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Sample records for early growth period

  1. [The growth and energy metabolism of Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda): I. Early postlarval period].

    PubMed

    Zotin, A A

    2009-01-01

    The growth and the oxygen uptake rate of Lymnaea stagnalis were studied during the first ten days after hatching. It is shown that these processes are atypical during early ontogenesis in comparison with adult mollusks. The obtained data on linear (height of shell) and weight growth can be equally well approximated with the von Bertalanffy equation or exponential and polynomial equations. Both linear and weight growth are characterized by an approximately constant specific rate associated with synchronous oscillations of a two-week period. The oscillations were observed also for the oxygen uptake rate, but of another period (about 2.6 weeks). On average the metabolic rate after the initial triple increase during the first three days remains stable. The polynomial coefficient of the allometric dependence of the total weight on the shell height is less reliable than that of the adult.

  2. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    < 0.05) and 22-h (60% of total intake; P < 0.10) tests, respectively. In conclusion, feed supplementation with the FA1, FA2, and FA3 from weaning did not induce beneficial effects on feed intake and growth performance during the early postweaning period. The FA2 increased palatability and acceptance of the unfamiliar starter diet the day of feed transition, while the FA1 and FA3 increased palatability of the starter diet only after a few days of exposure, most likely through long-term familiarization processes.

  3. Ozone exposure during the early postnatal period alters the timing and pattern of alveolar growth and development in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Avdalovic, Mark V; Tyler, Nancy K; Putney, Lei; Nishio, Susie J; Quesenberry, Sherri; Singh, Parmjit J; Miller, Lisa A; Schelegle, Edward S; Plopper, Charles G; Vu, Thiennu; Hyde, Dallas M

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollutants in early childhood, with ozone as the key oxidant, has been linked to significant decrements in pulmonary function in young adults and exacerbation of airway remodeling in asthma. Development of lung parenchyma in rhesus monkeys is rapid during the first 2 years of life (comparable to the first 6 years in humans). Our hypothesis is that ozone inhalation during infancy alters alveolar morphogenesis. We exposed infant rhesus monkeys biweekly to 5, 8 hr/day, cycles of 0.5 ppm ozone with or without house dust mite allergen from 1 to 3 or 1 to 6 months of age. Monkeys were necropsied at 3 and 6 months of age. A morphometric approach was used to quantify changes in alveolar volume and number, the distribution of alveolar size, and capillary surface density per alveolar septa. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the relative difference in gene expression over time. Monkeys exposed to ozone alone or ozone combined with allergen had statistically larger alveoli that were less in number at 3 months of age. Alveolar capillary surface density was also decreased in the ozone exposed groups at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, the alveolar number was similar between treatment groups and was associated with a significant rise in alveolar number from 3 to 6 months of age in the ozone exposed groups. This increase in alveolar number was not associated with any significant increase in microvascular growth as measured by morphometry or changes in angiogenic gene expression. Inhalation of ozone during infancy alters the appearance and timing of alveolar growth and maturation. Understanding the mechanism involved with this altered alveolar growth may provide insight into the parenchymal injury and repair process that is involved with chronic lung diseases such as severe asthma and COPD.

  4. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997–2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  5. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997-2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  6. Protective effects of leucine on redox status and mitochondrial-related gene abundance in the jejunum of intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kai-Wen; He, Jin-Tian; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Li-Li; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.35% l-leucine on redox status and gene abundance relating to mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the jejunum of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets during early weaning period. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal body weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet without l-leucine supplementation or a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine supplementation from the age of 14 to 35 d. The results showed that compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a lower (p < 0.05) jejunal DNA concentration, a reduced (p < 0.05) manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) activities and mitochondrial DNA content in the jejunum. Leucine supplementation increased (p < 0.05) MnSOD and T-AOC activities and decreased (p < 0.05) the malondialdehyde content in the jejunum of IUGR piglets. The mRNA gene abundance of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), ATP synthase (ATPs), cytochrome c oxidase V (CcOX V), cytochrome c and glucokinase in the jejunum of IUGR piglets was reduced (p < 0.05) compared with NBW piglets. However, NRF1, peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, TFAM, ATPs and CcOX I mRNA gene abundance in the jejunum of IUGR piglets were increased (p < 0.05) by diets supplemented with leucine. These data indicate that leucine supplementation has therapeutic potential for attenuating intestinal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in IUGR piglets during the early period of life via increasing enzyme activities and up-regulating mRNA gene abundance.

  7. Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.

  8. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  9. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  10. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ošt'ádalová, I; Babický, A

    2012-01-01

    The early postnatal period is characterized by a great plasticity with critical windows in which any inadequate insult or intervention may be able to influence both positively and adversely postnatal growth and development. After birth the rat littermates enter the presuckling period (initial 6 hours terminated by the first nursing), characterized by transition from the amniotic fluid to the air, by the changes of the ambient temperature, by the termination of placental nutrition and by oxidative stress. After this stage the suckling period initiates and the littermates start to consume milk of their mothers. Comsumption of milk culminates on day 15, then decreases and terminates on postnatal day 28. The end of the suckling period and the onset of physiological weaning is determined by the moment when the youngs for the first time consume the solid food together with milk (postnatal day 17 in rats). On day 19 the first intake of drinking water occurs. The weaning period terminates by the last consumption of maternal milk - on postnatal day 28. It is necessary to stress that the duration of early postnatal periods is independent of the changes of body weight. The precise knowledge of individual ontogenetic periods critical for further development is crucial for the prediction and explanation of reactions to various pathogenetic stimuli both under experimental conditions and in clinical medicine.

  11. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function.

  12. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  13. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  14. Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E; Gilman, Robert H; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Sack, R Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-06-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch

  15. Growth hormone STAT5-mediated signaling and its modulation in mice liver during the growth period.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; Ratner, Laura D; Matos, Marina N; González, Lorena; Rulli, Susana B; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal growth exhibits two instances of rapid growth in mice: the first is perinatal and independent of growth hormone (GH), the second is peripuberal and GH-dependent. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is the main GH-signaling mediator and it is related to IGF1 synthesis and somatic growth. The aim of this work was to assess differential STAT5 sensitivity to GH during the growth period in mouse liver of both sexes. Three representative ages were selected: 1-week-old animals, in the GH-independent phase of growth; 2.5-week-old mice, at the onset of the GH-dependent phase of growth; and 9-week-old young adults. GH-signaling mediators were assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation is low at one-week and maximal at 2.5-weeks of age when compared to young adults, accompanied by higher protein content at the onset of growth. Suppressor CIS and phosphatase PTP1B exhibit high levels in one-week animals, which gradually decline, while SOCS2 and SOCS3 display higher levels at adulthood. Nuclear phosphorylated STAT5 is low in one-week animals while in 2.5-week animals it is similar to 9-week control; expression of SOCS3, an early response GH-target gene, mimics this pattern. STAT5 coactivators glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) abundance is higher in adulthood. Therefore, GH-induced STAT5 signaling presents age-dependent activity in liver, with its maximum coinciding with the onset of GH-dependent phase of growth, accompanied by an age-dependent variation of modulating factors. This work contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms implicated in GH responsiveness during growth.

  16. Contour Instabilities in Early Tumor Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amar, M.; Chatelain, C.; Ciarletta, P.

    2011-04-01

    Recent tumor growth models are often based on the multiphase mixture framework. Using bifurcation theory techniques, we show that such models can give contour instabilities. Restricting to a simplified but realistic version of such models, with an elastic cell-to-cell interaction and a growth rate dependent on diffusing nutrients, we prove that the tumor cell concentration at the border acts as a control parameter inducing a bifurcation with loss of the circular symmetry. We show that the finite wavelength at threshold has the size of the proliferating peritumoral zone. We apply our predictions to melanoma growth since contour instabilities are crucial for early diagnosis. Given the generality of the equations, other relevant applications can be envisaged for solving problems of tissue growth and remodeling.

  17. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-02

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  18. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  19. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance.

  20. [Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations in early Byzantine period].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, R Vedat; Ataç, Adnan

    Early Byzantine Period includes between A.D. 330 when Constantinople was established and A.D. 518 when Justinus I became emperor. In this time period, a lot of philanthropic foundations such as hospitals, hospices, orphanages, rest homes and soup kitchens are established. Many of patriarchs and religious men opened them. In some of them, it refers to there was patients' care. The oldest hospital in Constantinople was established by Hasios Marcianos, and was next to Saint Irene Church. In addition to this Empress Flacilla wife of Theodosius the Great made hospitals restored and visited patients regularly. Hospitals were not limited in the center of Empire. Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations were established in Antiochia, Alexandria, Nikea, Adrianopolis, Castoria and Jerusalem. The concept of the modern hospital (the actual care, 'hospitality' and treatment of visitors) for the civilian masses in Europe didn't come to fruition until post Constantine and the rise of Christianity. While these early Christian hospitals were grossly over their heads regarding medical capability (they essentially served as last stops for the dying or quarantine centers), the concept of providing care to the public was the actual intent. In this regard, the first civilian hospitals were developed.

  1. Non-climatic changes in the early instrumental period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The early instrumental period, covering the late 18th century and the 19th century, was characterized by prominent non-climatic changes due to important changes in the way temperature and precipitation was measured. Important non-climatic temperature changes were due to changes in the observation times and the way daily averages were computed and from improvements in exposure. In the early period precipitation gauges were often installed on roofs, nowadays they are installed near the ground. Especially in snow-rich countries wind shield have recently been installed around gauges. Both reduce losses due to undercatchment. In the early instrumental period, temperature measurements were often made on North walls, later on stands and half open screens. Nowadays measurements are performed in Stevenson screens and automatic weather stations. The improvements in exposure are expected to have reduced radiation errors. They thus increase the maximum temperature and reduce the minimum temperature. Parker (1994) estimated these changes to be less than 0.2°C for the mean temperature, but this mainly based on parallel measurements (old and new collocated) from North-West Europe, which may have less problems with exposure. Several recent parallel data studies for the transition to Stevenson screens suggest larger biases: A North wall measurement in Kremsmünster, Austria showed a bias of 0.2°C. Half-open Wild screens at two locations in Spain showed biases of 0.5 and 0.6°C. Older parallel measurements in tropical countries also showed a larger bias: India 0.42°C and Sri Lanka 0.37°C. Exposure will also change the estimates of weather variability and extremes as well as the diurnal and the annual cycle. Statistical homogenization needs well-correlated neighbouring stations, which are rare in the early instrumental record. Parallel measurements are therefore very important. This kind of research would be much facilitated by a global reference database with parallel

  2. Theoretical growth rates, periods, and pulsation constants for long-period variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. W.; Wood, P. R.

    1982-08-01

    An extensive set of linear, nonadiabatic pulsation models for red giant and supergiant stars is computed, in order that the dependence of pulsation periods (P), pulsation constants (Q), and growth rate on physical input parameters can be determined from the systematic behavior seen in the models. Also investigated is the extent of the dependence of P, Q, and growth rate on uncertain quantities such as atmospheric molecular opacity, surface boundary conditions, and effective temperature. The growth rate for the fundamental mode is found to increase with luminosity on the giant branch while the growth rate for the first overtone decreases. Dynamical instabilities found in previous adiabatic models of extreme red giants do not occur when nonadiabatic effects are included in the models.

  3. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Szrek, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Katarzyna; Narkiewicz, Marek; Ahlberg, Per E

    2010-01-07

    The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.

  4. Palaeoceanography: methane release in the Early Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Paul B; McArthur, John M; Little, Crispin T S; Hallam, Anthony

    2006-06-01

    Dramatic global warming, triggered by release of methane from clathrates, has been postulated to have occurred during the early Toarcian age in the Early Jurassic period. Kemp et al. claim that this methane was released at three points, as recorded by three sharp excursions of delta13C(org) of up to 3 per thousand magnitude. But they discount another explanation for the excursions: namely that some, perhaps all, of the rapid excursions could be a local signature of a euxinic basin caused by recycling of isotopically light carbon from the lower water column. This idea has been proposed previously (see ref. 3, for example) and is supported by the lack evidence for negative delta13C excursions in coeval belemnite rostra. Kemp et al. dismiss this alternative, claiming that each abrupt shift would have required the recycling of about double the amount of organic carbon that is currently present in the modern ocean; however, their measurements are not from an ocean but from a restricted, epicontinental seaway and so would not require whole-ocean mixing to achieve the excursions.

  5. Astronomical pacing of methane release in the Early Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Kemp, David B; Coe, Angela L; Cohen, Anthony S; Schwark, Lorenz

    2005-09-15

    A pronounced negative carbon-isotope (delta13C) excursion of approximately 5-7 per thousand (refs 1-7) indicates the occurrence of a significant perturbation to the global carbon cycle during the Early Jurassic period (early Toarcian age, approximately 183 million years ago). The rapid release of 12C-enriched biogenic methane as a result of continental-shelf methane hydrate dissociation has been put forward as a possible explanation for this observation. Here we report high-resolution organic carbon-isotope data from well-preserved mudrocks in Yorkshire, UK, which demonstrate that the carbon-isotope excursion occurred in three abrupt stages, each showing a shift of -2 per thousand to -3 per thousand. Spectral analysis of these carbon-isotope measurements and of high-resolution carbonate abundance data reveals a regular cyclicity. We interpret these results as providing strong evidence that methane release proceeded in three rapid pulses and that these pulses were controlled by astronomically forced changes in climate, superimposed upon longer-term global warming. We also find that the first two pulses of methane release each coincided with the extinction of a large proportion of marine species.

  6. Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Modified Growth Solow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabião, Fátima; Borges, Maria João

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic of the Solow growth model with a Cobb-Douglas production function. For this purpose, we consider that the labour growth rate, L'(t)/L(t), is a T-periodic function, for a fixed positive real number T. We obtain the closed form solutions for the fundamental Solow equation with the new description of L(t). Using notions of the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations and nonlinear functional analysis, we prove that there exists one T-periodic solution for the Solow equation. From the economic point of view this is a new result which allows a more realistic interpretation of the stylized facts.

  7. Coral growth characteristics and marine environments during Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Ohmori, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kase, T.

    2011-12-01

    Global mean temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 5-3 Ma) were substantially high as much as those predicted for near-term climate change. Experimental and model studies are suggesting that recent past and future global warming and ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would have dramatically influenced on the calcification processes of marine organisms. However, few direct evidences have existed to address how warming and acidification would play it for marine ecosystem. Tropical corals could record long term growth histories in annual bands of their skeletons as well as marine environments during their growth periods up to several hundreds years. We discovered well-preserved fossil Porites corals at the muddy sand layer of Tartaro formation in Luzon island, the northern part of Philippine during the middle of PWP (3.5-3.8Ma); one of the most possible periods for analog to Earth's climate future. We screened and selected two exceptionally well-preserved fossil specimens for signs of diagenetic alternation using microanalysis of thin sections using the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with microstructural observation by scanning electronic microscopy and optical microscopic observation (Watanabe et al., 2011). We then present 70 years geochemical records with monthly resolution (δ18O, δ 13C, Strontium/Calcium ratio, and other elemental concentrations) from this two fossil PWP corals in order to address the relationship between marine environments and coral growth characteristics. The detail profiles of carbon and oxygen isotopes of two series of corals indicate that significant reduced growth rate occurred in summer during the two different environments of PWP. Our coral geochemical and physiological data from this unique time window confirm future predictions that temperature rising and ocean acidification may lead to severely reduced

  8. Early corn growth and development in response to weed, nitrogen, and shade stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season crop-weed interactions during a critical weed-free period (CWFP) influence corn growth that commonly results in reduced yield. Yield loss is not mitigated by weed removal after the CWFP, hence, weeds cause an irreversible negative impact on growth and development during the CWFP. Howeve...

  9. Interceptive orthopedics for the correction of maxillary transverse and sagittal deficiency in the early mixed dentition period

    PubMed Central

    Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Karnati Praveen; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Dentofacial Orthopedics directed to a hypoplastic maxilla in the prepubertal period redirects growth of the maxilla in the vertical, transverse and sagittal planes of space. The orthopedic correction of maxillary hypoplasia in the early mixed dentition period thus intercepts the establishment of permanent structural asymmetry in the mandible and helps in the achievement of optimal dentofacial esthetics. This paper presents the growth redirection in a hypoplastic maxilla of an 8-year-old girl with simultaneous rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear therapy for a period of 11 months which corrected the posterior unilateral cross-bite, the positional asymmetry of the mandible and established an orthognathic profile in the individual. PMID:22346162

  10. Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma; Patterson, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood…

  11. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni; Molgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.

  12. The Meckel's cartilage in human embryonic and early fetal periods.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Marzena; Przystańska, Agnieszka

    2011-06-01

    The Meckel's cartilage itself and the mandible are derived from the first branchial arch, and their development depends upon the contribution of the cranial neural crest cells. The prenatal development of the Meckel's cartilage, along with its relationship to the developing mandible and the related structures, were studied histologically in human embryos and fetuses. The material was obtained from a collection of the Department of Anatomy, and laboratory procedures were used to prepare sections, which were stained according to standard light-microscopy methods. The formation of the Meckel's cartilage and its related structures was observed and documented. Some critical moments in the development of the Meckel's cartilage are suggested. The sequential development of the Meckel's cartilage started as early as stage 13 (32 days) with the appearance of condensation of mesenchymal cells within the mandibular prominence. During stage 17 (41 days), the primary ossification center of the mandible appeared on the inferior margin of the Meckel's cartilage. The muscular attachments to the Meckel's cartilage in embryos were observed at stage 18 (44 days). Their subsequent movement into the developing mandible during the 10th week seemed to diminish the role of the Meckel's cartilage as the supportive core; simultaneously, the process of regression within the cartilage was induced. During the embryonic period, the bilateral Meckel's cartilages were in closest contact at the posterior surface of their superior margins, preceding formation of the symphyseal cartilage at this site. The event sequence in the development of the Meckel's cartilage is finally discussed.

  13. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  14. Critical Learning Periods and Programs of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Richard A.

    In an effort to clarify understanding of the concept of critical learning periods, this paper discusses problems that people concerned with the motor development of children have had determining relationships between critical periods and learning, and a "readiness model" is offered as a solution that could enhance understanding of critical…

  15. 78 FR 22918 - Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction AGENCY: National Science... the Early Career Doctorates Survey. The document contained an incorrect date. FOR FURTHER...

  16. Planet formation - Mechanism of early growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments in vacuum (approx. 0.5 to 1 mbar) and in air quantify mechanics of collisions, rebound, and fragmentation at low velocities (1-50 m/sec), under the conditions usually postulated for the preplanetary environment in the primitive solar nebula. Such collisions have been little studied experimentally. Contrary to widespread assumptions, accretionary growth of the largest meteoroid- and asteroid-sized bodies in a given swarm results spontaneously from the simple mechanics of these collisions, without other ad hoc sticking mechanisms. The smaller bodies in the swarm are less likely to grow. Granular surfaces form, either by gravitational collapse of dust swarms or by rapid formation of regolith surfaces on solid planetesimals; these surfaces strongly promote further growth by retarding rebound. Growth of large bodies increases modal collision velocities, causing fragmentation of smaller bodies and eventual production of interstellar dust as a by-product of planetesimal interactions.

  17. [Early growth of phytoplankton community in Dianshan Lake].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community biomass (Chla) in Dianshan Lake was simulated based on data of 2004-2009. The result showed that early growths of the phytoplankton community in spring and summer seasons could be well described by the Logistic growth model. General speaking, phytoplankton community dominated by diatom and green algae may enter its exponential phase in the late February, doubling its density within 18 days, and reaching its maximum growth rate of 29.4 microg x (L x month) (-1) in the middle of March, blooming in June. Phytoplankton community dominated by blue green algae may enter its exponential phase in the middle June, doubling its density within 26 days, and reaching its maximum growth rate of 22.8 microg x (L x month) (-1) in the middle of July, blooming during August-September. The general pattern of early growth of phytoplankton community may offer sound information for early warning and prevention of algal bloom.

  18. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate < 0.05) were detected by pairwise comparison. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs are mainly involved in the processes of cell growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P < 0.1) related to growth and development: extracellular matrix–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development. PMID:28291821

  19. Early global warming in the period 1850 to 1920

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf; Brandsma, Theo; Auchmann, Renate; Esper, Jan; Haustein, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The current global temperature datasets show no warming in the land surface temperature and the sea surface temperature for the period between 1850 and 1920. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the Earth's surface was warming during this period. Every line of evidence by itself is currently not compelling, but the consilience of evidence at least makes a good case for further research. This period is characterized by the introduction of Stevenson screens, which reduce radiation errors more than the monitoring methods used before. As a consequence, Stevenson screens typically observe cooler temperatures than earlier observations. Recent analyses of parallel measurements suggest that this cooling bias is larger than previously thought. Physical reasoning suggests this bias to be largest in sub-tropical and tropic regions; this pattern is also found in the limited number of parallel measurements available. We are missing information from continental climates. The Global Historical Climate Network (GHCNv3) does not change the trend between 1870 and 1920 and adjust 0.1°C between 1850 and 1970. This small adjustment seems to be less than needed for this transition compared to the size of this jump estimated from the limited evidence we have from parallel measurements Further evidence for warming during this period can be found in lake and river freeze and breakup times, which show a clear shortening of the freezing period between 1850 and 1920. Most of the glaciers for which we have data from this period show reductions in their lengths, which signals clear warming. Also temperature reconstructions from proxies show warming. The CMIP model ensemble shows 0.2°C warming in the global mean temperature. We will be looking at well-homogenized national datasets and compare them to the national averages from the global collections. For this period we have up to now 3 such comparisons (Austria, Italy and Spain), these have too much scatter relative to the BEST

  20. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period.

  1. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  2. Unilateral Nasal Obstruction during Later Growth Periods Affects Craniofacial Muscles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchima Koecklin, Karin H.; Hiranuma, Maya; Kato, Chiho; Funaki, Yukiha; Kataguchi, Taku; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nasal obstruction can occur at different life stages. In early stages of life the respiratory system is still under development, maturing during the growth period. Previous studies have shown that nasal obstruction in neonatal rats alters craniofacial function. However, little is known about the effects of nasal obstruction that develops during later growth periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nasal obstruction during later periods of growth on the functional characteristics of the jaw-opening reflex (JOR) and tongue-protruding muscles. In total, 102 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into either a control or experimental group (both n = 51). In order to determine the appropriate timing of nasal obstruction, the saturation of arterial oxygen (SpO2) was monitored at 8 days, and at 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the control group. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction at the age of 5 weeks. The SpO2 was monitored at 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the experimental group. The electromyographic responses of JOR and the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles were recorded at 7, 9, and 11 weeks. In the control group, SpO2 decreased until 5 weeks of age, and remained relatively stable until 11 weeks of age. The SpO2 was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control. In the experimental group, JOR changes included a longer latency and smaller peak-to-peak amplitude, while changes in the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles included larger twitch and tetanic forces, and a longer half-decay time. These results suggest that nasal obstruction during later growth periods may affect craniofacial function. PMID:28119621

  3. Critical Thinking about Critical Periods. A Series from the National Center for Early Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.; Bruer, John T., Ed.; Symons, Frank J., Ed.; Lichtman, Jeff W., Ed.

    The concept of critical or sensitive periods in child development provides an example around which to organize discussion of what is known and not known about brain development and the implications of brain science on early childhood policy and practice. This book reviews the early history of critical periods and evidence for their existence in…

  4. Early onset of vegetation growth vs. rapid green-up: impacts on juvenile mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Pelletier, Fanie; Von Hardenberg, Achaz; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2007-02-01

    Seasonal patterns of climate and vegetation growth are expected to be altered by global warming. In alpine environments, the reproduction of birds and mammals is tightly linked to seasonality; therefore such alterations may have strong repercussions on recruitment. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a satellite-based measurement that correlates strongly with aboveground net primary productivity, to explore how annual variations in the timing of vegetation onset and in the rate of change in primary production during green-up affected juvenile growth and survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), and mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in four different populations in two continents. We indexed timing of onset of vegetation growth by the integrated NDVI (INDVI) in May. The rate of change in primary production during green-up (early May to early July) was estimated as (1) the maximal slope between any two successive bimonthly NDVI values during this period and (2) the slope in NDVI between early May and early July. The maximal slope in NDVI was negatively correlated with lamb growth and survival in both populations of bighorn sheep, growth of mountain goat kids, and survival of Alpine ibex kids, but not with survival of mountain goat kids. There was no effect of INDVI in May and of the slope in NDVI between early May and early July on juvenile growth and survival for any species. Although rapid changes in NDVI during the green-up period could translate into higher plant productivity, they may also lead to a shorter period of availability of high-quality forage over a large spatial scale, decreasing the opportunity for mountain ungulates to exploit high-quality forage. Our results suggest that attempts to forecast how warmer winters and springs will affect animal population dynamics and life histories in alpine environments should consider factors influencing the rate of changes in primary production during green

  5. Nutrition, acid-base status and growth in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kalhoff, H; Manz, F

    2001-10-01

    Optimal growth is only possible in a well-balanced "inner milieu". Premature infants are especially vulnerable for disturbances of acid-base metabolism with a predisposition to metabolic acidosis due to a transient disproportion between age-related low renal capacity for net acid excretion (NAE) and an unphysiologically high actual renal NAE on nutrition with standard formulas. During a 50 month period, 452 low birth-weight infants were screened for spontaneous development of incipient late metabolic acidosis (ILMA), an early stage during the development of retention acidosis, characterized by maximum renal acid stimulation (MRAS, urine-pH < 5.4) on two consecutive days but still compensated systemic acid-base status. Compared with controls, patients with ILMA showed higher serum creatinine values, an increased urinary excretion of sodium, aldosterone and nitrogen, but only slightly lower blood pH (7.38 vs 7.41) and base excess (-2.8 vs. 0.2 mmol/l) with respiratory compensation (PCO2 35 vs 37 mm Hg). Patients with altogether 149 episodes of ILMA were subsequently randomly allocated to either treatment with NaHCO3 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days or no special therapy in protocol I, or NaHCO3 vs NaCl each 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days in protocol II. Patients of protocol I with persistent MRAS for 7 days showed lowest weight gain and a tendency for a further increase in urinary aldosterone and nitrogen excretion. NaCl supplementation (protocol II) seemed to promote weight gain without affecting either impaired mineralization or suboptimal nitrogen retention. Patients with alkali therapy under both protocols showed normal weight gain and normalization of hormonal stimulation, mineralization (protocol II) and nitrogen assimilation. Modification of the mineral content of a standard preterm formula decreased renal NAE to the low level seen on alimentation with human milk and reduced the incidence of ILMA in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants to 1%. The data show that ILMA is

  6. Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Eastmond, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from seed tissues and analysed for their in vitro activities. Furthermore, several genes encoding lipases have been cloned and characterised from plants. However, only recently has data been presented to establish the molecular identity of a lipase that has been shown to be required for TAG breakdown in seeds. In this review we briefly outline the processes of TAG synthesis and breakdown. We then discuss some of the biochemical literature on seed lipases and describe the cloning and characterisation of a lipase called SUGAR-DEPENDENT1, which is required for TAG breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

  7. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology.

  8. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  9. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  10. An Early Holocene Eruptive Period at Mount Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, J.; Vallance, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    Tephrochronologic studies indicate that the Cowlitz Park eruptive period at Mount Rainier began about 7500 years ago and continued intermittently until about 6800 years ago. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that Cowlitz Park time comprises four distinct eruptive episodes, each of which occurred during a relatively brief interval. The eruptions produced subplinian falls, several small ash falls, pyroclastic flows, and lahars, the largest of which swept down the White River valley to Puget Sound lowland. Tephra layers are of two types: vesicle rich (chiefly pumice lapilli, scoria, and ash) and vesicle poor (chiefly fine-grained glass and lithic fragments). Pumice and glass shards in vesicle-rich deposits are microlite-poor and derive from larger explosive eruptions. Glass shards in vesicle-poor ashes have variable microlite contents and derive from smaller explosions, or from ash clouds that billow up from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Although the Pleistocene record indicates considerable effusive activity at Mount Rainier, no record remains of lavas that might have erupted during Cowlitz Park time. The oldest eruption, ca 7500 cal yr BP, produced vesicular tephra "A," distributed to the east, with a volume of 5 x 106 m3. Layer A is pumiceous, but fine-grained, glassy layers, suggestive of ash-clouds derived from pyroclastic flows, bracket it stratigraphically. About 7300 cal yr BP, within a short interval of time, a more complex eruptive episode occurred that produced a subplinian fall, at least 3 minor ash layers and an avalanche of hydrothermally altered rock on the south flank of the volcano that generated a lahar. The subplinian layer, "L," was among the most voluminous in the Holocene 30 x 106 m3 at Mount Rainier. This tephra occurs to the southeast and chiefly contains pumice along with subordinate, juvenile, lithic clasts. Related fine-to-coarse-grained ash layers derive from small explosions that occurred shortly before and after the eruption of layer L

  11. The Relationship of Novel Plasma Proteins in the Early Neonatal Period With Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Mandava, Naresh; Palestine, Alan G.; Mourani, Peter M.; McCourt, Emily A.; Oliver, Scott C. N.; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development. Proteins from the insulin-like growth factor pathway are related to ROP. However, there is a paucity of research on the role of other proteins in ROP. The aim of this study was to identify plasma proteins related to clinically significant ROP. Methods We measured 1121 plasma proteins in the early neonatal period in infants at risk for ROP using an aptamer-based proteomic technology. The primary aim of the study was to compare plasma protein concentrations in infants who did (n = 12) and did not (n = 23) subsequently develop clinically significant ROP using logistic regression. As a secondary aim, we examined patterns in the proteins across categories of clinically significant, low-grade, and no ROP groups. Results Lower levels of 16 proteins were associated with an increased risk of clinically significant ROP. In this group, superoxide dismutase (Mn), mitochondrial (MnSOD), and chordin-like protein 1 (CRDL1) were highly ranked. Other proteins in this group included: C-C motif chemokine 14 (HCC-1), prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7), and eotaxin. Higher levels of 12 proteins were associated with a higher risk for ROP. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) was the top-ranked protein target followed by hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (MSP), luteinizing hormone (LH), cystatin M, plasminogen, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). We also noted different patterns in the trend of concentrations of proteins across the clinically significant, low-grade, and no ROP groups. Conclusions We discovered plasma proteins with novel associations with clinically significant ROP (MnSOD, CRDL1, PCSK9), proteins with links to established ROP signaling pathways (IGFBP-7), and proteins such as MnSOD that may be a target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27679852

  12. [Effects of early growth stage shading on rice flag leaf physiological characters and grain growth at grain-filling stage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-hua; Zhou, Xue-biao; Yang, Lian-qun; Li, Tian; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2009-09-01

    In a pot experiment, rice plants were shaded during the period from transplanting to booting, aimed to study the effects of early growth stage shading on the rice growth at grain-filling stage. Comparing with the control, early growth stage shading decreased the tiller number by 26.72%, but increased the flag leaf area and soluble sugar content by 33.86% and 30.23%, respectively. The filled-grain number per panicle, 1000-grain mass, ultimate brown rice mass, and maximum and average grain-filling rates decreased by 8.65%, 4.81%, 9.74%, 20.22%, and 19.13%, and the effective panicle number and grain yield declined by 25.26% and 39.56%, respectively. The peak time of grain-filling rate (Tm) advanced 1.66 days, while the grain-filling time (T99) prolonged 6.80 days. For shading-tolerance variety, its flag leaf Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents at early and mid grain-filling stages, and the protein N and soluble sugar contents and Chl a/b in its flag leaves at grain-filling stage all increased under early growth stage shading, and the ultimate brown rice mass and 1000-grain mass maintained at the similar levels as the control. Consequently, its grain yield reduction rate was lower than that of shading-sensitive variety.

  13. Trajectories of fathers' psychological distress across the early parenting period: Implications for parenting.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Brown, Stephanie; Christensen, Daniel; Kingston, Dawn; Liu, Cindy H; Wade, Catherine; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Fathers' parenting behavior is a likely key mechanism underlying the consistent associations between paternal mental health difficulties and poor emotional-behavioral outcomes for children. This study investigates the association between fathers' mental health trajectories and key parenting behaviors (warmth, hostility, consistency) spanning the first 8-9 years postpartum. Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data from 2,662 fathers participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. Latent growth class analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of fathers' distress (Kessler-6; Kessler et al., 2003), and latent growth models estimated parenting warmth, hostility, and consistency. Multiple group analyses were conducted to describe and compare the course of parenting behaviors for fathers assigned to the distress trajectories identified. Two distinct classes of fathers were identified based on the trajectories of distress: minimal distress (92%) and persistent and increasing distress (8%). The latter group reported significantly lower parenting warmth when their children were 8-9 years and lower consistency and higher hostility across all study intervals. The postnatal and early parenting period is a critical time for the development of parenting behaviors that are important for children's development. Engagement and support for fathers around well-being and parenting is vital for promoting optimal family and child developmental outcomes.

  14. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-09

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  15. Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Kobayashi, Takako; Songjinda, Prapa; Tateyama, Atsushi; Tsubouchi, Mina; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shirakawa, Taro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2009-06-01

    The influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota was monitored in 26 infants including five antibiotic-treated (AT) subjects orally administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the first 4 days of life and three caesarean-delivered (CD) subjects whose mothers were intravenously injected by the similar type of antibiotics in the same period. The faecal bacterial composition was analysed daily for the first 5 days and monthly for the first 2 months. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the AT subjects showed less diversity with the attenuation of the colonization of some bacterial groups, especially in Bifidobacterium and unusual colonization of Enterococcus in the first week than the control antibiotic-free infants (AF, n=18). Quantitative real-time PCR showed overgrowth of enterococci (day 3, P=0.01; day 5, P=0.003; month 1, P=0.01) and arrested growth of Bifidobacterium (day 3, P=0.03) in the AT group. Furthermore, after 1 month, the Enterobacteriaceae population was markedly higher in the AT group than in the AF group (month 1, P=0.02; month 2, P=0.02). CD infants sustained similar, although relatively weaker, alteration in the developing microbiota. These results indicate that antibiotic exposure at the beginning of life greatly influences the development of neonatal intestinal microbiota.

