogues shares many common components with the highly-reputed Mediterranean diet. As a whole, Plato's writings represent a valuable source for the study of the nutritional customs during the classical period of ancient Greece.

  18. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  19. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  20. Greek petrochemicals finds buyers for plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-17

    Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively.

  1. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  2. Stories from early-career women physicians who have left academic medicine: a qualitative study at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rachel B; Lin, Fenny; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The number of women in academic medicine has steadily increased, although gender parity still does not exist and women leave academics at somewhat higher rates than men. The authors investigated the reasons why women leave careers in academic medicine. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 with 20 women physicians who had left a single academic institution to explore their reasons for opting out of academic careers. Data analysis was iterative, and an editing analysis style was used to derive themes. A lack of role models for combining career and family responsibilities, frustrations with research (funding difficulties, poor mentorship, competition), work-life balance, and the institutional environment (described as noncollaborative and biased in favor of male faculty) emerged as key factors associated with a decision to leave academic medicine for respondents. Faced with these challenges, respondents reevaluated their priorities and concluded that a discrepancy existed between their own and institutional priorities. Many respondents expressed divergent views with the institutional norms on how to measure success and, as a consequence, felt that they were undervalued at work. Participants report a disconnection between their own priorities and those of the dominant culture in academic medicine. Efforts to retain women faculty in academic medicine may include exploring the aspects of an academic career that they value most and providing support and recognition accordingly.

  3. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing prison telemedicine systems: the Greek experience.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Milliaras, Spyros; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    Prison telemedicine systems operate in circumstances in which the provision of medical care is very expensive. In 1999 the Greek Ministry of Justice decided to use telemedicine to improve health services in the largest prison in Greece (Korydallos Prison, in Athens). The Nikea Hospital in Piraeus undertook to support the effort in order: to enable prison paramedics and guards to call for remote evaluation of inmates when the prison's doctors were off duty; to provide second opinions; and to allow screening and primary care coverage for inmates through teleconsultations with Nikea Hospital specialists. For 12 months following installation, intensive 'hands-on' training on the use of the system was offered to the staff of both the Korydallos Prison and the Nikea Hospital. In all, 400 physicians, nurses and paramedics were trained. Despite all this effort, there were serious operational problems related either to prison bureaucracy or to the inflexibility of the Greek national health system, which annulled the effectiveness of the prison telemedicine system. The experience suggests that prison telemedicine is a viable option if freed from bureaucratic and labour-related obstacles, and can improve the quality of care available to prisoners.

  5. Cyclopia: from Greek antiquity to medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Kalantzis, George C; Tsiamis, Costas B; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie L

    2013-01-01

    Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature.

  6. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 8: Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis, A. M.; And Others

    The status of modern Greek in Australian society and education are detailed in this report. Chapters include discussion of these issues: the history of modern Greek in Australia (Greek immigration and settlement, public and private domains of use, language maintenance and shift, and language quality); the functions of modern Greek in Australia…

  7. The Greek Elementary School System. Curriculum Bulletin Number Twenty-Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, Constantine

    The Greek elementary school system is described in this booklet, which was developed for those teaching Greek children who come directly from Greek elementary schools to Chicago public schools. The Greek school system is described as different from the Chicago one in both content and methods of instruction; thus, the purpose of this document is to…

  8. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  9. Molecular and Clinical Investigation of Cystinuria in the Greek-Cypriot Population.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Yiannis; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Chatzikyriakidou, Anthi; Ignatiou, Anastasia; Demosthenous, Panayiota; Elia, Avraam; Zavros, Michalis; Georgiou, Ioannis; Pierides, Alkis; Deltas, Constantinos

    2015-11-01

    Cystinuria represents 3% of nephrolithiasis in humans. Two genes have been identified as the main genetic causes of cystinuria, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In the present study, we studied for the first time, genetically and clinically, all the cystinuric families identified so far in the Greek-Cypriot population. Discovery of mutations was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single analysis and DNA resequencing. New families were investigated through PCR-RFLPs. Clinical data were collected through the hospital patients' records and analytical follow-up of the families. We found a total of five mutations in 28 Greek-Cypriot cystinuric patients belonging in 12 families. The most frequent mutation among the 28 Greek-Cypriot patients is the SLC3A1-p.T216M, which is also the second most frequent mutation in Europe, representing a genetic founder effect. Sixteen of the 28 patients are homozygous for this mutation. Even though a consanguinity loop was obvious in only one family, other patients were from families in small villages where endogamy was practiced for many centuries. Timely clinical and genetic diagnosis, accompanied by early treatment, is significant for the good health of most of our patients. Only ∼14% of them developed chronic renal failure, and only one reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Five SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutations appear to be responsible for the genetic basis of cystinuria in the Greek-Cypriot patients; having such a limited number of causative mutations will simplify diagnostics for this population.

  10. [Dr Leonor Michaelis and early days of Hokkaido University School of Medicine; episodes among three medical researchers in the roaring twenties].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Koyama, Akio; Saito, Takeshi; Terasawa, Kouich; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Saito, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Little has been known about the personal history of Dr. Takaichi Mohri (Nakashima), the first professor of department of hygiene at Hokkaido University School of Medicine. We, therefore, have been inquiring academic backgrounds of Dr. Mohri for two decades. These inquiries show interesting episodes between Dr. Leonor Michaelis, one of the biggest names in enzymologists, and early days of this Medical School. In this article, we describe that at least two professors, Drs. Takaichi Mohri and Kaoru Ohguro, were in good acquaintances with Dr. Michaelis as follows; 1) the latter half of 1921, Dr. Ohguro visited a laboratory of Dr. Michaelis in Berlin, 2) from November 1922 to June 1923, Dr. Michaelis in Nagoya collaborated with Dr. Mohri in Sapporo, 3) Dr. Michaelis in Nagoya visited Dr. Ohguro's house and office in Sapporo at March 1925, and 4) at the same occasion, Dr. Michaelis made his lecture on biochemistry in Hokkaido University School of Medicine. Since Drs. Ohguro and Mohri were classmates of the University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Ohguro could introduce Dr. Michaelis to Dr. Mohri who used to be a graduate student in department of biochemistry. As a result of relationships, Drs. Michaelis and Mohri published a paper entitled "Eine weitere Methode zur Bestimmung des isoelektrischen Punktes von Eiweisskoerpern und ihre Anwendung auf die Serumalbumine verschiedener Tiere" in Biochemische Zeitschrift, which was a part of Dr. Mohri's Ph.D. thesis.

  11. Greek immigrant children in southern Sweden in comparison with Greek and Swedish children. I. General living conditions.

    PubMed

    Neiderud, J

    1989-01-01

    Greek immigrant children belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children and Greek children in Greece regarding general living conditions. Interviews were performed in the homes of all participants. The parents in the two Greek groups had the lowest educational level. The yearly salary of immigrant families was similar to that of the Swedish families. Immigrant and Swedish parents worked outside their homes to the same extent, Greek immigrant mothers fulltime, Swedish mothers mostly part time. For economical reasons the immigrant parents looked after their children within the family while the Swedish families almost always utilized community day care facilities. The immigrant families had fewer children than the Swedish and Greek rural families and their dwellings were smaller. Corporal punishment was a common method of upbringing in Greece and among the immigrants. The immigrant families had extremely few contacts with Swedish families. A majority of the immigrant families were unsure about their future in Sweden, whether or not to stay. In conclusion, the Greek immigrant group in many respects had adapted to Swedish customs but they had also at the same time retained much of the Greek cultural characteristics.

  12. Ancient Greek Heliocentric Views Hidden from Prevailing Beliefs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Coucouzeli, Alexandra

    2008-03-01

    We put forward the working hypothesis that the heliocentric, rather than the geocentric view, of the Solar System was the essential belief of the early Greek philosophers and astronomers. Although most of them referred to the geocentric view, it is plausible that the prevalent religious beliefs about the sacred character of the Earth as well as the fear of prosecution for impiety (asebeia) prevented them from expressing the heliocentric view, even though they were fully aware of it. Moreover, putting the geocentric view forward, instead, would have facilitated the reception of the surrounding world and the understanding of everyday celestial phenomena, much like the modern presentation of the celestial sphere and the zodiac, where the Earth is at the centre and the Sun makes an apparent orbit on the ecliptic. Such an ingenious stance would have set these early astronomers in harmony with the dominant religious beliefs and, at the same time, would have helped them to 'save the appearances', without sacrificing the essence of their ideas. In Hellenistic and Roman times, the prevailing view was still the geocentric one. The brilliant heliocentric theory advanced by Aristarchos in the early third century B.C. was never established, because it met with hostility in Athens - Aristarchos was accused of impiety and faced the death penalty. The textual evidence suggests that the tight connection which existed between religion and the city-state (polis) in ancient Greece, and which led to a series of impiety trials against philosophers in Athens during the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., would have made any contrary opinion expressed by the astronomers seem almost a high treason against the state.

  13. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  14. Automatic writer identification of ancient Greek inscriptions.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Michail; Papaodysseus, Constantin; Rousopoulos, Panayiotis; Dafi, Dimitra; Tracy, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology for the classification of ancient Greek inscriptions according to the writer who carved them. Inscription writer identification is crucial for dating the written content, which in turn is of fundamental importance in the sciences of history and archaeology. To achieve this, we first compute an ideal or "platonic" prototype for the letters of each inscription separately. Next, statistical criteria are introduced to reject the hypothesis that two inscriptions are carved by the same writer. In this way, we can determine the number of distinct writers who carved a given ensemble of inscriptions. Next, maximum likelihood considerations are employed to attribute all inscriptions in the collection to the respective writers. The method has been applied to 24 Ancient Athenian inscriptions and attributed these inscriptions to six different identified hands in full accordance with expert epigraphists' opinions.

  15. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  16. Aligning Greek-English parallel texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiotou, Eleni; Koronakis, George; Lazari, Vassiliki

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the alignment of parallel texts written in languages with different alphabets based on an experiment of aligning texts from the proceedings of the European Parliament in Greek and English. First, we describe our implementation of the k-vec algorithm and its application to the bilingual corpus. Then the output of the algorithm is used as a starting point for an alignment procedure at a sentence level which also takes into account mark-ups of meta-information. The results of the implementation are compared to those of the application of the Church and Gale alignment algorithm on the Europarl corpus. The conclusions of this comparison can give useful insights as for the efficiency of alignment algorithms when applied to the particular bilingual corpus.

  17. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use.

  18. The treatment of cancer in Greek antiquity.

    PubMed

    Karpozilos, A; Pavlidis, N

    2004-09-01

    Literary sources provide considerable information on the existence of various malignant tumours in the classical period. Based on a close reading of the ancient Greek medical treatises, this paper traces the history of the treatment of cancer by examining the theories of tumour formation, as they were codified by leading physicians of antiquity, together with the therapeutic methods they proposed in their writings. The discussion focuses on a series of medical texts beginning with the Hippocratic corpus (ca. 460-370 B.C.) and the voluminous works of Galen (129-199 A.D.) and extends to medical handbooks (Oreibasios, Aetios of Amida, Paul of Aegina) composed in subsequent centuries up to the end of the ancient world (VII c. A.D.).

  19. The profile of the Greek 'XXL' family.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Batzios, Spyros; Sidiropoulos, Haralampos; Provatidou, Maria; Cassimos, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    To identify Greek families in which all members were overweight or obese (XXL families) and to describe their profile with regard to their socio-economic status and their eating behaviours and practices. A prospective cohort study. The metropolitan area of Kavala. We recruited children aged 11 and 12 years from twelve primary schools, and their parents, from volunteers. Auxologic measurements of the children included height and weight. A structured questionnaire pertaining to information on the socio-economic status of the family, anthropometric values and educational status of parents, dietary habits and the availability of various food products and beverages at home, as well as dietary intake, physical activity, time spent sleeping and time spent watching television, was filled in by one of the parents of each child. A total of 331 families finally participated. In sixty-one families (18·43 %) both parents and child were either overweight or obese (XXL family), and in seven of these families all members were obese. Only twenty-eight families (8·46 %) had all members with a normal BMI. The XXL family was associated with lower educational status of both parents, whereas a higher percentage of XXL families resided in rural areas and had lower income. Skipping breakfast and spending more than 3 h in front of a screen every day were more frequently observed in XXL families. With regard to the availability of various food products and beverages at home, no significant differences were observed between XXL families and the rest of the studied families. Greek XXL families have lower educational status and lower annual income.