  16. Poor growth prior to early childhood: decreased health and life-span in the adult.

    PubMed

    Clark, G A; Hall, N R; Armelagos, G J; Borkan, G A; Panjabi, M M; Wetzel, F T

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies in animal populations have shown that stunted neural and thymolymphatic growth early in development may result in permanently impaired neural and immune function, decreased body growth, vertebral wedging, and decreased life-span. In the human adult, small vertebral neural canal (VNC) diameters may reflect early stunted neural and immune development and impaired function that leads to decreased health (inferred by greater vertebral wedging) and life-span in the adult. VNC, which complete their growth by early childhood (age 4), are markers of early development in adults. On the other hand, features following general body growth, such as height, weight (represented here by vertebral body height) continues to grow until young adulthood. They are less reliable, because they readily experience catch-up growth (even in chronically stressed populations) and, unlike VNC, may mask poor early growth. To test associations between early growth and adult health and life-span in humans, we measured 2,060 VNC, vertebral heights, vertebral wedging, nerve-root tunnel lengths, severity of vertebral osteophytosis, and ages at death in 90 adult (aged 15-55 years) prehistoric skeletons (950-1300 A.D.). Tibial lengths were also measured in a subsample (n = 30). Multivariate, bivariate, and nonparametric analyses showed that small VNC are significantly associated with greater vertebral wedging and decreased life-span (P less than 0.05-0.00001). VNC are independent of vertebral body heights and tibial lengths (general body growth). VNC, but not statural components, are useful in predicting adult health, presumably because they reflect neural and immune development and do not readily experience catch-up growth. Thus, longitudinal retrospective measures of early growth and adult health were systematically linked within individuals regardless of confounding factors operating over the 350-year time period. Since this research was completed, this model has repeatedly been

  17. The early growth of the first black holes

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  18. The early growth of the first black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  19. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  20. Differential impact of birth weight and early growth on neonatal mortality in puppies.

    PubMed

    Mila, H; Grellet, A; Feugier, A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2015-09-01

    Breeding kennels face a high rate of neonatal mortality, on which the impact of nutrition remains to be determined. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of birth weight (reflecting intrauterine growth) and early growth rate (reflecting colostrum intake) on risk of neonatal mortality in puppies and to determine the critical thresholds of both parameters. Puppies from various breeds were weighed at birth ( = 514) and at 2 d of age, and the growth rate over that period (early growth rate) was calculated for all survivors ( = 477). Linear mixed models evaluated the effect of birth weight on mortality between birth and 2 d of age and the effect of both birth weight and early growth rate on mortality between 2 and 21 d of age. Birth weight was influenced by litter size ( = 0.003), with more low-birth-weight puppies (the lightest 25% within a breed size) in large litters compared with smaller litters. Mortality over the first 2 d after birth was associated with birth weight ( < 0.001), with 81.1% of dying puppies characterized by a low birth weight. Mortality between 2 and 21 d of age was not related to birth weight but was found to be associated with early growth rate ( < 0.001), with higher risk of death in puppies with growth rate at or below -4% after the first 2 d of life. This study demonstrates the differential effect of intrauterine nutrition impacting mortality during the first 2 d of life and that of colostrum intake impacting mortality until 21 d of life. Birth weight and early growth rate thresholds provided in this study allow identification of puppies at risk, whereby provision can be made for adequate nursing to increase their chances to survive.

  1. Mitogenic signaling pathways in the liver of growth hormone (GH)-overexpressing mice during the growth period

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carolina S.; Piazza, Verónica G.; González, Lorena; Fang, Yimin; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Miquet, Johanna G.; Sotelo, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) is a pleiotropic hormone that triggers STATs, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, related to cell growth and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing GH present increased body size, with a disproportionate liver enlargement due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the hepatocytes. We had described enhanced mitogenic signaling in liver of young adult transgenic mice. We now evaluate the activation of these signaling cascades during the growth period and relate them to the morphological alterations found. Signaling mediators, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors involved in cellular growth in the liver of GH-overexpressing growing mice were assessed by immunoblotting, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte enlargement can be seen as early as 2-weeks of age in GH-overexpressing animals, although it is more pronounced in young adults. Levels of cell cycle mediators PCNA and cyclin D1, and transcription factor c-Jun increase with age in transgenic mice with no changes in normal mice, whereas c-Myc levels are higher in 2-week-old transgenic animals and cyclin E levels decline with age for both genotypes. STAT3, Akt and GSK3 present higher activation in the adult transgenic mice than in the growing animals, while for c-Src and mTOR, phosphorylation in GH-overexpressing mice is higher than in control siblings at 4 and 9 weeks of age. No significant changes are observed for ERK1/2, neither by age or genotype. Thus, the majority of the mitogenic signaling pathways are gradually up-regulated in the liver of GH-transgenic mice, giving rise to the hepatic morphological changes these mice exhibit. PMID:27028000

  2. Mitogenic signaling pathways in the liver of growth hormone (GH)-overexpressing mice during the growth period.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; González, Lorena; Fang, Yimin; Bartke, Andrzej; Turynl, Danie; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a pleiotropic hormone that triggers STATs, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, related to cell growth and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing GH present increased body size, with a disproportionate liver enlargement due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the hepatocytes. We had described enhanced mitogenic signaling in liver of young adult transgenic mice. We now evaluate the activation of these signaling cascades during the growth period and relate them to the morphological alterations found. Signaling mediators, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors involved in cellular growth in the liver of GH-overexpressing growing mice were assessed by immunoblotting, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte enlargement can be seen as early as 2-weeks of age in GH-overexpressing animals, although it is more pronounced in young adults. Levels of cell cycle mediators PCNA and cyclin D1, and transcription factor c-Jun increase with age in transgenic mice with no changes in normal mice, whereas c-Myc levels are higher in 2-week-old transgenic animals and cyclin E levels decline with age for both genotypes. STAT3, Akt and GSK3 present higher activation in the adult transgenic mice than in the growing animals, while for c-Src and mTOR, phosphorylation in GH-overexpressing mice is higher than in control siblings at 4 and 9 weeks of age. No significant changes are observed for ERK1/2, neither by age or genotype. Thus, the majority of the mitogenic signaling pathways are gradually up-regulated in the liver of GH-transgenic mice, giving rise to the hepatic morphological changes these mice exhibit.

  3. 76 FR 50201 - National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver AGENCY... Childhood Technical Assistance Center. SUMMARY: The Secretary issues this notice to waive the requirements... Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center to receive funding from October 1, 2011 through September...

  4. 78 FR 21979 - Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY: National Science Foundation... published a notice on April 9, 2013, at 78 FR 21162, seeking comments on establishing the Early...

  5. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  6. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  7. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  8. Critical period of sensitivity for effects of cadmium on frog growth and development.

    PubMed

    Gross, Jackson A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Prahl, Lili K; Karasov, William H

    2009-06-01

    Cadmium is a ubiquitous pollutant in aquatic environments that can alter organismal physiology and ecology. Previous experiments found that ecological Cd exposures increased the growth and development of two North American anurans. However, the generality of these effects among species, the time period over which they occur, and the mechanisms responsible remain conjectural. The goal of the present study was to determine the critical period of sensitivity of Rana pipiens exposed to ecologically relevant levels of Cd. We exposed tadpoles to Cd (0 [control], 1.0, and 10.0 microg/L) from Gosner stage (GS) 25 to metamorphic climax. We assessed effects of Cd on amphibian length, survival, and development during premetamorphosis (GS 25-30) and prometamorphosis (GS 31-42). After 14 d of exposure, we staged tadpoles and recorded snout-vent length. Tadpoles were then pooled according to treatment and stage (GS < or =29 or GS > or =30) and allowed to undergo metamorphic development. Tadpoles exposed to 10 microg/L were significantly larger and more advanced in development by 14 d. Survival to forelimb emergence exceeded 90% in all treatments, and time to metamorphic climax was not different from that in controls. Body burdens of Cd were positively correlated with increasing treatment. Early amphibian development (premetamorphosis) was shown to be the critical period of sensitivity for growth and development. Whereas the freshwater criterion for Cd appears to be protective for survival, a lack of knowledge remains about the sublethal effects of chronic exposures of metal pollutants, especially as they relate to tissue concentrations at various stages of amphibian life history.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  10. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  11. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop.

  12. Critical period for estrogen-dependent motoneuron dendrite growth is coincident with ERα expression in target musculature.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Lauren M; Sengelaub, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    The spinal cord of rats contains the sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). In males, SNB dendrite growth is dependent on gonadal steroids: dendrite growth is inhibited after castration, but supported in androgen- or estrogen-treated castrated males. Furthermore, estrogenic support of SNB dendrite growth is mediated by estrogen action at the target musculature, inhibited by estrogen receptor (ER) blockade at the muscle and supported by local estradiol treatment. However, this estrogenic support is restricted to the early postnatal period, after which the morphology of SNB dendrites is insensitive to estrogens. To test if the developmentally restricted effects of estrogens on SNB dendrite growth coincide with the transient expression of ER in the target musculature, ERα expression was assessed during development and in adulthood. ERα expression in extra-Muscle fiber cells was greatest from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P14 and declined after P21. Because this pattern of ERα expression coincided with the period of estrogen-dependent dendrite growth, we tested if limiting hormone exposure to the period of maximal ERα expression in extra-muscle fiber cells could fully support estrogen-dependent SNB dendrite growth. We restricted estradiol treatment in castrated males from P7 to P21 and assessed SNB dendritic morphology at P28. Treating castrates with estradiol implants at the muscle from P7 to P21 supported dendrite growth to normal levels through P28. These data suggest that the transient ERα expression in target muscle could potentially define the critical period for estrogen-dependent dendrite growth in SNB motoneurons.

  13. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance.

  14. Low level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: early preschool development.

    PubMed

    Ernhart, C B; Morrow-Tlucak, M; Marler, M R; Wolf, A W

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that low level lead exposure in the fetal and early preschool years is related to neuropsychological deficit was examined in a prospective study of child development. We also tested the hypothesis of reverse causality, i.e., that lead level is a function of prior developmental status. Fetal lead exposure was measured in maternal and cord blood while preschool lead level was measured in venous blood samples at ages six months, two years and three years. These blood lead measures (PbB) were related to concurrent and ensuing scores on developmental measures at six months, one year, two years, and three years. With statistical control of covariate measures (age, sex, race, birth weight, birth order, gestational exposure to other toxic substances, maternal intelligence, and several indicators of the quality of the caretaking environment) as well as potentially confounding risk factors (gestational exposure to alcohol and other toxic substances), most statistically significant associations of PbB with concurrent and later development were completely attenuated. Effects of lead exposure, significant or not, were not consistent in direction. In reverse-causality analyses, PbB was not related significantly to prior measures of developmental retardation or acceleration. It was concluded that the relationship of lead level and measures of development in these early years was primarily a function of the dependence of each on the quality of the caretaking environment.

  15. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor.

  16. Growth of river delta networks: Thresholds, periodicity, aging and self similarity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Reitz, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    The surfaces of river deltas and alluvial fans (collectively fans) are often dissected by a small number of channels radiating from the fan apex. These dispersive, depositional systems do not exhibit the fractal scaling typical of erosional drainage networks. On long timescales, fan channels migrate via avulsion - the process of channel bed deposition and abandonment. What governs the selection of new flow paths, or the ultimate number of active channels, is poorly understood. Here we present results of an experimental fan that allow us to examine the growth of a depositional channel network. Flow over the fan collapses into a single channel whose dimensions adjust to threshold transport conditions for the imposed sediment load. This channelization causes localized shoreline growth, which diminishes transport capacity of the channel until the slope drops below the threshold value. This leads to deposition within the channel and widespread flooding; avulsion is completed when a new channel path is selected. This cycle is remarkably periodic, and dynamics suggest that fan slope oscillates between two thresholds - entrainment and distrainment - analogous to static and dynamic angles of repose in grain flows. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic, but previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow. In the early stages of fan growth, new channels are likely to be created. Once a critical density of flow paths has been established, however, the flow oscillates among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. These dynamics are similar to the aging phenomenon observed in the growth of fractures in brittle materials under stress. We demonstrate that a directed random walk model with memory quantitatively reproduces these dynamics and limiting behavior, and is consistent with natural fans. Because our experimental fan is built by the recurring avulsion sequence, its shoreline shape is a series of lobes that indicate persistent upstream

  17. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    PubMed

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  18. Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

  19. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Brien, Matthew L; Webb, Grahame J; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  20. The Relationship between Early Growth and Survival of Hatchling Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Matthew L.; Webb, Grahame J.; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by “runtism” or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species. PMID:24960026

  1. Periodic matrix population models: growth rate, basic reproduction number, and entropy.

    PubMed

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the growth rate lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the growth rate lambda in the periodic case.

  2. The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Ranga Ram

    2012-07-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

  3. Sensitive periods of substance abuse: Early risk for the transition to dependence.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Chloe J; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-10-29

    Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder (SUD). An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Early substance use interferes with ongoing neurodevelopment to induce neurobiological changes that further augment SUD risk. Although many individuals use drugs recreationally, only a small percentage transition to SUD. Current theories on the etiology of addiction can lend insights into the risk factors that increase vulnerability from early recreational use to addiction. Building on the work of others, we suggest individual risk for SUD emerges from an immature PFC combined with hyper-reactivity of reward salience, habit, and stress systems. Early identification of risk factors is critical to reducing the occurrence of SUD. We suggest preventative interventions for SUD that can be either tailored to individual risk profiles and/or implemented broadly, prior to the sensitive adolescent period, to maximize resilience to developing substance dependence. Recommendations for future research include a focus on the juvenile and adolescent periods as well as on sex differences to better understand early risk and identify the most efficacious preventions for SUD.

  4. A Developmental Approach to Helping: The Epigenetic Model Applied to the Period of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Susan H.

    1973-01-01

    The article describes application of the epigenetic model to work with children in the period of early childhood development. The focus is placed on verbal learning. Projects wherein disadvantaged children gain in verbal skills through supervised mother-child interactions are described. The response of families to this approach suggests important…

  5. Parents' Views on the Use of Technology in the Early Childhood Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine parents' views on technology use in the early childhood period. Survey method was used in this research. The research population consists of the parents, whose children go to the pre-school education institutions in Istanbul province. The research sample consists of 477 parents chosen by the random…

  6. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  7. The Phonological Awareness Scale of Early Childhood Period (PASECP) Development and Psychometric Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…

  8. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus.

  9. Effects of early feeding and exogenous putrescine on growth and small intestinal development in posthatch ducks.

    PubMed

    Peng, P; Xu, J; Chen, W; Tangara, M; Qi, Z L; Peng, J

    2010-02-01

    1. Effects of early feeding with a diet containing added putrescine on duck intestinal development and growth performance were examined by a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two different feeding times (6 and 48 h) and two levels of putrescine (0 and 025%). 2. A significant main effect of early feeding on increasing body weight (BW) was observed from hatch to 35 d, whereas dietary putrescine had no significant effect on BW. 3. In the first week posthatch, enhanced small intestinal weight and intestinal density (weight of intestinal tissue/unit length of intestine), increased villus length and reduced crypt depth were observed in the early feeding group, while no effect was observed when putrescine was added to the diet. 4. Maltase and sucrase activity and protein/DNA ratio in jejunum were increased by early feeding in the first week, while decreased by putrescine supplementation. 5. In conclusion, early feeding methods have great potential for small intestine development and thereafter enhanced the growth performance of ducks, but dietary putrescine used during this period should be used cautiously to avoid toxicity.

  10. Poor early growth and high salt intake in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Antolini, Laura; Orlando, Antonina; Brahmochary, Sujit; De Servi, Alessandra; Capelli, Silvia; Giussani, Marco; Nava, Elisa; Agostoni, Carlo; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2016-11-06

    The influence of feeding patterns on the growth of infants and how salt is included in the diet are unknown in the area of West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional study was carried on 517 infants (median age 6.5 months). Negative Z-scores were observed for all anthropometric parameters. About 72.7% of infants aged 0-6 months received exclusive breastfeeding. In the 6-12-month-old group (n = 235), 91.5% had salt added to foods. In a regression model adjusted for age, a low salt diet resulted a significant factor in increasing weight-for-length and BMI for age z-scores, with increments equal to 0.637 SD (p = 0.037) and 0.650 SD (p = 0.036), respectively. In West Bengal infants showing poor growth, breastfeeding was associated with better anthropometric indexes, but early in life salt is added to their diet. Early life low weight coupled with high salt intake may be a risk factor for arterial hypertension in Indian children.

  11. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  12. [The peculiarities of calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development].

    PubMed

    Moĭsa, S S; Nozdrachev, A D

    2014-01-01

    The review contains literature data about calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development. The analyses of retrospective and current sources of information about the regulation of calcium homeostasis under the theory of functional systems, the regulation of calcium metabolism in prenatal and postnatal periods of the development, the significance of calcium metabolism disturbances in the development of pathological conditions were showed.

  13. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and grew up in Isparta (girls:75, boys:49) whereas control group of children (n=92: 46 girls and 46 boys) had no dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was classified using Thylstrup Fejerskov Fluorosis Index. Radiological evaluation was performed by cephalometric tracing using Björk analysis. Statistical evaluation in between study and control groups was done by Independent Samples T test and comparison with Björk’s standards was done by One Sample T test analysis. The association between two quantitative variables was evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (rho). Results The mean dental fluorosis level was 4.6±1.8 for children with fluorosis. Systemic fluorosis affect girls no different than boys in the early permanent dentition period because none of the angular measurements show significant difference between boys and girls in the fluoridated group. Comparison of craniofacial angular values of boys with fluorosis show greater diversity compared to boys without fluorosis against Björk’s mean values for boys. Conclusions Craniofacial morphology of children with fluorosis did not show great diversity than the ones without fluorosis in the early permanent dentition period. None of the angular measurements were significantly different between boys and girls in the fluoridated group which might imply that systemic fluorosis did not show gender difference in the early permanent dentition. (Eur J Dent 2009;3:304–313) PMID:19826603

  14. Assessing early growth and adiposity: report from an EarlyNutrition Academy workshop.

    PubMed

    Ward, Leigh C; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith M; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a summary of a workshop organised by the European Commission-funded EarlyNutrition Project and the EarlyNutrition Academy. Accurate and reliable methods to assess body composition are needed in research on prenatal and early post-natal influences of nutrition on later health because common surrogate measures of maternal and offspring adiposity (body fat content), such as body mass index (BMI), have relatively poor predictive power for the risk of later disease. The key goals of the workshop were to discuss approaches to assess growth and body composition from pregnancy to adolescence, to summarise conclusions and to prepare a framework for research in the EarlyNutrition Project. The participants concluded that there is a pressing need to harmonise the methodologies for assessing body composition, recognising that each has advantages and limitations. Essential core measurements across studies assessing early growth and body composition were identified, including weight, length, BMI, waist and mid-upper arm circumference, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. In research settings with access to more sophisticated technologies, additional methods could include dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, ultrasound assessment of regional body fat, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and deuterium dilution. These provide richer data to answer research questions in greater depth but also increase costs. Where overall whole-body composition is the primary outcome measure, ADP or tracer dilution should be used whenever possible. Where regional distribution of body fat is of greater interest, an imaging technique such as MRI is preferred.

  15. Periodic solution for a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with logistic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of a stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model, in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. For the periodic system, we present sufficient conditions for persistence of the epidemic and in the case of persistence, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we show that there is at least one nontrivial positive periodic solution. One of the most important findings is that random perturbations may be beneficial to formate the periodic solution to the stochastic nonautonomous SIR epidemic model.

  16. A general theory of early growth?. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Chowell et al. [1] consider the early growth behaviour of various epidemic models that range from phenomenological approaches driven by data to mechanistic descriptions of complex interactions between individuals. This is particularly timely given the recent Ebola epidemic, although non-exponential early growth may be more common (but less immediately evident) than we realise.

  17. Solidification and convective instability during early sea ice growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchen, Joseph; Wells, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Growing sea ice rejects large amounts of cold, salty water into the underlying ocean which contributes to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water, North Atlantic Deep Water, and maintaining the cold halocline in the Arctic ocean. This cold, salty water is formed by the partial solidification of sea water to form porous sea ice, which is an example of a mushy layer. Convection within the porous ice interior drives the drainage of dense brine into the underlying ocean. We consider how realistic surface cooling and variations in physical properties affect the time-dependent development of early sea ice growth, and the impact on solidification and convective instability within the ice. Whilst many previous studies of mushy layers have focussed on growth at a steady rate, we here model geophysically-motivated settings where the growth rate evolves with time. We quantify how the onset of convection in sea ice depends on the initial salinity of the sea water and the rate of heat loss to the overlying atmosphere, and show that slower cooling rates can promote the formation of larger convection cells within the ice.

  18. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Munetoshi; Nishida, Makoto

    2017-02-21

    Thromboembolic events are one of the leading causes of maternal death during the postpartum period. Postpartum thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is controversial because the treatment may lead to massive bleeding. Data centralization may be beneficial for analyzing the safety and effectiveness of systemic thrombolysis during the early postpartum period. We performed a computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE search. We collected data for 13 cases of systemic thrombolytic therapy during the early postpartum period, when limiting the early postpartum period to 48 hours after delivery. Blood transfusion was necessary in all cases except for one (12/13; 92%). In seven cases (7/13; 54%), a large amount of blood was required for transfusion. Subsequent laparotomy to control bleeding was required in five cases (5/13; 38%), including three cases of hysterectomy and two cases of hematoma removal, all of which involved cesarean delivery. In cases of transvaginal delivery, there was no report of laparotomy. The occurrence of severe bleeding was high in relation to cesarean section, compared with vaginal deliveries. Using rt-PA in relation to cesarean section might be worth avoiding. However, the paucity of data in the literature makes it difficult to assess the ultimate outcomes and safety of this treatment.

  19. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.

  20. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  1. Changes in food processing and occlusal dental wear during the early agricultural period in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Watson, James T

    2008-01-01

    Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging to agriculture, archaeological and dental pathology studies have identified this period as one of relative dietary stability. It was therefore predicted that very little variation in occlusal wear would have occurred between the early phase (San Pedro: 1600-800 B.C.) and late phase (Cienega: 800 B.C.-A.D. 200). Comparison of crown diameters identified some phenotypic differences between sexes but not between archaeological phases. Molar occlusal surfaces were then divided into four quadrants, and wear scores recorded for each quadrant. Principle axis analysis was performed between total wear scores of paired, adjacent first and second mandibular molars to assess rate and occlusal wear plane over time. The analysis demonstrated that both wear rate and wear plane increased from the early to the late phase of the Early Agricultural period. These results indicate that although diet may have indeed remained stable during this period in the Sonoran Desert increases in the rate of wear and wear plane may reflect changes in food-processing techniques. It is suggested that more intensive processing of agricultural products during the Cienega phase simultaneously softened the diet to create more tooth-contact wear and introduced more grit to cause faster and more angled wear on the molar occlusal surfaces.

  2. Autism as the Early Closure of a Neuroplastic Critical Period Normally Seen in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Julia Marie; Rohn, Troy T.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2013-01-01

    The most severe cases of autism are diagnosed by extreme social dysfunction and other behavioral abnormalities. A number of genetic studies have been conducted to correlate behavioral phenotypes to genetic dysfunctions, but no “autism gene” has yet been discovered. In addition, environmental factors have been found to influence the development of autistic traits with high probability. This review will examine the role of a shortened period of neuroplasticity as a unifying feature of the autistic phenotype. The neuroplastic period of interest normally extends into adolescence, allowing for neural integration and the development of language and social skills. Early closure of this period may result in a shortened period of development, forcing the brain to rely on underdeveloped structures. PMID:24353985

  3. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth.

  4. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  5. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Hatfield, B.B.; Ralls, K.; Ames, J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated mortality appears to be the main reason for both sluggish growth and periods of decline in the threatened California sea otter population. We assessed causes of mortality from salvage records of 3,105 beach-cast carcasses recovered from 1968 through 1999, contrasting two periods of growth with two periods of decline. Overall, an estimated 40%-60% of the deaths were not recovered and 70% of the recovered carcasses died from unknown causes. Nonetheless, several common patterns were evident in the salvage records during the periods of population decline. These included greater percentages of (1) prime age animals (3-10 yr), (2) carcasses killed by great white shark attacks, (3) carcasses recovered in spring and summer, and (4) carcasses for which the cause of death was unknown. Neither sex composition nor the proportion of carcasses dying of infectious disease varied consistently between periods of population increase and decline. The population decline from 1976 to 1984 was likely due to incidental mortality in a set-net fishery, and the decline from 1995 to 1999 may be related to a developing live-fish fishery. Long-term trends unrelated to periods of growth and decline included a decrease in per capita pup production and mass/length ratios of adult carcasses over the 31-yr study. The generally high proportion of deaths from infectious disease suggests that this factor has contributed to the chronically sluggish growth rate of the California sea otter population.

  6. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  7. Developmental programming: variations in early growth and adult disease.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2013-11-01

    Suboptimal conditions in utero are associated with the development of adult-onset diseases in offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency in rats is a well-established animal model used to mimic and study the effects of developmental insults relevant to countries of abundant nutrient supply. However, wide-ranging outcomes for the offspring are apparent between the different investigators that use this model and also between cohorts generated in our laboratory. We aimed to explore the reasons for variability in rat models of uteroplacental insufficiency between different investigators and also between our own animal cohorts. We suggest differences in growth and disease development reflect uniqueness in susceptibility and highlight the complexity of interactions between genetic potential and environmental exposures. The impact of adverse exposures in utero has been described as having far-reaching effects that extend well beyond the first, directly exposed generation. However, the resulting phenotypes are not consistent between generations. This suggests that programmed effects are established de novo in each generation and challenges the prediction of disease. Characterization of growth and disease in the numerous rat models has led to our understanding of the impact of early life experiences on adult health. In order to drive the development of preventative and/or treatment strategies, future studies should focus on identifying the initial cause(s) of uteroplacental insufficiency, including genetic origins and the influence of poor diets.

  8. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  9. Characteristics of unturned eggs: critical period, retarded embryonic growth and poor albumen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    1989-06-01

    1. The physiological effects of egg turning during incubation are described. 2. There was a critical period for turning, from days 3 to 7 of incubation, which affected hatchability, embryo growth and utilisation of extra-embryonic fluids. 3. Failure to turn eggs retarded formation of allantoic and amniotic fluids, restricted alumen uptake and retarded growth of the embryo, but only after day 12 of incubation.

  10. Spatial patterns of substantial climate impact from anthropogenic aerosols in the early instrumental period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undorf, Sabine; Bollasina, Massimo; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    While many aspects of climate variation in the early instrumental period (1860-1950) are still unexplained, for instance the early twentieth-century warming from the 1910s to the 1940s, the role of anthropogenic aerosols in this period has been overlooked. Yet, the period is also an interesting case study to isolate aerosol impacts since it is characterised by the increase of North American and especially European aerosol emissions concurrently with negligible Asian emissions and relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations. We thus analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol impact for this period in available observations (NOAA 20th-century reanalysis, etc.) and historical single-forcing and all-forcing experiments with state-of-the-art CMIP5 models. We make use of coupled empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to surface temperature -the most reliable variable in observations- and different aerosol indicating variables such as aerosol optical depth and short-wave downward radiation, some of which include aerosol indirect effects. The principal components of the most important EOFs are then regressed onto sea level pressure, winds, and other variables to identify associated circulation patterns. A decomposition into multi-decadal and longer time scales is performed by filtering the data prior to the analysis. Our analysis reveals both statistically significant local and non-local aerosol impact and identifies circulation states associated with the temperature response. The results are consistent across different aerosol variables, and show a strong non-local response as well as specific differences between time scales. We find a distinctive circulation pattern which strongly resembles observations and might explain the observed early twentieth century warming in the Arctic.

  11. Physical growth and cognitive skills in early-life: evidence from a nationally representative US birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2013-11-01

    This paper establishes associations between length/height and cognitive skills in infancy, toddlerhood, and school-entry. The data come from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a representative longitudinal sample of US children born in 2001. A positive association between length/height and cognition is found as early as 9 months and continues through school-entry. These associations are robust to controls for birthweight and economic status. Early growth is also shown to be a stronger predictor of reading and math skills in kindergarten than attained height. Girls exhibit stronger evidence of this latter result than boys. These findings have implications for the interpretation of early life as a critical period for the growth-cognition relationship.

  12. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  13. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes.

  14. RTA beam dynamics experiments: limiting cumulative transverse instability growth in a linear periodic system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Lidia, S; Westenskow, G

    2000-06-10

    A critical issue for a Two-Beam accelerator based upon extended relativistic klystrons is controlling the cumulative dipole instability growth We describe a theoretical scheme to reduce the growth from an exponential to a more manageable linear rate, and a new experiment to test this concept. The experiment utilizes a 1-MeV, 600-Amp, 200-ns electron beam and a short beamline of periodically spaced RF dipole pillbox cavities and solenoid magnets for transport. Descriptions of the RTA injector and the planned beamline are presented, followed by theoretical studies of the beam transport and dipole mode growth.

  15. Early growth of nano-sized calcium phosphate on phosphorylated bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y Z; Gao, C; Luo, H L; He, F; Liang, H; Li, X L; Wang, Y L

    2009-11-01

    It is believed that studies on the early hydroxyapatite (HAp) deposition on nano-sized substrates may possibly allow us to understand the formation mechanisms of biominerals at the molecular level. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were phosphorylated and used as nano-sized templates for early mineralization of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). To initiate mineralization the BC nanofibers were immersed in 1.5 times simulated body fluids (1.5 SBF) at 37 degreees C for varying periods of time. The deposited minerals on the nanofiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM observations confirmed that early growth (at 4 h) of the Ca-P minerals was heterogeneous, which was followed by extensive spread of the minerals on the entire surfaces of the nanofibers. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was the precursor of HAp formed on BC nanofibers. Furthermore, HAp deposited on BC nanofibers elongated along the c axis. Nucleation and growth of the Ca-P minerals were analyzed in this paper.

  16. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.R.; Julian, J.; Munir, M.I.; Soares, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblasst cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this critical period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced.

  17. High nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth in diverse Grevillea species (Proteaceae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianhua; Fowler, William M.; Causley, Casey L.

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the rich floristic diversity in regions characterised by nutrient-impoverished soils; however, none of these hypotheses have been able to explain the rapid diversification over a relatively short evolutionary time period of Grevillea, an Australian plant genus with 452 recognised species/subspecies and only 11 million years of evolutionary history. Here, we hypothesise that the apparent evolutionary success of Grevillea might have been triggered by the highly efficient use of key nutrients. The nutrient content in the seeds and nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth of 12 species of Grevillea were compared with those of 24 species of Hakea, a closely related genus. Compared with Hakea, the Grevillea species achieved similar growth rates (root and shoot length) during the early stages of seedling growth but contained only approximately half of the seed nutrient content. We conclude that the high nutrient-use efficiency observed in Grevillea might have provided a selective advantage in nutrient-poor ecosystems during evolution and that this property likely contributed to the evolutionary success in Grevillea. PMID:26607493

  18. Reappraisal of twinning: epidemiology and outcome in the early neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Goel, Neerja; Zaidi, Zeashan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology, maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes associated with twin births at a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS A prospective observational study was conducted on all successively born twin pairs (≥ 23 weeks of gestation) and their mothers from January to September 2005. Main outcome measures included maternal medical/obstetric complications, labour characteristics and the morbidities/mortality observed during the early neonatal period. RESULTS The twinning rate was 1 in 54 deliveries. Around 10% of mothers had a predisposition for twinning in the form of familial tendency or consumption of clomiphene. Anaemia (85%) was the most common maternal complication, followed by gestational hypertension (17%). Nearly one-third of births were delivered via Caesarean section. Prematurity (61%) was the most common neonatal complication followed by early-onset neonatal sepsis (21%). The risk of early neonatal death was 27%. Shorter gestation and low birth weight were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome (p < 0.05). Factors such as chorionicity, mode of delivery, birth order, inter-twin delivery time interval, gender and intra-pair birth weight discordance did not affect neonatal morbidity or mortality (p ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION The rates of maternal complications and early neonatal morbidities/mortality were quite high in twin gestations. Except for the prematurity and low birth weight, none of the other factors, including inter-twin delivery time interval of more than 15 mins, were found to affect neonatal outcome. PMID:25017406

  19. Short adolescence in early hominids: infantile and adolescent growth of the human femur.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, C

    1998-10-01

    Did the first hominids have a short developmental period similar to that of the great apes or a longer period closer to that of modern humans? Evidence from studies on dental and facial growth favors the first point of view. Additional evidence presented in this report is provided by a morphogenetic analysis of the lower limb. Some morphological modifications undergone by the human femur during infantile and adolescent growth are shown to be excellent markers of different developmental stages. The angular remodelling of the femoral diaphysis, which results in femoral bicondylar angle, is a marker of infancy, while the reshaping of the distal femoral epiphysis is a marker of adolescence. This reshaping of the bony epiphysis consists of the strong projection of the external lip of the femoral trochlea, the increase of the radius of curvature of the external condyle, and the anteroposterior lengthening of the whole epiphysis. The growth spurt in linear dimensions of the femur, characteristic of human adolescence, is shown to be associated with qualitative changes of the distal femoral epiphysis engendered by the late closure of the distal epiphysis. The femur of the first hominids (Australopithecus afarensis) shows only features of infantile growth, whereas characters of both precocious and later growth are typical of later hominids (Homo). The absence of the derived epiphyseal features in Australopithecus would be linked to their early epiphyseal closure and short adolescent growth period; their presence in Homo would have been promoted by their delayed epiphyseal closure and prolonged adolescent growth period. The transition from Australopithecus to Homo appears to have involved a heterochronic process of time hypermorphosis (Gould, [1977], Ontogeny and Phylogeny [Cambridge: Harvard University Press]) in which the size of the femur increases, the epiphysis is modified, and the period of peripubertal growth is prolonged. The shape of the distal epiphyses of KNM

  20. Lumbar spine after surgery for herniated disk: imaging findings in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Dina, T S; Boden, S D; Davis, D O

    1995-03-01

    Imaging the lumbar spine after surgery for disk herniation is all too often an unrewarding challenge. A constellation of findings is inevitable, and determining their significance is often impossible. The challenge is greatest during the first few months following surgery, when the rules of scar enhancement, deformity, and mass effect do not apply to differentiation of the abnormal from the normal. A clear understanding of normal postoperative healing is necessary to avoid overreaction to misleading findings. This report reviews imaging of the lumbar spine in the early postoperative period (i.e., the first 6 months after surgery), focusing on the normal healing process that so often mimics complicating or recurrent disease.

  1. Decoupling morphological development from growth in periodically cooled zebra finch embryos.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christopher R; Vleck, Carol M; Adams, Dean C

    2008-07-01

    Temperature affects growth and development, and morphometry can provide a quantitative description of how temperature changes affect the resulting phenotype. We performed a morphometric analysis on zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) embryos that were either exposed to periodic cooling to 20 or 30 degrees C throughout incubation over a background temperature of 37.5 degrees C, or were incubated at a constant temperature of 37.5 degrees C. Using a principle components analysis, we found that the relationship between the multivariate size (first principle component) and dry embryo mass depended upon the thermal treatment to which the developing embryos were exposed. Periodic cooling resulted in a smaller embryo mass, but had no effect on the multivariate size of the embryo. This suggests that the growth of phenotypic traits such as the length of long bones and the skull are less affected by temperature than is growth of other soft tissues such as muscle and organs that contribute to body mass.

  2. Simulation of growth rate and deposition profile on the periodically patterned substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Byung-Joon; Kang, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jin-Taek; Pak, Bockchoon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2007-06-01

    The growth of GaN on the patterned substances has proven favorable to achieve thick, crack-free GaN layers. Based on these methods, we specially designed periodically patterned Si substrate process, which is referred to as lateral epitaxy on patterned Si substrate (LEPS). High crystalline quality GaN are obtained by using this technique. In this paper, numerical modeling of transport and reaction of species is performed to estimate the growth rate of GaN from the reaction of trimethyl gallium (TMG) and ammonia. The effect of fabricated structure of feature scale model will be predicted by using the topography simulator, and deposition profile of the GaN on the pattern will be discussed. The effect of flow conditions and pattern shape and periodicity will also be addressed, which can be critical for the quality of crystal growth. The dependency of step coverage and conformality of patterned mask will also be discussed.

  3. Growth hormone (GH)/STAT5 signaling during the growth period in liver of mice overexpressing GH

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; Díaz, María E; Boparai, Ravneet K; Arum, Oge; Ramírez, María C; González, Lorena; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)/STAT5 signaling is desensitized in liver of adult transgenic mice overexpressing GH; however, these animals present greater body size. To assess if the STAT5 pathway is active during the growth period in liver of these animals, and how signaling modulators participate in this process, growing transgenic mice and normal siblings were evaluated. STAT5 does not respond to an acute GH-stimulus but presents higher basal phosphorylation in liver of growing GH-overexpressing mice. GH receptor and positive modulators GR and HNF1 display greater abundance in transgenic animals, supporting STAT5 activity. Negative modulators CIS and PTP1B are increased in GH-overexpressing mice. Suppressors SOCS2 and SOCS3 exhibit higher mRNA levels in transgenic mice but lower protein content, suggesting they are being actively degraded. Therefore, STAT5 signaling is increased in liver of GH-transgenic mice during the growth period, with a balance between positive and negative effectors resulting in an accelerated but controlled growth. PMID:25691498

  4. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  5. Period-luminosity-colour relation for early-type contact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Michał

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the analysis of 64 early-type, massive contact or near-contact eclipsing systems from the Large Magellanic Cloud discovered by the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III). It presents the determination of the period-luminosity-colour relation followed by these objects, that is different from the one previously known for late-type W UMa stars. The relation for massive stars has a significantly steeper dependence on the colour, which is related to a much higher bolometric correction, however it is shallower in the period term. This leads to the conclusion, that the relation for the total population of main-sequence contact binaries is non-linear. When studied separately, genuinely contact and near-contact systems follow two slightly different relations.

  6. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  7. Contrasting Responses of Arctic Tussock Tundra to Early Season Snow Melt: Growth Acceleration Versus Frost Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberbauer, S. F.; Starr, G.; Pop, E. W.; Ahlquist, L. E.; Parker, I. C.

    2003-12-01

    Climate warming scenarios for the Arctic include early snow melt marking the beginning of the growing season. From the perspective of the vegetation, early snow melt may have advantageous or disadvantageous effects. With warm weather following snow melt, bud break and flowering will occur early providing a longer period for growth and photosynthesis. However, if very cold weather follows snowmelt, plants will be exposed directly to freezing conditions that plants under the snow would not. Such exposed plants may suffer freeze damage and delayed bud break. We have been experimentally manipulating snow cover at Toolik Lake, Alaska, since 1995. In 9 years of early snow removal treatments, in only two years has the second scenario occurred, in 2001 and 2002. Here we document the effects of very cold conditions following snow removal on green biomass as assessed by NDVI of treatment plots relative to controls. In 2001 evergreens shrubs were killed, bud break was delayed, and NDVI was lower on treatment plots relative to controls. In contrast, in a year with warm spring temperatures following snow melt, 1999, NDVI on treatment plots was significantly greater than that of controls. Cold conditions following snow melt may lead to death of shrubs and delayed budbreak, effects that will carry over throughout the growing season and ultimately, affect community composition and ecosystem function.

  8. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). During the entire low-temperature period, specific growth rate, feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than those of control, while in the whole recovery period, specific growth and average feeding rate were markedly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of control. At the end of experiment, only the feeding rate of the fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was not significantly different from that of control ( P > 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  9. Progesterone supplementation during the early fetal period reduces pregnancy loss in high-yielding dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Hunter, R H F

    2004-11-01

    It was hypothesized that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations during the late embryo and early fetal period may act to compromise conceptus development in dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis by supplementing pregnant cows with exogenous progesterone following pregnancy diagnosis. The study population consisted of 1098 pregnant lactating cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 36 and 42 days after insemination. Animals found to be pregnant were randomly assigned to the Control (untreated cows, n = 549) or Treatment (n = 549) groups. Cows in group Treatment were fitted at pregnancy diagnosis with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) containing 1.55 g of progesterone, for 28 days. Cows were then subjected to a further diagnosis by palpation per rectum on Day 90 of gestation. Pregnancy loss was registered in 95 (8.7%) cows on Day 90 of pregnancy: 66 (12%) in group Control and 29 (5.3%) in group Treatment. Logistic regression analysis indicated that there were no significant effects of herd, bull, milk production, service number, days in milk at pregnancy and lactation number. Based on the odds ratio, treated cows were 2.4 (1/0.41) times less likely to miscarry, whereas the risk of pregnancy loss was 1.6 times higher in cows that became pregnant during the warm period in comparison to the cool period. These results support the hypothesis that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations in high producer dairy cows may compromise conceptus development. Under these conditions, intra-vaginal progesterone supplementation has the potential to reduce the incidence of pregnancy loss during the early fetal period.

  10. Early spring leaf out enhances growth and survival of saplings in a temperate deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Carol K

    2008-05-01

    Saplings of many canopy tree species in winter deciduous forests receive the major portion of their light budget for their growing season prior to canopy closure in the spring. This period of high light may be critical for achieving a positive carbon (C) gain, thus contributing strongly to their growth and survival. This study of saplings of Aesculus glabra and Acer saccharum in Trelease Woods, Illinois, USA, tested this hypothesis experimentally by placing tents of shade cloth over saplings during their spring period of high light prior to canopy closure in three consecutive years. Leaf senescence began 16 days (year 0) and 60 days (year 1) earlier for shaded A. glabra saplings than control saplings. No change in senescence occurred for A. saccharum. The annual absolute growth in stem diameter of both species was negligible or negative for shaded saplings, but positive for control saplings. Only 7% of the shaded A. glabra saplings were alive after 2 years, while all control saplings survived for 3 years; only 20% of the shaded A. saccharum saplings survived for 3 years, while 73% of control saplings were alive after the same period. Early spring leaf out is a critical mechanism that allows the long-term persistence of saplings of these species in this winter deciduous forest. Studies and models of C gain, growth, and survival of saplings in deciduous forests may need to take into account their spring phenology because saplings of many species are actually "sun" individuals in the spring prior to their longer period in the summer shade.

  11. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Selda; Uslu, Fazil E.; Kowalski, William J.; Ermek, Erhan; Keller, Bradley B.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS) between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis. PMID:27552150

  12. The continuing influence of William Smellie (1697-1763) in Japan during the early Meiji Period (1868-1880s).

    PubMed

    van der Weiden, R M F; D'Orlando, A; Uhlenbeck, G C

    2013-08-01

    From the second half of the 18th century, Japanese obstetricians incorporated William Smellie's Anatomical Tables in their publications. The translation and explanation of an obstetrical print from 1880 indicates that Smellie's influence continued during the early Meiji period, a transition period characterized by a combination of western knowledge and traditional medical thoughts from the Edo period (1603-1868).

  13. Lexical segmentation and vocabulary growth in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, K

    1993-02-01

    The identification of appropriate lexical segmentations of the speech signal constitutes a problem for the language learner and the child language researcher alike. Articulatory precision and fluency criteria for identifying formulaic expressions, sub-lexical forms and target lexemes in linguistic productions are defined and applied to the analysis of two Danish children's language development between the ages of 1;0 and 2;0. The results of this analysis are compared to the results of applying standard distributional and frequency criteria in the tabulation of mean length of utterance and vocabulary profiles for both standard and non-standard lexical segmentations. It is argued that although the two methods yield converging profiles of development during the latter part of the period studied, articulatory precision and fluency criteria offer a more powerful tool for identifying alternative segmentation strategies in early language acquisition. Profiles of vocabulary development for these two children suggest that the solution to the segmentation problem may be an important trigger for their vocabulary spurts.

  14. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  15. The patterns of peripheral plasma renin concentration in the early post-renal-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Kornerup, H J

    1979-01-01

    Serial determinations of peripheral plasma renin concentration (PRC) were performed in 11 kidney transplant recipients during the early post-transplant period. In 5 recipients with late onset of graft function, PRC values were increased during the anuric phase and, subsequently, PRC values declined in every during restoration of graft function. In 4 recipients with an acute renal allograft reaction, PRC values were increased at the onset of the allograft reaction in 3 with hypertension whereas PRC values were normal in one normotensive recipient. Subsequently, PRC normalized in the hypertensives coincident with increasing body weights. In 2 recipients with an uncomplicated course and with a normal graft function immediately after transplantation and throughout the study period, PRC values were constantly normal. The results indicate that acute anuria in the early phase after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased release of renin. The results also suggest that an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system may be counterbalanced by sodium and fluid retention in hypertension following an acute renal allograft reaction.

  16. [Nutritive provision of children during intensive therapy in the early post-aggressive period].

    PubMed

    Uglitskikh, A K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted at the intensive care units (ICI) of a Tushino children's city hospital (CCH), Moscow, in 2000-2005, was to enhance the efficiency of treatment in children with brain injuries, severe pneumonias, or appendicitis-induced peritonitis in the early postaggression period, by optimizing their feeding. Examination of 224 patients aged 1 month to 15 years, treated at the ICI of the Tushino CCH for brain injuries, severe pneumonias, or appendicitis-induced peritonitis in 2000-2005, indicated that mixed (parenteral and enteral) feeding was more effective in children in the early postaggression period than enteral feeding. Consideration of the size of protein losses and the amount of dietary protein and energy and estimation of nitrogen balance revealed that, by increasing the amount of dietary protein and energy, lowering protein losses, and thus producing positive changes in nitrogen balance, higher blood glucose decrease rates, and in a number of anthropometric and somatometric indices, mixed (parenteral and enteral) feeding is an effective method of nutritive provision in children at an intensive care unit.

  17. [Impact of plasmapheresis on intraorgan blood flow of the transplanted kidney in the early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Vatazin, A V; Siniutin, A A; Zul'karnaev, A B; Kantariia, R O; Krstich, M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplant is inevitably subjected to ischemic and reperfusion injury. In many cases, this is due to a violation of intraorgan hemodynamics. Severity of such damage can be reduced using different methods of extracorporeal hemocorrection. The aim of the study was to examine the intraorgan blood flow of kidney transplant and assess the impact of plasmapheresis on its primary function in the early postoperative period. Plasmapheresis with replacement from 1,25 to 3,5 liters of plasma was applied in 40 recipients of the Group 1; in 40 recipients of Group 2 plasmapheresis was not performed. High resistance index (Ri > 0,9) at low flow velocities in the interlobular arteries at the first day after surgery is an informative criterion for the diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis and indicates the inadequate blood supply of kidney. Plasmapheresis has promoted the normalization of renal hemodynamics. Immediate graft function in patients of Group 1 was observed in 36 patients, whereas only in 19 patients of Group 2. In the Group 1, there were no patients with primary non-functioning graft, while there were three such patients in Group 2. Thus, plasmapheresis in the early postoperative period, no later than 3-5 h after reperfusion of the graft, has a positive effect on the functional status of the transplanted kidney.

  18. Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio: a periodic two-sex model approach.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-06-01

    We present a new approach to modeling two-sex populations, using periodic, nonlinear two-sex matrix models. The models project the population growth rate, the population structure, and any ratio of interest (e.g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events. A periodic product of the seasonal matrices describes annual population dynamics. The model is nonlinear because mating probability depends on the structure of the population. To study how the vital rates influence population growth rate, population structure, and operational sex ratio, we used sensitivity analysis of frequency-dependent nonlinear models. In nonlinear two-sex models the vital rates affect growth rate directly and also indirectly through effects on the population structure. The indirect effects can sometimes overwhelm the direct effects and are revealed only by nonlinear analysis. We find that the sensitivity of the population growth rate to female survival is negative for the emperor penguin, a species with highly seasonal breeding behavior. This result could not occur in linear models because changes in population structure have no effect on per capita reproduction. Our approach is applicable to ecological and evolutionary studies of any species in which males and females interact in a seasonal environment.

  19. Passive mobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not detrimental in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Pieter-Jan; Muermans, Stijn; Maroy, Mathieu; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc

    2015-09-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the clinical results of immediate passive mobilization versus delayed mobilization in the rehabilitation of rotator cuff repair during the early postoperative period. The mobilization group (79 patients) received immediate daily passive mobilization. The immobilization group (51 patients) was immobilized for 4 weeks until physiotherapy was started. Passive range of motion was noted preoperatively, at 6 weeks and 4 months. Strength was measured preoperatively and at 4 months. Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, SPADI and UCLA scores were noted at baseline and at 4 months. Ultrasonography was performed at 6 weeks to exclude early failures of repair. We noted no significant difference between the two groups regarding range of motion at 6 weeks and range of motion, strength and functional outcome scores at 4 months. Ultrasound didn't show a difference in healing at 6 w in either of both groups. Both rehabilitation protocols seem applicable as well as safe in the early post-operative phase.

  20. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  1. Differential Growth of the Reproductive Organs during the Peripubertal Period in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hee; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    In mammals, puberty is a process of acquiring reproductive competence, triggering by activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin (KiSS)-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal circuit. During peripubertal period, not only the external genitalia but the internal reproductive organs have to be matured in response to the hormonal signals from hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. In the present study, we evaluated the maturation of male rat accessory sex organs during the peripubertal period using tissue weight measurement, histological analysis and RT-PCR assay. Male rats were sacrificed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 70 postnatal days (PND). The rat accessory sex organs exhibited differential growth patterns compared to those of non-reproductive organs. The growth rate of the accessory sex organs were much higher than the those of non-reproductive organs. Also, the growth spurts occurred differentially even among the accessory sex organs; the order of prepubertal organ growth spurts is testis = epididymis > seminal vesicle = prostate. Histological study revealed that the presence of sperms in seminiferous tubules and epididymal ducts at day 50, indicating the puberty onset. The number of duct and the volume of duct in epididymis and prostate were inversely correlated during the experimental period. Our RT-PCR revealed that the levels of hypothalamic GnRH transcript were increased significantly on PND 40, suggesting the activation of hypothalamic GnRH pulse-generator before puberty onset. Studies on the peripubertal male accessory sex organs will provide useful references on the growth regulation mechanism which is differentially regulated during the period in andevrepogen-sensitive organs. The detailed references will render easier development of endocrine disruption assay.

  2. Natural growth of the population of Plovdiv, Bulgaria for the period 1895-1995.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, I

    1998-01-01

    A study of the natural growth rate of the population using female cohorts by birth year has been carried out for the first time in our country. The study comprises 14 cohorts. The following characteristics are recorded: birth year, social group, educational level, number of live births, age of marriage, infant mortality rate, proto- and intergenetic intervals. Our report presents the key indicators of natural growth of population in the studied cohorts. A consistent trend of decreasing the number of livebirths is established. In the first studied cohort (1895-1899) the average number of offspring per woman is 3.94, reaching a level of 1.77 in the 1960-1964 cohort. The indicators for natural growth of population exhibit a similar trend. The summary fertility rate in the reference period decreases with more than 2 points--from 4.47 in 1895-1899 to 1.73 in 1960-1964. Likewise, the total reproduction rate goes down from 2.54 to 0.78 for the same period. Considerable changes have occurred in the indicators total period fertility rate and marriage fertility rate of women. For a period of 110 years the former has decreased 3.5 times, the latter--8 times. The drastic drop of the indicators of natural growth of the population is accounted for by an intricate complex of social, economic, psychological and biological factors. The marked aging of the population and the decrease of the percentage of women in active fertility age play a certain role in this process. The ascertained changes in the reproductive behavior and age structure of the female population are factors intensifying the unfavorable trends in the natural growth rate of the population in our country.

  3. Changes in physical properties of bovine milk from the colostrum period to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Tsioulpas, A; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual cows' samples from the colostrum, postcolostrum, and early lactation periods to investigate how milk composition, physical properties, stability, and suitability for processing change throughout this period. Attention was paid to the first week postpartum in which the composition of bovine mammary secretion can change markedly. Properties including pH, titratable acidity, ethanol stability (ES), rennet clotting time, and casein micelle size were analyzed, together with some compositional factors such as fat, total protein, lactose, total and ionic calcium, magnesium, citrate, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium. Total Ca (36.2 mM) and free ionic Ca (2.58 mM), Mg (5.9 mM), P (32.2 mM), and Na (24.1 mM) appeared to be high on d 5 postpartum, having decreased substantially over the first 5 d; they gradually decreased thereafter. The average pH on d 5 was only 6.49, compared with 6.64 at 1 mo postpartum. Stability measurements showed that the average ES on d 5 was 70% and the rennet clotting time was 12.2 min, which were significantly lower than values at later stages. A number of milk properties including ES, pH, protein content, and Ca2+ concentration could be useful for identifying the point of transition from colostrum to the early lactation period. Knowing the composition and physical properties of colostrum and postcolostrum secretions will help establish when such milk is suitable for processing and determine the best use for that milk.

  4. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. )

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  5. Environmental influences on kelp performance across the reproductive period: an ecological trade-off between gametophyte survival and growth?

    PubMed

    Mohring, Margaret B; Kendrick, Gary A; Wernberg, Thomas; Rule, Michael J; Vanderklift, Mathew A

    2013-01-01

    Most kelps (order Laminariales) exhibit distinct temporal patterns in zoospore production, gametogenesis and gametophyte reproduction. Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. The aim of this work was to document seasonal patterns in reproduction and gametophyte growth and survival of Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh in south-western Australia. These results were related to patterns in local environmental conditions in an attempt to ascertain which factors explain variation throughout the season. E. radiata was fertile (produced zoospores) for three and a half months over summer and autumn. Every two weeks during this time, gametophytes were grown in a range of temperatures (16-22 °C) in the laboratory. Zoospore densities were highly variable among sample periods; however, zoospores released early in the season produced gametophytes which had greater rates of growth and survival, and these rates declined towards the end of the reproductive season. Growth rates of gametophytes were positively related to day length, with the fastest growing recruits released when the days were longest. Gametophytes consistently survived best in the lowest temperature (16 °C), yet exhibited optimum growth in higher culture temperatures (20-22 °C). These results suggest that E. radiata releases gametes when conditions are favourable for growth, and E. radiata gametophytes are tolerant of the range of temperatures observed at this location. E. radiata releases the healthiest gametophytes when day length and temperature conditions are optimal for better germination, growth, and sporophyte production, perhaps as a mechanism to help compete against other species for space and other resources.

  6. Factors associated with early growth in Egyptian infants: implications for addressing the dual burden of malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Abdelmegeid, Ali; Salah, Farouk; Hafez, Seham; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Saleh, Gulsen; Galloway, Rae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimal nutrition is critical to the attainment of healthy growth, human capital and sustainable development. In Egypt, infants and young children face overlapping forms of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, stunting and overweight. Yet, in this setting, little is known about the factors associated with growth during the first year of life. A rise in stunting in Lower Egypt from 2005 to 2008 prompted this implementation research study, which followed a longitudinal cohort of infants from birth to 1 year of age within the context of a USAID‐funded maternal and child health integrated programme. We sought to determine if growth patterns and factors related to early growth differed in Lower and Upper Egypt, and examined the relationship between weight loss and subsequent stunting at 12 months of age. Growth patterns revealed that length‐for‐age z‐score (LAZ) decreased and weight‐for‐length z‐score (WLZ) increased from 6 to 12 months of age in both regions. One‐quarter of infants were stunted and nearly one‐third were overweight by 12 months of age in lower Egypt. Minimum dietary diversity was significantly associated with WLZ in Lower Egypt (β = 0.22, P < 0.05), but not in Upper Egypt. Diarrhoea, fever and programme exposure were not associated with any growth outcome. Weight loss during any period was associated with a twofold likelihood of stunting at 12 months in Lower Egypt, but not Upper Egypt. In countries, like Egypt, facing the nutrition transition, infant and young child nutrition programmes need to address both stunting and overweight through improving dietary quality and reducing reliance on energy‐dense foods. PMID:26373408

  7. Factors associated with early growth in Egyptian infants: implications for addressing the dual burden of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kavle, Justine A; Flax, Valerie L; Abdelmegeid, Ali; Salah, Farouk; Hafez, Seham; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Saleh, Gulsen; Galloway, Rae

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical to the attainment of healthy growth, human capital and sustainable development. In Egypt, infants and young children face overlapping forms of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, stunting and overweight. Yet, in this setting, little is known about the factors associated with growth during the first year of life. A rise in stunting in Lower Egypt from 2005 to 2008 prompted this implementation research study, which followed a longitudinal cohort of infants from birth to 1 year of age within the context of a USAID-funded maternal and child health integrated programme. We sought to determine if growth patterns and factors related to early growth differed in Lower and Upper Egypt, and examined the relationship between weight loss and subsequent stunting at 12 months of age. Growth patterns revealed that length-for-age z-score (LAZ) decreased and weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) increased from 6 to 12 months of age in both regions. One-quarter of infants were stunted and nearly one-third were overweight by 12 months of age in lower Egypt. Minimum dietary diversity was significantly associated with WLZ in Lower Egypt (β = 0.22, P < 0.05), but not in Upper Egypt. Diarrhoea, fever and programme exposure were not associated with any growth outcome. Weight loss during any period was associated with a twofold likelihood of stunting at 12 months in Lower Egypt, but not Upper Egypt. In countries, like Egypt, facing the nutrition transition, infant and young child nutrition programmes need to address both stunting and overweight through improving dietary quality and reducing reliance on energy-dense foods.

  8. Cortical effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, E; Bi, H; Maruko, I; Zhang, B; Zheng, J; Wensveen, J; Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Chino, Y M

    2006-05-01

    Experiencing daily brief periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation prevents or reduces the degree of resulting amblyopia. To gain insight into the neural basis for these "protective" effects, we analyzed the monocular and binocular response properties of individual neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkeys that received intermittent unrestricted vision. Microelectrode-recording experiments revealed significant decreases in the proportion of units that were dominated by the treated eyes, and the magnitude of this ocular dominance imbalance was correlated with the degree of amblyopia. The sensitivity of V1 neurons to interocular spatial phase disparity was significantly reduced in all treated monkeys compared with normal adults. With unrestricted vision, however, there was a small but significant increase in overall disparity sensitivity. Binocular suppression was prevalent in monkeys with constant form deprivation but significantly reduced by the daily periods of unrestricted vision. If neurons exhibited consistent responses to stimulation of the treated eye, monocular response properties obtained by stimulation of the two eyes were similar. These results suggest that the observed protective effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision are closely associated with the ability of V1 neurons to maintain their functional connections from the deprived eye and that interocular suppression in V1 may play an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity of these monkeys.

  9. Zika virus infection during the period of maximal brain growth causes microcephaly and corticospinal neuron apoptosis in wild type mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Chin; Abraham, Rachy; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choe, Hyeryun; Page, Damon T.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women has been established as a cause of microcephaly in newborns. Here we test the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental stages when the brain is undergoing rapid growth are particularly vulnerable to the effects of ZIKV infection. We injected ZIKV intracranially into wild type C57BL/6 mice at two different time points: early postnatal development, when the brain is growing at its maximal rate, and at weaning, when the brain has largely reached adult size. Both time points showed widespread immunoreactivity for ZIKV and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, a marker of apoptosis) throughout the brain. However, in early postnatal ZIKV injected mice, some brain areas and cell types display particularly large increases in apoptosis that we did not observe in older animals. Corticospinal pyramidal neurons, a cell type implicated in human microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection, are an example of one such cell type. Proliferating cells in the ventricular zone stem cell compartment are also depleted. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that periods of rapid brain growth are especially susceptible to neurodevelopmental effects of ZIKV infection, and establish a valuable model to investigate mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental effects of ZIKV infection and explore candidate therapeutics. PMID:27713505

  10. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  11. Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to salinity in the early growth stages for agricultural cultivation in saline environments.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Sermin; Yilmaz, Kadir; Akinci, Irfan Ersin

    2004-07-01

    Salinity is a serious environmental problem. Growing of plants like tomato can be solution for coping with soil salinity. For this purpose, response of tomato to salinity has been tested in the early growth stages. Characteristics of germination (percentage and period; length and fresh-dry weight of radicle and hypcotyl) and seedling (length and fresh-dry weight of root, shoot and whole plant; leaf number and area based on Relative Growth Rate); Na+ and K+ content of leaf; K+/Na+ rate of leaf has been studied at the 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl levels. Thus, it determined that tomato can be indicator for agricultural cultivation at the salinity environments at the early growth stages.

  12. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene.

  13. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  14. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    PubMed

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period.

  15. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning.

  16. Examination of the eye as a means to determine the early postmortem period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, S; Nokes, L D

    1994-02-01

    Reported are various techniques to determine the early postmortem period by examining the eye. These include corneal opacity, retinal vessel segmentation, pupil reaction, retinal changes and intraocular pressure. All are subjective, requiring experience to implement the techniques.

  17. Biological and spatial structure of an early classic period cemetery at Charco Redondo, Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Butler, Michelle M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of biological and spatial patterning of an Early Classic (A.D. 250-500) Chatino cemetery at the archaeological site of Charco Redondo, located in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Early Classic was a time of political instability positioned between two phases of state-level centralization within the coastal valley. The communal cemetery at Charco Redondo adds significantly to the inventory of excavated graves from this time period and provides novel data on mortuary practices during a critical phase in the development of state level polities in the region. Cluster analysis of mortuary data is combined with intracemetery biodistance approaches to reconstruct how the Charco Redondo cemetery was organized with respect to biological relationships. Cluster analysis of mortuary data identified three groupings of burials. Multidimensional scaling of Euclidean distances and Gower coefficients based on 45 odontometric and 13 dental morphological variables suggests a strong relationship between grave characteristics and locations and phenotypic variation. In other words, the cemetery at Charco Redondo appears biologically kin-structured. The communal nature of the cemetery conflicts with the assumed "household" burial model for this time period. We propose the observed combination of features represents a transitional practice in which aspects of community, kin, and individual identity were signaled simultaneously within the funerary environment during a time of political transition in the Valley. This article highlights the utility of intracemetery biodistance analyses for examining dimensions of kinship, "house," and community throughout Mesoamerica where overarching models often mask regional variability.

  18. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  19. Synchrony between growth and reproductive patterns in human females: Early investment in growth among Pumé foragers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

    2010-02-01

    Life history is an important framework for understanding many aspects of ontogeny and reproduction relative to fitness outcomes. Because growth is a key influence on the timing of reproductive maturity and age at first birth is a critical demographic variable predicting lifetime fertility, it raises questions about the synchrony of growth and reproductive strategies. Among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, young women give birth to their first child on average at age 15.5. Previous research showed that this early age at first birth maximizes surviving fertility under conditions of high infant mortality. In this study we evaluate Pumé growth data to test the expectation that if early reproduction is advantageous, then girls should have a developmental trajectory that best prepares them for young childbearing. Analyses show that comparatively Pumé girls invest in skeletal growth early, enter puberty having achieved a greater proportion of adult body size and grow at low velocities during adolescence. For early reproducers growing up in a food-limited environment, a precocious investment in growth is advantageous because juveniles have no chance of pregnancy and it occurs before the onset of the competing metabolic demands of final reproductive maturation and childbearing. Documenting growth patterns under preindustrial energetic and demographic conditions expands the range of developmental variation not otherwise captured by normative growth standards and contributes to research on human phenotypic plasticity in diverse environments.

  20. Early Adaptations to Six Weeks of Non-Periodized and Periodized Strength Training Regimens in Recreational Males

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188

  1. North Atlantic Surface and Deep-Water Hydrography during the Early Pliocene Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, A. H. L.; Evans, H. F.; Naafs, B. D.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Rebotim, A.; Ventura, C.; Stein, R. H.; Channell, J. E. T.

    2014-12-01

    The early Pliocene, with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels similar to today, is seen as a case study for Earth's future climate evolution. During this period the progressive closing of the Central American Seaway led to increased poleward heat and salt transport within the Atlantic with North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) becoming warmer and saltier and resulting in an enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In order to understand how stable the AMOC really was we produced millennial-scale (1-2 kyr) surface and deep-water records for IODP Site U1313 (41°N, 33°W, 3412m) for the interval from 3.4 to 4.1 Ma. This site is ideally located to monitor past AMOC changes with North Atlantic Drift waters at the surface and NADW in the deep. Although interglacial/glacial cycles are visible, the higher frequency oscillations recorded in both the planktonic G. ruber (white) and benthic Cibicidoides sp. δ18O records impede tuning to the LR04 stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). We therefore exploit a different approach: using the magnetic polarity chrons (Gilbert, Cochiti) as recorded at Site U1313 as framework, we tune our benthic δ18O record to that of ODP Site 1085 (on LR04 ages). The benthic δ13C record shows millennial-scale oscillations, and the values indicate nearly continuous NADW presence and confirm a strong AMOC, also during most of the glacial periods. Varying surface water conditions, especially during the younger interglacial periods, are reflected in the G. ruber isotope data and appear to be linked to salinity changes since they are not recorded in the alkenone sea-surface temperature data. Although glacial stages Gi 2 and Gi 4 show the expected higher benthic δ18O values, Gi 6 was the glacial period with the strongest impact on the AMOC as revealed by cooler, less ventilated surface waters and a less ventilated NADW. Overall, the AMOC was strong throughout, but experienced high frequency oscillations at a level similar to

  2. Fabrication of InGaN quantum dots by periodically interrupted growth in MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2008-03-01

    Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200 torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH 3), and the carrier gas was N II and H II. The optimum condition for periodically interrupted growth (PIG) mode was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. NH 3 was supplied in PIG mode with the interval of 3 seconds and 5 seconds while TMG and TMI were supplied continuously. The carrier gas was N II in QDs growth, while H II in nucleation and buffer layer growth. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH 3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL). The AFM images give the size of InGaN QDs with diameter of 20 ~ 50 nm, height of 3 ~ 10 nm and density of 10 10 #/cm2 ~ 10 11 #/cm2. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 435 nm (2.86 eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser. The composition of QDs was estimated to be In 0.14Ga 0.86N from the relation between peak energy and indium content. Hence. The periodic interruption growth enables the fabrication of self- assembled InGaN QDs with high density and uniform size.

  3. Regulation of early human growth: impact on long-term health.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Chourdakis, Michael; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Growth and development are central characteristics of childhood. Deviations from normal growth can indicate serious health challenges. The adverse impact of early growth faltering and malnutrition on later health has long been known. In contrast, the impact of rapid early weight and body fat gain on programming of later disease risk have only recently received increased attention. Numerous observational studies related diet in early childhood and rapid early growth to the risk of later obesity and associated disorders. Causality was confirmed in a large, double-blind randomised trial testing the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'. In this trial we found that attenuation of protein supply in infancy normalized early growth and markedly reduced obesity prevalence in early school age. These results indicate the need to describe and analyse growth patterns and their regulation through diet in more detail and to characterize the underlying metabolic and epigenetic mechanisms, given the potential major relevance for public health and policy. Better understanding of growth patterns and their regulation could have major benefits for the promotion of public health, consumer-orientated nutrition recommendations, and the development of improved food products for specific target populations.

  4. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children's inhibitory control from the ages of two to four years, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the family check-up, children's inhibitory…

  5. Late but not early gestational maternal growth hormone treatment increases fetal adiposity in overnourished adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Milne, John; Aitken, Raymond

    2006-08-01

    In the overnourished adolescent sheep, maternal tissue synthesis is promoted at the expense of placental growth and leads to a major decrease in lamb birth weight at term. Maternal growth hormone (GH) concentrations are attenuated in these pregnancies, and it was recently demonstrated that exogenous GH administration throughout the period of placental proliferation stimulates uteroplacental and fetal development by Day 81 of gestation. The present study aimed to determine whether these effects persist to term and to establish whether GH affects fetal growth and body composition by increasing placental size or by altering maternal metabolism. Adolescent recipient ewes were implanted with singleton embryos on Day 4 postestrus. Three groups of ewes offered a high dietary intake were injected twice daily with recombinant bovine GH from Days 35 to 65 of gestation (high intake plus early GH) or from Days 95 to 125 of gestation (high intake plus late GH) or remained untreated (high intake only). A fourth moderate-intake group acted as optimally nourished controls. Pregnancies were terminated at Day 130 of gestation (6 per group) or were allowed to progress to term (8-10 per group). GH administration elevated maternal plasma concentrations of GH, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids during the defined treatment windows, while urea concentrations were decreased. At Day 130, GH treatment had reduced the maternal adiposity score, percentage of fat in the carcass, and internal fat depots and leptin concentrations, predominantly in the high-intake plus late GH group. Placental weight was lower in high-intake vs. control dams but independent of GH treatment. In contrast, fetal weight was elevated by late GH treatment, and these fetuses had higher relative carcass fat content, perirenal fat mass, and liver glycogen concentrations than all other groups. Expression of leptin mRNA in fetal perirenal fat and fetal plasma leptin concentrations were not significantly altered

  6. GH/STAT5 signaling during the growth period in livers of mice overexpressing GH.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; Díaz, María E; Boparai, Ravneet K; Arum, Oge; Ramírez, María C; González, Lorena; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2015-04-01

    GH/STAT5 signaling is desensitized in the liver in adult transgenic mice overexpressing GH; however, these animals present greater body size. To assess whether the STAT5 pathway is active during the growth period in the liver in these animals, and how signaling modulators participate in this process, growing transgenic mice and normal siblings were evaluated. STAT5 does not respond to an acute GH-stimulus, but displays higher basal phosphorylation in the livers of growing GH-overexpressing mice. GH receptor and the positive modulators glucocorticoid receptor and HNF1 display greater abundance in transgenic animals, supporting the activity of STAT5. The negative modulators cytokine-induced suppressor and PTP1B are increased in GH-overexpressing mice. The suppressors SOCS2 and SOCS3 exhibit higher mRNA levels in transgenic mice but lower protein content, indicating that they are being actively degraded. Therefore, STAT5 signaling is increased in the liver in GH-transgenic mice during the growth period, with a balance between positive and negative effectors resulting in accelerated but controlled growth.

  7. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.