  20. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  1. The movement assessment battery in Greek preschoolers: the impact of age, gender, birth order, and physical activity on motor outcome.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of differences in motor performance with regards to age, gender, participation in sports and order of birth in the family. Performance profiles on the movement ABC were used to classify 412 Greek children aged 4-6 years old. It appears from the results that the occurrence rate of probable developmental coordination disorders (DCD) was 5.4%. Significant differences were observed in all independent variables except the order of birth in the family. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of motor performance in preschool-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting early intervention programs.

  2. Imperforate anus and perianal fistula in Ancient Greek medical writings.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Gentimi, Fotini; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2012-01-01

    Anorectal malformations remain a challenging topic in pediatric surgery, known since antiquity. In our paper we expose the main descriptions and therapeutic approaches of imperforate anus and perianal fistula through the works of the ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians.

  3. Word recognition in two languages and orthographies: English and Greek.

    PubMed

    Chitiri, H F; Willows, D M

    1994-05-01

    Word recognition processes of monolingual readers of English and of Greek were examined with respect to the orthographic and syntactic characteristics of each language. Because of Greek's direct letter-to-sound correspondence, which is unlike the indirect representation of English, the possibility was raised of a greater influence of the phonological code in Greek word recognition. Because Greek is an inflected language, whereas English is a word order language, it was also possible that syntax might influence word recognition patterns in the two languages differentially. These cross-linguistic research questions were investigated within the context of a letter cancellation paradigm. The results provide evidence that readers are sensitive to both the orthographic and the linguistic idiosyncracies of their language. The results are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis and the competition model.

  4. [Some questions about the Greek sources of Rhazes' Continens].

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with some questions about Greek sources of Rhazes' Continens, concerning both preserved and non-preserved works, in order to elucidate the importance of the Continens, Rhazes' method in excerpting and his originality.

  5. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rebecca; Pantanowitz, Liron; Cloutier, Darlene; Provencher, Jean; McGirr, Joan; Stebbins, Jennifer; Cronin, Suzanne; Wherry, Josh; Fenton, Joseph; Donelan, Eileen; Johari, Vandita; Andrzejewski, Chester

    2010-01-01

    Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs) provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS) involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution's initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting) strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital's transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium) for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater realered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encount by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also enhance data mining

  6. Forensic Medicine: An Aid to Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Deadman, William J.

    1965-01-01

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  7. [Anastas Granitski and the first 'Practical Medicine'].

    PubMed

    Radeva, Svetla

    2002-01-01

    'Practical Medicine' by D. Pyros, translated by Anastas Granitski, and published in Konstantinople - 1854 appears to be the first textbook on Medicine in Bulgarian language during the Revival period. Anastas Granitski - a professional translator, a man of letters, an enlightener, a polyglot, who had graduated the Greek school in Kurucheshme, and studied for a certain period of time in the Emperor's Medical and Surgical Academy in Galata - Sarai. Among his 18 works as an author and a translator in various spheres there are some in the sphere of medicine including the most significant one - 'Practical Medicine'. It is translated by Granitski into Bulgarian language from Greek very professionally and its significance lies in teh fact that it is the first manual for Bulgarians on medicine. 'Practical Medicine' is interesting in its capacity as a material for the Bulgarian medical and pharmaceutical nomenclature; with its two lithographic tables, drawn by the translator; with its arguments and co-authorship of Granitski on the issues of medicine, included in the preface of the edition.

  8. The diffusion of ancient medicine in the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Nutton, Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Ancient Greek medicine was largely transmitted in the Renaissance in the form of Latin translations. Recent scholarship has carefully delineated the sources used, and the printing history of many texts, but, save for anatomy, less has been done to elucidate how their message was received, and how that message itself changed during the sixteenth century.

  9. Alcohol use in the Greek system: follow the leader?

    PubMed

    Cashin, J R; Presley, C A; Meilman, P W

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to identify drinking patterns, consequences of use, and belief systems about alcohol among college students according to their level of involvement in campus fraternity and sorority life. This study of 25,411 (15,100 female) students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey, from 61 institutions, compared alcohol consumption, binge drinking, consequences of use and beliefs about drinking according to students' level of involvement in fraternities and sororities, ranging from no involvement to that of attending functions only, to active involvement, to leadership positions within Greek organizations. Analyses indicated that students in the Greek system averaged significantly more drinks per week, engaged in heavy drinking more often and, with minor exceptions, suffered more negative consequences than non-Greeks. The leaders of fraternities and sororities consumed alcohol, engaged in heavy drinking and experienced negative consequences at levels at least as high and in some cases higher than that of other Greek members. In terms of their views about alcohol, fraternity and sorority members believed that alcohol was a vehicle for friendship, social activity and sexuality to a greater extent than non-Greeks. The beliefs of the leaders did not stand out compared to other members. In addition to corroborating earlier reports that show that fraternity and sorority members use more alcohol than nonmembers, this study indicates that the leadership of Greek organizations are participating in setting heavy-drinking norms. Suggestions are made concerning targeting prevention programming efforts toward this group.

  10. [Efficacy observation of treating early and midterm chronic renal failure patients by qi supplementing, collateral dredging, detoxifying, and turbidity descending recipe combined with basic methods of Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-fang; Wang, Feng-li; Wang, Yue-hua

    2012-08-01

    To observe therapeutic efficacy of treating early and midterm chronic renal failure (CRF) patients by qi supplementing, collateral dredging, detoxifying, and turbidity descending recipe (QSCDDTDR) combined with basic methods of Western medicine (WM). Totally 160 early and midterm CRF patients were recruited from Hebei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hebei Medical University from January 2007 to December 2011. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 80 in each group. On the basis of basic treatment of WM, QSCDDTDR was given to patients in the treatment group, while niaoduqing granule (NDQG) was given to those in the control group. After 12 months of treatment, the therapeutic efficacy, Chinese medicine (CM) symptom scores, serum creatinine (SCr), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), 24 h urine protein quantitation, hemoglobin (Hb), and the occurrence of end-point events were observed. The total effective rate in the treatment group was 77.6% (28/76), obviously higher than that in the control group [(58.1%, 43/74), P < 0.05]. After treatment the CM syndrome scores obviously decreased in the treatment group (18.3 +/- 5.3), obviously lower than before treatment (26.0 +/- 4.4) and the control group (22.4 +/- 4.9) (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The levels of SCr, BUN, and 24 h urine protein quantitation were (169.1 +/- 22.6) micromol/L, (10.4 +/- 2.0) mmol/L, (861.4 +/- 232.7) mg/24 h, respectively, in the treatment group after treatment, which were lower than before treatment [(204.1 +/- 27.7) micromol/L, (13.2 +/- 3.2) mmol/L, (1 287.5 +/- 442.3) mg/24 h, P < 0.01). The aforesaid indices were also improved in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The decrease in SCr, BUN, and 24 h urine protein quantitation after treatment was more obviously in the treatment group than in the control group [(185.8 +/- 23.9) micromol/L, (11.2 +/- 2.5) mmol/L, (1014.5 +/- 301.7) mg/24 h; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The incidence rate of the end

  11. Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)--college version: validation and application in a Greek sample.

    PubMed

    Delistamati, Evangelia; Samakouri, Maria A; Davis, Elizabeth Anne; Vorvolakos, Theofanis; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Livaditis, Miltos

    2006-11-01

    a) To validate the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)--college version in a Greek population sample and b) To test the hypothesis that students scoring high on the ISEL present stronger resistance to stressful experiences and fewer psychological or physical problems. Rating scale assessment and analytical cross-sectional study. The ISEL was translated into Greek and then back-translated into English. A random sample of 145 students of the Faculty of Medicine completed: a) the translated version of the ISEL, b) the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R), c) the Scale of Stressful Life Events (SSLE) and d) a questionnaire about physical health problems. Comparisons were conducted between the scores on the ISEL and the scores on the other measures. Correlations were also calculated between the scores on the Global Severity Index (GSI) of the SCL-90-R and SSLE, separately for students with high, fair and low social support, in order to assess the protective role of social support. The test-retest reliability and the internal consistency of the ISEL were also investigated. The students with a lower score in social support reported more psychological and somatic symptoms. The students with a higher score in social support were protected against the harmful effect of stressful events. The ISEL presents good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.452-0.752) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC): 0.631-0.847). The ISEL is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support among Greek students. A higher score on the ISEL is correlated with a significant stress-buffering effect.

  12. Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the "morbidity mortality paradox". The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be "getting away" with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites.

  13. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  14. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression by deep sequencing in early somatic embryogenesis of endangered medicinal Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Ying; Wang, Qiuyu; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Wendong; You, Xiangling

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been studied as a model system to understand molecular events in physiology, biochemistry, and cytology during plant embryo development. In particular, it is exceedingly difficult to access the morphological and early regulatory events in zygotic embryos. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating early SE in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., we used high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to investigate its transcriptome. We obtained 58,327,688 reads, which were assembled into 75,803 unique unigenes. To better understand their functions, the unigenes were annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Digital gene expression libraries revealed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (embryogenic callus, yellow embryogenic callus, global embryo). We obtained a sequencing depth of >5.6 million tags per sample and identified many differentially expressed genes at various stages of SE. The initiation of SE affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly that in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction. This information on the changes in the multiple pathways related to SE induction in E. senticosus Maxim. embryogenic tissue will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in early SE. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes may act as molecular markers and could play very important roles in the early stage of SE. The results are a comprehensive molecular biology resource for investigating SE of E. senticosus Maxim.

  15. [The "shoeleather epidemiology" or the reinvention of medical survey. Alice Hamilton and industrial medicine in early 20th century America].

    PubMed

    Rainhorn, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was a pioneer in industrial medicine, a new discipline that emerged with a new interest in working conditions and occupational hazards within an era of unprecedented industrial growth. From various sources, including her reports after she visited Arizona copper belt in 1919, my paper emphasizes the innovation of Hamilton's approach,"shoeleather epidemiology". She went to the source of information in workshops, plants and construction sites, observed the very concrete part of industrial work, interviewed many stakeholders in and around the workplace, making a methodological toolbox for industrial surveys. Her method combined an old medical practice (the medical inquiry) and a new clinical field (the plant) and placed the worker as a patient in the core of the issue of occupational health and safety.

  16. Nuclear medicine imaging for prediction or early assessment of response to chemotherapy in patients suffering from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van de Wiele, P; Dierckx, Rudi; Scopinaro, Francesco; Waterhouse, Rikki; Annovazzi, Alessio; Kolindou, Anna; Signore, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    Reliable assays that could assess treatment response more rapidly or even predict responsiveness of breast tumours to chemotherapy would be very valuable as they would allow for adjustment of ineffective treatment and discontinuation of ineffective treatment in an early phase. As with effective cancer therapy, changes in tumour physiology, metabolism and proliferation do often precede volumetric changes routinely measured by morphological imaging modalities, for example, radiography and computerized tomography, assessment of these parameters by means of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography may provide more sensitive and earlier markers of tumour cell death or growth inhibition. This paper reviews the available literature on the role of SPECT and PET in the measurement and visualisation of breast tumour metabolism (glucose utilization and protein synthesis rate), apoptosis induction and chemotherapy resistance mechanisms as predictors or early markers of tumour response or non-response to chemotherapeutic options in patients suffering from breast carcinoma.