  8. Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Krishnakumar, A

    1999-02-01

    Growth curve models were used to examine the effect of genetic and ecological factors on changes in height and weight of 225 children from low income, urban families who were assessed up to eight times in the first 6 y of life. Children with early growth deficiency [failure to thrive (FTT)] (n = 127) and a community sample of children without growth deficiency (n = 98) were examined to evaluate how genetic, child and family characteristics influenced growth. Children of taller and heavier parents, who were recruited at younger ages and did not have a history of growth deficiency, had accelerated growth from recruitment through age 6 y. In addition, increases in height were associated with better health, less difficult temperament, nurturant mothers and female gender; increases in weight were associated with better health. Children with a history of growth deficiency demonstrated slower rates of growth than children in the community group without a history of growth deficiency. In the community group, changes in children's height and weight were related to maternal perceptions of health and temperament and maternal nurturance during feeding, whereas in the FTT group, maternal perceptions and behavior were not in synchrony with children's growth. These findings suggest that, in addition to genetic factors, growth is dependent on a nurturant and sensitive caregiving system. Interventions to promote growth should consider child and family characteristics, including maternal perceptions of children's health and temperament and maternal mealtime behavior.

  9. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    PubMed

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  10. Early growth, dominance acquisition and lifetime reproductive success in male and female cooperative meerkats.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Huchard, Elise; Nielsen, Johanna F; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2013-11-01

    In polygynous species, variance in reproductive success is higher in males than females. There is consequently stronger selection for competitive traits in males and early growth can have a greater influence on later fitness in males than in females. As yet, little is known about sex differences in the effect of early growth on subsequent breeding success in species where variance in reproductive success is higher in females than males, and competitive traits are under stronger selection in females. Greater variance in reproductive success has been documented in several singular cooperative breeders. Here, we investigated consequences of early growth for later reproductive success in wild meerkats. We found that, despite the absence of dimorphism, females who exhibited faster growth until nutritional independence were more likely to become dominant, whereas early growth did not affect dominance acquisition in males. Among those individuals who attained dominance, there was no further influence of early growth on dominance tenure or lifetime reproductive success in males or females. These findings suggest that early growth effects on competitive abilities and fitness may reflect the intensity of intrasexual competition even in sexually monomorphic species.

  11. Early growth, dominance acquisition and lifetime reproductive success in male and female cooperative meerkats

    PubMed Central

    English, Sinead; Huchard, Elise; Nielsen, Johanna F; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2013-01-01

    In polygynous species, variance in reproductive success is higher in males than females. There is consequently stronger selection for competitive traits in males and early growth can have a greater influence on later fitness in males than in females. As yet, little is known about sex differences in the effect of early growth on subsequent breeding success in species where variance in reproductive success is higher in females than males, and competitive traits are under stronger selection in females. Greater variance in reproductive success has been documented in several singular cooperative breeders. Here, we investigated consequences of early growth for later reproductive success in wild meerkats. We found that, despite the absence of dimorphism, females who exhibited faster growth until nutritional independence were more likely to become dominant, whereas early growth did not affect dominance acquisition in males. Among those individuals who attained dominance, there was no further influence of early growth on dominance tenure or lifetime reproductive success in males or females. These findings suggest that early growth effects on competitive abilities and fitness may reflect the intensity of intrasexual competition even in sexually monomorphic species. PMID:24340181

  12. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  13. Role of ghrelin in fertilization, early embryo development, and implantation periods.

    PubMed

    Luque, Eugenia Mercedes; Torres, Pedro Javier; de Loredo, Nicolás; Vincenti, Laura María; Stutz, Graciela; Santillán, María Emilia; Ruiz, Rubén Daniel; de Cuneo, Marta Fiol; Martini, Ana Carolina

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the physiological role of ghrelin in gestation, we evaluated the effects of administration of exogenous ghrelin (2 or 4 nmol/animal per day) or its antagonist (6 nmol/animal per day of (d-Lys3)GHRP6) on fertilization, early embryo development, and implantation periods in mice. Three experiments were performed, treating female mice with ghrelin or its antagonist: i) starting from 1 week before copulation to 12 h after copulation, mice were killed at day 18 of gestation; ii) since ovulation induction until 80 h later, when we retrieved the embryos from oviducts/uterus, and iii) starting from days 3 to 7 of gestation (peri-implantation), mice were killed at day 18. In experiments 1 and 3, the antagonist and/or the highest dose of ghrelin significantly increased the percentage of atrophied fetuses and that of females exhibiting this finding or a higher amount of corpora lutea compared with fetuses (nCL/nF) (experiment 3: higher nCL/nF-atrophied fetuses: ghrelin 4, 71.4-71.4% and antagonist, 75.0-62.5% vs ghrelin 2, 46.2-15.4% and control, 10-0.0%; n=7-13 females/group; P<0.01). In experiment 2, the antagonist diminished the fertilization rate, and both, ghrelin and the antagonist, delayed embryo development (blastocysts: ghrelin 2, 62.5%; ghrelin 4, 50.6%; and antagonist, 61.0% vs control 78.4%; n=82-102 embryos/treatment; P<0.0001). In experiment 3, additionally, ghrelin (4 nmol/day) and the antagonist significantly diminished the weight gain of fetuses and dams during pregnancy. Our results indicate that not only hyperghrelinemia but also the inhibition of the endogenous ghrelin effects exerts negative effects on the fertilization, implantation, and embryo/fetal development periods, supporting the hypothesis that ghrelin (in 'adequate' concentrations) has a physiological role in early gestational events.

  14. The alcohol-sensitive period during early octavolateral organ development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Miguel, Kayla C; Lu, Zhongmin

    2017-01-20

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively. To determine an alcohol-sensitive period in the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet4) zebrafish that express green fluorescent protein in sensory hair cells were treated in 2% alcohol for 2, 3, and 5-hours. Octavolateral organs of control and alcohol-exposed larvae were examined at 3, 5, and 7 days post fertilization (dpf). Using confocal and light microscopy, we found that alcohol-exposed larvae had significantly smaller otic vesicles and saccular otoliths than control larvae at 3 dpf. Only alcohol-exposed larvae from 12-17 hpf had smaller otic vesicles at 5 dpf, smaller saccular otoliths at 7 dpf and fewer saccular hair cells, neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast at 3 dpf. In addition, auditory function was assessed by microphonic potential recordings from inner ear hair cells in response to 200-Hz stimulation. Hearing sensitivity was reduced for alcohol-exposed larvae from 7-12 and 12-17 hpf. Our results show that 12-17 hpf is an alcohol-sensitive time window when morphology and function of zebrafish octavolateral organs are most vulnerable to alcohol exposure. This study implies that embryonic alcohol exposure timing during early development can influence severity of hearing deficits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxi; Xu, Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  16. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  17. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  18. Using a multiscale image processing method to characterize the periodic growth patterns on scallop shells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qiang; Wei, Tengda; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Yangfan; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-03-01

    The fine periodic growth patterns on shell surfaces have been widely used for studies in the ecology and evolution of scallops. Modern X-ray CT scanners and digital cameras can provide high-resolution image data that contain abundant information such as the shell formation rate, ontogenetic age, and life span of shellfish organisms. We introduced a novel multiscale image processing method based on matched filters with Gaussian kernels and partial differential equation (PDE) multiscale hierarchical decomposition to segment the small tubular and periodic structures in scallop shell images. The periodic patterns of structures (consisting of bifurcation points, crossover points of the rings and ribs, and the connected lines) could be found by our Space-based Depth-First Search (SDFS) algorithm. We created a MATLAB package to implement our method of periodic pattern extraction and pattern matching on the CT and digital scallop images available in this study. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the shell cyclic structure patterns encompass genetically specific information that can be used as an effective invariable biomarker for biological individual recognition. The package is available with a quick-start guide and includes three examples: http://mgb.ouc.edu.cn/novegene/html/code.php.

  19. Nerve growth factor preserves a critical motor period in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, M J; Paratcha, G C; Ibarra, G R; Azcurra, J M

    1999-01-01

    We previously found the occurrence of a critical motor period during rat postnatal development where circling training starting the 7-day schedule at 30 days-but not before or after-induces a lifetime drop in the binding to cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in striatum. Here, we studied whether nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in this restricted period of muscarinic sensitivity. For this purpose, we administered mouse salival gland 2.5S NGF (1.4 or 0.4 microg/day, infused by means of ALZA minipumps) by intrastriatal unilateral route between days 25 and 39, and then trained rats starting at 40 days. Under these conditions, NGF induced a long-term reduction in the striatal [3H] quinuclidilbenzylate (QNB) binding sites despite the fact that motor training was carried out beyond the natural critical period. Thus, at day 70, measurement of specific QNB binding in infused striata of trained rats showed decreases of 42% (p < .0004) and 33% (p < .02) after administration of the higher and lower NGF doses, respectively, with respect to trained rats treated with cytochrome C, for control. Noncannulated striata of the NGF-treated rats also showed a decrease in QNB binding sites (44%; p < .0001) only at the higher infusion rate. This effect was not found in the respective control groups. Our observations show that NGF modulates the critical period in which activity-dependent mAChR setting takes place during rat striatal maturation.

  20. Essential role for Max in early embryonic growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Shen-Li, Hong; O'Hagan, Rónán C.; Hou, Harry; Horner, James W.; Lee, Han-Woong; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    Loss of Max function in the mouse resulted in generalized developmental arrest of both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues at early postimplantation (∼E5.5–6.5), coincident with loss or dilution of maternal Max stores in the expanding embryo in vivo and in blastocyst outgrowths in vitro. Developmentally arrested embryos were reduced in size and exhibited widespread cytological degeneration and feeble BrdU incorporation. Max and, by extension, the Myc superfamily, serve essential roles in early mammalian development and a maternal reservoir of Max exists in sufficient amount to sustain Myc superfamily function through preimplantation stages of development. PMID:10640271

  1. uPA, uPAR and TGFβ₁ expression during early and late post myocardial infarction period in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Philippou, Anastassios; Halapas, Antonios; Sourla, Antigone; Pissimissis, Nikolaos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The expression patterns of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ₁), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR) were analysed after artery ligation-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in the rat myocardium. uPA and uPAR expressions were significantly increased both at transcriptional and protein level during early phase post MI period (uPA at 1 hour and uPAR at 24 hours post infarction). TGFβ1 mRNA expression profile revealed a significant increase of TGFβ1 expression from day 4 up to 8 weeks post infarction. These data suggest that the need for an increasing TGFβ₁ bioavailability during the post-infarction period in rat myocardium is achieved in the early post MI period by an increased expression of uPA/uPAR proteolytic system (indirect activation of latent TGFβ₁) and in the late post MI period by direct regulation of TGFβ₁ expression. It is therefore concluded that differential regulation of the TGFβ₁ bioavailability may be a crucial step of the repair mechanisms during the post MI infarction period in the rat myocardium.

  2. Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    von Dadelszen, P; Dwinnell, S; Magee, L A; Carleton, B C; Gruslin, A; Lee, B; Lim, K I; Liston, R M; Miller, S P; Rurak, D; Sherlock, R L; Skoll, M A; Wareing, M M; Baker, P N

    2011-04-01

    Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG 2011;118:624-628. Currently, there is no effective therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the myometrial arteries isolated from women with IUGR-complicated pregnancies. Women were offered Sildenafil (25 mg three times daily until delivery) if their pregnancy was complicated by early-onset IUGR [abdominal circumference (AC)< 5th percentile] and either the gestational age was <25(+0) weeks or an estimate of the fetal weight was <600 g (excluding known fetal anomaly/syndrome and/or planned termination). Sildenafil treatment was associated with increased fetal AC growth [odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3, 126; compared with institutional Sildenafil-naive early-onset IUGR controls]. Randomised controlled trial data are required to determine whether Sildenafil improves perinatal outcomes for early-onset IUGR-complicated pregnancies.

  3. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  4. Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact?

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Mayers, Daniel R

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that the relationship between child nutrition and infection is bidirectional, i.e. frequent illness can impair nutritional status and poor nutrition can increase the risk of infection. What is less clear is whether infection reduces the effectiveness of nutrition interventions or, vice versa, whether malnutrition lessens the impact of infection control strategies. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence regarding this interaction between nutrition and infection with respect to child growth in low-income populations. Even when there are no obvious symptoms, physiological conditions associated with infections can impair growth by suppressing appetite, impairing absorption of nutrients, increasing nutrient losses and diverting nutrients away from growth. However, there is little direct evidence that nutrition interventions are less effective when infection is common; more research is needed on this question. On the other hand, evidence from four intervention trials suggests that the adverse effects of certain infections (e.g. diarrhoea) on growth can be reduced or eliminated by improving nutrition. Interventions that combine improved nutrition with prevention and control of infections are likely to be most effective for enhancing child growth and development.

  5. Delayed Phenotypic Expression of Growth Hormone Transgenesis during Early Ontogeny in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)?

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Darek T. R.; Gamperl, A. Kurt; Fletcher, Garth L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Should growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals. PMID:24763675

  6. Evaluation of stability changes in magnesium-incorporated titanium implants in the early healing period.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Pham Duong; Baek, Dong Heon; Park, Dong Soo; Park, Jong-Tae; Hong, Ki Seok

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the bone response to magnesium (Mg) ion-incorporated titanium (Ti) implants during the early healing period. A total of 114 patients (69 men and 45 women aged between 29 and 71 years) participated in the study. Overall, one hundred thirty-three 10-mm-long fixtures were installed, composed of 65 Mg ion-incorporated fixtures in the test group (55 participants; 30 males and 25 females) and 68 resorbable blast media (RBM) surface fixtures in the control group (59 participants; 39 males and 20 females). The bone responses were evaluated by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) at the following time points after implant insertion (ie, the healing period): 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each time an RFA measurement was taken, the stability changes relating to both bone quality and implant arch location (maxilla or mandible) were recorded for further analysis. The mean stabilities were lowest at week 4 of healing for both the test and control groups. Significant differences in RFA values between the 2 groups were found at week 12 of healing. The mean percentage change in implant stability quotient (ISQ) from the baseline revealed that the implant stability of the Mg ion-incorporated test group had increased (4.55%) more than the RBM surface group (2.23%) by week 12 of healing. With respect to bone quality, the mean ISQ of Mg-incorporated Ti implants only changed significantly during the 12-week period for type 4 bone. Furthermore, at weeks 4 and 12 of healing, significant differences were found between the 2 groups for type 2 and type 4 bone. A comparison of the stability patterns of mandibular and maxillary implants revealed that the overall stability was higher in the mandible; however, no significant difference was found for Mg-incorporated Ti implants. The Mg-incorporated Ti implants exhibited a slightly better bone response with respect to ISQ than did the RBM surface implants, and the percentage change in mean ISQ from the

  7. [Analgesic effect of TES therapy in the early postoperative period in patients who underwent tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Semënov, F V; Kade, A Kh; Banashek-Meshchiarkova, T V; Vartanian, M S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of the analgesic action of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES therapy) in the early postoperative period in the patients who underwent tonsillectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for this surgery to the specialized otorhinolaryngological department were available for observation. They were divided into two groups depending on the pain relief strategy. The patients of the study group (n=30) underwent courses of transcranial electrical stimulation on a daily basis (from the onset of hospitalization) in addition to the administration of a standard analgetic. The standard dose of tramadol (2.0 ml) was given to the patients of the control group (n=30) who complained of strong pain. The results of the objective and subjective estimations indicate that the degree of pharyngeal pain in the patients treated with TES therapy and the standard analgetic was significantly different. The patients receiving TES therapy could sooner resume their habitual diet and required smaller amounts of the analgetic which makes this modality a cost-effective supplement to the standard postoperative treatment.

  8. Factors associated with veterinarians' career path choices in the early postgraduate period.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; Campbell, John R; MacGregor, Michael W; Watts, Jon M

    2009-09-01

    Veterinarians who graduated between 2000 and 2004, inclusive, were surveyed to determine the factors associated with career path (job) switching in the early postgraduate period. The sampling frame consisted of 348 veterinarians, 285 of whom were contacted and of these, 192 (67.4%) responded to the survey. Only 28.4% of respondents had remained with their initial employer. Three main factors were associated with employee retention: the type of practice/caseload, the workload (hours worked and number of nights on-call), and the level of mentorship and support provided by the practice. Workload and mentorship were also cited as the main reasons for leaving a place of employment. More than a third (38.0%) of respondents reported leaving a position solely because of inadequate mentorship and support. A third (33.7%) of respondents who began their careers in mixed or food animal practice were no longer in these types of practice; the main reasons for leaving were related to workload and mentorship.

  9. Rehabilitation referrals and outcomes in the early period after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Laine, J; D'Souza, A; Siddiqui, S; Sayko, O; Brazauskas, R; Eickmeyer, S M

    2015-10-01

    In a cohort of inpatient hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients, we assessed patterns of referral to rehabilitation treatment, functional performance and short-term outcomes in patients who received post-transplant rehabilitation in comparison with those who did not. Among 201 first-time HCT recipients, 53 (26%) were referred to an inpatient rehabilitation provider, had an assessment of functional performance using the Functional Independence Measure scale and underwent rehabilitation treatments to address functional needs. Patients who received rehabilitation therapy were more likely to be females (P=0.02), older than 60 years of age (P=0.0146), employed (P=0.01), have hypertension (P=0.02), peripheral vascular disease (P=0.01) and pre-transplant Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) <90 (P=0.02). Mean functional performance scores for transfers and ambulation increased significantly in the group with rehabilitation interventions (P=0.0022 and P<0.0001, respectively). There was no difference between the groups that did and did not receive rehabilitation treatments in 30-day re-admission rates. Patients who are 60 years of age or older, with pre-transplant KPS<90, and pre-transplant hypertension were more likely to be referred for rehabilitation treatments in the early period after HCT. Future studies should be designed to determine the optimal timing and cost effectiveness of functional assessment and rehabilitation treatments in this high-risk population.

  10. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth.

  11. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  12. Association between infant correlates of impulsivity--surgency (extraversion)--and early infant growth.

    PubMed

    Burton, P; Wells, J C K; Kennedy, K; Nicholl, R; Khakoo, A; Fewtrell, M S

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with increased risks of being overweight or obese later in life and of co-morbidities, such as diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In children as young as two years of age, as well as in adults, an appetitive system-linked impulsivity trait has been demonstrated to be linked with increased overweight, and postulated to act via increased food intake, through greater responsiveness to food and lower self-inhibitory control skills. In this study, we hypothesized that growth in infancy, a critical window for metabolic programming, would be predicted by measures of infant surgency/extraversion, assessed using the Rothbart Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (revised version). Anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6 and 12 months, and weight gains expressed as increases in standardized scores, allowing for adjustment for gender and age, including gestational age. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gains, from 0 to 3, 3 to 6 and 6 to 12 months. Controlling for significant sociodemographic correlations, multiple regression analyses showed significant prediction of CWs at 3 months but not of CWs at 6 or 12 months by surgency/extraversion. These pilot findings of association between infant growth, during a critical period, and surgency/extraversion, early correlates of impulsivity, warrant further investigation, to ascertain implications for childhood and later weight and body composition.

  13. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  14. A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, X.

    2005-01-01

    Early acceleration of students in mathematics (in the form of early access to formal abstract algebra) has been a controversial educational issue. The current study examined the rate of growth in mathematics achievement of accelerated gifted, honors, and regular students across the entire secondary years (Grades 7-12), in comparison to their…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Growth of Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Hart, Sara A.; Harlaar, Nicole; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Thompson, Lee; DeThorne, Laura S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have suggested genetic and environmental influences on overall level of early reading whereas the larger reading literature has shown environmental influences on the rate of growth of early reading skills. This study is the first to examine the genetic and environmental influences on both initial level of performance and rate…

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on needle growth, respiration and carbohydrate status in field-grown Scots pines during the needle expansion period.

    PubMed

    Zha, T; Ryyppö, A; Wang, K Y; Kellomäki, S

    2001-11-01

    We determined effects of long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature on growth, respiration and carbohydrate concentration in needles of field-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees during the needle expansion period. Sixteen 20-year-old Scots pine trees were individually enclosed in closed-top, environmentally controlled chambers for 4 years in one of four environments: ambient conditions (CON); elevated [CO2] (EC); elevated temperature (ET); and a combination of both (EC + ET). Needle growth, carbohydrate concentration and dark respiration were measured at 3-day intervals throughout the needle expansion period. Dark respiration was partitioned into growth and maintenance components by regressing specific respiration rate against specific growth rate. In all treatments, growth, carbohydrate concentration and daily dark respiration rates of needles followed a similar seasonal pattern throughout the needle expansion period. Treatments EC, ET and EC + ET increased individual needle area and dry weight compared with the CON treatment. Carbohydrate concentrations in needles were increased by EC, but reduced by ET and EC + ET. Daily respiration rates increased slightly in the early stage of needle expansion and decreased gradually in the late stage when needles were exposed to EC, but increased consistently throughout the growing period when needles were exposed to ET or EC + ET. Partitioning of respiration into its two functional components showed that the growth respiration coefficient was unaffected by the treatments, whereas maintenance respiration was reduced by EC but increased by ET and EC + ET. Maintenance respiration was more sensitive to elevated temperature than growth respiration. We conclude that the difference in respiration rates between expanding and expanded needles should be taken into account when estimating the respiratory responses of needles to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

  17. Preharvest Interval Periods and their relation to fruit growth stages and pesticide formulations.

    PubMed

    Alister, Claudio; Araya, Manuel; Becerra, Kevin; Saavedra, Jorge; Kogan, Marcelo

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide formulations and fruit growth stages on the Pre-harvest Interval Period (PHI). Results showed that pesticide formulations did not affect the initial deposit and dissipation rate. However, the fruit growth stage at the application time showed a significant effect on the above-mentioned parameters. Fruit diameter increases in one millimeter pesticide dissipation rates were reduced in -0.033mgkg(-1)day(-1) (R(2)=0.87; p<0.001) for grapes and -0.014mgkg(-1)day(-1) (R(2)=0.85; p<0.001) for apples. The relation between solar radiation, air humidity and temperature, and pesticide dissipation rates were dependent on fruit type. PHI could change according to the application time, because of the initial amount of pesticide deposit in the fruits and change in the dissipation rates. Because Maximum Residue Level are becoming more restrictive, it is more important to consider the fruit growth stage effects on pesticide when performing dissipation studies to define PHI.

  18. Early cavity growth during forward burn. [Hoe Creek III problems

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

    1980-07-03

    During the early portion of the forward burn phase of the Hoe Creek III field experiment, the cavity progagated rapidly down the deviated borehole and to the top of the coal seam. As a first step to understanding this phenomena we have conducted small scale coal block experiments. Drying as well as combustion tests were performed. This paper describes the test hardware and the experimental results.

  19. Early Growth and Neurologic Outcomes of Infants with Probable Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Jucelia Sousa Santos; Sousa, Patricia da Silva; Doriqui, Maria Juliana Rodvalho; Ribeiro, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa; Branco, Maria dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Pacheco, Maria de Jesus Torres; Vieira da Costa, Flavia Regina; Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Pacheco, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Soares de Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra

    2016-01-01

    We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1–8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy. PMID:27767931

  20. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  1. The influence of cultivation period on growth and biodiesel properties of microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana 1049.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qunju; Xiang, Wenzhou; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Yang, Fangfang; Jia, Qikun; Wang, Guanghua; Wu, Hualian

    2015-09-01

    This work reported for the first time the detailed impacts of cultivation period on growth dynamics and biochemical composition of a microalga strain Nannochloropsis gaditana 1049. The results shown either the biomass accumulation, lipid content, neutral lipid content, monounsaturated fatty acids composition or the favorable fatty acid profile of C16-C18 increased along with the cultivation period extension, but the lipid productivity displayed a decrease since cultured for 16 days, with the highest value reached 289.51 ± 16.34 mg L(-1) d(-1). Biodiesel properties of this microalga also changed with the cultivation period extension, with average unsaturated degree decreased from 1.24 ± 0.03 to 0.59 ± 0.02, cloud point increased from 3.39 ± 0.40 °C to 12.14 ± 0.32 °C, cetane number increased from 54.59 ± 0.20 to 58.96 ± 0.16 and iodine number reduced sharply from 105.15 ± 2.24 gI2/100g to 56.44 ± 1.76 gI2/100g, which all satisfied the specifications of biodiesel standard.

  2. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Tooher, Rebecca; Gates, Simon; Dowswell, Therese; Davis, Lucy-Jane

    2014-01-01

    significant findings in this review are largely derived from trials which are not of high methodological quality. It was not possible to assess the effects of any of these interventions on most outcomes, and especially on rare outcomes such as death, TED and osteoporosis, because of small sample sizes and the small number of trials making the same comparisons.There was some evidence of side effects associated with thromboprophylaxis. Authors’ conclusions There is insufficient evidence on which to base recommendations for thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy and the early postnatal period. Large scale randomised trials of currently-used interventions should be conducted. PMID:20464719

  3. Early life growth trajectories and future risk for overweight

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, J C; Neufeld, L M; Laraia, B; Ramakrishnan, U; Garcia-Guerra, A; Fernald, L C H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard approaches have found that rapid growth during the first 2 years of life is a risk factor for overweight in later childhood. Our objective was to test whether growth velocity, independent of concurrent size, was associated with overweight using a nonlinear random-effects model that allows for enhanced specifications and estimations. Methods: Longitudinal data from a birth cohort in Mexico (n=586) were used to estimate growth trajectories over 0–24 months for body mass index (BMI), length and weight using the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) models. The SITAR models use a nonlinear random-effects model to estimate an average growth curve for BMI, length and weight and each participant's deviation from this curve on three dimensions—size, velocity and timing of peak velocity. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between overweight status at 7–9 years and size, velocity and timing of BMI, length and weight trajectories during 0–24 months. We tested whether any association between velocity and overweight varied by relative size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Results: SITAR models explained the majority of the variance in BMI (73%), height (86%) and weight (85%) between 0–24 months. When analyzed individually, relative BMI/length/weight (size) and BMI/length/weight velocity during 0–24 months were each associated with increased odds of overweight in late childhood. Associations for timing of peak velocity varied by anthropometric measure. However, in the mutually adjusted models, only relative BMI/length/weight (size) remained statistically significant. We found no evidence that any association between velocity and overweight varied by size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Conclusions: After mutual adjustment, size during 0–24 months of life (as opposed to birth size), but not velocity or timing of peak velocity, was most consistently associated with overweight in later childhood. PMID

  4. Early Experience with Racial Discrimination and Conduct Disorder as Predictors of Subsequent Drug Use: A Critical Period Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Gerrard, Meg; Cleveland, Michael J.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.

    2007-01-01

    A critical period hypothesis linking early experiences with both racial discrimination and conduct disorder (CD) with subsequent drug use was examined in a panel of 889 African American adolescents (age 10.5 at Time 1) and their parents. Analyses indicated that these early experiences did predict use by the adolescents at Time 3--five years later. These relations were both direct and indirect, being mediated by an increase in affiliation with friends who were using drugs. The relations existed controlling for parents’ reports of their use, discrimination experiences, and their socioeconomic status (SES). The impact of these early experiences on African American families is discussed. PMID:17275213

  5. Proteomic and metabolic analyses of early berry development in Vitis spp. including the period of ontogenic gain of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early development of grape berries is marked by several biological changes, including cell division and expansion, as berries initiate double sigmoid growth. In most genotypes, a significant gain of ontogenic resistance (OR) to some pathogens, including powdery mildew (PM) (Uncinula necator), also o...

  6. Early snowmelt decreases ablation period carbon uptake in a high elevation, subalpine forest, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchell, T. S.; Molotch, N. P.; Barnard, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The snow ablation period is a time of great potential for carbon uptake in high-elevation, subalpine forests. During this period, water availability associated with snowmelt promotes photosynthetic carbon uptake, while snow cover diminishes carbon losses from soil respiration. Although the ablation period can be as short as two weeks, as much as 30% of the total seasonal carbon uptake can occur during this period. Varying ablation period dynamics, however, can result in varying rates of carbon uptake during this integral uptake period. We use fifteen years of observational climate flux and snow water equivalent (SWE) data for a subalpine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to analyze carbon uptake trends during the annual ablation period. Specifically, we focus on how the timing of peak SWE affects carbon uptake during the ablation period. We find that when the snowmelt period occurs one month earlier than average, the forest experiences an ablation period mean air temperature of 2.7° C, approximately 5° C colder than an ablation period that occurs one month later than average. This early, colder atmospheric condition leads to daytime carbon uptake rates that are 2.5 gC/m2/day less than the later, warmer period, which results in 47 gC/m2 less ablation period carbon uptake. As most climate models project peak SWE to occur earlier under various warming scenarios, we can expect to see a trend of less carbon uptake during future ablation periods. We expect to see a decrease in total growing season carbon uptake if the post-snowmelt period is unable to compensate for the decrease in ablation period carbon uptake.

  7. Transient effects in creep cavity nucleation and early growth in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.A.; Chan, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    Creep fracture of ceramic materials frequently occurs by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of grain boundary cavities. Results of recent experimental studies of cavitation kinetics in compression crept ceramics are presented to illustrate the transient nature of cavity nucleation and early growth. The transient character of cavitation arises primarily due to the dependence of both cavity nucleation and early cavity growth on the stochastic process of grain boundary sliding. Possible mechanisms for the observed transient behavior will be presented and implications discussed. 45 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Using Multilevel Modeling for Change to Assess Early Children's Reading Growth over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood is the crucial period for early children's reading ability building. Former research (Hanson & Farrell, 1995) found that early reading experience had a positive and long-term effect on reading competence for high school seniors in the future. Therefore, it is of great importance for researchers to understand children's initial reading…

  9. MOSFIRE ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF z > 2 QUIESCENT GALAXIES: PROBING A PERIOD OF RAPID SIZE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Newman, Andrew B.

    2014-06-20

    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  10. Positional specification in the segmental growth pattern of an early arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Hong, Paul S.; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-01-01

    In many arthropods, there is a change in relative segment size during post-embryonic development, but how segment differential growth is produced is little known. A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of the 429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate segment growth dynamics and its control in an early arthropod. Morphometric analysis across nine post-embryonic stages revealed a growth gradient in the trunk of A. koninckii. We contrastively tested different growth models referable to two distinct hypotheses of growth control for the developing trunk: (i) a segment-specific control, with individual segments having differential autonomous growth progression, and (ii) a regional control, with segment growth depending on their relative position along the main axis. We show that the trunk growth pattern of A. koninckii was consistent with a regional growth control producing a continuous growth gradient that was stable across all developmental stages investigated. The specific posterior-to-anterior decaying shape of the growth gradient suggests it deriving from the linear transduction of a graded signal, similar to those commonly provided by morphogens. A growth control depending on a form of positional specification, possibly realized through the linear interpretation of a graded signal, may represent the primitive condition for arthropod differential growth along the main body axis, from which the diverse and generally more complex forms of growth control in subsequent arthropods have evolved. PMID:24573851

  11. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Stephanie E; Menon, Prahlad G; Kowalski, William J; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Butcher, Jonathan T; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-08-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) are associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. Here, we combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alter as a result of local interventions obstructing individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image-derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy-guided femtosecond laser-based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 h. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes, however, were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological

  12. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion*

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephanie E.; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William J.; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. We here combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alters as a result of local interventions to obstruct individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy guided femtosecond laser based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 hours. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes however were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological

  13. Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Postnatal Development of Two Inbred Strains of Mice Exposed to Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  14. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID

  15. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  16. Paleoamygdala: morphogenesis of the posterior cortical nucleus of the rat amygdaloid complex of the brain during the early juvenile period.

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2014-09-01

    Sex-related differences and the dynamic of formation of the posterior cortical nucleus of the rat amygdaloid complex were revealed in the early juvenile period by planimetric characteristics, numbers of neurons and glial cells, and glial and apoptotic indexes reflecting morphological restructuring on postnatal days 21, 24, 28, and 31.

  17. 76 FR 77534 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodino...

  18. 76 FR 2115 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott Rodino...

  19. 77 FR 14369 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-ScottRodino...

  20. 77 FR 56210 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodin...

  1. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  2. A Guide to Administration, Diagnosis, and Treatment for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Gerald; Scovell, Melvin

    Provided are guidelines on administration, diagnosis, and treatment in federally funded EPSDT--Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Programs, a system for providing health care services to Medicaid-eligible children. Detailed in part one are factors involved in developing EPSDT programs. Four chapters consider the need for EPSDT,…

  3. [EPSDT: Information Booklets and Training Materials for Use in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    These three booklets present information about selected aspects of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program. A brief history of the development of the EPSDT program, a description of administrative structure at the national, state and local levels, and a description of the lifestyle typical of many EPSDT…

  4. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  5. Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.

    PubMed

    Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-10-01

    Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends.

  6. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  7. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  8. Retarded fetal growth patterns and early neonatal mortality in a Mexico City population.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, H; Haas, J D

    1991-01-01

    The study reported here classified 9,660 newborn infants delivered at a maternal and child health center in Mexico City by length of gestation, presence or absence of growth retardation, and (in the case of growth-retarded infants) proportionate or disproportionate growth retardation in terms of the infants' weight and length. It was found that preterm infants (delivered before 38 weeks of gestation) had nine times the early neonatal mortality of term infants, irrespective of growth retardation patterns. Also, the type of fetal growth retardation involved (proportionate or disproportionate) in those cases where such retardation was present was found to have an impact on early neonatal mortality. That is, preterm and term infants classified as having proportionate growth retardation respectively exhibited 1.5 and 9.5 times the early neonatal mortality of preterm and term infants with disproportionate growth retardation. Among other things, these findings suggest a need for assessing types of growth retardation as well as etiologic factors when evaluating mortality risk in newborns.

  9. [Estimation model for daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Long; Li, Jian-Ming; Wu, Pu-Te; Li, Wei-Li; Zhao, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Fei; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    For developing an estimation method of muskmelon transpiration in greenhouse, an estimation model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period was established, based on the greenhouse environmental parameters, muskmelon growth and development parameters, and soil moisture parameters. According to the specific environment in greenhouse, the item of aerodynamics in Penman-Monteith equation was modified, and the greenhouse environmental sub-model suitable for calculating the reference crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse was deduced. The crop factor sub-model was established with the leaf area index as independent variable, and the form of the model was linear function. The soil moisture sub-model was established with the soil relative effective moisture content as independent variable, and the form of the model was logarithmic function. With interval sowing, the model parameters were estimated and analyzed, according to the measurement data of different sowing dates in a year. The prediction accuracy of the model for sufficient irrigation and water-saving irrigation was verified, according to measurement data when the relative soil moisture content was 80%, 70%, and 60%, and the mean relative error was 11.5%, 16.2% , and 16.9% respectively. The model was a beneficial exploration for the application of Penman-Monteith equation under greenhouse environment and water-saving irrigation, having good application foreground and popularization value.

  10. [Dynamics and modeling of water content of ten shrub species in their growth period in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Sen; Yan, Xue-Jiao

    2012-12-01

    Based on the two successive years observation of the water content of ten representative shrub species in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China, this paper studied the dynamics of the water content of these shrub species during their growth period and related affecting factors, with the prediction models of the shrub water content established. For the ten shrub species, their minimal water content during growth period was higher than 100% , and most of the species had a water content higher than 200% within the period from the late phase of leaf-unfolding to early phase of leaf-falling. Euonymus verrucosus, Sorbaria sorbifolia, and Sambucus williamsii were incombustible in their whole growth period due to the extremely high water content, while Syringa reticulate, Philadelphus schrenkii, Euonymus verrucosus, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Lonicera maackii, Lonicera ruprechtiana, and Rhamnus parvifolia were combustible only in the phases of budding and leaf-falling. Soil moisture content and daily maximum temperature had effects on the water content of most (7) of the ten shrubs, and canopy drought severity index affected the water content of 5 of the ten shrubs. The established 9 prediction models could explain more than 35% of the water content variance of the shrub species, with a mean MRE of 35.9% and a mean MRE of 13.4%.