  17. What the ancient Greeks and Romans knew (and did not know) about seasickness.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Oldelehr, Hermann; Krammling, Benedikt; Benson, Judy; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-02-09

    To find and analyze descriptions in ancient Greek and Roman literature that reveal what was known at the time about seasickness. A systematic search was made in the original literature beginning in the Greek period with Homer in ca 800 bc and extending up to Aetios Amidenos in the late Roman period in ca 600 ad. Rough seas and unpleasant odors were recognized as the major triggers; susceptibility was greater in persons not adapted to sea travel, of a labile mental state, or with anxiety; nausea, emesis, vertigo, anorexia, faintness, apathy, headache, and impending doom were frequently reported symptoms. Preventive and therapeutic measures included habituation to sea travel, looking at stationary contrasts on the coast, fasting or certain diets, inhaling pleasant fragrances, medicinal plants, and ingesting a mixture of wine and wormwood. The triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures of seasickness were well-known in antiquity. The implications for transport of troops and military actions were repeatedly described, e.g., by Livius and Caesar. At that time, the pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the humoral theory of Empedokles and Aristoteles. Seneca Minor localized the bodily symptoms in various organs such as stomach, gullet, and esophagus, and also attributed them to an imbalance of bile. Recommended medication included ingestion of the plant white hellebore, a violent gastrointestinal poison. This remedy contains various alkaloids but not scopolamine, which today is the most effective anti-motion-sickness drug. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. [Subjective theories of illness in the Greek culture].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, A; Muthny, F A

    2000-11-01

    In this cross-sectional study, 100 Greeks were asked about their lay theories for cancer and myocardial infarction via a standardized questionnaire. Most Greeks questioned are to some extent informed about both diseases and receive their information from the media. In contrast to the epidemiologic data, the results of this study show that the Greeks questioned only rarely know of relatives suffering from myocardial infarction, but have often experienced close relatives with cancer. As a possible pathogenesis they believe in a combination or interaction of psychological and somatic components. Most of them are more likely to think of cancer as a disease with somatic causes while myocardial infarction is more often held to be psychologically evoked. Main causal attributions are unhealthy way of life, pollution and predisposition. Negative environmental factors are thought of as the leading cause of cancer, while psychosocial stress is thought to be the leading cause of myocardial infarction. Both diseases are believed to be very dangerous. However, the Greeks questioned believe in better chances for prevention and therapy of myocardial infarction than of cancer. With respect to subgroup analyses, education shows the most important influence: Better educated subjects show a significantly stronger internal and less fatalistic orientation than the less educated Greeks. The males questioned are more likely to hold psychosocial factors responsible for the onset of myocardial infarction and thus are more internally oriented than their female counterparts. The older Greeks tend to believe significantly stronger in external causes like negative environmental factors and negative aspects of life than the younger Greeks of the sample.

  19. New Measurements of the Azimuthal Alignments of Greek Temples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.; Boyd, T. W.

    1998-12-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces north-south, are always noted in the handbooks, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations. Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken two field seasons in Greece to make preliminary measurements for a number of temples associated with Athena, Apollo, and Zeus. These temples were chosen for a number of reasons. The structures have to be well enough preserved to allow determination of the orientation of foundations, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues etc. By focusing on these three gods, we may be able to discover patterns in the orientation and placement for specific divinities. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence, such as the work of the Greek travel writer, Pausanias. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our two field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with proposed applications. Research supported by the Denison University Research Foundation.

  20. Cyberbullying Among Greek High School Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gkiomisi, Athanasia; Gkrizioti, Maria; Gkiomisi, Athina; Anastasilakis, Dimitrios A; Kardaras, Panagiotis

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the presence of cyberbullying among Greek students and the efficacy of proposed preventive interventions. Three types of high schools (private, experimental and public) with different politics on on-line aggression were enrolled. All students of the aforementioned schools were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Around 62 % of the high school students experienced cyberbullying by electronic means, especially by cell phone, mostly the public school students (p 0.008). The bully was a stranger in more than 40 % of the cases. Over 60 % of the victims had not seeked help but dealt with the attack on their own. Only 20 % of the victims manifested sleep or eating disorders, physical/ psychological symptoms or changes in their social life as a consequence of the cyber-attack. Cyberbullying is a usual phenomenon among high school students. The bully is frequently unacquainted to the victim. Most of the victims are not physically or psychologically affected by the cyber-attack and do not share the event with anyone. There was a slight difference in the response of the students to cyberbullying among the different school politics of on-line aggression.

  1. Surrogacy: The experience of Greek commissioning women.

    PubMed

    Papaligoura, Zaira; Papadatou, Danai; Bellali, Thalia

    2015-12-01

    Available studies on surrogacy are extremely limited. Findings suggest that surrogacy is experienced as problem free, with a significant number of commissioning mothers maintaining contact with the surrogates over time. To explore the experiences of Greek commissioning women regarding the surrogacy arrangement and birth of a child through surrogacy. The data of this study were collected from 7 intended mothers who had either a long history of infertility or serious health problems. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed employing content analysis. The analysis of the women's accounts revealed three themes: (a) a shared journey, (b) the birth of a long-awaited child, and (c) the surrogacy disclosure. The surrogacy process became the women's affairs, with their partners offering backstage support. A very close bond was developed with the surrogates, characterised by daily contacts and care-giving behaviours. While this bond was abruptly discontinued after the child's birth, it was interiorised with all participants being grateful to their surrogate. The timing and content of the surrogacy disclosure to family and child(ren) were carefully chosen by participants, who avoided providing information when egg donation was involved. Findings are reassuring for women who want to parent a child through a surrogate arrangement, and suggest that the availability of counselling services may help intended mothers to cope with disclosure issues. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wastewater characteristics from Greek wineries and distilleries.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A G; Barampouti, E M; Mai, S

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the characterization of wastewater generated from Greek wineries and wine distilleries. The quantity and the quality of the wastewater of a distillery depends on the type of wine (white or red), on the processes followed for the production of wine as well as on the volume of the tanks that are used. The total production of wastewater from a winery is about 1.2 times greater than the production of wine with BOD5 1740 mg/l and 1970 mg/l for white and red wine respectively, while the corresponding prices for COD are 3112 mg/l and 3997 mg/l and for the total phenolic compounds 280 and 1440 mg/l respectively. From these results, it is expected that the biological treatment of wastewater from white wines will be more efficient than that from red wines. The characteristics from the waste (vinasses) from the distillation of wines and wine lees are also presented.

  3. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Koundi, Kalliopi; Pappa, Xenia; Sakkas, Pavlos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024) and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039) respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7%) do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life. PMID:25938913

  4. Mortality and pollution in several Greek cities.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Vasilakos, Christos; Maggos, Thomas; Theophanides, Theophile

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by industry and traffic areas nearby the city of Kavala and the mortality of citizens in the region. The mortality data spanned over a period of 30 years. The statistical data on mortality was collected from 1968 to 1998. The causes of mortality analyzed in this study were cancer, cardiovascular deaths and pulmonary deaths. The results of this study were compared with other Greek cities. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), near the city of Kavala, where reservoirs of petroleum and exploitation of crude oil were present. Samples of air were collected from ambient surroundings near the industrial area and fuel oil facilities. The results obtained from the study indicated the presence of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and other gaseous pollutants such as, methane, o-, m-, p-xylene and ethylbenzene, etc. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected (H2S). The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial centers more than in the rural areas. This poses a threat to the public health and may induce disease and premature deaths. These air pollutants play an important role in air quality.

  5. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos E; Dafouli, Evaggelia D; Braimiotis, Dimitrios A; Mouzas, Odysseas D; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V

    2008-12-01

    This research aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students, ages 12 to 18. The sample of 2,200 students was recruited from 120 classes among 85 schools in Thessaly, Greece. The sample included 10% of all classes in schools of Thessaly. The method of randomized stratified selection in every school was used for its constitution. Participants were asked to complete the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), based on eight criteria, as well as an inventory that included sociodemographic factors and questions about the use of Internet, their social life, and their habits. In Greece, 70.8% of adolescents had access to the Internet. The consistency of the YDQ was tested with Cronbach's alpha (0.719), with standardized item alpha (0.728). Proportions are also calculated only on the frequent Internet users, which results in 11% fulfilling five YDQ criteria. The most frequent type of Internet use is online games, representing 50.9% of Internet users, and information services, representing 46.8%. The prevalence of Internet addiction among Internet users of Central Greece is 8.2%, and it concerns mainly the male students who play online games and visit Internet cafés.

  6. [Heat and Fever in ancient Greek physiology].

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sok

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims at clarifying the relationship of physiological heat and pathological heat(fever) using the theoretical scheme of Georges Canguilhem as is argued in his famous book The Normal and the Pathologic. Ancient authors had presented various views on the innate heat and pathological heat. Some argued that there is only pathological heat while others, like Galen, distinguished two different kinds of heat. Galen was the first medial author who had the clear notion of the relationship between the normal heat and the pathological heat. He conceptualized their difference as the heat conforming to nature (kata phusin) and the heat against nature (para phusin). However, the Peripatetic authors, such as ps-Alexander Aphrodisias, who laid more emphasis on physiology tended to regard pathology in continuation with physiology as Claude Bernard attempted to do it. Therefore, Canguilhem's theoretical scheme turns out to be very useful in analysing the relationship of normal heat and pathological heat as is manifested in ancient Greek physiology.

  7. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research. PMID:28298936

  8. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  9. Society of Behavioral Medicine position statement: early care and education (ECE) policies can impact obesity prevention among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Kanwischer, Katelyn; Becker, Adam B; Ward, Dianne S; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2015-03-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges policymakers to help prevent childhood obesity by improving state regulations for early care and education (ECE) settings related to child nutrition, physical activity, and screen time. More than three quarters of preschool-aged children in the USA attend ECE settings, and many spend up to 40 h per week under ECE care. ECE settings provide meals and snacks, as well as opportunities for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary screen time. However, many states' current policies do not adequately address these important elements of obesity prevention. A growing number of cities and states, child health organizations, medical and early childhood associations, and academic researchers are beginning to identify specific elements of policy and regulations that could transform ECE settings into environments that contribute to obesity prevention. Let's Move! Child Care recommends a set of straightforward regulations addressing nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in ECE settings. These emerging models provide local and state leaders with concrete steps to implement obesity prevention initiatives. We provide a set of recommendations based upon these models that will help state and local policymakers to improve current policies in ECE settings.