  11. Early Childhood Education Administration in the New Period: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a keynote speech delivered at the National Symposium of Early Childhood Education) held by the Ministry of Education, December 16-19, 2004. In this paper, Jiang Jin first analyzed the difficulties and challenges that China faced in the development of early childhood education (ECE), including the partially dissolved ECE system,…

  12. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  13. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  14. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.
METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.
CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has

  15. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  16. Phosphoproteome Dynamics Upon Changes in Plant Water Status Reveal Early Events Associated With Rapid Growth Adjustment in Maize Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Ludovic; Valot, Benoît; Tardieu, François; Zivy, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth adjustment during water deficit is a crucial adaptive response. The rapid fine-tuned control achieved at the post-translational level is believed to be of considerable importance for regulating early changes in plant growth reprogramming. Aiming at a better understanding of early responses to contrasting plant water statuses, we carried out a survey of the protein phosphorylation events in the growing zone of maize leaves upon a range of water regimes. In this study, the impact of mild and severe water deficits were evaluated in comparison with constant optimal watering and with recovery periods lasting 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min. Using four biological replicates per treatment and a robust quantitative phosphoproteomic methodology based on stable-isotope labeling, we identified 3664 unique phosphorylation sites on 2496 proteins. The abundance of nearly 1250 phosphorylated peptides was reproducibly quantified and profiled with high confidence among treatments. A total of 138 phosphopeptides displayed highly significant changes according to water regimes and enabled to identify specific patterns of response to changing plant water statuses. Further quantification of protein amounts emphasized that most phosphorylation changes did not reflect protein abundance variation. During water deficit and recovery, extensive changes in phosphorylation status occurred in critical regulators directly or indirectly involved in plant growth and development. These included proteins influencing epigenetic control, gene expression, cell cycle-dependent processes and phytohormone-mediated responses. Some of the changes depended on stress intensity whereas others depended on rehydration duration, including rapid recoveries that occurred as early as 5 or 10 mins after rewatering. By combining a physiological approach and a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis, this work provides new insights into the in vivo early phosphorylation events triggered by rapid changes in

  17. Phosphoproteome dynamics upon changes in plant water status reveal early events associated with rapid growth adjustment in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Ludovic; Valot, Benoît; Tardieu, François; Zivy, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Plant growth adjustment during water deficit is a crucial adaptive response. The rapid fine-tuned control achieved at the post-translational level is believed to be of considerable importance for regulating early changes in plant growth reprogramming. Aiming at a better understanding of early responses to contrasting plant water statuses, we carried out a survey of the protein phosphorylation events in the growing zone of maize leaves upon a range of water regimes. In this study, the impact of mild and severe water deficits were evaluated in comparison with constant optimal watering and with recovery periods lasting 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min. Using four biological replicates per treatment and a robust quantitative phosphoproteomic methodology based on stable-isotope labeling, we identified 3664 unique phosphorylation sites on 2496 proteins. The abundance of nearly 1250 phosphorylated peptides was reproducibly quantified and profiled with high confidence among treatments. A total of 138 phosphopeptides displayed highly significant changes according to water regimes and enabled to identify specific patterns of response to changing plant water statuses. Further quantification of protein amounts emphasized that most phosphorylation changes did not reflect protein abundance variation. During water deficit and recovery, extensive changes in phosphorylation status occurred in critical regulators directly or indirectly involved in plant growth and development. These included proteins influencing epigenetic control, gene expression, cell cycle-dependent processes and phytohormone-mediated responses. Some of the changes depended on stress intensity whereas others depended on rehydration duration, including rapid recoveries that occurred as early as 5 or 10 mins after rewatering. By combining a physiological approach and a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis, this work provides new insights into the in vivo early phosphorylation events triggered by rapid changes in

  18. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake.

  19. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Khoriauli, Lela; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Santagostino, Marco; Saino, Nicola; Giulotto, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age) and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual’s siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and relative telomere

  20. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Robert P; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Norman, Marc D

    2003-10-09

    The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are comprised dominantly of sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite of rocks. Here we present direct experimental evidence showing that partial melting of hydrous basalt in the eclogite facies produces granitoid liquids with major- and trace-element compositions equivalent to Archaean TTG, including the low Nb/Ta and high Zr/Sm ratios of 'average' Archaean TTG, but from a source with initially subchondritic Nb/Ta. In modern environments, basalts with low Nb/Ta form by partial melting of subduction-modified depleted mantle, notably in intraoceanic arc settings in the forearc and back-arc regimes. These observations suggest that TTG magmatism may have taken place beneath granite-greenstone complexes developing along Archaean intraoceanic island arcs by imbricate thrust-stacking and tectonic accretion of a diversity of subduction-related terranes. Partial melting accompanying dehydration of these generally basaltic source materials at the base of thickened, 'arc-like' crust would produce compositionally appropriate TTG granitoids in equilibrium with eclogite residues.

  1. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach.

  2. Krüppel-Like Factor 12 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Growth through Early Growth Response Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Yun-Yong; Cho, Sung-Nam; Margalit, Ofer; Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) is a transcription factor that plays a role in normal kidney development and repression of decidualization. KLF12 is frequently elevated in esophageal adenocarcinoma and has been reported to promote gastric cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of KLF12 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Indeed, KLF12 promotes tumor growth by directly activating early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). The levels of KLF12 and EGR1 correlate synergistically with a poor prognosis. These results indicate that KLF12 likely plays an important role in CRC and could serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:27442508

  3. Social isolation stress down-regulates cortical early growth response 1 (Egr-1) expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kinzo; Ono, Kazuya; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Tsushima, Ryohei; Murakami, Yukihisa

    2012-07-01

    Social isolation stress induces behavioral disturbances such as aggression, cognitive impairments, and deficits in prepulse inhibition in mice. Social isolation mice have, therefore, been studied as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Recently, the decrease in early growth response (Egr) gene expression levels were reported in the post-mortem brains of schizophrenia patients. In this study, we investigate the effects of social isolation stress on the expression levels of Egr mRNA and protein in the frontal cortex. Social isolation stress exposure significantly down-regulated the expression of Egr-1 protein and Egr-1 gene transcript in nucleus of cortical neurons in a manner dependent on a social isolation period. This stress had no effect on the expression level of Egr-1 in the striatum or the expression levels of other Egr family members (Egr-2, -3, and -4) in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that the decrease in Egr-1 expression in the frontal cortex may be involved in social isolation stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  4. Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Knight, Wanda Grant; Pell, Tripler; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. Objective To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Study Selection Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peerreviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Data Extraction Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Conclusions Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity

  5. The effects of stress during early postnatal periods on behavior and hippocampal neuroplasticity markers in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, M A; Grosse, J; Zanoletti, O; Papilloud, A; Sandi, C

    2015-12-17

    Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that stress experienced during that period can have long-term programming effects on the brain and behavior. However, whether different time periods represent different vulnerabilities to the programming of different neurobehavioral domains is not yet known. Disrupted maternal care is known to interfere with neurodevelopmental processes and may lead to the manifestation of behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Mouse dams confronted with insufficient bedding/nesting material have been shown to provide fragmented maternal care to their offspring. Here, we compared the impact of this model of early-life stress (ELS) during different developmental periods comprising either postnatal days (PNDs) 2-9 (ELS-early) or PND 10-17 (ELS-late) on behavior and hippocampal cell adhesion molecules in male mice in adulthood. ELS-early treatment caused a permanent reduction in bodyweight, whereas this reduction only occurred transiently during juvenility in ELS-late mice. Anxiety was only affected in ELS-late mice, while cognition and sociability were equally impaired in both ELS-treated groups. We analyzed hippocampal gene expression of the γ2 subunit of the GABAa receptor (Gabrg2) and of genes encoding cell adhesion molecules. Gabrg2 expression was increased in the ventral hippocampus in ELS-late-treated animals and was correlated with anxiety-like behavior in the open-field (OF) test. ELS-early-treated animals exhibited an increase in nectin-1 expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and this increase was associated with the social deficits seen in these animals. Our findings highlight the relevance of developmental age on stress-induced long-term behavioral alterations. They also suggest potential links between early stress-induced alterations in hippocampal Gabrg2 expression and the developmental programming of anxiety and between changes in hippocampal nectin-1 expression and stress-induced social

  6. Using speleothem growth periods to constrain Quaternary evolution of Siberian permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, A.; Gutareva, O.; Breitenbach, S.; Osinzev, A.; Henderson, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    We have used speleothems from three caves along a north-south transect in Eastern Siberia to track the evolution of permafrost during the last ~650 ky. Speleothems form in caves only when the cave temperature (which approximates the mean annual surface air temperature) is above 0°C and meteoric waters can penetrate into the cave. Periods of speleothem deposition therefore provide a tracer for presence or absence of the permafrost. The northernmost cave used in this study, the Lenskaya Ledyanaya Cave (Icy Cave of Lena), is located at 60°22’N - 116°56’E, on the southern boundary of the continuous permafrost zone, with no present-day water seepage in the cave and large amounts of ice partially filling its inner chambers. Botovskaya Cave system (55°18'N; 105°21'E) is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone with water seepage and speleothem growth occurring only in a limited area of the cave. Okhotnichya Cave (52°07’N; 105°27’E), near southern Lake Baikal, is located in the zone of island permafrost, with water seepage and speleothem growth occurring in all parts of the cave. The mean annual temperatures vary from -7°C in the area of Lenskaya Ledyanaya Cave, to ~0°C in the Okhotnichya cave region, and the present-day vegetation in the area is sub-arctic taiga forest. More than 60 horizons from 15 speleothems from these three caves were dated by U-Th method. The high initial 234U/238U activity ratios in Siberian speleothems (3-6) extend the dateable range of the U-Th method to more than 650 ky. The youngest speleothem age in the Lenskaya Ledyanaya Cave was 626 ± 46 ky, probably corresponding to interglacial Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 15, whereas the other 11 other horizons in 6 additional speleothems from this cave were older than the dating limit. In Botovskaya and Okhotnichya caves speleothem ages clustered into warmest intervals of the interglacial periods at ~500 ky (MIS-13), 420-370 ky (MIS-11), 207-199 ky (MIS-7.2), 131-120 ky (MIS-5.5) and

  7. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  8. Torsional oscillations and observed rotational period variations in early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Henry, G. W.; Kurfürst, P.; Karlický, M.

    2017-01-01

    Some chemically peculiar stars in the upper main sequence show rotational period variations of unknown origin. We propose that these variations are a consequence of the propagation of internal waves in magnetic rotating stars that lead to the torsional oscillations of the star. We simulate the magnetohydrodynamic waves and calculate resonant frequencies for two stars that show rotational variations: CU Vir and HD 37776. We provide updated analyses of rotational period variations in these stars and compare our results with numerical models. For CU Vir, the length of the observed rotational period cycle, Π=67.6(5) yr, can be well reproduced by the models, which predict a cycle length of 51 yr. However, for HD 37776, the observed lower limit of the cycle length, Π ≥ 100 yr, is significantly longer than the numerical models predict. We conclude that torsional oscillations provide a reasonable explanation at least for the observed period variations in CU Vir.

  9. Wooden Breast Myodegeneration of Pectoralis Major Muscle Over the Growth Period in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Sihvo, H-K; Lindén, J; Airas, N; Immonen, K; Valaja, J; Puolanne, E

    2017-01-01

    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB ( P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.

  10. Federal Indian Policies ...from the Colonial Period through the Early 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The history of U.S. Federal policy relative to the American Indian is traced from its beginnings in 1755 to its recent posture in the early 1970's in this monograph. Federal attitudes and resultant legislation are documented in a chronological examination of: the "removal policy" (the Indian Removal Act of 1830); the beginnings of Indian…

  11. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  12. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation.

  13. [Electrolyte disorders in cadaveric kidney donors before explantation and the functional development of the transplant in the early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Nádvorníková, H; Vránová, Z; Kocandrle, V; Martínek, V; Englis, M

    1990-01-01

    In a group of cadaveric kidney transplantations the problem of the dependence of the functional development of the graft on the function of donor kidney before explanation and on the total time of ischaemia in the immediate postoperative period was investigated. Based on the plasma concentration of endogenous creatinine (PKr), urea (PUrea) and the total ischaemic time (GI), the early function of the graft cannot be predicted. On the contrary, the values of PKr, GI and the kidney index (NIKI = PKr x GI) allow an accurate prediction that the early function of the graft will not be sufficient. Early function of the graft is not likely to develop when PKr is higher than 160 mumol/l, total ischaemic time is longer than 30 hours and the NIKI is over 3,500. Severe alterations in the level of serum potassium (SK) occurred in 61.4% of the donors. In cases where SK was 3.0 mmol/l or less, early function of the graft did not develop in 82.3%. With high probability haemodialysis was necessary. More pronounced alterations of the level of SNa occurred in more than 60% of the donors. When SNa was 125 mmol/l or less, early function of the graft did not develop in 76%. Diuresis over 400 ml/h increased significantly the number of early nonfunctional grafts. In cases where fractional sodium excretion (FENa) was over 5%, early function of the graft did not develop. With a FENa less or equal to 1%, early function of the graft was most likely to develop.

  14. Association Between Early Life Growth and Blood Pressure Trajectories in Black South African Children.

    PubMed

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-11-01

    Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression.

  15. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  16. [Early orthodontic treatment for growth modification by functional appliances--pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Tzemach, M; Aizenbud, D; Einy, S

    2014-01-01

    The optimal timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment has been controversial. Initial early orthodontic treatment usually begins at the deciduous dentition or early mixed dentition stage and continues for 12-18 months. In most cases, a second treatment phase will be required in the permanent dentition stage to achieve the treatment goals and a stable occlusion. One of the main purposes of the early treatment phase is to affect the growth pattern of the jaw and consequently correct skeletal imbalance and prevent future severe malocclusion by means of growth modification. Some clinicians strongly believe that early intervention with functional appliances improves facial harmony and simplifies as well as shortens the second orthodontic treatment phase. In contrast others advocate that it is unnecessary as the early treatment results will be eliminated by future growth and a recurrent treatment phase is essential in the permanent dentition stage in any case. Thus it is merely a waste of time and resources, and all treatment goals could be reached by a comprehensive single continued treatment phase in the late mixed dentition stage. This article summarizes the scientific literature on the different concepts of early functional orthodontic treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusion correction vs. a single comprehensive orthodontic treatment process in the late mixed dentition stage. The indications and benefits of each of the approaches are discussed in detail. In conclusion, most of the researchers recommend early orthodontic intervention in children suffering psychological and social problems associated with their malocclusion. Prevention of traumatic injury in cases of maxillary incisor protrusive inclination is also considered an indication for early orthodontic treatment.

  17. Early development and growth in captive-born Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the growth and early development patterns of endangered species can become a useful conservation tool because it may allow detecting anomalous growth in newborns, both in captivity breeding and in the wild. We studied the growth and early development of 40 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) cubs belonging to 21 litters born in captivity between 2005 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. This is the first study on growth in this critically endangered species. The Iberian lynx cubs were not fully developed at birth. During the first 3 weeks of life, cubs underwent many of the physical changes that allowed them to improve their interaction with the environment, such as the opening of eye and auditory channels, teeth eruptions, and the ability to walk. When the cubs were 1 month old, they were ready to leave the den and develop new behaviors such as the exploration of their environment, play, or hunt. Three different models had been fitted to the body mass growth of the Iberian lynx. The von Bertalanffy curve provided the best fit. The asymptotic adult mass was the only parameter that differed between males and females (males being 8% larger), due to the higher growth rate of males. The adult weight of hand-reared cubs (i.e., those abandoned at born) did not differ from that of cubs reared by their mothers. Both growth and development showed differences from other lynx species.

  18. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  19. Roles for Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily Proteins in Early Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Trombly, Daniel J.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2010-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-β family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis. PMID:19197801

  20. Integrating Frameworks from Early Childhood Intervention and School Psychology to Accelerate Growth for All Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Snyder, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Knowing what behaviors adults can engage in to accelerate child growth toward desired outcomes is fundamental to achieving the promise of early education and intervention. Once adequate progress-monitoring measures are developed, patterns of child performance over time and in response to certain interventions can be quantified. The ability to…

  1. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  2. Ultrastructure of Pseudomonas saccharophila at early and late log phase of growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, H. L.; Chao, F.-C.; Turnbill, C.; Philpott, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the fine structure of Pseudomonas saccarophila at the early log phase and the late log phase of growth, such as shown by electron microscopy with the aid of various techniques of preparation. The observations reported suggested that, under the experimental conditions applied, P. saccharophila multiplies by the method of constrictive division.

  3. Mediterranean moisture source for an early-Holocene humid period in the northern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Arz, Helge W; Lamy, Frank; Pätzold, Jurgen; Muller, Peter J; Prins, Maarten

    2003-04-04

    Paleosalinity and terrigenous sediment input changes reconstructed on two sediment cores from the northernmost Red Sea were used to infer hydrological changes at the southern margin of the Mediterranean climate zone during the Holocene. Between approximately 9.25 and 7.25 thousand years ago, about 3 per thousand reduced surface water salinities and enhanced fluvial sediment input suggest substantially higher rainfall and freshwater runoff, which thereafter decreased to modern values. The northern Red Sea humid interval is best explained by enhancement and southward extension of rainfall from Mediterranean sources, possibly involving strengthened early-Holocene Arctic Oscillation patterns and a regional monsoon-type circulation induced by increased land-sea temperature contrasts. We conclude that Afro-Asian monsoonal rains did not cross the subtropical desert zone during the early to mid-Holocene.

  4. The time-periodic diffusive competition models with a free boundary and sign-changing growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxin; Zhang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    To understand the spreading of invasive and native species, in this paper we consider the diffusive competition models with a free boundary in the heterogeneous time-periodic environments, in which the variable intrinsic growth rates of these two species change signs and may be very negative in some large regions. We study the spreading-vanishing dichotomy, long-time dynamical behavior of solution, sharp criteria for spreading and vanishing, and estimates of the asymptotic spreading speed of the free boundary. Moreover, we establish the existence of positive solutions to a T-periodic boundary value problem of the diffusive competition system with sign-changing growth rates in the half line.

  5. Germination and early growth of Brassica juncea in copper mine tailings amended with technosol and compost.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings.

  6. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem, particularly among minority infants and young children. Disparities in overweight prevalence persist and widen with age, highlighting the need to identify factors contributing to early excess weight gain. We review the behavioral, social and macro-environmental factors contributing to the development of obesogenic early feeding practices among African-American infants and young children. We then examine the sociodemographic, household factors, feeding beliefs and infant characteristics associated with age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids (inappropriate feeding) among mothers and infants participating the U.S. Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 low-income, first-time mothers and infants followed from 3 to 18 months of age. Maternal and infant anthropometry, infant diet, and maternal and household characteristics were collected at home visits at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. Mixed logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal and infant characteristics and inappropriate feeding. Rates of age-inappropriate feeding are high; over 75% of infants received solids or juice by 3 months of age. The odds of age-inappropriate feeding were higher among mothers who were single, depressed or believed that their infant is a "greedy" baby. Inappropriate feeding was associated with higher daily energy intake in infants (β = 109.28 calories, p = 0.01) and with increased odds of high infant weight-for-length (WFL; OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.01-3.01). Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate complementary feeding influences current energy intakes and infant WFL, factors that may increase long-term obesity risk by shaping infant appetite, food preferences, and metabolism. Given the intractability of pediatric obesity, understanding the role of early feeding in shaping long-term health disparities is critical for developing prevention strategies to stem obesity in

  7. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem, particularly among minority infants and young children. Disparities in overweight prevalence persist and widen with age, highlighting the need to identify factors contributing to early excess weight gain. We review the behavioral, social and macro-environmental factors contributing to the development of obesogenic early feeding practices among African-American infants and young children. We then examine the sociodemographic, household factors, feeding beliefs and infant characteristics associated with age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids (inappropriate feeding) among mothers and infants participating the U.S. Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 low-income, first-time mothers and infants followed from 3 to 18 months of age. Maternal and infant anthropometry, infant diet, and maternal and household characteristics were collected at home visits at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. Mixed logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal and infant characteristics and inappropriate feeding. Rates of age-inappropriate feeding are high; over 75% of infants received solids or juice by 3 months of age. The odds of age-inappropriate feeding were higher among mothers who were single, depressed or believed that their infant is a “greedy” baby. Inappropriate feeding was associated with higher daily energy intake in infants (β = 109.28 calories, p = 0.01) and with increased odds of high infant weight-for-length (WFL; OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.01–3.01). Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate complementary feeding influences current energy intakes and infant WFL, factors that may increase long-term obesity risk by shaping infant appetite, food preferences, and metabolism. Given the intractability of pediatric obesity, understanding the role of early feeding in shaping long-term health disparities is critical for developing prevention strategies to stem

  8. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P < 0.001) and length (P < 0.04) compared with controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH (P < 0.01) and IGF-1 (P < 0.01). RhGH abrogated these hypoxia-induced changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis associated with normalization of weight and length gain until P14 compared with controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  9. Effects on outpatient and emergency mental health care of strict Medicaid early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment enforcement.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Wallace, Neal T; Evans-Cuellar, Allison

    2007-11-01

    We investigated enforcement of mental health benefits provided by California Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Enforcement, compelled by a consumer-driven lawsuit, resulted in an almost 4-fold funding increase over a 5-year period. We evaluated the impact of enforcement on outpatient treatment intensity (number of visits per child) and rates of emergency care treatment. Using fixed-effects regression, we examined the number of outpatient mental health visits per client and the percentage of all clients using crisis care across 53 autonomous California county mental health plans over 32 three-month periods (quarters; emergency crisis care rates) and 36 quarters (out-patient mental health visits). Enforcement of EPSDT benefits in accordance with federal law produced favorable changes in patterns of mental health service use, consistent with policy aims.

  10. Rapeseed-legume intercrops: plant growth and nitrogen balance in early stages of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Diquélou, Sylvain; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Revellin, Cécile; Laîné, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    In this study we tested whether legumes can improve the growth and N and S nutrition of rapeseed in an intercropping system and compared the effect of mixtures on legume N-fixation and soil N-resources. Rapeseed was cultivated in low N conditions in monocrops using one (R) or two plants (RR) per pot and in mixtures with lupine, clover or vetch. The R monocrop was the most relevant control, intraspecific competition inducing a significant growth delay resulting in a significantly lower leaf number, in RR monocrop compared to R and the three mixtures considered. Plant biomass, and the N and S contents of rapeseed grown in mixtures were the same than those measured in R monocrop. Compared to the monocrop, the proportion of N derived from the atmosphere was increased by 34, 140 and 290% in lupine, clover and vetch, respectively when intercropped with rapeseed. In mixture with clover and lupine, the soil N pool at harvest was higher than in other treatments, while N export by crop was constant. Legumes suffered from competition for soil S resulting in a decrease of 40% in their S content compared to the monocrop. Compared to rapeseeds grown in R monocrop and in mixture with lupine and vetch, rapeseed mixed with clover showed significantly higher SPAD values in old leaves. In our conditions, mixing legumes with rapeseed is relevant to reduce N fertilization and improve nutrition and growth of rapeseed.

  11. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P < or = 0.05) seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  12. Periodically correlated random processes: Application in early diagnostics of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorskyj, I.; Kravets, I.; Matsko, I.; Yuzefovych, R.

    2017-01-01

    The covariance and spectral characteristics of periodically correlated random processes (PCRP) are used to describe the state of rotary mechanical systems and in their fault detection. The methods for estimation of mean function, covariance function, instantaneous spectral density and their Fourier coefficients for a given class of non-stationary random processes on the basis of experimental data, namely: the synchronous averaging, component, least squares method and linear filtration methods are considered. The first and second order periodicity detection methods are used for vibration signals analysis. A method for mechanical system fault identification and classification based on a harmonic series representation is developed. Examples of fault detection in rolling/sliding bearings and gearboxes are given.

  13. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity. PMID:26161272

  14. Assessment of Autism Symptoms During the Neonatal Period: Is There Early Evidence of Autism Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Kelsey; Oberle, Sarah; Inder, Terrie; Rogers, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To define neonatal social characteristics related to autism risk. METHOD. Sixty-two preterm infants underwent neonatal neurobehavioral testing. At age 2 yr, participants were assessed with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. RESULTS. Positive autism screening was associated with absence of gaze aversion, χ = 5.90, p =.01, odds ratio = 5.05, and absence of endpoint nystagmus, χ = 4.78, p = .02, odds ratio = 8.47. Demonstrating gaze aversion was related to better language outcomes, t(55) = −3.07, p ≤ .003. Displaying endpoint nystagmus was related to better language outcomes, t(61) = −3.06, p = .003, cognitive outcomes, t(63) = −5.04, p < .001, and motor outcomes, t(62) = −2.82, p = .006. CONCLUSION. Atypical social interactions were not observed among infants who later screened positive for autism. Instead, the presence of gaze aversion and endpoint nystagmus was related to better developmental outcomes. Understanding early behaviors associated with autism may enable early identification and lead to timely therapy activation to improve function. PMID:26114457

  15. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  16. Soil temperature and plant growth stage influence nitrogen uptake and amino acid concentration of apple during early spring growth.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Scagel, C F; Cheng, L; Fuchigami, L H; Rygiewicz, P T

    2001-05-01

    In spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots begins about 3 weeks after bud break. We used 1-year-old 'Fuji' Malus domestica Borkh on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether the onset of N uptake in spring is dependent solely on the growth stage of the plant or is a function of soil temperature. Five times during early season growth, N uptake and total amino acid concentration were measured in trees growing at aboveground day/night temperatures of 23/15 degrees C and belowground temperatures of 8, 12, 16 or 20 degrees C. We used (15NH4)(15NO3) to measure total N uptake and rate of uptake and found that both were significantly influenced by both soil temperature and plant growth stage. Rate of uptake of 15N increased with increasing soil temperature and changed with plant growth stage. Before bud break, 15N was not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, whereas 15N uptake increased with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Ten days after bud break, 15N was still not detected in trees growing in the 8 degrees C soil treatment, although total 15N uptake and uptake rate continued to increase with increasing soil temperatures between 12 and 20 degrees C. Twenty-one days after bud break, trees in all temperature treatments were able to acquire 15N from the soil, although the amount of uptake increased with increasing soil temperature. Distribution of 15N in trees changed as plants grew. Most of the 15N absorbed by trees before bud break (approximately 5% of 15N supplied per tree) remained in the roots. Forty-six days after bud break, approximately one-third of the 15N absorbed by the trees in the 12-20 degrees C soil temperature treatments remained in the roots, whereas the shank, stem and new growth contained about two-thirds of the 15N taken up by the roots. Total amino acid concentration and distribution of amino acids in trees changed with plant growth stage, but only the amino acid concentration in new growth and

  17. Irreversibility of a bad start: early exposure to osmotic stress limits growth and adaptive developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2012-05-01

    Harsh environments experienced early in development have immediate effects and potentially long-lasting consequences throughout ontogeny. We examined how salinity fluctuations affected survival, growth and development of Fejervarya limnocharis tadpoles. Specifically, we tested whether initial salinity effects on growth and rates of development were reversible and whether they affected the tadpoles' ability to adaptively accelerate development in response to deteriorating conditions later in development. Tadpoles were initially assigned to either low or high salinity, and then some were switched between salinity levels upon reaching either Gosner stage 30 (early switch) or 38 (late switch). All tadpoles initially experiencing low salinity survived whereas those initially experiencing high salinity had poor survival, even if switched to low salinity. Growth and developmental rates of tadpoles initially assigned to high salinity did not increase after osmotic stress release. Initial low salinity conditions allowed tadpoles to attain a fast pace of development even if exposed to high salinity afterwards. Tadpoles experiencing high salinity only late in development metamorphosed faster and at a smaller size, indicating an adaptive acceleration of development to avoid osmotic stress. Nonetheless, early exposure to high salinity precluded adaptive acceleration of development, always causing delayed metamorphosis relative to those in initially low salinity. Our results thus show that stressful environments experienced early in development can critically impact life history traits, having long-lasting or irreversible effects, and restricting their ability to produce adaptive plastic responses.

  18. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  19. Modeling the Lag Period and Exponential Growth of Listeria monocytogenes under Conditions of Fluctuating Temperature and Water Activity Values▿

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S.; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (aw) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h0, which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or aw were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase. PMID:20208022

  20. A Tale of Two Generations: Creativity Growth and Gender Differences over a Period of Education and Curriculum Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ping Chung; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    The Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that…

  1. Tillage and planting date effects on weed dormancy, emergence, and early growth in organic corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management is a major constraint to adoption of reduced-tillage practices for organic grain production. Tillage, cover crop management, and crop planting date are all factors that influence the periodicity and growth potential of important weed species in these systems. Therefore, we assessed...

  2. [THE RISK FACTORS OF LETHAL COMPLICATIONS IN EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING GASTROESOPHAGEAL ZONE MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Dumanskiy, Yu V; Stepko, V A; Sinyachenko, O V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The factors, determining possibility of early postoperative morbidity occurrence in patients, suffering gastro-esophageal zone cancer, were analyzed. After radical operation performance (gastrectomy, gastric and esophageal resection) 5.7% patients died. Insufficience of the anastomosis sutures with peritonitis occurrence, an acute hepato-renal insufficience, an acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, pneumonia, the brain insult, pancreonecrosis and mesenterial thrombosis constituted the main morbidities. The complications occurrence depends upon the tumoral process course severity, morphological variant of cancer, presence of concomitant diaphragmatic hernia and the blood rheological properties. Initially high indices of the blood sera present a rheological properties of blood serum may serve as a prognostic criterion of the postoperative complications occurrence in the patients.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of self-assembled InGaN quantum dots by periodic interrupted growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2007-02-01

    Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH 3), and the carrier gas was N II and H II. The optimum condition was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. GaN nucleation layer was grown at 500°C with thickness of 25nm, and then 2~3 μm thick GaN buffer-layer was deposited at 1050 °C. InGaN quantum dots were grown on GaN buffer layer. Carrier gas was changed with N II instead of H II in QD growth. In the growth of InGaN quantum dots, NH 3 was supplied in cyclic periodic interrupted mode with the interval of 5 seconds. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and photoluminescence (PL). The InGaN quantum dots are grown by 2 periods growth and have 0.4nm in height and 31nm lateral size. The height of quantum dots was increased with increase of growth periods, and the lateral size was decreased after 3 periods and then increased in 4 periods. The density of InGaN quantum dots with 3 periods and 4 periods was measured to be 1.51×10 11/cm2 and 8.91×10 10/cm2. Density of InGaN quantum dots was decreased after 3 periods, and this is attributed to the coalescence. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 532.9~663.9nm (2.33~1.86eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser with wavelength of 266nm. Addition emission peak was found in the range 433.7nm~462.2nm (2.85eV~2.68eV) in the samples with 3 periods and 4 periods interruption, and this peak was identified as the InGaN quantum dots with low indium concentration.

  4. An analysis of the population growth in the Seventh Five-Year Plan period.

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1991-06-01

    The analysis of the 7th 5-Year, Plan in China indicates 30 million more people than the 1.113 billion targeted for 1990, i.e., total population is 1.143 billion. An average increase of 13.75 million annually between 1980-85 occurred; the average annual births were 20.47 million and deaths were 6.73 million. Between 1985-90, the average increase grew to 17.45 million, with births at 24.95 million and deaths at 7.50 million. There were 4.48 million more births annually in the recent past, attributed to women born during the baby boom in the 1960s. The actual average number of children per couple dropped. 256.47 million women averaged annually were of childbearing ages of 15-49 from 1980-85, and 291.43 million from 1985 to 1990. In the most fecund ages, 20-29 years, the number of women increased by 16.65%, from 86.01 to 100.33 million in 1985-90. The actual 1985 population was 1.05579, and the difference between the expected and the actual in 1985 and the fertility estimates account for the 30 million difference is the 1990 expected and actual population. 10.5 million are due to the estimating error in population and 8 million to the estimating error in fertility. The other 12 million are a result of unanticipated fertility increase. in developing the 7th 5 Year Plan, expectations were too high for the decline in fertility, and unplanned births were not brought under control. The trends in the 1980s were ones of an initial sharp reduction and then narrow ranged fluctuations. The transition was not apparent. There was great eagerness to have a sharp decline because of the overpaid population growth, which was an aspiration not a reality. The 1986-87 period produced millions of unplanned births. Contributing factors were also adjustments made in the family planning policy and ineffective family planning programs.

  5. Determination of induction period and crystal growth mechanism of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in methanol-acetone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxun; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli

    2005-02-01

    The induction period of dexamethasone sodium phosphate at different supersaturation was experimentally determined in a methanol-acetone system. The laser monitoring observation technique was used to determine the appearance of the first nucleus in solution. The effect of solution composition on induction period was discussed. Based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory, the solid-liquid interfacial tension and surface entropy factor were calculated from the induction period data. The experimentally determined values of interfacial tension are in agreement with the theoretical values predicted by the Mersmann equation. It was found that the nucleus of dexamethasone sodium phosphate grows continuously in pure methanol and turns from continuous growth to birth and spread growth with increasing acetone content in a methanol-acetone mixture.

  6. Urea-based osmoregulation in the developing embryo of oviparous cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii): contribution of the extraembryonic yolk sac during the early developmental period.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Bell, Justin D; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A; Hyodo, Susumu

    2014-04-15

    Marine cartilaginous fish retain a high concentration of urea to maintain the plasma slightly hyperosmotic to the surrounding seawater. In adult fish, urea is produced by hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycles (OUCs). However, little is known about the urea retention mechanism in developing cartilaginous fish embryos. In order to address the question as to the mechanism of urea-based osmoregulation in developing embryos, the present study examined the gene expression profiles of OUC enzymes in oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) embryos. We found that the yolk sac membrane (YSM) makes an important contribution to the ureosmotic strategy of the early embryonic period. The expression of OUC enzyme genes was detectable in the embryonic body from at least stage 28, and increased markedly during development to hatching, which is most probably due to growth of the liver. During the early developmental period, however, the expression of OUC enzyme genes was not prominent in the embryonic body. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA expression of OUC enzymes was detected in the extra-embryonic YSM; the mRNA expression of cmcpsIII in the YSM was much higher than that in the embryonic body during stages 28-31. Significant levels of enzyme activity and the existence of mitochondrial-type cmgs1 transcripts in the YSM supported the mRNA findings. We also found that the cmcpsIII transcript is localized in the vascularized inner layer of the YSM. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the YSM is involved in urea-based osmoregulation during the early to mid phase of development in oviparous cartilaginous fish.

  7. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sevenler, Derin; Buckley, Mark R.; Kim, Grace; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long bones of growing children that is susceptible to mechanical failure as well as structural and functional disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal tibial growth plate of rats raised either on normal or vitamin D and calcium deficient diets were measured. A sinusoidal oscillating shear load was applied to small excised growth plate specimens perpendicular to the direction of growth while imaging the deformation in real time with a fast confocal microscope. Local deformations and shear strains were quantified using image correlation. The proliferative zone of the growth plate bores the majority of the shear strain and the resting, hypertrophic and calcification zones deformed less. Surprisingly, we regularly observed discontinuous deformations in the proliferative zone in both groups that resembled cell columns sliding past one another in the direction of growth. These discontinuities manifested as regions of concentrated longitudinal shear strain. Furthermore, these shear strain concentrations were spaced evenly in the proliferative zone and the spacing between them was similar across growth plate regions and across control specimens. In contrast to the healthy controls, the vitamin D deficient growth plate exhibited larger variations in the size and orientation of cellular columns in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. High strains were observed between columns, much as they were in the controls. However, the regular spacing of shear strain concentrations was not preserved, echoing the observation of decreased structural organization. PMID:23706979

  8. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend < 0.01). PCA identified "healthy" patterns for all periods, but none was associated with the outcomes (P trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  9. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  10. Neonatal cause-of-death estimates for the early and late neonatal periods for 194 countries: 2000–2013

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Shefali; Lawn, Joy E; Hogan, Daniel R; Mathers, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate cause-of-death distributions in the early (0–6 days of age) and late (7–27 days of age) neonatal periods, for 194 countries between 2000 and 2013. Methods For 65 countries with high-quality vital registration, we used each country’s observed early and late neonatal proportional cause distributions. For the remaining 129 countries, we used multinomial logistic models to estimate these distributions. For countries with low child mortality we used vital registration data as inputs and for countries with high child mortality we used neonatal cause-of-death distribution data from studies in similar settings. We applied cause-specific proportions to neonatal death estimates from the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, by country and year, to estimate cause-specific risks and numbers of deaths. Findings Over time, neonatal deaths decreased for most causes. Of the 2.8 million neonatal deaths in 2013, 0.99 million deaths (uncertainty range: 0.70–1.31) were estimated to be caused by preterm birth complications, 0.64 million (uncertainty range: 0.46–0.84) by intrapartum complications and 0.43 million (uncertainty range: 0.22–0.66) by sepsis and other severe infections. Preterm birth (40.8%) and intrapartum complications (27.0%) accounted for most early neonatal deaths while infections caused nearly half of late neonatal deaths. Preterm birth complications were the leading cause of death in all regions of the world. Conclusion The neonatal cause-of-death distribution differs between the early and late periods and varies with neonatal mortality rate level. To reduce neonatal deaths, effective interventions to address these causes must be incorporated into policy decisions. PMID:25558104

  11. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    PubMed

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  12. A normative spatiotemporal MRI atlas of the fetal brain for automatic segmentation and analysis of early brain growth.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Ali; Rollins, Caitlin K; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Ouaalam, Abdelhakim; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Afacan, Onur; Ortinau, Cynthia M; Clancy, Sean; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Yang, Edward; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2017-03-28

    Longitudinal characterization of early brain growth in-utero has been limited by a number of challenges in fetal imaging, the rapid change in size, shape and volume of the developing brain, and the consequent lack of suitable algorithms for fetal brain image analysis. There is a need for an improved digital brain atlas of the spatiotemporal maturation of the fetal brain extending over the key developmental periods. We have developed an algorithm for construction of an unbiased four-dimensional atlas of the developing fetal brain by integrating symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration in space with kernel regression in age. We applied this new algorithm to construct a spatiotemporal atlas from MRI of 81 normal fetuses scanned between 19 and 39 weeks of gestation and labeled the structures of the developing brain. We evaluated the use of this atlas and additional individual fetal brain MRI atlases for completely automatic multi-atlas segmentation of fetal brain MRI. The atlas is available online as a reference for anatomy and for registration and segmentation, to aid in connectivity analysis, and for groupwise and longitudinal analysis of early brain growth.

  13. Growth and characterization of periodically polarity-inverted ZnO structures on sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinsub; Yao, Takafumi

    2012-10-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of periodically polarity inverted (PPI) ZnO heterostructures on (0 0 0 1) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. For the periodically inverted array of ZnO polarity, CrN and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} polarity selection buffer layers are used for the Zn- and O-polar ZnO films, respectively. The change of polarity and period in fabricated ZnO structures is evaluated by diffraction patterns and polarity sensitive piezo-response microscopy. Finally, PPI ZnO structures with subnanometer scale period are demonstrated by using holographic lithography and regrowth techniques.

  14. Congenital cataract surgery during the early enlightenment period and the Stepkins oculists.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd

    2014-07-01

    From antiquity through the Renaissance, congenital blindness was generally regarded as incurable, as noted in both medical and lay publications. The earliest reference to congenital cataract surgery that we identified, reported in 1663, referred to an 18-year-old female treated by English oculist John Stepkins (d. 1652). An examination of the literature related to the Stepkins family reveals the presence of male and female oculists during that period, including his daughter, Lady Theodosia Ivy. Eye waters attributed to Stepkins contained tutty (an oxide of zinc), roses, sugar candy, and other ingredients. Interestingly, John Thomas Woolhouse, the author of the next identified report of congenital cataract surgery in 1706, stated that he was related to Stepkins. Woolhouse reported by 1721 that he had performed 36 congenital cataract surgeries, with the youngest patient being 18 months of age.

  15. Response of marine biota to a period of oceanic anoxia during the Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, B. A.; Coe, A. L.; Cohen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE; 183 Ma) was associated with a species level extinction of marine fauna and a crisis in the marine phytoplankton. The event lasted c. 250 ka and was characterised by a large, negative C-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~-7 per mil in marine organic matter, marine carbonates and fossilized wood. Geochemical evidence suggests that there was a contemporaneous increase in seawater temperature of 6-13° C that was accompanied by a large increase in the rate of global weathering. The present study documents changes in marine macrofauna in the early Toarcian at a high resolution and explores how species composition and biometric measurements are linked to geochemical changes. Reanalysis of the published palaeontological data for the Toarcian OAE suggests three apparent extinction horizons on a global and regional scale. The youngest of these horizons coincides exactly with the initial decrease in δ13C, and with the initial increases in sea surface temperature, continental weathering rates and seawater anoxia. New species range data were collected during this study from Toarcian sections in N Yorkshire, England. The results show distinct relationships with high resolution geochemical datasets (Cohen et al. 2007; Pearce et al. 2008). For example, there was an almost complete absence of fauna for 1750-12500 years immediately after each of the four abrupt shifts that make up the overall CIE. Only one bivalve species, Pseudomytiloides dubius, occurs in high abundance throughout the event, except within these discrete horizons. Increased epifaunal bivalve diversity and the reappearance of infauna indicate a brief return to relatively oxygenated conditions towards the end of the CIE. Biometric data were obtained for the two dominant bivalve species P. dubius and Bositra radiata from over 226 stratigraphic levels across the event. The data show that shell size is related to fluctuating seawater anoxia as recorded from Mo abundance and Mo

  16. Severe dengue in the early postoperative period after kidney transplantation: two case reports from Hospital Geral de Fortaleza.

    PubMed

    Maia, Samuelson Hugo Félix; Brasil, Ivelise Regina Canito; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo De Matos; Ponte, Carlos Nelton Da; Costa, Rebeca Carvalho Souza; Lira, Roberta Alves

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arbovirosis that ranges from an asymptomatic presentation to a more severe disease, which is characterized by a vascular leakage syndrome where abdominal pain is a major symptom. Transplant recipients are immunosuppressed and are less likely to develop a severe form of the disease because of a reduction in immune-mediated responses that trigger plasma extravasation events. Herein, we report two cases of severe dengue in the early postoperative period of two kidney transplant recipients. Considering the severity of the cases, we emphasize the importance of dengue screening immediately before transplantation in areas endemic for the disease.

  17. [The complex approach to the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients with movement disorders in the early rehabilitation period].

    PubMed

    Khabirov, F A; Khaĭbullin, T I; Grigor'eva, O V

    2011-01-01

    We studied 110 patients, aged 34-71 years, in the early rehabilitation period after stroke who were admitted to a rehabilitation neurologic department of Kazan. The rehabilitation approach was based on the combination of several methods: kinesitherapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and cerebrolysin treatment. This complex reanimation allowed to achieve the marked functional restoration of movement abilities in many cases that was correlated with the normalization of brain bioelectric activity (the increase of alpha-rhythm spectral power, the decrease of slow-wave EEG components). The combined use of these three methods was more effective than a combination of any two of them.

  18. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  19. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  20. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  1. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  2. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  3. Growth in PHEX-associated X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: the importance of early treatment.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Catherine; Guegan, Katie; Offiah, Amaka; Neill, Richard O'; Hiorns, Melanie P; Ellard, Sian; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hoff, William Van't; Waters, Aoife M

    2012-04-01

    Inactivating mutations in phosphate-regulating endopeptidase (PHEX) cause X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) characterized by phosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, bony deformities, and growth retardation. We assessed the efficacy of combined calcitriol and orally administered phosphate (Pi) therapy on longitudinal growth in relation to age at treatment onset in a retrospective, single-center review of children with XLHR and documented PHEX mutations. Growth was compared in those who started treatment before (G1; N = 10; six boys) and after (G2; N = 13; five boys) 1 year old. Median height standard deviation score (HSDS) at treatment onset was normal in G1: 0.1 [interquartile range (IR) -1.3 to 0.4) and significantly (p = 0.004) lower in G2 (IR -2.1 (-2.8 to -1.4). Treatment duration was similar [G1 8.5 (4.0-15.2) vs G2 11.9 (6.2-14.3) years; p = 0.56], as were prescribed phosphate and calcitriol doses. Recent HSDS was significantly (p = 0.009) better in G1 [-0.7 (-1.5 to 0.3)] vs G2 [-2.0 (-2.3 to -1.0)]. No effects of gender or genotype on growth could be identified. Children with PHEX-associated XLHR benefit from early treatment and can achieve normal growth. Minimal catchup growth was seen in those who started treatment later. Our findings emphasize the importance of early diagnosis to allow treatment before growth has been compromised.

  4. Pathways of early fatherhood, marriage, and employment: a latent class growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Pleck, Joseph H; Astone, Nan M; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2011-05-01

    In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), young fathers include heterogeneous subgroups with varying early life pathways in terms of fatherhood timing, the timing of first marriage, and holding full-time employment. Using latent class growth analysis with 10 observations between ages 18 and 37, we derived five latent classes with median ages of first fatherhood below the cohort median (26.4), constituting distinct early fatherhood pathways representing 32.4% of NLSY men: (A) Young Married Fathers, (B) Teen Married Fathers, (C) Young Underemployed Married Fathers, (D) Young Underemployed Single Fathers, and (E) Young Later-Marrying Fathers. A sixth latent class of men who become fathers around the cohort median, following full-time employment and marriage (On-Time On-Sequence Fathers), is the comparison group. With sociodemographic background controlled, all early fatherhood pathways show disadvantage in at least some later-life circumstances (earnings, educational attainment, marital status, and incarceration). The extent of disadvantage is greater when early fatherhood occurs at relatively younger ages (before age 20), occurs outside marriage, or occurs outside full-time employment. The relative disadvantage associated with early fatherhood, unlike early motherhood, increases over the life course.

  5. Germination and Early Growth of Sunflowers in Weak ELF Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    fields on the frequency of germination of sunflower seeds ( Helianthus annuus ) and on early growth of seedlings and older plants were performed in 1971...brought about by an, other micro-environmental factors. L1) D C AR 16 1976 L m) D D I OVA 1473 _________ NC.1 IXE UNCIASSIFIED ___se.. curity...brought about by any other micro- environmental factors. I • .1 L 2. INTRODUCTION Experiments seeking to determine the effects of weak elec- tromagnetic

  6. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  7. Profiling of Burkholderia cepacia Secretome at Mid-Logarithmic and Early-Stationary Phases of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Vanitha; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Hashim, Onn Haji; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2011-01-01

    Background Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD), flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK), TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu), Elongation factor G (FusA), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) and sulfatase (AslA) which are known for their virulence. Conclusion/Significance Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to control B. cepacia

  8. Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 Expression Imbalance Influence in Early Period After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Microvascular endothelial integrity is important for maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) disrupts this integrity, making the BBB dysfunctional—an important pathophysiological change after SAH. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) regulate microvascular permeability by balancing each other’s expression. Methods This study investigated the dynamics of Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression after SAH and the protective effect of Ang-1 on BBB functioning using an endovascular puncture model of rat SAH. The Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression in brain tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, Western blotting was used to estimate Ang-1 and Ang-2 concentration and to compare them at 6–72 hours post-SAH cortex and hippocampus. Evans blue viability assay was used to evaluate BBB permeability, and neurological testing was implemented to evaluate neurological impairment during SAH. Results It was found that following SAH, Ang-1 expression decreases and Ang-2 expression increases in the cortex, hippocampus, and microvessels. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio decreased as quickly as 6 hours after SAH and reached its lowest 1 day after SAH. Finally, it was found that exogenous Ang-1 reduces SAH-associated BBB leakage and improves neurological function in post-SAH rats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the equilibrium between Ang-1 and Ang-2 is broken in a period shortly after SAH, and the treatment of exogenous Ang-1 injection alleviates neurological dysfunctions through decreasing BBB destruction. PMID:28043115

  9. Sexual behavior of Pecari tajacu (Cetartiodactyla: Tayassuidae) during periovulatory and early gestation periods.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Oba, Eunice; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; Mayor, Pedro; de Araujo Guimarães, Diva Anelie

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the sexual behavior in female and male collared peccary. Twenty females and twelve males were monitored in familiar and non-familiar units for two 60 days periods. During both phases, we recorded 2747 sexual interactions initiated by 20 different females toward males and 4461 sexual interactions initiated by 12 males toward females. The frequency of sexual interactions initiated per female significantly increased from proestrus to estrus, and they were significantly more frequently courted. Females initiated olfactory inspections 15.42 times more and were mounted 22.6 times more during estrus than during proestrus. Nulliparous and primiparous females copulated only when exposed to non-parental males. After estrus, the frequency of sexual interactions received by females sharply decreased. One mating event was recorded during the first gestation week and 31 mountings were observed after the second week. In conclusion, the behavioral monitoring is a useful procedure for the recognition of estrus. Our results suggest that ovulation may be associated with the end of the estrus, which will support future work in assisted reproduction in this species. To promote good handling practices, females of reproductive age should be removed from their family unit of origin.

  10. Periodic stripe formation by a Turing-mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Andrew D.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Sharpe, Paul T.; Kondo, Shigeru; Basson, M. Albert; Gritli-Linde, Amel; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Green, Jeremy B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present direct evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, or rugae, marked by stripes of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression, appear at two growth zones where the space between previously laid-down rugae increases. However, inter-rugal growth is not absolutely required: new stripes still appear when growth is inhibited. Furthermore, when a ruga is excised new Shh expression appears, not at the cut edge but as bifurcating stripes branching from the neighbouring Shh stripe, diagnostic of a Turing-type reaction-diffusion mechanism. Genetic and inhibitor experiments identify Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Shh as an activator-inhibitor pair in this system. These findings demonstrate a reaction-diffusion mechanism likely to be widely relevant in vertebrate development. PMID:22344222

  11. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  12. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  13. Early growth response 3 (Egr-3) is induced by transforming growth factor-β and regulates fibrogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Feng; Shangguan, Anna J; Kelly, Kathleen; Wei, Jun; Gruner, Katherine; Ye, Boping; Wang, Wenxia; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Tourtellotte, Warren G; Varga, John

    2013-10-01

    Members of the early growth response (Egr) gene family of transcription factors have nonredundant biological functions. Although Egr-3 is implicated primarily in neuromuscular development and immunity, its regulation and role in tissue repair and fibrosis has not been studied. We now show that in normal skin fibroblasts, Egr-3 was potently induced by transforming growth factor-β via canonical Smad3. Moreover, transient Egr-3 overexpression was sufficient to stimulate fibrotic gene expression, whereas deletion of Egr-3 resulted in substantially attenuated transforming growth factor-β responses. Genome-wide expression profiling in fibroblasts showed that genes associated with tissue remodeling and wound healing were prominently up-regulated by Egr-3. Notably, <5% of fibroblast genes regulated by Egr-1 or Egr-2 were found to be coregulated by Egr-3, revealing substantial functional divergence among these Egr family members. In a mouse model of scleroderma, development of dermal fibrosis was accompanied by accumulation of Egr-3-positive myofibroblasts in the lesional tissue. Moreover, skin biopsy samples from patients with scleroderma showed elevated Egr-3 levels in the dermis, and Egr-3 mRNA levels correlated with the extent of skin involvement. These results provide the first evidence that Egr-3, a functionally distinct member of the Egr family with potent effects on inflammation and immunity, is up-regulated in scleroderma and is necessary and sufficient for profibrotic responses, suggesting important and distinct roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.

  14. Detecting Associations between Early-Life DDT Exposures and Childhood Growth Patterns: A Novel Statistical Approach.

    PubMed

    Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Warner, Marcella; Jewell, Nicholas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that environmental exposures at key development periods such as in utero play a role in childhood growth and obesity. To investigate whether in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), is associated with childhood physical growth, we took a novel statistical approach to analyze data from the CHAMACOS cohort study. To model heterogeneity in the growth patterns, we used a finite mixture model in combination with a data transformation to characterize body mass index (BMI) with four groups and estimated the association between exposure and group membership. In boys, higher maternal concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy are associated with a BMI growth pattern that is stable until about age five followed by increased growth through age nine. In contrast, higher maternal DDT exposure during pregnancy is associated with a flat, relatively stable growth pattern in girls. This study suggests that in utero exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with childhood BMI growth patterns, not just BMI level, and both the magnitude of exposure and sex may impact the relationship.

  15. Source mechanism of very-long-period signals accompanying dome growth activity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidayat, D.; Chouet, B.; Voight, B.; Dawson, P.; Ratdomopurbo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Very-long-period (VLP) pulses with period of 6-7s, displaying similar waveforms, were identified in 1998 from broadband seismographs around the summit crater. These pulses accompanied most of multiphase (MP) earthquakes, a type of long-period event locally defined at Merapi Volcano. Source mechanisms for several VLP pulses were examined by applying moment tensor inversion to the waveform data. Solutions were consistent with a crack striking ???70?? and dipping ???50?? SW, 100m under the active dome, suggest pressurized gas transport involving accumulation and sudden release of 10-60 m3 of gas in the crack over a 6s interval.

  16. Early stage of critical clusters growth in phenomenological and molecular dynamics simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzyrewski, Romuald; Rybicki, Jarosław; Białoskórski, Michał

    2006-12-01

    The growth of critical clusters is discussed in the paper according to the classical and molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. A new formula for molecule numbers in critical clusters has been derived within the framework of the classical approach. A set of equations controlling the early stage of growth in a neighborhood of a critical size is presented. As far as molecular dynamics simulation is concerned, a computational technique based on the DL_POLY code is described in brief. Computation results are presented concerning cluster formation of H 2O vapor, distribution of clusters versus time, cluster growth and radial density distribution of isolated clusters. A comparison with the classical results is made for a case of dense vapor, where the mechanism of strong condensation is predominant. The Hertz-Knudsen formula seems to be verified by the molecular dynamics results.

  17. Early growth dynamical implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benduhn, François; Schallock, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol growth dynamics may have implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur particles. This paper derives a set of critical initial growth conditions that are analyzed as a function of two key parameters: the initial concentration of the injected sulfuric acid and its dilution rate with the surrounding air. Based upon this analysis, early aerosol growth dynamical regimes may be defined and classified in terms of their likelihood to serve as candidates for the controlled generation of a radiatively effective aerosol. Our results indicate that the regime that fulfills all critical conditions would require that airplane turbines be used to provide sufficient turbulence. The regime's parameter space is narrow and related to steep gradients, thus pointing to potential fine tuning requirements. More research, development, and testing would be required to refine our findings and determine their global-scale implications.

  18. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  19. Effect of growth period on the multi-scale structure and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Gu, Bi; Li, Xiaoxi; Xie, Caifeng; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Binjia

    2017-03-07

    Starches were isolated from South China 5 (SC5) cassava harvested for 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 months. During growth, the granule size, lamellar structure, crystalline structure and digestibility changed slightly, while the amylose content varied between 20.93% and 22.61%. However, the molecular weight showed an obvious increase as the harvesting time increased to 9 months, and then decreased during 9-11 months. The pasting behaviors were greatly affected by harvesting time. A shorter growth time led to higher pasting temperature, and lower peak, breakdown and setback viscosities. This trend became contrary when the growth time prolonged from 9 to 11 months. Hence, the starch harvested at 9 months showed the lowest pasting temperature (64.6°C), but highest paste viscosity (2105 cP) and retrogradation tendency. All these results confirm that the growth time of 9 months was the turning point for the physicochemical features of SC5 during growth. This study provides fundamental data for rationally tailoring cassava starch properties by simply controlling the harvest time.

  20. Highly ordered self-assembled nanoscale periodic faceting in GaAs(631) homoepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Hernández, E.; Shimomura, S.; Méndez-García, V. H.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the self-assembly of large-order-correlated nanoscale faceting on GaAs(631)A substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The surface morphology of the grown samples as a function of the growth temperature and the As-beam equivalent pressure was studied using atomic force microscopy. A two-dimensional autocorrelation function analysis was performed in order to quantitatively determine the uniformity of the surface corrugation. By optimizing the growth conditions, correlated faceted areas as large as 1.7 × 1.7 μm2 are obtained. The highly ordered surface corrugation discussed here provides useful insights to prepare highly ordered facet planes for the self organized growth of quantum wires.

  1. Long-term habitat selection and chronic root herbivory: explaining the relationship between periodical cicada density and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H; Karban, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are insect herbivores that feed on host tree roots, but their distribution among hosts is determined largely by the oviposition of female cicadas in the previous generation. A pattern of decreasing tree growth rates with increasing cicada densities is predicted when considering the costs of chronic root herbivory, but the opposite pattern is expected when considering adaptive habitat selection. Here, we report observations indicating that the relationship between periodical cicada densities and host tree growth rates is hump shaped. We suggest that both herbivory and habitat selection are likely to be key processes explaining this pattern, resulting in regions of positive and negative correlation. These results suggest that the effects of cicada herbivory are most apparent at relatively high cicada densities, while habitat selection tends to distribute cicada herbivory on host trees that are able to compensate for cicada root herbivory up to threshold cicada densities.

  2. Early Head Growth in Infants at Risk of Autism: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Young, Gregory S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Dobkins, Karen; Ozonoff, Sally; Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E.; Carver, Leslie J.; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M.; Landa, Rebecca J.; Messinger, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While early brain overgrowth is frequently reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the relationship between ASD and head circumference (HC) is less clear, with inconsistent findings from longitudinal studies that include community controls. Our aim was to examine whether head growth in the first 3 years differed between children with ASD from a high-risk (HR) sample of infant siblings of children with ASD (by definition, multiplex), HR siblings not diagnosed with ASD, and low-risk (LR) controls. Method: Participants included 442 HR and 253 LR infants from 12 sites of the international Baby Siblings Research Consortium. Longitudinal HC data were obtained prospectively, supplemented by growth records. Random effects non-linear growth models were used to compare HC in HR infants and LR infants. Additional comparisons were conducted with the HR group stratified by diagnostic status at age 3: ASD (n=77), developmental delay (DD; n=32), and typical development (TD; n=333). Nonlinear growth models were also developed for height to assess general overgrowth associated with ASD. Results: There was no overall difference in head circumference growth over the first 3 years between HR and LR infants, although secondary analyses suggested possible increased total growth in HR infants, reflected by the model asymptote. Analyses stratifying the HR group by 3-year outcomes did not detect differences in head growth or height between HR infants who developed ASD and those who did not, nor between infants with ASD and LR controls. Conclusion: Head growth was uninformative as an ASD risk marker within this HR cohort. PMID:25245349

  3. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender.

  4. Plasma Epidermal Growth Factor Decreased in the Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  5. Periodic Overload and Transport Spectrum Fatigue Crack Growth Tests of Ti62222STA and Al2024T3 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    Variable amplitude loading crack growth tests have been conducted to provide data that can be used to evaluate crack growth prediction codes. Tests with periodic overloads or overloads followed by underloads were conducted on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr solution treated and aged (Ti62222STA) material at room temperature and at 350 F. Spectrum fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on two materials (Ti62222STA and aluminum alloy 2024-T3) using two transport lower-wing test spectra at two temperatures (room temperature and 350 F (Ti only)). Test lives (growth from an initial crack half-length of 0.15 in. to failure) were recorded in all tests and the crack length against cycles (or flights) data were recorded in many of the tests. The following observations were made regarding the test results: (1) in tests of the Ti62222STA material, the tests at 350 F had longer lives than those at room temperature, (2) in tests to the MiniTwist spectrum, the Al2024T3 material showed much greater crack growth retardations due to the highest stresses in the spectrum than did the Ti62222STA material, and (3) comparisons of material crack growth performances on an "equal weight" basis were spectrum dependent.

  6. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Militi, Stefania; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Sandate, Colby R.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Parsons, Michael J.; Vibert, Jennifer L.; Joynson, Greg M.; Partch, Carrie L.; Hastings, Michael H.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) defines 24 h of time via a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which transactivation of Per (period) and Cry (cryptochrome) genes by BMAL1–CLOCK complexes is suppressed by PER–CRY complexes. The molecular/structural basis of how circadian protein complexes function is poorly understood. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2Edo/Edo mice by 1.5 h. Structural and biophysical analyses revealed that Edo alters the packing of the highly conserved interdomain linker of the PER2 PAS core such that, although PER2Edo complexes with clock proteins, its vulnerability to degradation mediated by casein kinase 1ε (CSNK1E) is increased. The functional relevance of this mutation is revealed by the ultrashort (<19 h) but robust circadian rhythms in Per2Edo/Edo; Csnk1eTau/Tau mice and the SCN. These periods are unprecedented in mice. Thus, Per2Edo reveals a direct causal link between the molecular structure of the PER2 PAS core and the pace of SCN circadian timekeeping. PMID:26903623

  7. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic.

  8. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S. E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  9. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment given in early or late gestation on growth and development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Sloboda, D M; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Doherty, D A; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2013-04-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40-42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.

  10. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum.

  11. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  12. In-plane and growth direction electron cyclotron effective mass in short period InAs/GaSb semiconductor superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Suchalkin, S.; Belenky, G.; Svensson, S. P.; Laikhtman, B.; Smirnov, D.; Tung, L. C.; Bandara, S.

    2011-08-15

    In plane and growth direction electron effective mass in short period InAs/GaSb semiconductor superlattices (SL) was measured using cyclotron resonance at different orientations of magnetic field with respect to SL growth direction. It was demonstrated that the electron spectrum near the bottom of the SL subband has 3D character, with the in-plane effective masses ranging from 0.023 m{sub 0} to 0.028 m{sub 0} and growth direction effective masses of 0.03-0.034 m{sub 0} depending on the SL period and growth conditions. The measured effective masses are close to those calculated in the weak coupling limit of the Kronig-Penney model. In this limit the SL electron effective mass is a weighted average of the electron effective masses of corresponding bulk materials. Correlation between the magnitude of cyclotron mobility, amplitude of negative magnetoresistance, and steepness of the long wavelength side of the photoluminescence spectrum indicate that the crystalline structure disorder is a major factor contributing to the momentum relaxation time of the electrons.

  13. Plant species differ in early seedling growth and tissue nutrient responses to arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Gehring, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse. Trees were inoculated with unidentified field mixtures of AMF or EMF species cultivated on root fragments of AMF- or EMF-specific bait plants. In E. grandis, inoculation with both AMF and EMF positively affected belowground plant dry weight and negatively affected aboveground dry weight, while only inoculation with AMF increased tissue nutrient content. Conversely, Q. costaricensis dry weight and nutrient content did not differ significantly among inoculation treatments, potentially due to its dependence on cotyledon reserves for growth. Mineral nutrition of both tree species differed with the ratio of N to P applied while growth did not. Our results demonstrate that both tree species' characteristics and the soil nutrient environment can affect how AMF and EMF interact with their host plants. This research highlights the importance of mycorrhizal fungal-tree-soil interactions during early seedling growth and suggests that differences between AMF and EMF associations may be crucial to understanding forest ecosystem functioning.

  14. Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

  15. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING A CRITICAL PERIOD OF MAMMARY GLAND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal exposure to 100 mg/kg atrazine (ATR) was previously shown to delay mammary gland (MG) development in the female offspring of Long Evans (LE) rats. To determine if the fetal MG was most sensitive to ATR effects during specific periods of development, timed-pregnant dams ...

  16. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11–85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction event. PMID:28049837

  17. Differential radial growth patterns between beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on periodically waterlogged soils.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Tobias; Manthey, Michael; Wilmking, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions. To test this, we investigated general growth patterns and climate-growth relationships in four mature stands of beech and oak growing on hydromorphic soils (Stagnosols) in northeast Germany using dendrochronological methods. Our results confirmed the expected tolerance of oak to strong water-level fluctuations. Neither extremely wet conditions during spring nor summer droughts significantly affected its radial growth. Oak growth responded positively to warmer temperatures during previous year October and March of the current year of ring formation. Contrary to our expectations, also beech showed relatively low sensitivity to periods of high soil water saturation. Instead, summer drought turned out to be the main climatic factor influencing ring width of beech even under the specific periodically wet soil conditions of our study. This became evident from general climate-growth correlations over the last century as well as from discontinuous (pointer year) analysis with summer drought being significantly correlated to the occurrence of growth depressions. As ring width of the two species is affected by differing climate parameters, species-specific chronologies show no coherence in high-frequency variations even for trees growing in close proximity. We assume differences in rooting depth as the main reason for the differing growth patterns and climate correlations of

  18. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment.

  19. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. . Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  20. Continental emergence in the Late Archean reconciles early and late continental growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Coltice, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of ancient sediments (Rare Earth Element composition of black shales, isotopic strontium composition of marine carbonates, isotopic oxygen composition of zircons) suggests that continental growth culminated around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. In stark contrast, the geochemical analysis of ancient basalts suggests that depletion of the mantle occurred in the Hadean and Eoarchean. This paradox may be solved if continents were extracted from the mantle early in Earth's history, but remained mostly below sea level throughout the Archean. We present a model to estimate the area of emerged land and associated isotopic strontium composition of the mantle and oceans as a function of the coupled evolution of mantle temperature, continental growth and distribution of surface elevations (hypsometry). For constant continental hypsometry and four distinct continental growth models, we show that sea level was between 500 and 2000 m higher in the Archean than at present, resulting in < 12% of emerged land, compared to ~ 28% at present. If in addition the hot Archean lithosphere could not sustain high relief, as little as 2-3% of Earth's surface would have been emerged in the Archean. Using a geochemical box model for the strontium isotopic composition of the mantle and oceans, we show that a reduced area of emerged continental crust can explain why the geochemical fingerprint of continents extracted early in Earth's history was not recorded at the surface of the Earth until the late Archean.

  1. Growth from birth to early adolescence in offspring prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1999-01-01

    Weight, height, and head circumference were examined in children from birth to early adolescence for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. The negative association between growth measures at birth and prenatal cigarette exposure was overcome, sooner in males than females, within the first few years, and by the age of six, the children of heavy smokers were heavier than control subjects. Pre and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke did not have a negative effect upon the growth parameters; however, the choice of bottle-feeding or shorter duration of breast-feeding by women who smoked during pregnancy appeared to play an important positive role in the catch-up observed among the infants of smokers. Prenatal exposure to marijuana was not significantly related to any growth measures at birth, although a smaller head circumference observed at all ages reached statistical significance among the early adolescents born to the heavy marijuana users.

  2. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  3. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  4. Brg1 Enables Rapid Growth of the Early Embryo by Suppressing Genes That Regulate Apoptosis and Cell Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet P.; Foley, Julie F.; Rubino, Mark; Boyle, Michael C.; Tandon, Arpit; Shah, Ruchir

    2016-01-01

    SWI/SNF (switching/sucrose nonfermenting)-dependent chromatin remodeling establishes coordinated gene expression programs during development, yet important functional details remain to be elucidated. We show that the Brg1 (Brahma-related gene 1; Smarca4) ATPase is globally expressed at high levels during postimplantation development and its conditional ablation, beginning at gastrulation, results in increased apoptosis, growth retardation, and, ultimately, embryonic death. Global gene expression analysis revealed that genes upregulated in Rosa26CreERT2; Brg1flox/flox embryos (here referred to as Brg1d/d embryos to describe embryos with deletion of the Brg1flox/flox alleles) negatively regulate cell cycle progression and cell growth. In addition, the p53 (Trp53) protein, which is virtually undetectable in early wild-type embryos, accumulated in the Brg1d/d embryos and activated the p53-dependent pathways. Using P19 cells, we show that Brg1 and CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4) coordinate to control target gene expression. Both proteins physically interact and show a substantial overlap of binding sites at chromatin-accessible regions adjacent to genes differentially expressed in the Brg1d/d embryos. Specifically, Brg1 deficiency results in reduced levels of the repressive histone H3 lysine K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) histone mark and an increase in the amount of open chromatin at the regulatory region of the p53 and p21 (Cdkn1a) genes. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which Brg1 functions, which is in part via the p53 program, to constrain gene expression and facilitate rapid embryonic growth. PMID:27185875

  5. Metabolic rates are elevated and influenced by maternal identity during the early, yolk-dependent, post-hatching period in an estuarine turtle, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Woodland, Ryan J; Funck, Sarah A

    2017-02-01

    Non-genetic maternal effects, operating through a female's physiology or behavior, can influence offspring traits and performance. Here we examined potential maternal influences on metabolic rates (MR) of offspring in an estuarine turtle, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). Females and their eggs were collected from the field and the eggs incubated in the laboratory for subsequent measurement of MR of females, late-stage embryos, newly-hatched individuals that were nutritionally dependent on yolk, and older hatchlings that had depleted their yolk reserves and thus were independent of energetic contributions from the female. Female identity significantly affected MR of yolk-dependent hatchlings but, after yolk was depleted, MR of offspring converged and no longer reflected the maternal influence. Offspring from different females also differed in size, which influenced offspring MR and growth, but there was no correlation between female MR or size and offspring traits. MR of the older, yolk-independent hatchlings was lower overall than yolk-dependent hatchlings but correlated positively with growth rates and prior developmental rate (e.g. negatively correlated with time to hatching). Unlike another turtle species (snapping turtles), in which maternally-related differences in offspring MR were retained after yolk depletion, the maternal influence on offspring MR in diamondback terrapins is limited to early hatchling development and growth. The transient nature of the maternal effect, which was present only during the period that hatchlings were metabolizing yolk, suggests that variation among females in the composition of yolk deposited in eggs could be responsible for the differences observed in this study.