  10. Greek School Textbooks at a Political Crossroads: (Re)Defining the Greek Citizen in the Greek School during the Reign of Colonels (1967-1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes several elementary and middle school textbooks, educational decrees, and other primary sources to help shed light on how schooling, and more generally education, during what would be known as the "Reign of the Colonels" or "Military 'Junta'" attempted to reshape a Greek national identity. This paper seeks to…

  11. Early readmissions to the department of medicine as a screening tool for monitoring quality of care problems.

    PubMed

    Balla, Uri; Malnick, Stephen; Schattner, Ami

    2008-09-01

    With growing awareness of medical fallibility, researchers need to develop tools to identify and study medical mistakes. We examined the utility of hospital readmissions for this purpose in a prospective case-control study in a large academic medical center in Israel. All patients with nonelective readmissions to 2 departments of medicine within 30 days of discharge were interviewed, and their medical records were carefully examined with emphasis on the index admission. Patient data were compared to data for age- and sex-matched controls (n = 140) who were not readmitted. Medical records of readmitted and control patients were blindly evaluated by 2 senior clinicians who independently identified potential quality of care (QOC) problems during the index admission. Inhospital and late mortality was determined 6 months after discharge.Over a period of 3 months there were 1988 urgent admissions; 1913 discharges and subsequently 271 unplanned readmissions occurred (14.1% of discharges). Readmissions occurred an average of 10 days after discharge, and readmitted patients were sicker than controls (mean, 4.3 vs. 3.3 diagnoses per patient), although their length of stay was similarly short (3.4 +/- 2.8 d). Analysis of all readmissions revealed QOC problems in 90/271 (33%) of readmissions, 4.5% of hospitalizations. All were deemed preventable. Interobserver agreement was good (83%, kappa = 0.67). Among matched controls, only 8/140 admissions revealed QOC problems (6%, p < 0.001) (k = 0.77). The preventable readmissions mostly involved a vascular event or congestive heart failure; they occurred within a mean of 10 +/- 8 days of the index admission, and their inpatient mortality was 6.7% vs. 1.7% among readmissions that had no QOC problems (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-16.7). The main pitfalls identified during the index admission included incomplete workup (33%), too short hospital stay (31%), inappropriate medication (44%), diagnostic error (16%), and

  12. Monastic incorporation of classical botanic medicines into the Renaissance pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Petrucelli, R J

    1994-01-01

    Ancient Greek physicians believed that health resulted from a balance of natural forces. Many, including Dioscorides, made compilations of plants and medicines derived from them, giving prominence to diuretics, cathartics and emetics. During the Roman Empire, although Greek physicians were highly valued, the Roman matron performed many medical functions and magic and astrology were increasingly used. In Judaic and later Christian societies disease was equated with divine disfavor. After the fall of Rome, the classical Greek medical texts were mainly preserved in Latin translation by the Benedictine monasteries, which were based around a patient infirmary, a herb garden and a library. Local plants were often substituted for the classical ones, however, and the compilations became confused and inaccurate. Greek medicine survived better in the remains of the Eastern Roman Empire, and benefitted from the influence of Arab medicine. Intellectual revival, when it came to Europe, did so on the fringes of the Moslem world, and Montpellier and Salerno were among the first of the new medical centers. Rather than relying on ancient experts, the new experimental method reported the tested effects of substances from identified plants. This advance was fostered by the foundation of universities and greatly aided by the later invention of the printing press, which also allowed wider dissemination of the classical texts.

  13. Antioxidant intakes and food sources in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Dilis, Vardis; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2010-07-01

    Antioxidants are compounds physiologically produced or provided through the diet with a potential to inhibit the oxidation of important biological molecules, such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. The contemporary Greek diet is still strongly influenced by Mediterranean dietary traditions. The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is a plant-based diet with apparently beneficial health properties, to which a high antioxidant content may contribute. To explore this issue in detail, a database of the content of >200 Greek foods and recipes for a wide spectrum of antioxidant compounds and indices (flavonoids, proanthocyannidins, other antioxidant microcomponents, and total antioxidant capacity) was developed. The database enabled the estimation of antioxidant intakes in Greece using the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, in which >28,000 Greeks participate. The results of this work suggest that the contemporary MD in the Greek population is a rich source of a variety of antioxidants. These data can be used in studies about the relationship between antioxidant intake and chronic diseases in the Greek population.

  14. Social determinants of dental health services utilisation of Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Pavi, E; Karampli, E; Zavras, D; Dardavesis, T; Kyriopoulos, J

    2010-09-01

    To identify the determinants of dental care utilisation among Greek adults, with a particular emphasis on socio-economic determinants. Data were collected through a national survey on health and health care services utilisation of a sample of 4,003 Greek adults stratified by geographic region, age and gender. A purpose made questionnaire was used during face-to-face interviews. A 2-stage model was developed to assess the impact of independent variables on dental utilisation likelihood and frequency. 39.6% (1,562) of Greek adults reported having visited a dentist within the last year. Among dental attenders, 32.6% reported prevention as the reason for visit. Statistically significant differences in dental care utilisation were observed in relation to demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, income, education, place of residence, private insurance coverage and self-rated oral health are important determinants of dental services utilisation. Mean number of dental visits within previous year was 1.6. Results from Poisson regression analysis indicated that lower income level correlates to lower number of dental visits, while having visited for treatment (rather than for prevention) correlated to higher number of dental visits. Greek adults do not exhibit satisfactory dental visiting behaviour. Extent of care sought is associated with need for treatment rather than preventive reasons. The findings confirm the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in dental services utilisation among Greek adults.

  15. [Voice pathology in the history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Benzi, P; Sanità, N

    1998-03-01

    This article, which will be followed by others dealing with the same subject, is mainly concerned with the outstanding figures of Ippocrathes of Cos and Galenus as far as voice treatment in Greek medicine and under the Roman Empire is concerned. But apart from them, many writers and scientists such as Homer, Democritus, Plato, Celsius Scribonius Largus, not to mention Plinius, Discorides and Martialis dealt with this topic. In addition, the article will briefly deal with the ancient Egyptian medicine as well as with the Indian one.

  16. The influence of ancient Greek thought on fifteenth century anatomy: Galenic influence and Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Richard Isaiah; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-05-29

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) can be called one of the earliest contributors to the history of anatomy and, by extension, the study of medicine. He may have even overshadowed Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the so-called founder of human anatomy, if his works had been published within his lifetime. While some of the best illustrations of their time, with our modern knowledge of anatomy, it is clear that many of da Vinci's depictions of human anatomy are inaccurate. However, he also made significant discoveries in anatomy and remarkable predictions of facts he could not yet discover with the technology available to him. Additionally, da Vinci was largely influenced by Greek anatomists, as indicated from his ideas about anatomical structure. In this historical review, we describe da Vinci's history, influences, and discoveries in anatomical research and his depictions and errors with regards to the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and other organs.

  17. [The cult of Asklepios and the doctors in Greek epigraphical evidence].

    PubMed

    Nissen, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Greek inscriptions afford several examples of the relationship between Asklepios, the god of medicine, and human doctors in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Many dedications of steles, statues, altars and even sanctuaries were consecrated to Asklepios by physicians. Other physicians have undertaken the offices of zacorate or priesthood in the worship of Asklepios. In some cities, notably at Athens and Ephesos, the doctors sacrificed collectively to the physician-god. The aim of this paper is to explain these cult relations between Asklepios and the doctors. After the Asklepiads, doctors at Kos and Knidos, who were believed to be the descendants of Asklepios, all the ancient doctors were connected with Asklepios by their techne; the physician-god was the divine patron of the physicians. Furthermore although the doctors rejected the divine origin of the diseases, they acknowledged the healing power of the gods, especially Asklepios, and could seek his help.

  18. Military Dictatorship in Greece (1967-1974): The Genesis of Greek Anti-Americanism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    employment which had started before the coup, but their expansionary monetary and fiscal policies , especially in the non-produc- tive sectors of the...Greek military dictatorship (1967-1974), Greek junta (1967-1974) George Papadopoulos, U.S. foreign policy toward Greece (1967-1974), Greece, Greek...See ity Affairs Dean of Information and Policy Scrences *°. t3 ABSTRACT The years following the April 21, 1967 Greek coup d’etat have been marked by a

  19. Greek Participation to Solar Orbiter Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Greece, via its PRODEX membership intends to meaningfully participate to the instrument development of a flagship ESA mission, the Solar Orbiter (SolO). This involvement pertains to hardware development for SolO's Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX), namely, STIX's movable attenuator. SolO will allow close-up and high-latitude studies of our mother star, the Sun, based mostly on remote-sensing measurements (imaging). STIX is a critical SolO instrument, enabling one of its major science goals: understanding and acceleration of electrons at the Sun and their transport into interplanetary space. The attenuator, or shutter, that will be developed by the Greek team, is a critical component of the STIX instrument. Attenuators are dictated by the substantial dynamical range of incident X-ray fluxes from solar flares: the largest X-ray flares can give as many as 105 more count rates in X-ray photons compared to those of the smallest microflare that STIX can detect. It is proposed that two mechanisms are developed for a comparative study. First, a mechanism based on sensitive Shape Memory Alloy actuators and, second, one based on a piezoelectric actuator module. Both mechanisms will be designed and manufactured and then tested in vacuum and alternating high-low temperature conditions. Evaluation of reliability and accuracy in assembly and operation will follow. A vibrating table will be used for the dynamical analysis of the mechanism and independent strength tests of the various parts of the mechanism will follow.

  20. Chemometric model for describing Greek traditional sausages.

    PubMed

    Papadima, S N; Arvanitoyannis, I; Bloukas, J G; Fournitzis, G C

    1999-03-01

    Chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed on 31 samples of Greek traditional sausages. The following attributes were recorded: fat 15.49-56.86%, moisture 21.92-65.40%, protein 14.73-26.74%, sodium chloride 2.36-4.13%, nitrites 0.0-3.26 ppm, mean nitrates 38.19 ppm, TBA value 0.42-5.33 mg malonaldehyde/kg, pH 4.74-6.74, water activity (a(w)) 0.88-0.97, firmness 0-64 Zwick units, lightness (L(*)) 25.03-35.37, redness (a(*)) 2.55-11.42, yellowness 4.42-12.96, aerobic plate count 5.48-9.32 cfu/g, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 5.26-9.08 cfu/g, micrococci/staphylococci 4.11-6.91 cfu/g and Gram (-) bacteria 1.78-6.15 cfu/g. Mean sensory scores ranged from 3.14 to 3.54 on a 5-point hedonic scale. Two statistical analysis programmes (Praxitele and SPSS) were used for characterising and assessing the properties of sausages. The first two principal components (PC1-2) derived by SPSS (50.5% variance) describe more satisfactorily the variance than the corresponding PC1-2, PC1-3 obtained by Praxitele (40.4% variance). High consumer preference was strongly related to satisfactory appearance and strong taste, high LAB count, medium fat content, medium firmness and lightness (L(*)(surface)). Extreme attribute values (high or low) for firmness, moisture and fat content, low salt content and low taste were related to low consumer preference.

  1. Right-left and the scrotum in Greek sculpture.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C

    2004-04-01

    The scrotum in humans is asymmetric, the right testicle being visibly higher than the left in most men. Paradoxically, it is also the case that the right testicle is somewhat larger, rather than smaller, as might be expected. Greek classical and pre-classical art, which took great care in its attention to anatomical detail, correctly portrayed the right testicle as the higher, but then incorrectly portrayed the left testicle as visibly larger. The implication is that the Greeks used a simple mechanical theory, the left testicle being thought to be lower because it was larger and hence more subject to the pull of gravity. The present study examines data on scrotal asymmetry in more detail, and puts them in the context of Greek theories of functional differences between the right side and the left side.

  2. Calcidius, witness to Greek medical theories: eye anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Bakhouche, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    Calcidius is the only exegete of Plato's Timaeus whose commentary on this Greek dialogue concerned with eyesight has not been lost. This document is all the more valuable since the Latin version is the only testimony regarding theories of and treatments for eye diseases--two domains in which, as can be deduced from the terms used, the commentator is dependent on Greek. The part of the commentary about eyesight is also worthy of interest because it is the only one that openly attacks the iuniores with an overtly hostile tone. We propose to study Calcidius' exegesis of Plato's Timaeus, focusing on Calcidius' portrayal of Greek ophthalmological theories and practices and his representation of a group of people he openly attacks.

  3. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment.