  6. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Neto, E.; Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F.; Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates. PMID:22488223

  7. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  8. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-02-16

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  9. On parameter estimation in compartmental epidemic models. Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Since the groundbreaking work on epidemic modeling by R.A. Ross on malaria [9] and A.G. McKendrick and W.O. Kermack on general compartmental epidemic models [8], it has been standard practice in analyzing disease outbreaks to formulate a dynamical system as a deterministic compartmental model. The next steps are to use observed early outbreak data to fit parameters to the model, and then analyze the dynamical system to predict the course of the disease outbreak and to compare the effects of different management strategies. In general, such models predict an initial stochastic stage (while the number of infectious individuals is small), followed by a period of exponential growth. Measurement of this early exponential growth rate is an essential step in estimating contact rate parameters for the model. A thorough description of the analysis of compartmental models may be found in [7].

  10. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  11. [The activity of nonspecific bone marrow and spleen suppressors in the latent period of tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Ogreba, V I; Kusmartsev, S A; Vasil'ev, N V

    1988-01-01

    Female A/Sn mice aged 2-3 and 11-14 months (with spontaneous adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland and tumor-free) and C57Bl/6 mice were followed after treatment with DMBA. Suppressor cells were tested for the ability to inhibit in vivo antibody responses to sheep erythrocytes by adoptively syngeneically transferred cells. It was demonstrated that the activity of nonspecific suppressors of the bone marrow and spleen increases considerably in the precancer period.

  12. Mixed-Effects Modelling of Scale Growth Profiles Predicts the Occurrence of Early and Late Fish Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Rius, Francisco; Caballero, Pablo; Morán, Paloma; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Fish growth is commonly used as a proxy for fitness but this is only valid if individual growth variation can be interpreted in relation to conspecifics' performance. Unfortunately, assessing individual variation in growth rates is problematic under natural conditions because subjects typically need to be marked, repeated measurements of body size are difficult to obtain in the field, and recaptures may be limited to a few time events which will generally vary among individuals. The analysis of consecutive growth rings (circuli) found on scales and other hard structures offers an alternative to mark and recapture for examining individual growth variation in fish and other aquatic vertebrates where growth rings can be visualized, but accounting for autocorrelations and seasonal growth stanzas has proved challenging. Here we show how mixed-effects modelling of scale growth increments (inter-circuli spacing) can be used to reconstruct the growth trajectories of sea trout (Salmo trutta) and correctly classify 89% of individuals into early or late seaward migrants (smolts). Early migrants grew faster than late migrants during their first year of life in freshwater in two natural populations, suggesting that migration into the sea was triggered by ontogenetic (intrinsic) drivers, rather than by competition with conspecifics. Our study highlights the profound effects that early growth can have on age at migration of a paradigmatic fish migrant and illustrates how the analysis of inter-circuli spacing can be used to reconstruct the detailed growth of individuals when these cannot be marked or are only caught once. PMID:23613922

  13. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  14. Early Acceleration of Mathematics Students and its Effect on Growth in Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin

    2002-11-01

    The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.

  15. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  16. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals for nondestructive repair of early caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Yamagishi, Kazue; Oyane, Ayako

    2005-08-01

    Characterization of synthetic enamel formed by newly developed dental paste for repairing early caries lesions was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and atomic force microscopy, with the chemical composition analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals seamlessly grew in the interface between the paste and tooth enamel, and arranged their (0 0 0 1) face parallel to the tooth surface same as enamel apatite. The rapid growth of high crystalline large hydroxyapatite crystals by applying the paste is attributed to the dissociation of calcium phosphate clusters, Ca 9(PO 4) 6, which is the main growth unit of hydroxyapatite when it grows under physiological conditions, to ionic species in the concentrated and low pH phosphate solution.

  17. Enhanced algal abundance in northwest Ontario (Canada) lakes during the warmer early-to mid-Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Moumita; Leavitt, Peter R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates regional changes in primary producers in boreal head-water lakes during the warmer early-to-mid-Holocene (EMH) period, across the present-day boreal forest in northwest Ontario, a region that is adjacent to the prairie-forest ecotone. We quantified changes in algal abundance and composition over the Holocene period using pigments, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll a and diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes. All three indicators showed a coherent pattern of enhanced primary producers in two of the study lakes (Gall Lake and Lake 239) during the EMH, whereas only diatom assemblages suggested higher levels of nutrients in Meekin Lake. Overall, this study supports a regional pattern of enhanced primary producers during the EMH, likely as a function of lower water-levels and warmer temperatures. Elevated concentrations of cyanobacterial pigments also occurred in two of the three lakes during the EMH, whereas pigments from purple-sulphur bacteria provide evidence of enhanced deep-water anoxia in one lake. These findings suggest that future climatic warming in boreal regions could include regional eutrophication and associated increases in cyanobacteria.

  18. System and method for implementing periodic early discard in on-chip buffer memories of network elements

    DOEpatents

    Francini, Andrea

    2013-05-14

    An advance is made over the prior art in accordance with the principles of the present invention that is directed to a new approach for a system and method for a buffer management scheme called Periodic Early Discard (PED). The invention builds on the observation that, in presence of TCP traffic, the length of a queue can be stabilized by selection of an appropriate frequency for packet dropping. For any combination of number of TCP connections and distribution of the respective RTT values, there exists an ideal packet drop frequency that prevents the queue from over-flowing or under-flowing. While the value of the ideal packet drop frequency may quickly change over time and is sensitive to the series of TCP connections affected by past packet losses, and most of all is impossible to compute inline, it is possible to approximate it with a margin of error that allows keeping the queue occupancy within a pre-defined range for extended periods of time. The PED scheme aims at tracking the (unknown) ideal packet drop frequency, adjusting the approximated value based on the evolution of the queue occupancy, with corrections of the approximated packet drop frequency that occur at a timescale that is comparable to the aggregate time constant of the set of TCP connections that traverse the queue.

  19. Intestinal development and growth performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low-threonine diet.

    PubMed

    Hamard, A; Sève, B; Le Floc'h, N

    2007-09-01

    High dietary threonine extraction by the digestive tract suggests that threonine contributes to maintain gut integrity. The aims of this study were to investigate the intestine development and the growth performance of early-weaned piglets pair-fed either a control well-balanced (C: 9.3 g threonine/kg diet) or a low-threonine diet (LT: 6.5 g threonine/kg diet) for 2 weeks. As expected, LT piglets presented lower plasma free threonine compared with C piglets (118 v. 356 ± 12 μmol/l, P < 0.001). Dietary threonine supply altered neither growth performance nor growth of the intestine and of the other portal-drained viscera (stomach, spleen and pancreas). Nevertheless, villus height was reduced in the ileum of the LT piglets compared with C piglets (446 v. 714 ± 74 μm, P < 0.05). This was also associated with a decrease in crypt width (P < 0.05) and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05). Whereas maltase and lactase activities did not change between the two groups, aminopeptidase nitrogen activity was decreased in the ileum of LT piglets (269 v. 374 ± 27 IU/mg protein, P < 0.05). The number of mucin-containing goblet cells was not modified in the ileum and in the proximal part of the large intestine of the LT piglets compared with the C piglets. In conclusion, despite no alteration of intestinal growth, villus hypotrophy associated with a reduction of aminopeptidase nitrogen activity suggest an alteration of the structure of the ileum in early-weaned piglets fed a diet supplying inadequate dietary threonine.

  20. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  1. Behavioral and growth effects induced by low dose methamphetamine administration during the neonatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Moran, Mary S; Vorhees, Charles V

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of methamphetamine exposure during neonatal development in rats has demonstrated that long-term spatial learning deficits are induced. A previous dose-response study showed that administration of 5 mg/kg methamphetamine, four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20 produced these deficits, although the effects were not as severe as at higher doses of 10 or 15 mg/kg. This study examined concentrations of methamphetamine at or below 5mg/kg given over the same period of time. Five different concentrations of methamphetamine (i.e., 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, or 0) were administered every 2 h four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20. Body weights, zero maze performance, and Morris water maze learning were examined. A dose-dependent decrease in body weight was observed during the period of methamphetamine administration and these lower weights continued throughout adulthood for the 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg concentrations, although the adult decreases were negligible. No differences were noted in the zero maze. In the Morris water maze during the acquisition period, dose-dependent differences in spatial orientation were seen, however non-dose related deficits were observed for other parameters. During the shifted platform phase ("reversal"), a similar dose-dependent difference in spatial orientation was observed, although no other effects were noted during this phase. Females performed worse than males regardless of treatment or the phase of learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that even lower doses of methamphetamine can alter learning and memory in adulthood, although with less consistent results than with doses higher than 5 mg/kg/dose. These data would caution against even casual use of methamphetamine by women during pregnancy since even low doses could alter the ability of the child to learn.

  2. The effect of a period of intense exercise on the marker approach to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sven Christian; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Bourdon, Pitre C; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on the growth hormone marker approach to detect doping with human growth hormone (hGH). In addition we investigated the effect of changes in plasma volume on the test. Fifteen male athletes performed a simulated nine-day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race + three days before and after). Plasma volumes were estimated by the optimized CO Rebreathing method. IGF-1 and P-III-NP were analyzed by Siemens Immulite and Cisbio Assays, respectively. All measured GH 2000 scores were far below the published decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. The period of exercise did not increase the GH-scores; however the accompanying effect of the increase in Plasma Volume yielded in essentially lower GH-scores. We could demonstrate that a period of heavy, long-term exercise with changes in plasma volume does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding.

  3. Early Growth Response Gene 1 ("EGR-1") Is Required for New and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Monsey, Melissa S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    The immediate-early gene early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1, zif-268) has been extensively studied in synaptic plasticity and memory formation in a variety of memory systems. However, a convincing role for EGR-1 in amygdala-dependent memory consolidation processes has yet to emerge. In the present study, we have examined the role of EGR-1 in the…

  4. [Growth and development of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. in the prereproductive period under long photoperiods].

    PubMed

    Shibaeva, T G; Markovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    When plants are grown in a greenhouse, an increase in the photoperiod, as well as continuous lighting, is one of the ways to improve plant productivity and energy savings. However, a number of crops under long photoperiods develop signs of light damage to leaves, and productivity is reduced. We studied the effect of the photoperiod (8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) and photon flux densities (60, 120, and 160 micromol/m2 with PAR) on cucumber plants Cucumis sativus L. in a prereproductive period. We show that the response of the cucumber plants to a photoperiod duration of more than 20 h, including continuous lighting, depending on the plant age and lighting conditions, may include epinastic reaction of the leaves, activation of a mechanism of nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and/or reversible photoinhibition of a reaction center of photosystem II, development of reversible chlorosis, reduction of a light-harvesting complex, and increase in the content of carotenoids. Reaction of immature and virginile plants to long photoperiods was different, which highlights the need for experimental separation of the prereproductive period of development in terms of age states and consideration of this when preparing programs of cultivation.

  5. Structural defects in the growth of multiple periods of InAs quantum dots on a GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwack Joo; Ryu, Hyun; Leam, Jae Y.; Noh, Sam K.; Lee, Hyung G.; Nahm, Sahn

    1997-02-01

    Microstructural observations on 20 periods of InAs quantum dots on a GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy system were carried out by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The spherical cap-shaped InAs quantum dots were formed in a self-organized fashion, dot over dot, along the growth direction. However, two types of anomalities were found in the growth of these superlattice structures. One is the stoppage of quantum dot formation after 4 or 5 layers have been deposited. The morphology of the quantum dots was rather flat and faceted and a black and white contrast layer has appeared in the dot structure. The other type was a volcano-like defect which was grown vertically along the growth direction with a size of about 120 nm in diameter and about 400 nm in spacing. Inside the defect, black and white contrast layers have been formed along the [110] direction at the bottom of the epilayer and then changed to the [111] direction as the growth continued to the top layer.

  6. Growth and development of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in response to chronic food restriction throughout the nestling period.

    PubMed

    Killpack, Tess L; Karasov, William H

    2012-06-01

    Birds have evolved phenotypic plasticity in growth and developmental patterns in order to respond to fluctuating environmental conditions and to mitigate the impact of poor feeding on fitness. Chronic food shortage can occur during chick development in the wild, and the responses of altricial birds have not been thoroughly studied. House sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings were raised in the laboratory on age-specific meal sizes (controls) or meal sizes 25% less than age-specific amounts (food-restricted) and analyzed at 6, 9 and 12 days post-hatch for differences in growth and development. Food-restricted birds had significantly reduced body mass and body temperature, but skeletal growth was maintained with respect to controls. Muscle mass was significantly reduced and muscle water content was slightly, though not significantly, higher in food-restricted birds, which may reflect slight developmental immaturity. Assimilation organ masses, summed enzymatic capacity of the intestine and lipid content of the liver were significantly reduced in food-restricted birds. Findings from this study indicate that altricial birds experiencing chronic, moderate food restriction throughout the nestling period may allocate resources to structural growth through energy-saving reductions in mass of assimilation organs and body temperature.

  7. The SLT2(MPK1) MAP kinase is activated during periods of polarized cell growth in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Zarzov, P; Mazzoni, C; Mann, C

    1996-01-01

    The SLT2(MPK1) mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pa thway has been implicated in several biological processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the regulation of cytoskeletal and cell wall structure, polarized cell growth, and response to nutrient availability, hypo-osmotic shock and heat shock. We examined the conditions under which the SLT2 pathway is activated. We found that the SLT2 kinase is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated during periods in which yeast cells are undergoing polarized cell growth, namely during bud formation of vegetative cell division and during projection formation upon treatment with mating pheromone. BCK1(SLK1), a MEK kinase, is required for SLT2 activation in both of these situations. Upstream of BCK1(SLK1), we found that the STE20 kinase was required for SLT2 activation by mating pheromone, but was unnecessary for its activation during the vegetative cell cycle. Finally, SLT2 activation during vegetative growth was partially dependent on CDC28 in that the stimulation of SLT2 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly reduced directly after a temperature shift in cdc28 ts mutants. Our data are consistent with a role for SLT2 in promoting polarized cell growth. Images PMID:8598209

  8. Evolution of residual-strain distribution through an overload-induced retardation period during fatigue-crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Sun, Y.; An, K.; Choo, H.; Hubbard, C. R.; Liaw, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the crack-growth retardation phenomenon after a single tensile overload by mapping both one-dimensional and two-dimensional residual-strain distributions around the crack tip in a series of compact-tension specimens representing various crack-growth stages through an overload-induced retardation period. The results clearly show a large compressive residual-strain field near the crack tip immediately after the overload. As the fatigue crack propagates through the overload-induced plastic zone, the compressive residual strains are gradually relaxed, and a new compressive residual-strain field is developed around the propagating crack tip, illustrating that the subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone grows out of the large plastic zone caused by the overloading. The relationship between the overload-induced plastic zone and subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone, and its influence on the residual-strain distributions in the perturbed plastic zone are discussed.

  9. Heparin Inhibits Hepatocyte Growth Factor Induced Motility and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Early Growth Response Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Ozen, Evin; Gozukizil, Aysim; Erdal, Esra; Uren, Aykut; Bottaro, Donald P.; Atabey, Nese

    2012-01-01

    The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling pathway regulates hepatocyte proliferation, and pathway aberrations are implicated in the invasive and metastatic behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition to c-Met, heparin acts as a co-receptor to modulate pathway activity. Recently, anti-metastatic and anti-cancer effects of heparin have been reported. However, the role of heparin in the regulation of HGF signaling remains controversial and the effects of heparin on HGF-induced biological responses during hepatocarcinogenesis is not yet defined. In this study we determined the effects of heparin on HGF-induced activities of HCC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we report for the first time that heparin inhibits HGF-induced adhesion, motility and invasion of HCC cells. In addition, heparin reduced HGF-induced activation of c-Met and MAPK in a dose-dependent manner, as well as decreased transcriptional activation and expression of Early growth response factor 1 (Egr1). HGF-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation, and MT1-MMP expression, also were inhibited by heparin. Stable knockdown of Egr1 caused a significant decrease in HGF-induced invasion, as well as the activation and expression of MMPs. Parallel to these findings, the overexpression of Egr1 increased the invasiveness of HCC cells. Our results suggest that Egr1 activates HGF-induced cell invasion through the regulation of MMPs in HCC cells and heparin inhibits HGF-induced cellular invasion via the downregulation of Egr1. Therefore, heparin treatment might be a therapeutic approach to inhibit invasion and metastasis of HCC, especially for patients with active HGF/c-Met signaling. PMID:22912725

  10. Early Growth Response-1 Induces and Enhances Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yazawa, Takuya; Sato, Hanako; Okudela, Koji; Ishii, Jun; Sakaeda, Masashi; Kashiwagi, Korehito; Suzuki, Takehisa; Mitsui, Hideaki; Woo, Tetsukan; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ohmori, Takahiro; Ogura, Takashi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oshiro, Hisashi; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is crucial for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and metastasis during tumor development. We demonstrate here that early growth response-1 (EGR-1), which is induced by the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, activates VEGF-A in lung cancer cells. Increased EGR-1 expression was found in adenocarcinoma cells carrying mutant K-RAS or EGFR genes. Hypoxic culture, siRNA experiment, luciferase assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and quantitative RT-PCR using EGR-1–inducible lung cancer cells demonstrated that EGR-1 binds to the proximal region of the VEGF-A promoter, activates VEGF-A expression, and enhances hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-mediated VEGF-A expression. The EGR-1 modulator, NAB-2, was rapidly induced by increased levels of EGR-1. Pathology samples of human lung adenocarcinomas revealed correlations between EGR-1/HIF-1α and VEGF-A expressions and relative elevation of EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression in mutant K-RAS- or EGFR-carrying adenocarcinomas. Both EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression increased as tumors dedifferentiated, whereas HIF-1α expression did not. Although weak correlation was found between EGR-1 and NAB-2 expressions on the whole, NAB-2 expression decreased as tumors dedifferentiated, and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase/histone deacetylase increased NAB-2 expression in lung cancer cells despite no epigenetic alteration in the NAB-2 promoter. These findings suggest that EGR-1 plays important roles on VEGF-A expression in lung cancer cells, and epigenetic silencing of transactivator(s) associated with NAB-2 expression might also contribute to upregulate VEGF-A expression. PMID:20489156

  11. Early and correct diagnosis of celiac disease in the prevention of growth disorders and child development.

    PubMed

    Brigic, Esad; Hadzic, Devleta; Mladina, Nada

    2012-01-01

    Coeliac, in ordinary people known as "flour allergy" and in medicine world known as gluten enteropathy which means enteric damage caused by gluten. Data about incidence of gluten enteropathy is different in different countries around the World and depend on is it or is it not the right diagnosis for enteric disorder. Sometimes, this disease is unrecognized because of unspecific clinical signs. This disease is happening in every moment of a lifetime, most common during the childhood when the children try to eat any food which contains gluten. Anyway, if children had no symptoms it doesn't¢t mean that disease not exists, and that¢is because we have to do diagnostic tests to confirm gluten enteropathy. Gluten intolerance is chronic disease and demand use of the specific non gluten food during the lifetime. Early diagnosis is right way to prevent unregularly growth. Aim of this study was to show the influence of early diagnostic about growth. For each patient we had a permission of parents and we showed our original results for three month we investigated.

  12. Expression of Escherichia coli cspA during early exponential growth at 37 °C.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Anna; Pon, Cynthia L

    2012-01-25

    CspA is a small (7.4 kDa) nucleic acid binding protein of Escherichia coli whose expression is stimulated after cold-stress but whose level is also extraordinarily high during the early phase of growth of non-stressed cells. In this study the relationship existing between cspA transcription/translation on the one hand and the acquisition of critical mass for cell division and chromosome replication, on the other, in stationary phase cells subjected to a nutritional up-shift at 37 °C has been analyzed. Measurements of optical density and viable counts, pulse-chase, real-time PCR and immunodetection experiments, as well as cytofluorimetric and DNA duplication analyses show that synthesis of new CspA molecules at 37 °C is not only restricted to the lag phase ensuing the nutritional up-shift, but continues also during the first stages of logarithmic growth, when cells have already started dividing; although the early synthesized molecules are diluted by the following cell divisions and new synthesis occurs at an extremely low level, cspA mRNA and CspA continue to be present. A possible explanation for the apparent paradox that cspA is activated not only following cold stress, but also under non-stress and other stress conditions which entail a down-regulation of bulk gene expression and protein synthesis is presented.

  13. The transcription factor early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) promotes apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Miguel; Luna-Medina, Rosario; Pérez-Rendón, Arturo; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) is an immediate early gene, which is rapidly activated in quiescent cells by mitogens or in postmitotic neurons after depolarization. EGR-1 has been involved in diverse biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Here we report that enforced expression of the EGR-1 gene induces apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analysis, in murine Neuro2A cells. In accordance with this role of EGR-1 in cell death, antisense oligonucleotides increase cell viability in cells cultured in the absence of serum. This apoptotic activity of the EGR-1 appears to be mediated by p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, since an increase in the amount of p73 is observed in clones stably expressing the EGR-1 protein. We also observed an increase in the transcriptional activity of the mdm2 promoter in cells overexpressing EGR-1, which is paralleled by a marked decrease in the levels of p53 protein, therefore excluding a role of this protein in mediating EGR-1-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that EGR-1 is an important factor involved in neuronal apoptosis. PMID:12755686

  14. A critical role for fibroblast growth factor-7 during early alveolar formation in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Padela, Sanna; Yi, Man; Cabacungan, Judy; Shek, Samuel; Belcastro, Rosetta; Masood, Azhar; Jankov, Robert P; Tanswell, A Keith

    2008-03-01

    Mesenchymal cell-derived FGF-7 (fibroblast growth factor-7) induces proliferation in both epithelial and endothelial cells. We found FGF-7 to be expressed in the lungs of neonatal rats from birth to d 14 of age. A role for FGF-7 in early postnatal lung growth and alveolar formation, by an action on type II pneumocytes, has been excluded by the work of others. However, a role through an action of FGF-7 on other cell types has not been excluded. We used intraperitoneal injections of neutralizing antibodies on d 3, 4, and 5 of life to inhibit binding of FGF-7 to its receptors, and assessed alveolar formation on d 6 of life. This intervention inhibited DNA synthesis in, and number of, alveoli-forming secondary crests, resulting in a significantly reduced alveolar number. This failure of alveolar formation was associated with a reduction in the number of small blood vessels in the lung periphery. We conclude that FGF-7, most likely through its effect on the vascular bed, is required for normal early postnatal alveolar formation from secondary crests.

  15. Evidence of a warm early instrumental period found in temperature related water isotope records from high elevation Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Schöner, Wolfgang; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    The variability of water isotopes (delta-O18 or delta-D) preserved in Alpine glacier ice may provide mid-latitude temperature proxy records supplementing respective information from other archives. In order to archive long term records (i.e. exceeding 100 years) the limited glacier depth at suitable Alpine drill sites requires a relatively low net accumulation rate. In this respect, the cold glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti (CG) is the unique drilling site in the European Alps offering ice core records substantially exceeding the instrumental period. However, the unique low net accumulation at CG is characterised by strong spatio-temporal variability causing depositional noise that strongly challenges the interpretation of the ice core isotope records in terms of net temperature change. Here we present our findings from comparing stable water isotope records of the CG multi core array to a site-specific temperature time series. The latter is synthesized from high elevation stations of the instrumental HISTALP network considering among others the temperature shift from the accumulation bias towards growing seasons. Within the last century dedicated time series analysis reveals a common signal in the (supra-) decadal components of the instrumental temperature and isotope records. Extending the comparison over the entire 250 years instrumental period, systematic discrepancies are found within the early instrumental period (EIP). The delta-O18 record shows an overall decreasing trend from 1760 to 1890 AD, which is not reflected in the temperature record. However, using high Alpine summer temperature lacking the latest EIP adjustment, the long-term trends between isotope and instrumental data are in better agreement. The overall mean of the isotope based temperature in the EIP indicates substantially warmer levels than the EIP-corrected instrumental temperature. It differs, however, not significantly with respect to the non-EIP-corrected temperature mean. Although the main

  16. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP γ-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs γ-2, γ-3 and γ-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas γ-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous γ-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the γ-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the γ-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of γ-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons.

  17. Fetal growth restriction and cardiovascular outcome in early human infancy: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Shah, Jyotsna; Slorach, Cameron; Qin, Hong; Kingdom, John; Keating, Sarah; Kelly, Ed; Manlhiot, Cedric; Redington, Andrew; Jaeggi, Edgar

    2016-09-01

    The association between low birth weight and premature cardiovascular disease has led to the "prenatal origin of adult disease-hypothesis". We postulated that fetal growth restriction is associated with cardiovascular changes detectable at birth and in early infancy. Fifty-two appropriately grown fetuses (AGA) and 60 growth-restricted fetuses (FGR) with (n = 20) or without (n = 40) absent or reversed end-diastolic umbilical artery blood flow were prospectively examined by echocardiography before birth, at 1 week and 6 months of life. The impact of growth restriction on postnatal blood pressure, heart rate, cardiovascular dimensions, and function, as well as on vascular morphology of umbilical cord vessels was studied. FGR fetuses displayed significant blood flow redistribution and were delivered earlier with lower birth weights than AGA fetuses. After adjustment for gender, gestational age, and weight at birth, there were no intergroup differences in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular morphology, mass, and performance, and in cord vessel morphology. During the first 6 months of life brachioradial pulse wave velocity increased more in FGR fetuses, while other parameters describing vascular stiffness remained comparable between the groups. Fetal growth restriction had no detectable adverse impact on cardiovascular dimensions and function at birth. Cardiovascular findings also remained comparable during the first 6 months of life between the groups except a higher increase in brachioradial pulse wave velocity in the FGR group. Our observations suggest that abnormalities that link reduced intrauterine growth with premature cardiovascular diseases may commence later in childhood, indicating a potential window for screening and prevention.

  18. Oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period improves epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, G R; Tan, B E; Xiong, X; Kong, X F; Xiao, D F; Xu, L W; Wu, M M; Huang, B; Kim, S W; Yin, Y L

    2015-04-01

    Polyamines are necessary for normal integrity and the restitution after injury of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period on epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets. Eighteen neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) from 3 litters (6 piglets per litter) were assigned to 3 groups, representing oral administration with an equal volume of saline (control), putrescine (5 mg/kg BW), and proline (25 mg/kg BW) twice daily from d 1 to weaning at 14 d of age. Plasma and intestinal samples were obtained 3 d after weaning. The results showed that oral administration of putrescine or proline increased the final BW and ADG of piglets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Proline treatment decreased plasma D-lactate concentration but increased the villus height in the jejunum and ileum, as well as the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). The protein expressions for zonula occludens (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-3 (P < 0.05) but not mRNA were increased in the jejunum of putrescine- and proline-treated piglets compared with those of control piglets. The voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) 1.1 protein expression in the jejunum of piglets administrated with putrescine and the Kv1.5 mRNA and Kv1.1 protein levels in the ileum of piglets administrated with proline were greater than those in control piglets (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that polyamine or its precursor could improve mucosal proliferation, intestinal morphology, as well as tight junction and potassium channel protein expressions in early-weaned piglets, with implications for epithelial restitution and barrier function after stress injury.

  19. Excess production of phage lambda delayed early proteins under conditions supporting high Escherichia coli growth rates.

    PubMed

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Wegrzyn, A; Szalewska-Pałasz, A; Thomas, M S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-08-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is unable to lysogenize Escherichia coli hosts harbouring the rpoA341 mutation due to a drastic reduction in transcription from CII-activated lysogenic promoters (pE, pI and paQ). In addition, the level of early transcripts involved in the lytic pathway of lambda development is also decreased in this genetic background due to impaired N-dependent antitermination. Here, it is demonstrated that despite the reduced level of early lytic pL- and pR-derived transcripts, lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda is not affected in rich media. The level of the late lytic, pR-derived transcripts also remains unaffected by the rpoA341 mutation under these conditions. However, it was found that whilst there is no significant difference in the phage burst size in rpoA+ and rpoA341 hosts growing in rich media, phage lambda is not able to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant growing in minimal medium, in contrast to otherwise isogenic rpoA+ bacteria. Provision of an excess of the phage replication proteins O and P in trans or overproduction of the antitermination protein N restore the ability of phage lambda to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant under the latter conditions. These results suggest that in rich media phage lambda produces some early proteins in excess of that needed for its effective propagation and indicate that replication proteins may be limiting factors for phage lytic growth in poor media.

  20. Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2013-11-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ≥9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ± 5; 59 % White, 28 % African-American, 13 % Asian, with 21 % identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m(2) ± 6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ≥9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean

  1. Tracing Late Holocene Warm Periods in the Galician Continental Margin (NW Spain): Detrital Control vs. Early Diagenetic Modulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F.

    2007-12-01

    The sediments of the Galician continental margin (NW Spain) exhibit great but variable degrees of early diagenetic dissolution of magnetic minerals. This process completely erases any detrital magnetic signal at time-scales that range from about 1,000 years to less than 50 years in the highly productive estuarine-like environment of the Galician Rias Baixas. The more open marine conditions encountered in the adjoining continental shelf exhibit however a significantly different behavior. The singular balance between early diagenetic dissolution and lower sedimentation rates allows partial and variable preservation of the also variable detritally controlled magnetic inputs. In this context it is possible to reconstruct the recent environmental history of the area attending to the changes in the concentration of magnetically-interesting iron oxides. High-resolution magnetic and geochemical measurements carried out in 6 cores from the continental self evidenced the occurrence of correlatable peaks of magnetic mineral concentration that were interpreted as periods of enhanced detrital input. Magnetically depleted sediments were related to lower detrital input and/or to enhanced productivity that intensified the reductive conditions. The magnetic concentration peaks occurred within the Medieval (MWP) and Roman Warm Periods. Similar concentrations of hematite in the MWP and the RWP suggest that the lower concentration-dependent magnetic properties in the RWP are most likely caused by a greater degree of dissolution of magnetic detrital oxides due to a longer exposure to reducing conditions. These features could be traced over all the studied area, despite the great heterogeneity of the shelf sediments. This highlights the potential of magnetic properties as proxies of paleoenvironmental conditions in areas of similar complexity. This approach can be used as a rapid and cost-effective tool to screen large areas in the search for suitable settings for more precise, but time

  2. Glypican-1 controls brain size through regulation of fibroblast growth factor signaling in early neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Huei Linda; Musacchio, Michele; Lander, Arthur D

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for multiple families of growth factors that regulate animal cell proliferation, differentiation and patterning. Elimination of heparan sulfate during brain development is known to produce severe structural abnormalities. Here we investigate the developmental role played by one particular HSPG, glypican-1 (Gpc1), which is especially abundant on neuronal cell membranes, and is the major HSPG of the adult rodent brain. Results Mice with a null mutation in Gpc1 were generated and found to be viable and fertile. The major phenotype associated with Gpc1 loss is a highly significant reduction in brain size, with only subtle effects on brain patterning (confined to the anterior cerebellum). The brain size difference emerges very early during neurogenesis (between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5), and remains roughly constant throughout development and adulthood. By examining markers of different signaling pathways, and the differentiation behaviors of cells in the early embryonic brain, we infer that Gpc1-/- phenotypes most likely result from a transient reduction in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Through the analysis of compound mutants, we provide strong evidence that Fgf17 is the FGF family member through which Gpc1 controls brain size. Conclusion These data add to a growing literature that implicates the glypican family of HSPGs in organ size control. They also argue that, among heparan sulfate-dependent signaling molecules, FGFs are disproportionately sensitive to loss of HSPGs. Finally, because heterozygous Gpc1 mutant mice were found to have brain sizes half-way between homozygous and wild type, the data imply that endogenous HSPG levels quantitatively control growth factor signaling, a finding that is both novel and relevant to the general question of how the activities of co-receptors are exploited during development. PMID:19732411

  3. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development.

  4. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Eniko; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; MacIver, Nancie J.; Hale, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC), using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 (“T/I” mice). Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 (“T/I-het” dams) that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het) dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT) pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and for

  5. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers.

  6. V346 Centauri: Early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek; Nemravová, Jana; Prša, Andrej; Frémat, Yves; Zejda, Miloslav; Liška, Jiři; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, Kateřina; Mašek, Martin

    2016-06-01

    New physical elements of the early B-type eclipsing binary V346 Cen are derived using the HARPS spectra downloaded from the ESO archive and also numerous photometric observations from various sources. A model of the observed times of primary and secondary minima that fits them best is a combination of the apsidal motion and an abrupt decrease in the orbital period from 6.^d322123 to 6.^d321843 (shortening by 24 s), which occurred somewhere around JD 2 439 000. Assumption of a secularly decreasing orbital period provides a significantly worse fit. Local times of minima and the final solution of the light curve were obtained with the program PHOEBE. Radial velocities of both binary components, free of line blending, were derived via 2D cross-correlation with a program built on the principles of the program TODCOR. The oxygen lines in the secondary spectra are weaker than those in the model spectra of solar chemical composition. Using the component spectra disentangled with the program KOREL, we find that both components rotate considerably faster than would correspond to the synchronization at periastron. The apside rotation known from earlier studies is confirmed and compared to the theoretical value. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 083.D-0040(A), 085.C-0614(A), and 178.D-0361(B).Tables A.2-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A129

  7. Prediction of Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Lateral Incisors, Canines and Premolars in Orthodontic Patients in Early Mixed Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Haerian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formulas for mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population based on the width of erupted permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dental models (60 males, 60 females) of orthodontic patients between 11–25 years were evaluated in Yazd city. The measurements were made by a digital caliper on the widest mesiodistal width of teeth at the interproximal contacts. Data were analyzed to calculate the prediction equation. Results: The prediction equation in the upper jaw was y=0.57x+10.82 for males, y=0.7x+6.37 for females and y=0.64x+8.46 for both sexes. The equation for the lower jaw was y=0.76x+2.86 for males, y=0.74x+3.53 for females and y=0.77x+2.7 for both sexes. Conclusions: The prediction equations suggested in this study can predict the mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population in early mixed dentition period without taking radiographs. PMID:28243298

  8. Contour instabilities and micro-structures in early tumor growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amar, Martine; Ciarletta, Pasquale; Chatelain, Clément; Balois, Thibaut

    2012-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of skin cancers is based on several morphological criteria, among which growth, color, border instabilities and microstructures (e.g. dots, nests) sparsely distributed within the tumor lesion. We use the multiphase mixture models adapted to the skin to explain various patterning occurring in the avascular phase. Restricting to a simple but realistic version of these models with an elastic cell-to-cell interaction and a growth rate dependent on diffusing nutrients, we prove analytically that the tumor cell concentration at the border acts as a control parameter inducing a bifurcation with loss of circular symmetry which explains the instabilities of the tumor border. The finite wavelength at threshold has the size of the proliferating peritumoral zone. We apply our predictions to melanoma growth since these instabilities are crucial for the early diagnosis. The same model is used to show the existence of micro-structures. Taking into account a reaction-diffusion coupling between nutrient consumption and cellular proliferation, we show that two-phase models may undergo a spinodal decomposition even when considering mass exchanges between the phases. The cell-nutrient interaction defines a typical diffusive length in the problem, which is found to control the saturation of a growing separated domain, thus stabilizing the microstructural pattern. The distribution and the evolution of such emerging cluster morphologies are successfully compared to the clinical observation of microstructural patterns in tumor lesions.