  4. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but…

  5. Investigating High-School Chemical Kinetics: The Greek Chemistry Textbook and Students' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegios, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Koinis, Spyros

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present an analysis of how the structure and content of the Greek school textbook approaches the concepts of chemical kinetics, and an investigation of the difficulties that 11th grade Greek students face regarding these concepts. Based on the structure and content of the Greek textbook, a tool was developed and applied to…

  6. Greek Life on Campus. How Will a Changing Society Affect It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Susan L.; Gallup, Theresa

    1988-01-01

    The future of Greek letter organizations on campus and the effects of demographic trends and societal changes are considered. In the last decade, Greek membership has increased despite the decrease in students between the ages of 18 and 24 entering college full-time. Greek chapters are primarily at four-year institutions and their members are…

  7. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  8. Investigating High-School Chemical Kinetics: The Greek Chemistry Textbook and Students' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegios, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Koinis, Spyros

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present an analysis of how the structure and content of the Greek school textbook approaches the concepts of chemical kinetics, and an investigation of the difficulties that 11th grade Greek students face regarding these concepts. Based on the structure and content of the Greek textbook, a tool was developed and applied to…

  9. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  10. A Sound Mind in a Sound Body: That's the Philosophy behind This Classical Greek Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    Central City High School, Kansas City, Missouri, has found its identity in the past. As part of comprehensive desegregation program, this magnet school offers its students classical Greek program that, like ancient Greek civilization, calls for as much attention to body as to mind. The costly Olympic athletic program and classical Greek curriculum…

  11. [Novel method for dynamic monitoring and early-warning on wild resources of traditional Chinese medicines based on price ratio between drug and foodstuff].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabo; Xiao, Xiaohe; Huang, Luqi; Chen, Shilin; Wang, Wenquan; Zhao, Runhuai; Long, Xingchao; Zhang, Xueru; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-02-01

    To probe into the new idea along with establishment of a novel method for dynamic monitoring and early-warning on the wild resources of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The alterations of wild traditional Chinese medicinal resources were assessed through the price ratio between drug and foodstuff (PRDF) indicating the balance between supply and demand of the specific TCMs, referred to the price ration between pork to foodstuff which is used in national monitoring to the balance between pork supply and demand. Since the price of rice was tightly controlled by government, it was selected as a relatively stable reference to build the PRDF in order to take away the non-marketing influence to TCMs price such as CPI and inflation rate. The modified relative alteration trend of TCMs price had been researched through comparing different formulae to build PRDF, including absolute average month price of TCMs, month average price ratio of TCMs to foodstuff (rice) , month-on-month change of TCMs to rice, year-on-year change of TCMs to rice, and difference in value of period-on-period change (DVPPC). In the research, Cordyceps, Glycyrrhiza and totally five herbs were selected as model drugs and the price data were collected from 2002 to 2008. The results showed that DVPPC calculated of relative long time window was more sensitive and stable to reflect the relative alteration trend of TCMs price. For instance, the DVPPC of Ligustici showed continuously increase trend in recent years. This suggested appearance of unbalance between supply and demand of Ligustici, and forced policy intervention to maintain reasonable and continuable utilization of Ligustici resource. The proposed method and the formula of DVPPC revealed some useful guidance for dynamic monitoring the wild resources of TCMs.

  12. Voice onset time is necessary but not always sufficient to describe acquisition of voiced stops: The cases of Greek and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eun Jong; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The age at which children master adult-like voiced stops can generally be predicted by voice onset time (VOT): stops with optional short lag are early, those with obligatory lead are late. However, Japanese voiced stops are late despite having a short lag variant, whereas Greek voiced stops are early despite having consistent voicing lead. This cross-sectional study examines the acoustics of word-initial stops produced by English-, Japanese-, and Greek-speaking children aged 2 to 5, to investigate how these seemingly exceptional mastery patterns relate to use of other phonetic correlates. Productions were analyzed for VOT, f0 and spectral tilt (H1-H2) in Japanese and English, and for amplitude trajectory in Greek and Japanese. Japanese voiceless stops have intermediate lag VOT values, so other “secondary” cues are needed to differentiate them from the voiced short lag VOT variant. Greek voiced stops are optionally prenasalized, and the amplitude trajectory for the voice bar during closure suggests that younger children use a greater degree of nasal venting to create the aerodynamic conditions necessary for voicing lead. Taken together, the findings suggest that VOT must be supplemented by measurements of other language-specific acoustic properties to explain the mastery pattern of voiced stops in some languages. PMID:23105160

  13. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  14. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  15. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  16. The nature of water: Greek thought from Homer to Acusilaos.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Rosa Maria; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Pollastro, Rosa Maria; Raiola, Ilaria; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Greek philosophy finds its roots in the myth of Homer's and Hesiod's poems and especially in Orphism which introduced the concept of a soul separated from the body with an independent principle, psiche (soul), to be rewarded or punished after death. Orphism was an important step in Greek culture. It introduced the divine into man, the soul which does not die with the body and reincarnates. From Orphism started the need of rituals capable of separating the spirit from the body. From Homer to Acusilaos, water was a very important element which connected humans and gods, long before Thales of Miletus defined it the arche.

  17. Greeks in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    Part of the Ethnic Heritage in America curriculum materials, this unit is about Greeks in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Greece, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Greece, historical chronological outline, list of Greeks in U.S. history, bibliography about Greeks, Greek publications in the United…

  18. Greek language: analysis of the cardiologic anatomical etymology: past and present.

    PubMed

    Bezas, Georges; Werneck, Alexandre Lins

    2012-01-01

    The Greek language, the root of most Latin anatomical terms, is deeply present in the Anatomical Terminology. Many studies seek to analyze etymologically the terms stemming from the Greek words. In most of these studies, the terms appear defined according to the etymological understanding of the respective authors at the time of its creation. Therefore, it is possible that the terms currently used are not consistent with its origin in ancient Greek words. We selected cardiologic anatomical terms derived from Greek words, which are included in the International Anatomical Terminology. We performed an etymological analysis using the Greek roots present in the earliest terms. We compared the cardiologic anatomical terms currently used in Greece and Brazil to the Greek roots originating from the ancient Greek language. We used morphological decomposition of Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes. We also verified their use on the same lexicons and texts from the ancient Greek language. We provided a list comprising 30 cardiologic anatomical terms that have their origins in ancient Greek as well as their component parts in the International Anatomical Terminology. We included the terms in the way they were standardized in Portuguese, English, and Modern Greek as well as the roots of the ancient Greek words that originated them. Many works deal with the true origin of words (etymology) but most of them neither returns to the earliest roots nor relate them to their use in texts of ancient Greek language. By comparing the world's greatest studies on the etymology of Greek words, this paper tries to clarify the differences between the true origin of the Greek anatomical terms as well as the origins of the cardiologic anatomical terms more accepted today in Brazil by health professionals.

  19. [Neurology in Byzantine medicine. An analysis of Alexander of Tralles' Medici libri duodecim].

    PubMed

    de Frutos-Gonzalez, Virgina; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2010-10-01

    Byzantium continued Greek and Roman habit of texts compilation, and so, preserved medical knowledge. In addition, assimilating the influence of Monastic and Arabic medicine, Byzantine physicians transmitted original contributions including references to neurological diseases. Alexander of Tralles was one of major exponents of Byzantine medicine. He received his early medical training with his father, and in extensive travels, gathered medical knowledge and experience. Medici libri duodecim is a treatise on pathology and therapeutics of internal diseases, in twelve books. It comprises views from observation of different diseases. Its influence was prolonged and it was translated and edited until Renaissance. We analyze grecolatin edition by Henricum Petrum (1556), with special interest in neurological disease citations. DEVELOPMENT. First of twelve books is dedicated to head and brain diseases. When considering headache, he classifies them, following Aretaeus of Cappadocia, in cephalalgia, cephalea and hemicrania, suggesting different pathogenic mechanisms and therapies. Headache is included among symptoms conducting, as well as memory or sleep disturbances, to delirium. Medici libri duodecim considers memory complaints among systemic diseases, mainly with cardiac involvement. Alexander distinguishes between paralysis (privation of sensibility and mobility concerning half of the body), and apoplexy (including main soul functions loss, even conducting to death). Regarding epilepsy, Medici libri duodecim considers that its origin can be outside the head, mainly in the stomach, and offers us descriptions of epileptic auras. Analysis of Alexander of Tralles' Medici libri duodecim shows how byzantine physicians understood neurological diseases. Therapeutics was based on venesection, medicinal plants and avoidance of noxious substances.

  20. Can we be optimistic about asthma in childhood? A Greek cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Veltsista, Alexandra; Vassi, Ippolyti; Gika, Artemis; Lekea, Vasso; Priftis, Kostas; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2009-03-01

    To examine the prevalence and natural course of asthma from childhood to adolescence in a population-based, Greek birth cohort and to identify associated factors. Longitudinal information on asthma symptoms, physician diagnosed and treated, was available for 2133 children at 7 and 18 years of age. The prevalence of current asthma was 9.0% and 5.0% at 7 and 18 years, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime asthma was 26.3% at 18 years. More than half of the children (58.2%) with early onset asthma were asymptomatic at 7 years and only 7.6% continued to have symptoms during adolescence. However, in 48.2% of those with late onset asthma, symptoms persisted up to 18 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, family history of atopy, active adolescent smoking and maternal smoking were significantly positively associated with lifetime asthma at 18 years. In addition, smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for persistence of asthma symptoms at 18 years. Asthma during childhood and active adolescent smoking were positively associated, and daily consumption of fruit and vegetables was negatively associated with current asthma at 18 years of age. Finally, children who were breastfed had a lower risk for lifetime asthma at 7 years. The prevalence of asthma symptoms at 7 and 18 years of age was low throughout Greece. Our results suggest that, among others, nutrition is an important correlate of asthma in Greek children.

  1. Mutational analysis for biotinidase deficiency of a Greek patients' cohort ascertained through expanded newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Thodi, Georgia; Molou, Elina; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Antoniadi, Marina; Doulgerakis, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency, also known as biotinidase (BTD) deficiency, is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of biotin metabolism. Its early diagnosis and treatment seems that it can even fully prevent its various clinical manifestations. Mutations in the BTD gene scattered throughout its coding region have been detected in patients ascertained either through newborn screening or clinically. From March 2010 up to June 2011, 18 954 Greek neonates were subjected to biochemical determination of BTD activity through a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay. Subsequently, the first cohort of our 'suspected' samples was further tested for the presence of aberrations associated either with partial or profound BTD deficiency through sequencing of the coding region of the BTD gene, including splice-site junctions. On the basis of the molecular data derived from the study of our first cohort of 'suspected' samples, a panel of four mutations, most frequently encountered in the Greek population, was created, and a rapid, reliable and cost-effective real-time-based genotyping assay for the detection of these mutations was developed. This is the first report about the BTD mutational spectrum in Greece, and it could be a beneficial utility in the differential clinical diagnosis of BTD deficiency.

  2. Cranium asymmetry in a modern Greek population sample of known age and sex.

    PubMed

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Bertsatos, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and quantify cranium asymmetry, sexual differences in the set of individual asymmetry scores, and the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and age, in a modern Greek population sample. In addition, we test for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis by assessing the correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and cause of death. The study sample consisted of 173 crania of known sex and adult age (92 males, 81 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The three-dimensional coordinates of 77 ectocranial landmarks were digitized using a Microscribe 3DX contact digitizer and landmark configurations were analyzed using the generalized least-squares Procrustes method. Regarding directional asymmetry, the results show that the human skull has a tendency for a left-side excess for the Greek population. No significant directional asymmetry differences between the sexes are found. The highest levels of fluctuating asymmetry for both sexes are located on the skull base. The levels of fluctuating asymmetry in all cranial regions appear higher for males than females. Nevertheless, these differences do not present any statistical significance between sexes. Additionally, there is no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry scores and age for both males and females. Finally, the results of this study could not confirm that early development has a significant impact on adult health outcomes.

  3. Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.

    PubMed

    King, R J; Ozcan, S S; Carter, T; Kalfoğlu, E; Atasoy, S; Triantaphyllidis, C; Kouvatsi, A; Lin, A A; Chow, C-E T; Zhivotovsky, L A; Michalodimitrakis, M; Underhill, P A

    2008-03-01

    The earliest Neolithic sites of Europe are located in Crete and mainland Greece. A debate persists concerning whether these farmers originated in neighboring Anatolia and the role of maritime colonization. To address these issues 171 samples were collected from areas near three known early Neolithic settlements in Greece together with 193 samples from Crete. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12. This dichotomy parallels archaeobotanical evidence, specifically that while bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is known from Neolithic Anatolia, Crete and southern Italy; it is absent from earliest Neolithic Greece. The expansion time of YSTR variation for haplogroup E3b1a2-V13, in the Peloponnese was consistent with an indigenous Mesolithic presence. In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13.

  4. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon's node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era.

  5. Heart Score Estimation by Specialized Nurses in a Greek Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evaggelia; Meidani, Maria; Boutsikou, Maria; Papaspiropoulou, Pinelopi; Kelaiditou, Theodosia; Koukouzli, Afedia; Tapola, Anastasia; Voudoufianaki, Ioanna; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Katsiki, Niki; Kolovou, Genovefa; Lekakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Specialized nurses estimated the HeartScore in an urban Greek population by recognizing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the setting of the Onassis Cardiovascular Prevention Program (OCPP). They also provided nursing consultation and assessed the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the studied population. Individuals were recruited through TV announcements and via the website of the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Centre. All participants visited the Onassis Cardiac Centre from 20 September to 30 October 2011. Overall, 2,145 individuals were included in the study. CVD risk was calculated by the HeartScore and serum total cholesterol was measured (mean: 193±43 mg/dl). Although 33% of the participants reported dyslipidaemia, only 17% were on hypolipidaemic treatment. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia frequency increased with age. In the present study, specialized nurses estimated the HeartScore in a Greek urban population. The majority of the studied population was undiagnosed and untreated. These results highlight the necessity for both primary and secondary prevention programs that can be carried out by specialized nurses. Such programs may improve the diagnosis and treatment of CVD risk factors; early initiation and optimization of therapy as well as management of drug intolerance (e.g. statins) can contribute to CVD risk reduction.

  6. Analyzing the Greek Marine Manpower in the Passenger and Cruise Markets Using System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, A. B.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    This The authors have applied the methodology of system dynamics modeling and simulation in the study of the depletion of the Greek maritime workforce with respect to parameters such as the flagging out rate from the Greek flag, the national maritime policy on the proportion of Greek and foreign seamen onboard Greek ships and the investment in seamen's life-long training, as well as in improving the safety and quality of Greek ships. This work is in progress and this paper presents an initial approach to the problem, as well as some first insights gained.

  7. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  8. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviour in Young Greek Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakavoulis, Alexandros

    1998-01-01

    Used observations of 28 preschoolers and questionnaire responses of 286 parents to examine how Greek preschoolers express aggressiveness and altruism, respectively. Found that aggression was expressed in a variety of ways, with boys being more aggressive than girls. Parents reported that comforting and cooperating were observed more than sharing…

  9. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous…

  10. Imperforate anus and perianal fistula in Ancient Greek medical writings

    PubMed Central

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Gentimi, Fotini; Kousoulis, Antonis A.; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2012-01-01

    Anorectal malformations remain a challenging topic in pediatric surgery, known since antiquity. In our paper we expose the main descriptions and therapeutic approaches of imperforate anus and perianal fistula through the works of the ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians. PMID:24714197

  11. Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

  12. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  13. The Integration of Traditional Greek Dance in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartzonika, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    This paper researches the statutory educational regulations used as a foundation to introduce traditional Greek dance in the school curriculum and which transformed it into a taught subject with connections to the ideological-political and social conditions prevalent in Greece at the time. It particularly concerns the connection between the aims…

  14. Performance of Students from the Former USSR in Greek Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitakidou, S.; Tourtouras, C.; Tressou, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Greece received, among other immigrants from different regions of the world, repatriates from the former USSR as well as refugees from the same region. This article outlines part of a research study focusing on the children of both Greek and other origins, who emigrated to Greece from the former USSR and who attended primary schools…

  15. Images of Nature in Greek Primary School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korfiatis, Kostas J.; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Paraskevopoulos, Stephanos

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the environmental content of the textbooks used for the teaching of natural sciences in Greek primary schools was examined. Specifically, by employing the method of content analysis, both representational (metaphors, depictions, values, etc.) and cognitive ecological concepts) elements, building images of nature, and shaping our…

  16. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  17. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  18. Personality and Resilience Characteristics of Greek Primary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaridou, Angeliki; Beka, Apostolia

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the personality traits and resilience that a sample of Greek school principals displayed. It probed also for differences associated with sex, age and years of service in the current leadership position, as well as relationships between personality characteristics and resilience strengths. To investigate…

  19. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  20. Perceptions of Greek Female Adolescents with ADHD Regarding Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontou, Magdalini

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the ADHD literature is shaped by male experiences, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of female adolescents with ADHD and the impact of the label in their family relationships. Four Greek adolescents aged 13-18 with a diagnosis of combined-type ADHD were interviewed through a purposive criterion…

  1. Assessment of Quality for Inclusive Programs in Greek Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyssa, Aristea; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the practices that Greek teachers use to support the inclusion of children with disabilities in general preschools. Fifty-two preschool units for children between 4 and 6 years of age participated in this study. Data were collected through systematic observation with the use of the Inclusive…

  2. Speech Patterns in Cypriot-Greek Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petinou, Kakia; Okalidou, Areti

    2006-01-01

    The investigation longitudinally examined the phonetic skills of Cypriot-Greek children with late onset of expressive vocabulary. The rate of phonological development within short time increments and the identification of possible speech constraints motivating slow development of expressive language were examined. Participants were seven…

  3. Teaching Ancient Greek (with the Help of a Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The applications of computers to the design of a course in Greek and to teaching it are discussed. Among the topics discussed are the role of the computer in teaching morphology and the use of individually tailored, computer-prepared textbooks. Hardware is also discussed. (RM)

  4. Readiness To Change among At-Risk Greek Student Drinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Briddick, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the perceived lack of readiness among sorority and fraternity members to reduce their drinking. Reports on a survey of 106 at-risk Greek students in which 25% report moving into stages that involve thinking about change or action to reduce their alcohol consumption. Proposes that research should assess the extent to which high-risk…

  5. Dr. Jefferson Helm, Sr.: A Hoosier Greek Revivalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Lorna E.

    1984-01-01

    Helm was a successful physican and politician in Rush County, Indiana, during the mid-nineteenth century. He exemplified the ideals of the Greek Revival movement of the period, and he chose the architecture of that movement for his own house, a fine example of the Western Reserve style. (IS)

  6. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  7. Dr. Jefferson Helm, Sr.: A Hoosier Greek Revivalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Lorna E.

    1984-01-01

    Helm was a successful physican and politician in Rush County, Indiana, during the mid-nineteenth century. He exemplified the ideals of the Greek Revival movement of the period, and he chose the architecture of that movement for his own house, a fine example of the Western Reserve style. (IS)

  8. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  9. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    PubMed

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  10. Greek Electoral System: Optimal Distribution of the Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitouras, Ch.

    2007-09-01

    The Greek parliamentary elections of 2008 and 2012 will take place according to the electoral low which had been voted by the previous house back in 2004. The parties receive a nation-wide number of seats that have to be distributed in the prefectures. It is a transportation problem where the legislator neglected its complete solution after finding a first random feasible solution.

  11. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulou, Nikolitsa; Clahsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of a group of eight Greek-speaking adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) (aged 12.1-18.7) to handle the perfective past tense using an acceptability judgement task. The performance of the DS participants was compared with that of 16 typically-developing children whose chronological age was matched with the mental…

  12. Coordination of Prosodic Gestures at Boundaries in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsika, Argyro

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how boundary temporal and tonal events are coordinated to oral constrictions in Greek. Regarding the temporal events, most studies agree in that boundary lengthening is cumulative (i.e., larger the stronger the boundary) (e.g., Cho & Keating 2001, Tabain 2003b) and progressive (i.e., decreasing with distance from…

  13. Coordination of Prosodic Gestures at Boundaries in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsika, Argyro

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how boundary temporal and tonal events are coordinated to oral constrictions in Greek. Regarding the temporal events, most studies agree in that boundary lengthening is cumulative (i.e., larger the stronger the boundary) (e.g., Cho & Keating 2001, Tabain 2003b) and progressive (i.e., decreasing with distance from…

  14. Ancient Greek and Roman Rhetoricians: A Biographical Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    This biographical dictionary contains over 200 entries on Greek and Roman rhetoricians. The compilation omits persons who were exclusively performers or composers unless they were also theorists, critics, authors of treatises or textbooks, or teachers of speech. Bibliographical notes are attached to particular biographies rarely and only for…

  15. Examining Greek Special Education Teachers' Individual and Collaborative Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfidi, Eleni; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examine Greek special education teachers' individual and collaborative teaching experiences in the context of their literacy instruction. The Five Foci Framework, situated in Vygotskian theory, is utilized in the study's design to examine special education teachers' individual and collaborative experiences…

  16. Students Teach Students: Alternative Teaching in Greek Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Anastasios; Antoniou, Angeliki; Lepouras, George

    2016-01-01

    The students of a Greek junior high school collaborated to prepare the teaching material of a theoretical Computer Science (CS) course and then shared their understanding with other students. This study investigates two alternative teaching methods (collaborative learning and peer tutoring) and compares the learning results to the traditional…

  17. Using Greek Mythology as a Metaphor To Enhance Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Carol A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews some uses of myths and stories in counselor education and supervision. Notes that collaborative supervision is especially relevant to the exploration of alternative views of supervisee growth that may be mirrored in myths and stories and in their multiple interpretations. The interpretation of the Greek myth of Psyche is examined as a…

  18. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  19. Inclusion and Challenging Behaviors: Greek General Educators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntinas, K. M.; Neila, A.; Nikolaidou, E.; Papadimitriou, S.; Papadopoulou, I.; Fasoulas, A.; Hatzikonstantinidis, C.

    2006-01-01

    Research evidence from several educational systems indicates that students with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviors are in the bottom of the agenda as candidates for inclusion. The present investigation of the perspectives of 85 Greek teachers in primary education indicates that they are in need of training that it will…

  20. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  1. When It Seems Your Campus Greek System Is Unraveling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Discusses approaches to relations with college/university alumni members of fraternities and sororities in the context of widely reported incidents of serious accidents, hazing, and alcohol abuse. Offers examples of ways to reach out to Greek alumni from Hamilton College (New York), Bowdoin College (Maine), Dartmouth College (New Hampshire),…

  2. Acculturative Stress and Adjustment Experiences of Greek International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…

  3. Playing with Porn: Greek Children's Explorations in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the research findings of the Greek Kids Go Online project and the EU Kids Online I network research on children and online technologies in Europe, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme, 2006-2009. It explores the experiences of young people aged between 9 and 17 with pornographic texts online, and…

  4. Going Greek: Academics, Personal Change, and Life after College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routon, Wesley; Walker, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Social Greek-letter organizations, more commonly known as fraternities (male-only) and sororities (female-only), are a longstanding tradition at colleges and universities in the United States. They claim to instill leadership skills in and offer a support network for members. However, in this article Wesley Routon and Jay Walker state that…

  5. Reforms, Leadership and Quality Management in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…

  6. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  7. Development of Processing Stress Diacritics in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    In Greek orthography, stress position is marked with a diacritic. We investigated the developmental course of processing the stress diacritic in Grades 2 to 4. Ninety children read 108 pseudowords presented without or with a diacritic either in the same or in a different position relative to the source word. Half of the pseudowords resembled the…

  8. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  9. The Integration of Traditional Greek Dance in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartzonika, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    This paper researches the statutory educational regulations used as a foundation to introduce traditional Greek dance in the school curriculum and which transformed it into a taught subject with connections to the ideological-political and social conditions prevalent in Greece at the time. It particularly concerns the connection between the aims…

  10. Playing with Porn: Greek Children's Explorations in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the research findings of the Greek Kids Go Online project and the EU Kids Online I network research on children and online technologies in Europe, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme, 2006-2009. It explores the experiences of young people aged between 9 and 17 with pornographic texts online, and…

  11. Greek University Students with Dyslexia: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the personal and educational experiences of Greek students with dyslexia in higher education. Interviews with 16 students with dyslexia (11 male and five female) were conducted to investigate how they experienced school, peer relations, labelling, family support, university, self-esteem and how they made their…

  12. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  13. The On-Line Processing of Unaccusativity in Greek Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the on-line processing of unaccusative and unergative sentences in a group of eight Greek-speaking individuals diagnosed with Broca aphasia and a group of language-unimpaired subjects used as the baseline. The processing of unaccusativity refers to the reactivation of the postverbal trace by retrieving the mnemonic representation…

  14. "Innovations" On Hold: Sex Education in the Greek Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerouki, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the way sex and relationships education programs, as part of Health Education extra curriculum activities, have been implemented in the Greek primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents and discusses data from an anonymous survey research questionnaire distributed to the 68 Elementary…

  15. How Greek Teachers Perceive School Functioning of Pupils with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Papaeliou, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In this study Greek teachers assessed school functioning in 26 pupils with the possibility of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, i.e. combined (C) type, inattentive (IA) type and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) type, and 26 controls. Results showed that C and IA pupils were evaluated as impaired in all areas of academic and…

  16. Readiness To Change among At-Risk Greek Student Drinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Briddick, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the perceived lack of readiness among sorority and fraternity members to reduce their drinking. Reports on a survey of 106 at-risk Greek students in which 25% report moving into stages that involve thinking about change or action to reduce their alcohol consumption. Proposes that research should assess the extent to which high-risk…

  17. Reforms, Leadership and Quality Management in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…

  18. Religion in Greek Education in a Time of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Ioannis; Georgiadis, Fokion; Zisimos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    In a great number of countries religion plays an important role in public life. As far as Greece is concerned, it has always been a key element in public life including education. Religious education is a compulsory subject taught in a confessional and catechist way, while Orthodoxy saturates school culture, making the Greek educational system…

  19. [The Greek illustrations of the human diseases: Mount Athos].

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Philippe Charlier deals with the whole illustrations of human diseases either from religious texts or works of art. He tends to pass in review the skeletal and anatomic illustrations of the illness which has been a repetitive subject since the ancient Greeks. The author points out their common features and their amazing differences in the examples of Mount Athos.

  20. Experiencing Multiculturalism in Greek-Cypriot Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partasi, Evgenia

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of a monocultural and monolingual education system, this paper seeks to explore and compare the experiences of Cypriot and non-Cypriot pupils in Greek-Cypriot primary schools with culturally diverse pupil populations. The concept of multiculturalism has been introduced only very recently in Cyprus and there has been little…

  1. The "Adventures" of the Sociology Course in Greek Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kougioumoutzaki, Foteini

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of the sociology course in Greek secondary education. The aim is to reveal under which circumstances the course has ended up becoming one of the most downgraded courses, and more importantly, how the specific rationale of the course's structure has resulted in the (re)production of a distorted image of…

  2. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  3. Experiencing Multiculturalism in Greek-Cypriot Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partasi, Evgenia

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of a monocultural and monolingual education system, this paper seeks to explore and compare the experiences of Cypriot and non-Cypriot pupils in Greek-Cypriot primary schools with culturally diverse pupil populations. The concept of multiculturalism has been introduced only very recently in Cyprus and there has been little…

  4. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  5. Student Misbehaviour in Secondary Education: Greek Teachers' Views and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines Greek secondary education teachers' views on and attitudes towards in-classroom students' misbehaviour. Eight hundred and sixty-nine participants provided information, firstly, on the frequency and the forms of in-class misbehaviour incidents, secondly, on their beliefs about the origins of students' misbehaviour, and,…

  6. Students Teach Students: Alternative Teaching in Greek Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Anastasios; Antoniou, Angeliki; Lepouras, George

    2016-01-01

    The students of a Greek junior high school collaborated to prepare the teaching material of a theoretical Computer Science (CS) course and then shared their understanding with other students. This study investigates two alternative teaching methods (collaborative learning and peer tutoring) and compares the learning results to the traditional…

  7. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  8. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  9. [Oniric images as illusory appearances in Greek ancient thought].

    PubMed

    Cavini, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This essay traces the history of 'oniric images' as phantasmata in the Greek ancient thought from Homer to Stoicism. The author will follow the indications furnished by the concept of 'oniric deceit', i.e., phantasma as illusory appearance hiding to the sleeper its own deceitful nature.

  10. Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

  11. New Readings in Greek Mathematics: Sources, Problems, Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knorr, Wilbur R.

    1990-01-01

    The field of ancient Greek mathematics is discussed in terms of how representative is the surviving corpus of the ancient achievement in mathematics, the patterns of thought by which they were discovered, and the construction of mathematics during this period. The research being done in this field is described. (KR)

  12. Performing Greek Tragedy in School-I, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeburn, David

    1964-01-01

    This booklet addresses itself to the problem of whether Greek tragedy can be produced today in schools as a vital theatrical experience. The main thesis of the first of two articles points out that while a producer's first concern must be to communicate the context and spirit of a particular drama to a modern audience, he must also bring out the…

  13. Images of Nature in Greek Primary School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korfiatis, Kostas J.; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Paraskevopoulos, Stephanos

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the environmental content of the textbooks used for the teaching of natural sciences in Greek primary schools was examined. Specifically, by employing the method of content analysis, both representational (metaphors, depictions, values, etc.) and cognitive ecological concepts) elements, building images of nature, and shaping our…

  14. Going Greek: Academics, Personal Change, and Life after College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routon, Wesley; Walker, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Social Greek-letter organizations, more commonly known as fraternities (male-only) and sororities (female-only), are a longstanding tradition at colleges and universities in the United States. They claim to instill leadership skills in and offer a support network for members. However, in this article Wesley Routon and Jay Walker state that…

  15. Student Misbehaviour in Secondary Education: Greek Teachers' Views and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines Greek secondary education teachers' views on and attitudes towards in-classroom students' misbehaviour. Eight hundred and sixty-nine participants provided information, firstly, on the frequency and the forms of in-class misbehaviour incidents, secondly, on their beliefs about the origins of students' misbehaviour, and,…

  16. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous…

  17. The Greek Financial Crisis: Discourses of Difference or Solidarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickes, Hans; Otten, Tina; Weymann, Laura Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    The so-called Greek Financial Crisis, which has been the object of close attention in the German media since the end of 2009, has caused a public debate on who should be held responsible for the decline of crisis-hit Greece, the common currency and the Eurozone. The media's enduring and controversial public discussion has lately been referred to…

  18. The "Adventures" of the Sociology Course in Greek Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kougioumoutzaki, Foteini

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of the sociology course in Greek secondary education. The aim is to reveal under which circumstances the course has ended up becoming one of the most downgraded courses, and more importantly, how the specific rationale of the course's structure has resulted in the (re)production of a distorted image of…

  19. Criticisms of Segal's Interpretation of the Ancient Greek Pentathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Robert Knight

    This paper examines the ancient Greek pentathlon as it was conducted during the Olympic games. The pentathlon was comprised of five sub-exercises: (1) the jump; (2) the discus throw; (3) the javelin throw; (4) the stade run; and (5) wrestling. Using scholarship in the fields of archaeology, ancient poetry and legends, and pictorial evidence such…

  20. Traditional Greek Choruses and the Education of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Wayne B.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the form and content of the education that aristocratic girls received in ancient Greece in the context of their preparation for performance in lyric choruses. Offers background information on the function and structure of choral activity in Greek society. (CMK)

  1. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  2. Women in medicine through the ages.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Pucarin-Cvetkovic, Jasna; Schachter, E N; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka; Vitale, Ksenija; Deckovic-Vukres, Vlasta; Milosevic, M; Jelinic, Jagoda Doko

    2008-01-01

    Female practitioners of the medical arts have been active since the ancient world The role of women in science, and particularly in medicine, has changed significantly over time. We provide a chronological review of the growing knowledge in medicine related to women's activities through the ages with particular attention to occupational medicine. Throughout history hazards have been shaped by the forces that shape work itself social evolution, shifting economic powers and demographic changes. Mythical Greece, Egypt and ancient Rome were the cradle of ancient medicine. In the past century, women were allowed to enter the medical profession with increasing acceptance. Some of the most important women in ancient and modern medicine are recalled, such as Mother Peseshet in ancient Egypt, Artemisia of Caria and Phanostrate and Philista in the Greek period, Hildegard of Bingen, Marie Marguerite Biheron in England, Elisabeth Blackwell, Emily Jennings, Maude E. Abbott and others. Women in occupational medicine are described separately, such as Alice Hamilton, Harriet L. Hardy, Molly Newhouse and Olga Macek. Certainly, the first few women who iluminated the way for the generations that followed them into medicine, the women who made outstanding contributions to medicine, and the women who are currently finding success in medicine deserve our respect and admiration.

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  4. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  5. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  6. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... of Greek and American Democracy, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... the world's first democracy and kindled a philosophical tradition that would stand the test of time... democracy in its birthplace, renew the bonds that bring our countries together, and celebrate the...

  7. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The social profile of victims of suicide in major Greek correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Sakelliadis, E I; Goutas, N D; Vlachodimitropoulos, D G; Logiopoulou, A-P I; Panousi, P I; Delicha, E M; Spiliopoulou, C A

    2013-08-01

    Suicide rates in correctional institutions have been increasing during the last decades. The reasons for this increase remain unclear, yet a lot of contradictory explanations were stated: the increase might be due to mass incarceration and overcrowding of small cells resulting in high psychosocial stress, changes in psychiatric health policy which might have transferred the care for patients from mental hospitals to custodial institutions, or legislation changes that might have led to a selection of offenders at higher risk (e.g. offenders who committed high violent offences or suffered from mental disorders without being referred to psychiatric hospitals). In Greece the situation is not described in details, at least during the last few years. By law, every death of prisoner is subject to medicolegal investigation. Our study consists of the meticulous research of the data records of major Greek correctional facilities, for the time period 1999-2010. An official permission was obtained from the Hellenic Ministry of Justice, which gave us access to these restricted records. Data was also collected from the Piraeus Forensic Service, from the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the University of Athens and finally from our own records. Measures were taken to respect the anonymity of the cases. Data was collected for the social, penal, medical history as well as for the medicolegal investigation. A total of 339 cases were collected, only 259 of which had available full data records, due to weaknesses in the prison records. From the 259 cases, 70 incidents of suicide were collected. Victims of suicide in major Greek correctional facilities, appear to fulfill the expected profile, as in the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. History of carotid surgery: from ancient greeks to the modern era.

    PubMed

    Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy.

  10. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, religious practices and social influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship between the acceptance and parents' education level, thinking dispositions and frequency of religious practice as independent variables. Students' moderate acceptance of evolution theory is positively correlated with the frequency of religious practices and thinking dispositions. Our findings indicate that studying a controversial issue such as the acceptance of evolution theory in a multivariate fashion, using conceptual ecology as a theoretical lens to interpret the findings, is informative. They also indicate the differences that exist between societies and how socio-cultural factors such as the nature of religion, as part of the conceptual ecology, influence acceptance of evolution and have an influence on evolution education.

  11. Diving medicine.

    PubMed

    Benton, P J; Glover, M A

    2006-01-01

    Recreational diving developed in the late 1940s when self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) first became available for civilian use. At the same time the development of the commercial airliner, in particular the jet airliner, made possible the concept of international travel for pleasure as opposed to business. Over the past 50 years the number of international tourists has increased by over 2500% from a mere 25 million in 1950 to over 700 million in 2002 (Treadwell TL. Trends in travel. In: Zuckerman JN, editor. Principles and practice of travel medicine, 2001; p. 2-6). The popularity of recreational diving has also increased over the same period from an activity experienced by a small number of individuals in the early 1950s to an activity today enjoyed by many millions. The combination of increased international travel and the means by which to enter and explore the underwater world has led to diving becoming increasingly popular as a tourist activity.

  12. From evidence-based to hope-based medicine? Ethical aspects on conditional market authorization of and early access to new cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Liliemark, Jan

    2017-08-01

    There is a strong patient demand for early access to potentially beneficial cancer drugs. In line with this authorization agencies like the European Medicines Agency are providing drugs with conditional market authorisation based on positive interim analyses. This implies that drugs are used with insecure evidence of efficacy and adverse side-effects. Several authors have pointed to ethical problems with such a system but up to date no indepth ethical analysis of this system is found which is the aim of this article. Drawing of the four generally accepted principles of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy and justice the ethical pros and cons of conditional market authorisation are analysed. From the perspective of beneficence and non-maleficence it is found that the main problem is not risk of adverse side-effects to patients, but rather risk of less beneficial outcomes than what can be expected which could change incentives for patients' choice of treatment. This is also related to the extent to which patients might make an autonomous choice, especially taking into account problematic psychological attitudes and biases in medical decision-making. However, the main problem is related to justice and an equitable distribution of scarce health-care resources given the opportunity cost of drugs treatment. When using resources on cancer treatments which later might be found to be less efficacious than was first expected, other patients (in and outside the cancer field) are deprived of potentially more beneficial treatments even though their needs might be equally or more severe. At the same time, demanding more evidence has an ethical cost to patients in terms of depriving them of potential benefits in terms of reduced mortality and morbidity. In order to handle these ethical conflicts further research and analyses are required and it is suggested that pricing strategies and information requirements are alternatives to be further explored

  13. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  14. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  15. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  16. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  17. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  18. An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P

    2006-09-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"--(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's." In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes.

  19. Historical evidence for the origin of teaching hospital, medical school and the rise of academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, H D

    2011-04-01

    Historical progression and the development of current teaching hospitals, medical schools and biomedical research originated from the people of many civilizations and cultures. Greeks, Indians, Syriacs, Persians and Jews, assembled first in Gondi-Shapur during the Sasanian empire in Persia, and later in Baghdad during the Golden Age of Islam, ushering the birth of current academic medicine.

  20. [Mercury--a major agent in the history of medicine and alchemy].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2008-01-01

    From ancient time the history of mercury has been connected with that of the medicine and chemistry. Mercury therefore contributes to the history of science throughout times. Knowledge of cinnabar (HgS) is traced back to ancient Assyria and Egypt, but also to China. The Greek philosophers were the initiators of theoretical science. The idea of the four elements, earth, air, water and fire, was introduced mainly by Empedocles and Aristotle in the 5th and 4th century BC. The theory encouraged the hope of transmuting metal to gold. The early development of practical alchemy is obscure, but some hints are given in the encyclopedia compiled by Zosimos about 300 A.D. in Alexandria. It also includes the invention of equipment such as stills, furnaces and heating baths. Medical treatment is described by Pliny and Celsus, e.g. the use of cinnabar in trachoma and venereal diseases. When the Arabs learned Greek alchemy by the Nestorians, they introduced or improved chemical equipments and new chemicals were obtained such as sublimate (HgCl2), different salts, acids, alkaline carbonates and metal oxides. The first recorded account of animal experimentation on the toxicity of mercury comes from Rhazes (al-Razi) in the 9th century and in the 11th century Avicenna (Ibn Sina) had the foresight to recommend the use of mercury only as an external remedy, and quicksilver ointments were used by the Arabs in the treating of skin diseases. In the medieval west scientific experiments were forbidden since the interpretation of the world order should not be changed. Greek and Arabic medicine and alchemy were therefore authoritative and the breakthrough in scientific inventions first appeared after the introduction of the Renaissance. The Renaissance medicine included ancient medicine as well as "modern medicine", based on iatrochemistry, and this chemical approach was introduced by Paracelsus. The medicine included sulphur and salts or oxides of for instance mercury, copper, iron, antimony

  1. Workplace Bullying Among the Nursing Staff of Greek Public Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Christine; Zyga, Sofia; Tziaferi, Styliani; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2017-02-01

    In this quantitative, cross-sectional study, the authors identified the impact of workplace bullying on nursing staff employed at select Greek public hospitals. They conducted the study using the Negative Acts Questionnaire with a convenience sample of 841 participants employed by five Greek hospitals in the 1st Regional Health Authority of Attica. One third of the respondents reported having been psychologically harassed at work in the past 6 months. According to the results, the impact workplace bullying has on nursing staff varies depending on the existence of a supportive familial or friend environment and if nurses parent children. These findings demonstrate the value of family and friend support when coping with workplace bullying.

  2. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period.

  3. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  4. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    PubMed Central

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  5. How Greek healthcare services are affected by the Euro crisis.

    PubMed

    Kalafati, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Greece's economic crisis is having a detrimental effect on the country's health service. Government cutbacks have forced hospitals to merge, reduced nurse-to-patient ratios and have led to pay cuts and poorer conditions for staff. Emergency nurses must work longer hours with fewer resources for less money, when emergency admissions in the public sector are rising as a result of the economic pressures on Greek society.

  6. Paederasty and political life in archaic Greek cities.

    PubMed

    Sergent, B

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the importance of paederasty in political life of Archaic Greece. It shows that paederasty was present since the beginning of Greek history, in many cities, and at the highest levels of society. This study allows one to say that paederasty is not an "historical accident," late in history and geographically localisable, but is part of the self-definition of Greece since its remotest past.

  7. The trouble with nouns and verbs in Greek fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms; better verb retrieval, poorer verb retrieval and equal retrieval difficulties for verbs and nouns. Verbs and nouns in Greek are considered of similar morphological complexity thus it was predicted that anomic aphasic individuals would suffer from a non-dissociated impairment of verbs and nouns. Problems with verbs and/or nouns may arise at any stage in the process of lexical retrieval, i.e. lexical-semantic, lemma, lexeme or articulation. The aim of this research was to investigate verb and noun retrieval using a picture-naming task to explore any possible selective noun and/or verb comprehension or retrieval deficits in Greek individuals with anomic aphasia. The results revealed a significant verb/noun dichotomy with verbs significantly more difficult to retrieve than nouns. These findings lend support for the growing body of evidence showing a specific verb impairment in fluent anomic individuals as well as Broca's patients. Given the prevailing view, that anomic patients experience difficulty retrieving the morpho-phonological form of the target word, the results show that specific information of the grammatical category is also important during word form retrieval. LEARNER OUTCOMES: The reader will become familiar with (i) studies investigating grammatical word class breakdown in individuals with aphasia who speak different languages, (ii) the application of the serial model to word production breakdown in aphasia and (iii) the characteristics of verbs and nouns in Greek. It will be concluded that successful verb retrieval for fluent aphasic individuals who speak Greek is dependant on the retrieval of the morpho

  8. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative.

  9. The Greek Nurses' job satisfaction scale: development and psychometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Moumtzoglou, Anastasius

    2010-01-01

    The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses' working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses' job satisfaction.

  10. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. 'Schizophrenia' as a metaphor in greek newspaper websites.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Välimäki, Maritta

    2014-01-01

    Often, newspapers use the term 'schizophrenia' as a metaphor with negative connotations. The use of the term in Greek newspapers, has never been investigated. The aim of this study is to examine how the term 'schizophrenia' is used in Greek newspaper websites. For 2014, 'To Vima', 'Kathimerini', and 'Eleftherotypia', were the most popular newspaper websites. By searching the term 'schizophrenia' in Greek ('σχιζo&phi;ρενεια'), the first fifty results were collected from the three websites (N=150). Deductive content analysis was applied. Out of the included articles (N=140), the majority were news (n=39, 28%), while more than a third (n=48, 34%) reported schizophrenia as a metaphor. The metaphoric use of 'schizophrenia' indicated predominately incoherence/contradiction/split (n=43, 90%). Monitoring how schizophrenia is presented within popular media is crucial, since it could influence public perceptions regarding the disorder. Continual use of schizophrenia as a metaphor could contribute to maintaining the stigma attached to mental illness.

  12. Factors associated with abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Cross-sectional, school-based study. Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18 years, and the response rate was 97%. The dependent variable was scores on the Eating Attitudes Test-26, with scores > or = 20 indicating abnormal eating attitudes. Bivariate analysis included independent Student t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for the identification of the predictive factors, which were associated independently with abnormal eating attitudes. A 2-sided P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes was 16.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that females, urban residents, and those with a body mass index outside normal range, a perception of being overweight, body dissatisfaction, and a family member on a diet were independently related to abnormal eating attitudes. The results indicate that a proportion of Greek adolescents report abnormal eating attitudes and suggest that multiple factors contribute to the development of these attitudes. These findings are useful for further research into this topic and would be valuable in designing preventive interventions. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  14. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  15. Health care for refugee children during the Greek Civil War (1946-1949).

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, Leonidas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on physical and psychological traumas of children during and after the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). There were two evacuation programmes: one organised by the Greek Communist Party to seven countries of Eastern Europe and the other by the Greek government and Queen Frederica to children's homes (paidopoleis) in the country. The paper also argues that Greek refugee children experienced war terror and violence, voluntary or forced separation from their families, and institutionalisation for a shorter or longer time, and that both sides sought to provide shelter, food, medical treatment, and psychological support to the victims.

  16. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  17. Monastic medicine from the classic era to the renaissance: development of nephrology.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The monastic medicine era started in the VI century A.D. and developed in the following centuries particularly in the IX and X centuries. The development of Nephrology was fundamental in this period. In fact, for about two thousand years, the study of urine was the only test carried out directly by the doctor. Rereading old codes that are still found in Montecassino's archives, it is possible to observe the great efforts made by the monks to copy, translate and organize ancient texts, which sometimes consisted only of notes written in Greek. These texts which were surely used for teaching and were consulted in the 'Ospitia', were not only used to treat sick monks, but also all the population that resorted to the 'Ospitia' when in need. This opening towards the world external to the Monastery, towards the so-called lay world, ensured that all copied and stored texts became available to the various Medical Schools established in the centuries that followed, particularly to the Salernitan Medical School that became a principal centre for the study of Medicine in the Western world during the early Middle Ages.

  18. The use of the kidneys in secular and ritual practices according to ancient Greek and Byzantine texts.

    PubMed

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios; Skarpelos, Andreas; Tsiros, Georgios

    2005-07-01

    The use of kidneys in secular and spiritual practices was very common for centuries. In this article we present some references on their employment as sacrificial offers, as plain food or as a source for medicaments. Our material derives from Greek texts of the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras. Relevant extracts from the Old Testament are also included, as they have become part of a common cultural heritage in that period of syncretism, when Jews were Hellenized and Greeks orientized. From the fragments cited in this article, it is obvious that the practical use of kidneys by priests, doctors, and lay persons in the periods under discussion was widespread. The sacrificial offering was based on the religious significance of the organ. The dietary consumption of the kidneys was limited by their function as urine producers. Their medicinal use was dictated first, by the abundance of the adipose tissue surrounding them, which was an ideal warming and binding substance. Second, it may be explained by the deeply rooted conviction that eating a particular organ led to the incorporation of its strength, thus protecting the corresponding eater's organs. Those practices should not surprise us in view of their corresponding modern use. Currently, kidney donors offer their organs in a sacrificial gesture, kidneys are consumed as a delicacy worldwide, and renal tissue is therapeutically used in transplantations and, until very recently, as a source for hormonal substances.

  19. [Secret medicines].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, H

    2001-01-01

    Secret medicines had two characteristics: their formula remained unknown and they were prepared by many kinds of people. Before 1728 there were no general laws about these secret medicines but only peculiar rules. From 1728 to 1778, the King edicted rigorous rules in order to limit the number of secret medicines. Between 1778 and 1789, the law became more definite and the Royal Society of Medicine gave advices. The Law of Germinal An-XI forbid secret medicines but since 1805, some compromises took place. Slowly, secret medicines were replaced by pharmaceutics and new set of laws.

  20. Subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions in bilingual French-Greek SLI: the case study of a French-Greek-speaking child with SLI.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-05-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual children with typical development matched on language age. Furthermore, we discuss the performance of the child with SLI in the light of published data from monolingual French and Greek school-age children with SLI, as reported in the relevant literature. The results indicated that the performance of the bilingual French-Greek-speaking child with SLI was highly comparable to that of bilingual French-Greek typically developing children and monolingual children with SLI speaking French or Greek. In addition, the results revealed a language effect on the performance of the bilingual child with SLI on subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions. We adopt a comparative linguistic approach to interpret the results and argue that the specific linguistic properties of Greek and French were significant determinants for the manifestation of SLI in each language. We suggest that bilingualism per se did not aggravate the language deficits in this child with SLI. Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of our study for language intervention in bilingual individuals with SLI.