  9. Early stage reversed crystal growth of zeolite A and its phase transformation to sodalite.

    PubMed

    Greer, Heather; Wheatley, Paul S; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Morris, Russell E; Zhou, Wuzong

    2009-12-16

    Microstructural analysis of the early stage crystal growth of zeolite A in hydrothermal synthetic conditions revealed a revised crystal growth route from surface to core in the presence of the biopolymer chitosan. The mechanism of this extraordinary crystal growth route is discussed. In the first stage, the precursor and biopolymer aggregated into amorphous spherical particles. Crystallization occurred on the surface of these spheres, forming the typical cubic morphology associated with zeolite A with a very thin crystalline cubic shell and an amorphous core. With a surface-to-core extension of crystallization, sodalite nanoplates were crystallized within the amorphous cores of these zeolite A cubes, most likely due to an increase of pressure. These sodalite nanoplates increased in size, breaking the cubic shells of zeolite A in the process, leading to the phase transformation from zeolite A to sodalite via an Ostwald ripening process. Characterization of specimens was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, supported by other techniques including X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and N(2) adsorption/desorption.

  10. Effect of magnetite nanoparticles on the germination and early growth of Quercus macdougallii.

    PubMed

    Pariona, Nicolaza; Martínez, Arturo I; Hernandez-Flores, Homero; Clark-Tapia, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The present study measures the effect of citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on the germination and early growth of Quercus macdougallii (oak). Two types of Fe3O4-NPs were synthetized and characterized, being denominated NP1 and NP2. The synthesis was performed by the co-precipitation method and partial reduction of iron(II), respectively. It was found that the NP1 has a quasi-spherical morphology, with sizes of 6-10nm, while the NP2 has sizes between 65 and 160nm. It was demonstrated that the Fe3O4-NPs exhibit peroxidase-like catalytic activity. Experiments of germination and growth of Quercus macdougallii were performed using the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs treatments and a deionized water control. The experiments were performed in intact and peeled acorns. The application of the NPs increased the germination up to 33% in relation to the control. Additionally, the Fe3O4-NPs treatments increased the growth, dry biomass, and chlorophyll concentration. The data obtained in this study suggest that Fe3O4-NPs treatments could be potentially used to improve conservation and reforestation of threatened forestry species.

  11. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development.

    PubMed

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-02-07

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11-12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left-right asymmetry specification.

  12. Early East Antarctic Ice Sheet growth recorded in the landscape of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kathryn C.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Bell, Robin E.; Corr, Hugh; Creyts, Timothy T.; Braaten, David; Jordan, Tom A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Damaske, Detlef

    2013-08-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are regarded as a key nucleation site for the Antarctic Ice Sheet and they retain a unique long-term record of pre-glacial and early glacial landscape evolution. Here, we use a range of morphometric analyses to constrain the nature of early glaciation and subsequent ice sheet evolution in the interior of East Antarctica, using a new digital elevation model of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, derived from an extensive airborne radar survey. We find that an inherited fluvial landscape confirms the existence of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains prior to the onset of glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene climate boundary (ca. 34 Ma). Features characteristic of glaciation, at a range of scales, are evident across the mountains. High elevation alpine valley heads, akin to cirques, identified throughout the mountains, are interpreted as evidence for early phases of glaciation in East Antarctica. The equilibrium line altitudes associated with these features, combined with information from fossil plant assemblages, suggest that they formed at, or prior to, 34 Ma. It cannot be ruled out that they may have been eroded by ephemeral ice between the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene (100-34 Ma). Hanging valleys, overdeepenings, truncated spurs and steep-sided, linear valley networks are indicative of a more widespread alpine glaciation in this region. These features represent ice growth at, or before, 33.7 Ma and provide a minimum estimate for the scale of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet between ca. 34 and 14 Ma, when dynamic fluctuations in ice extent are recorded at the coast of Antarctica. The implications are that the early East Antarctic Ice Sheet grew rapidly and developed a cold-based core that preserved the alpine landscape. The patterns of landscape evolution identified provide the earliest evidence for the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and can be used to test coupled ice-climate evolution models.

  13. Numerical modelling of the physical factors that affect mass transport in the vasculature at early time periods.

    PubMed

    Denny, William J; Walsh, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Coronary artery disease results in blockages or narrowing of the artery lumen. Drug eluting stents were developed to replace bare metal stents in an effort to combat re-blocking of the lumen. A key element in determining the therapeutic success of a drug eluting stent is an in-depth understanding of the physical factors that affect mass transport of the drug into the arterial wall, over early time periods. The numerical models developed within this study focus on assessing the influence of a host of physical factors that either facilitate or impede therapeutic drug delivery into the arterial wall from the unit cell of an idealised stent. This study demonstrates that model reduction strategies to 2D and 1D can still adequately represent a 3D curved arterial wall and strut polymer coating, respectively, using an idealistic stent geometry. It was shown that the level of strut compression can have a significant impact on therapeutic drug delivery in the arterial wall.

  14. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the "S&P 500 1987" bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs.

  15. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the “S&P 500 1987” bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs. PMID:27806093

  16. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  17. Evolution, stress, and sensitive periods: the influence of unpredictability in early versus late childhood on sex and risky behavior.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Sung, Sooyeon; Collins, W Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to a recent evolutionary life history model of development proposed by Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, and Schlomer (2009), growing up in harsh versus unpredictable environments should have unique effects on life history strategies in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation, we tested how harshness and unpredictability experienced in early childhood (age 0-5) versus in later childhood (age 6-16) uniquely predicted sexual and risky behavior at age 23. Findings showed that the strongest predictor of both sexual and risky behavior was an unpredictable environment between ages 0 and 5. Individuals exposed to more unpredictable, rapidly changing environments during the first 5 years of life displayed a faster life history strategy at age 23 by having more sexual partners, engaging in more aggressive and delinquent behaviors, and being more likely to be associated with criminal activities. In contrast, exposure to either harsh environments or experiencing unpredictability in later childhood (age 6-16) was, for the most part, not significantly related to these outcomes at age 23. Viewed together, these findings show that unpredictable rather than merely harsh childhood environments exert unique effects on risky behavior later in life consistent with a faster life history strategy. The findings also suggest that there is a developmentally sensitive period for assessing environmental unpredictability during the first 5 years of life.

  18. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  19. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  20. Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig Carville, N.; Manzo, Michele; Denning, Denise; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2013-05-01

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO3 solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 ± 0.02 μm and a height of 1.61 ± 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 ± 0.06 μm, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO3 (10-2 M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 ± 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10-4 M) concentrations (0.78 ± 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10-4 M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 ± 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 ± 0.76 nm at 10-2 M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10-2 M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 ± 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10-2 and 10-4 M solutions, i.e., 3.04 vs. 30.40 nm, which suggests the Debye length plays a

  1. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Bannink, A; Geurts, I A L; Schonewille, J T; Gort, G; Dijkstra, J

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate of increase of concentrate allowance were studied. Samples were collected from 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during a pretreatment period, 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (the dry period) and 3 d postpartum (pp), and a treatment period, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp. Cows had free access to either a dry period ration [27% grass silage, 27% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis] or a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 41% corn silage, and 17% soybean meal on a DM basis, and 0.9 kg of DM/d concentrate). Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of DM/d; RAP; n=6) or gradual (0.25 kg of DM/d; GRAD; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at d 4 pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake. Papillae were collected from the ventral, ventral blind, and dorsal blind rumen sacs and measured digitally. Intake of DM (11.9 kg/d) and FOM (5.7 kg/d) did not change during the pretreatment period, but increased during the treatment period to 24.5 and 15.0 kg/d at 80 d pp, respectively. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for FOM intake, which was 22% greater in RAP at 16 d pp compared with GRAD. Papilla surface area decreased during the pretreatment period by 19% to 28.0mm(2) at 3 d pp, thereafter increasing to 63.0mm(2) at 80 d pp. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for surface area, which was greater in RAP compared with GRAD at 16 (46.0 vs. 33.2mm(2)), 30 (55.4 vs. 41.2mm(2)), and 44 (60.5 vs. 49.7 mm(2)) days pp, showing that papillae can respond to a rapid rate of increase of FOM intake by increasing growth rate

  2. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  3. Featherless and feathered broilers under control versus hot conditions. 2. Breast muscle development and growth in pre- and posthatch periods.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Yair; Cahaner, Avigdor; Halevy, Orna

    2014-05-01

    Breast meat yield (% of BW) of featherless broilers (sc/sc) is higher than that of their feathered sibs (+/sc) and contemporary broilers (+/+) under hot temperature (32°C) conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that the advantage to the featherless broiler condition with respect to breast meat yield and quality is due to differences in muscle development during pre- and posthatch periods. Broilers from the 3 genetic groups were reared under normal (26°C) and hot (32°C) conditions and slaughtered on d 29 and 47. Evaluation of myofiber diameter (mean and distribution) and blood-vessel density in breast muscle sections sampled on these days revealed that the fluctuations in breast muscle yields of the different genetic groups under different temperature conditions and the better muscle growth of the featherless broilers are due to changes in muscle hypertrophy and vascularization. In addition, the featherless broilers presented continuous satellite cell proliferation and a slower rate of differentiation compared with the feathered broilers on immediate posthatch period, suggesting a higher reserve of myogenic progeny cells that will contribute to later muscle hypertrophy. In the embryos, breast muscle yield was higher for the featherless versus feathered counterparts between embryonic day (E) 15 and E20. This was manifested in a shift toward higher myofiber diameters in the featherless embryos on E18, and a higher number of myoblasts, which could be explained by higher insulin-like growth factor-I levels in the muscle tissue and lower triiodothyronine levels in the plasma on E17. Together, the data show the advantage of being featherless under hot conditions with regard to breast muscle growth and hypertrophy, and overall performance. Moreover, featherless embryos had increased breast muscle weight compared with their feathered counterparts, likely due to a higher proliferation rate of myoblasts and higher muscle hypertrophy.

  4. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer and its combination with urea on nitrous oxide emission during rice growth period].

    PubMed

    Ji, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Jing; Li, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hua; Cai, Zu-cong

    2011-08-01

    By the method of static chamber, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and its combination with urea on the N2O emission during rice growth period. Four treatments, i.e., no fertilization (CK), urea (U), urea and CRF with a ratio of 3:7 (U+C), and CRF (C) were installed, and the N application rate in treatments U, U+C, and C was the same. Compared with treatment U, treatments U+C and C decreased the N2O emission during rice growth season by 40.4% and 59.6%, and decreased the emission at midseason aeration stage by 65.1% and 83.9%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with that in treatment C, the N2O emission in treatment U+C had a slight decrease, and decreased by 53.9% at midseason aeration stage. Applying CRF increased rice yield, and the increment in treatments C and U+C was 7.8% and 9.8%, respectively, as compared to treatment U. Applying CRF delayed the peak time of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration, resulting in the reduction of N2O emission at midseason aeration stage. During rice growth season, no significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature.

  5. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  7. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  8. Growth, metabolic rate, and digestive enzyme activity in the white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus early postlarvae fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Brito; Chimal; Gaxiola; Rosas

    2000-12-01

    Growth rate, soluble-protein content, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and digestive-enzyme activity were studied in Litopenaeus setiferus early postlarvae under four feeding regimens that included combinations of freshly hatched Artemia nauplii, microparticulate commercial diet, and algae. Growth and of postlarvae fed a mixed diet were significantly higher. Artificial diet used alone caused the lowest growth, lowest soluble-protein content, higher ammonia excretion, lowest O:N ratio, and higher proteolytic and amylase activities. The artificial diet stimulated proteolytic activity and ammonia excretion of postlarvae, apparently in response to some deficiency in protein composition of the diet. Based on results in growth, soluble-protein content, enzymatic activity, and metabolic substrate, we determined that partial substitution of Artemia nauplii by artificial diet, with or without addition of algae when rearing early postlarval stages, will benefit the growth and nutritional state of L. setiferus postlarvae.

  9. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn) During Growth Spurt Period in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohandas Rao, K G; Muddanna Rao, S; Gurumadhva Rao, S

    2009-06-01

    Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

  10. Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress, such as childhood abuse, neglect and loss, is a well established major risk factor for developing depressive disorders later in life. We here summarize and discuss current developments in human research regarding the link between early life stress and depression. Specifically, we review the evidence for the existence of sensitive periods for the adverse effects of early life stress in humans. We further review the current state of knowledge regarding gene×environment (G×E) interactions in the effects of early life stress. While multiple genes operate in multiple environments to induce risk for depression after early life stress, these same genes also seem to enhance the beneficial effects of a positive early environment. Also, we discuss the epigenetic mechanisms that might underlie these G×E interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential importance of identifying sensitive time periods of opportunity, as well as G×E interactions and epigenetic mechanisms, for early interventions that might prevent or reverse the detrimental outcomes of early life stress and its transmission across generations.

  11. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Sean M; McCarthy, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. PMID:27499651

  12. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  13. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  14. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon. PMID:27844010

  15. Environmental and genetic effects on early growth traits in Moghani sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Lavvaf, A; Noshary, A; Keshtkaran, A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of environmental factors on early growth traits (birth weight, weaning weight, body weight at 6 months of age and daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to 6 months of age) using 10432 records in Moghani sheep breed were studied and Genetic and Environmental variance component were estimated using 8468 records of Jafarabad Animal Breeding Station from 1999 to 2004. Birth year on all traits and dam age had significant effect only for birth and weaning weight. Sex of lambs and birth type had no significant effect only daily gain from weaning to 6 months of age. Additive genetic direct variance, maternal environmental variance and heritability were estimate by REML fitting two different Animal models. The estimate of maternal environment variance was higher than additive genetic direct variance in some traits. Estimates of direct heritability for all traits were low.

  16. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenserbaerii).

    PubMed

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon.

  17. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  18. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu; Lambert, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Bioelectrical activity and evacuation function of the gastric stump in an early period after different means of gastric resection and variations in the formation of anastomoses].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, B B; Khalimov, E V

    2003-01-01

    The results of the stomach resection on the occasion of stomach and duodenal ulcer were analyzed. Bioelectric activity of the stomach stump was studied in a comparative aspect, and early recovery of the motor function of the resected stomach after the formation of pyloroimitating gastroduodenal anastomoses was shown. Revealed roentgenologic mechanisms of the evacuator function of the stomach stump let us determine evacuation types for the early postoperative period. The formation of pyloroimitating gastroduodenal anastomoses is functionally advantageous.

  20. Early posthatch feeding stimulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Orna; Nadel, Yael; Barak, Miriam; Rozenboim, Israel; Sklan, David

    2003-05-01

    The effect of early posthatch feeding on skeletal muscle growth and satellite cell myogenesis was studied in turkey poults. Poults were either fed immediately posthatch or food-deprived for the first 48 h and then refed for the rest of the experiment. Body and breast muscle weights were lower in the starved poults than in fed controls throughout the experiment (P < 0.05). Cultures of breast muscle satellite cells revealed significantly higher DNA synthesis in the fed group than in the starved group as early as d 1 (P < 0.05). These levels continued to rise, reaching approximately 500-fold those of feed-deprived poults on d 4. In the latter group, thymidine incorporation peaked only on d 6, and then declined. Thereafter, it decreased to the same levels as those in the fed group. Satellite cell number per gram muscle increased until d 4, and was higher in the fed group than in the starved group (P < 0.05). Pax7 levels in cell cultures derived from the fed group were markedly higher than in the starved group on d 2 (P < 0.05). Myogenin levels in both culture and muscle were higher in the fed than in the starved groups until d 4 (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 levels were higher in cells derived from the fed group relative to those from the starved group 48 h posthatch (P < 0.05). Similarly, Akt phosphorylation and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels were significantly higher in the muscles of the fed group (P < 0.05). Together, these results suggest that immediate posthatch feeding of poults is critical for satellite cell survival and myogenesis probably via IGF-I.

  1. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (P<0.05), so that piglets with a lowest rectal temperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows.

  2. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Lee, S K; Chang, K H; Cho, S J; Lee, K W; An, B K

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  3. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  4. Size growth of red-sequence early-type galaxies in clusters in the last 10 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreon, S.; Dong, Hui; Raichoor, A.

    2016-08-01

    We carried out a photometric and structural analysis in the rest-frame V band of a mass-selected (log M/M⊙> 10.7) sample of red-sequence galaxies in 14 galaxy clusters, 6 of which are at z> 1.45, namely JKCS041, IDCS J1426.5+3508, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, SpARCSJ021524-034331, XDCPJ0044.0-2033, and SPT-CLJ2040-4451. To this end, we reduced/analyzed about 300 orbits of multicolor images taken with the Advanced Camera for Survey and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope. We uniformly morphologically classified galaxies from z = 0.023 to z = 1.803, and we homogeneously derived sizes (effective radii) for the entire sample. Furthermore, our size derivation allows, and therefore is not biased by, the presence of the usual variety of morphological structures seen in early-type galaxies, such as bulges, bars, disks, isophote twists, and ellipiticy gradients. By using such a mass-selected sample, composed of 244 red-sequence early-type galaxies, we find that the log of the galaxy size at a fixed stellar mass, log M/M⊙ = 11, has increased with time at a rate of 0.023 ± 0.002 dex per Gyr over the last 10 Gyr, in marked contrast with the threefold increase found in the literature for galaxies in the general field over the same period. This suggests, at face value, that secular processes should be excluded as the primary drivers of size evolution because we observed an environmental dependent size growth. Using spectroscopic ages of Coma early-type galaxies we also find that recently quenched early-type galaxies are a numerically minor population not different enough in size to alter the mean size at a given mass, which implies that the progenitor bias is minor, i.e., that the size evolution measured by selecting galaxies at the redshift of observation is indistinguishable from the one that compares ancestors and descendents. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  5. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.

  6. Early posthatch starvation decreases satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Geyra, A; Barak, M; Uni, Z; Sklan, D

    2000-04-01

    The effect of posthatch starvation on skeletal muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation was examined in chicks. Chicks were either fed or starved for 48 h posthatch (d 0-d 2, d 2-d 4 or d 4-d 6) and then refed for 41 d. Body and breast muscle weights were significantly lower in starved chicks than in fed controls throughout the experiment. Histochemical staining revealed that skeletal muscle fiber development in the starved group lagged behind that of the fed group. Starvation from d 2 to 4 and d 4 to 6 posthatch had a progressively lesser effect than did immediate posthatch starvation (P < 0.05). In vitro culturing of breast muscle satellite cells revealed that DNA synthesis and number of cells per gram of muscle in the fed chicks peaked on d 2 and d 3, and then declined. In contrast, DNA synthesis in the cells of starved chicks declined on d 2 and increased on d 3 when chicks were refed. A similar pattern was seen for the number of cells per gram muscle; however, in general cell numbers tended to be higher in the starved group than in controls (P < 0.1). The results obtained with cultured cells were parallel with in situ immunostaining with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in breast muscle from experimental chicks, and with growth hormone receptor expression. These results suggest that satellite cell cultures are a reliable tool for evaluating muscle growth in postnatal chickens. We conclude that sufficient feed in the immediate postnatal period is critical for satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle development and is thus important for optimal muscle growth.

  7. [THE CHOICE OF THE ANESTHESY OPTIMAL METHOD, USING DETERMINATION OF THE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS LEVEL IN THE PLASM AS A MARKER OF HYPERALGESIA IN EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Dmytriyev, D V

    2016-01-01

    There were examined 47 children, operated on for tumors of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. The opioid-induced hyperalgesia may occur in early postoperative period. The anesthesia conduction of m. transverses abdominis (TAP-block), using 0.375% bupivacaine solution and combined spinal epidural analgesia (CSEA) for postoperative anesthesia have promoted the hyperalgesia severity reduction. Hyperalgesia in early postoperative period was demonstrated by upgrading of the toll-like receptors (TLR-4) level in the blood. The TLR-4 expression increased in the blood was noted while application of a TAP-block and CSEA.

  8. The Early Growth and Development Study: A Prospective Adoption Study from Birth Through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children’s adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in one-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described. PMID:23218244

  9. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  10. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; O’Connor, Roisin M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/Non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for three years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking. PMID:24841180

  11. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.

  12. Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development and growth of an Antarctic sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Leong, P K; Manahan, D T

    1999-08-01

    In Antarctic environments, the physiological bases for long larval life spans under natural conditions of limited food availability are not understood. The Na+ pump is likely to be involved with hypometabolic regulation in such cold environments. Changes in the activity and metabolic importance of Na+/K+-ATPase were measured in embryos of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri and in larvae reared under different feeding conditions. The rate of increase of total Na+/K+-ATPase activity was 3.9 times faster in fed than in unfed larvae. During development and growth, there was an increase in the percentage of total, potential Na+/K+-ATPase activity that was physiologically utilized. In early (10-day-old) gastrulae, 17 % was utilized in vivo, increasing to 77 % in six-arm pluteus (48-day-old) larvae. The metabolic importance of in vivo Na+/K+-ATPase activity also increased during development, accounting for 12 % of metabolic rate at day 10 and 84 % at day 48. When compared at the same enzyme assay temperature (15 degrees C), the protein-specific total Na+/K+-ATPase activities for late embryonic (prism) and early larval (pluteus) stages of S. neumayeri were 2.6 times lower than those for comparable developmental stages of two temperate sea urchin species (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus).

  13. The Role of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) in Brain Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual’s vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli. In particular, immediate early genes (IEGs) are critical components of these interactions as they provide the molecular framework for a rapid and dynamic response to neuronal activity while opening the possibility for a lasting and sustained adaptation through regulation of the expression of a wide range of genes. As a result, IEGs have been tightly associated with neuronal activity as well as a variety of higher order processes within the central nervous system such as learning, memory and sensitivity to reward. The immediate early gene and transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) has thus been revealed as a major mediator and regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal activity in both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review article, we will focus on the role of EGR1 in the central nervous system. First, we will summarize the different factors influencing its activity. Then, we will analyze the amount of data, including genome-wide, that has emerged in the recent years describing the wide variety of genes, pathways and biological functions regulated directly or indirectly by EGR1. We will thus be able to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying EGR1’s functions in physiological neuronal activity. Finally, we will discuss and illustrate the role of EGR1 in pathological states with a particular interest in cognitive functions

  14. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    PubMed

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  15. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I.; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T.; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J.; Jensen, Ole N.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization. PMID:27514833

  16. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J; Jensen, Ole N; van Wezel, Gilles P; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-08-12

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization.

  17. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    PubMed

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling.

  18. Effects of shading on early growth of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Fagaceae) in subtropical abandoned fields: Implications for vegetation restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaojun; Liu, Canran; Yu, Xingjun; Ma, Keping

    2008-03-01

    In order to restore natural ecosystems and improve the environment, the restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to their native vegetation is urgent and challenging work. In response to a new initiative in China, the National Engineering Program on Converting Abandoned Agriculture Land to Forest Stands, this study was undertaken to seek novel approaches for accelerating forest restoration efforts. We tested the hypothesis that the late-successional tree species, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, is not able to establish and grow in full-sun environments on abandoned lands due to inhibited early growth of C. glauca seedlings. We carried out a 2-year field experiment on early growth of C. glauca in subtropical abandoned fields under three different shade treatments (no shade, fully exposed to ambient sunlight; medium shade and heavy shade, about 40% and 22% of full ambient sunlight, respectively) and compared their growth and biomass to 2-year old C. glauca seedlings growing in a natural forest environment. Our results showed that: 1) both medium shade and heavy shade treatments enhanced the establishment and early growth of C. glauca seedlings as compared to no shade, and that growth and survivorship was greatest in the heavy shade treatment; and 2) the growth and biomass of C. glauca seedlings on abandoned fields (in the cleared and prepared plots in this study) were equal to or greater than the growth and biomass of seedlings growing in nearby forests. This study supports the viewpoint that consideration of species shade tolerance is important when developing restoration management strategies.

  19. The seed of abundance and misery Peruvian living standards from the early republican period to the end of the guano era (1820-1880).

    PubMed

    Twrdek, Linda; Manzel, Kerstin

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines 19th-century Peruvian heights from the early republican period to the end of the guano era (1820-1880). Analyzing male and female prisoner heights from the Lima penitentiary, we find that the physical stature of the lower classes stagnated throughout the period. In spite of the substantial profits generated by Peru's chief export product, guano, these revenues apparently did not filter down to benefit ordinary laborers.

  20. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    PubMed

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1). CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl(-) L(-1) (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg(2+) cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms.

  1. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and human growth and maturation: a focus on early critical windows of exposure.

    PubMed

    Fudvoye, Julie; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that interfere with hormone synthesis, metabolism, or action. In addition, some of them could cause epigenetic alterations of DNA that can be transmitted to the following generations. Because the developing organism is highly dependent on sex steroids and thyroid hormones for its maturation, the fetus and the child are very sensitive to any alteration of their hormonal environment. An additional concern about that early period of life comes from the shaping of the homeostatic mechanisms that takes place also at that time with involvement of epigenetic mechanisms along with the concept of fetal origin of health and disease. In this chapter, we will review the studies reporting effects of EDCs on human development. Using a translational approach, we will review animal studies that can shed light on some mechanisms of action of EDCs on the developing organism. We will focus on the major hormone-dependent stages of development: fetal growth, sexual differentiation, puberty, brain development, and energy balance. We will also discuss the possible epigenetic effects of EDCs on human development.

  2. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Danielson, Brent J; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  3. GROWTH OF EARLY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THE HIGH-REDSHIFT EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Khandai, N.; Croft, R.

    2012-08-10

    Using a new large-scale ({approx} 0.75 Gpc){sup 3} hydrodynamic cosmological simulation, we investigate the growth rate of supermassive black holes (BHs) in the early universe (z {approx}> 4.75). Remarkably we find a clear peak in the typical Eddington ratio ({lambda}) at BH masses of (4-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} (typically in halos of {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, close to their shock heating scale), independent of redshift and indicative that most BH growth occurs in the cold-flow-dominated regime. BH growth is enhanced at high-z and by and large regulated by the cosmological evolution of gas density, with {lambda} scaling simply as (1 + z){sup 3}. The peak in {lambda} is caused by the competition between increased gas density available in more massive hosts, and a decrease due to active galactic nucleus feedback that becomes effective above the shock heating halo mass scale and at high BH masses. We show that the distribution of {lambda} among both mass-selected and luminosity-selected samples is approximately lognormal. We combine these findings into a single lognormal fitting formula for the distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of (M{sub BH}, z). This formula can be used in analytic and semianalytic models for evolving BH populations, predicting BH masses of observed quasars, and, in conjunction with the observed distribution of Eddington ratios, can be used to constrain the BH mass function.

  4. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lauren L.; Danielson, Brent J.; Harpole, W. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  5. Influence of growth and transcriptional factors, and signaling molecules on early human pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Bazina, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina; Roje, Damir; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2009-08-01

    Development and differentiation of the human pituitary gland was investigated in 6 human conceptuses 6-9 postovulatory weeks old, using immunohistochemical technique to investigate appearance of different developmental factors, and immunofluorescent double staining technique with Ki-67 to investigate proliferation. In the developing human pituitary gland, different developmental factors appeared in temporally and spatially restricted patterns, thus contributing to formation of different parts of the gland: adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and associated mesenchyme. Some growth factors were not primarily involved in cell proliferation (TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA), but in differentiation of pituitary cells: TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA probably contributed to differentiation of cells in the mesenchyme at earlier stages, while their influence on differentiation of specific cell types in the adenohypophysis increased with development. At later developmental stages, those factors also influenced the differentiation of cells in the neurohypophysis. FGF-8 and FGF-10 probably participated both in the growth and differentiation of pituitary cells: while FGF-8 could act during early developmental stages, FGF-10 participated in the same processes at later stages of pituitary development. Expression of EGF and VEGF indicated their involvement in proliferation of initially differentiated pituitary cells, and in subsequent differentiation of some cell types in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. In the mesenchyme, expression of VEGF might be related to formation of new blood vessels as well. Precise patterns of appearance of growth and transcription factors, and signaling molecules in developing human pituitary gland seem to be important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and normal morphogenesis of the gland.

  6. A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort to Investigate the Effects of Early Life Giardiasis on Growth and All Cause Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Ma, Jennie Z.; Nazib, Forida; Platts-Mills, James A.; Bartelt, Luther A.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Growth stunting in children under 2 years of age in low-income countries is common. Giardia is a ubiquitous pathogen in this age group but studies investigating Giardia's effect on both growth and diarrhea have produced conflicting results. Methods. We conducted a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with monthly Giardia and continuous diarrheal surveillance. Results. 629 children were enrolled within the first 72 hours of life, and 445 completed 2 years of the study. 12% of children were stunted at birth with 57% stunted by 2 years. 7% of children had a Giardia positive surveillance stool in the first 6 months of life, whereas 74% had a positive stool by 2 years. The median time to first Giardia positive surveillance stool was 17 months. Presence of Giardia in a monthly surveillance stool within the first 6 months of life decreased length-for-age Z score at 2 years by 0.4 (95% confidence interval, −.80 to −.001; P value .05) whereas total number of Giardia positive months over the 2-year period of observation did not. Neither variable was associated with weight-for-age Z score at 2 years. In our model to examine predictors of diarrhea only exclusive breastfeeding was significantly associated with decreased diarrhea (P value <.001). Concomitant giardiasis was neither a risk factor nor protective. Conclusions. Early life Giardia was a risk factor for stunting at age 2 but not poor weight gain. Presence of Giardia neither increased nor decreased odds of acute all cause diarrhea. PMID:27313261

  7. Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. F.; Dove, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    surface. While controlling solution chemistry, we can make in situ measurements of nucleation and early stage growth at these interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Preliminary experiments show that at pH 4 to 7, and supersaturations of 0.76 to 1.45 (σ = ln([H4SiO4]/Ksp)), silica nucleates on carboxyl-terminated areas of the surface, that are less than 30 nm in diameter. The nuclei evolve during early stages of growth to spread over the surface into a sheet like form.

  8. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C

  9. A preliminary assessment of oxygen isotope fractionation and growth increment periodicity in the estuarine clam Rangia cuneata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, C. Fred T.; Rich, Kelley Whatley

    2008-10-01

    Rangia cuneata is an upper estuarine clam common in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Limited data exist regarding oxygen isotope fractionation and microstructural increment periodicity in this species. As these clams were recently identified as an invasive species in other regions, such data may be useful for environmental management purposes. Additionally, the shell of this clam is common in archeological middens, and thus may serve as a paleoenvironmental proxy. In order to assess these aspects of the species' natural history, samples were collected from the upper Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA. A stable oxygen isotope profile was generated from one of these valves, and compared to growth increments seen in thin section. Time-series water temperature data from near the collection site were used to construct idealized models of oxygen isotope variation, assuming equilibrium fractionation, constant shell growth, and stable water δ18O values. Comparison of the modeled and measured data suggest the shell was precipitated in, or near oxygen isotope equilibrium with ambient water, and that the microstructural increments in the shell were precipitated in response to tidal cycles.

  10. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and their ligands in rat uterus during the postpartum involution period.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, H; Liman, N; Alan, E

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its specific receptors, FLt1/fms, Flk1/KDR and FLt4, play important roles in vasculogenesis, and physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Whether angiogenic growth factors are involved in regulating angiogenic processes during the postpartum involution period (PP) of the rat uterus is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression levels of VEGF, the fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (FLt1/fms), the kinase insert domain-containing region 1 (Flk1/KDR), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLt4) and vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) in the rat uterus during the days 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 of the PP to determine the temporal and spatial expressions of VEGF and its receptors during the PP. Throughout the PP, cytoplasmic and membrane staining of VEGI, VEGF and their receptors were observed in the lumens, crypts and glandular epithelial cells as well as in connective tissue and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the endometrium. We found that the intensity of the immunoreactions in the endometrium varied with the morphological changes that occurred during involution. Immunoreactions for VEGI, VEGF and their receptor, Flk1/KDR, in the luminal epithelial cells were stronger than those in the glandular epithelial and stromal cells, particularly during PP 1, 3 and 5, which suggests that these peptides may contribute to re-epithelialization of the endometrium. On the other hand, Flt1/fms immunoreactivity was strong mainly in the stromal cells during the PP. The presence of VEGF and its receptors (FLt1/fms, Flk1/KDR, FLt4) in the stromal cells and blood vessels during the PP suggests that they may contribute to regulating stromal repair and angiogenesis in the involuting uterus of the rat.

  11. The effect of supplemental concentrate fed during the dry period on morphological and functional aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle during the dry period and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Klop, G; Schonewille, J T; Bannink, A

    2017-01-01

    Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of supplemental concentrate [3.0kg of dry matter (DM)/d] from 28d antepartum (ap) until the day of calving, whereas control did not receive supplemental concentrate. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to the dry period ration (27% grass silage, 28% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a DM basis) and, from calving onward, to a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 42% corn silage, and 16% soybean meal on a DM basis). From 1 to 3d postpartum (pp), all cows were fed 0.9kg DM/d of concentrate, which increased linearly thereafter to 8.9kg of DM/d on d 11 pp. At 28, 18, and 8d ap, and 3, 17, 31, and 45d pp, rumen papillae were collected and kaVFA was measured in all cows. On average, 13.8 (standard deviation: 3.8) papillae were collected each from the ventral, caudodorsal, and caudoventral rumen sacs per cow per day. The kaVFA was measured by incubating a standardized buffer fluid (45 L), containing 120mM VFA (60% acetic, 25% propionic, and 15% butyric acid) and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker, in the evacuated and washed rumen. Treatment did not affect ap or pp DM and energy intakes or milk yield and composition. Treatment increased papillae surface area, which was 19 and 29% larger at 18 and 8d ap compared with 28d ap, respectively. Surface area increased, mainly due to an increase in papillae width. However, treatment did not increase kaVFA at 18 and 8d ap compared with 28d ap. In the control group, no changes in papillae surface area or kaVFA were observed during the dry period. In the treatment group, papillae surface area decreased between 8d ap and 3d pp, whereas no decrease was observed for control. From 3 to 45d pp, papillae

  12. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  13. Adult lipids associated with early life growth in traditional Melanesian societies undergoing rapid modernization: a longitudinal study of the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Charles A; Friedlaender, Françoise Y; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2014-04-01

    Both poor fetal development and accelerated post-natal growth have been linked to adult dyslipidemias in many studies conducted in developed societies. It is not known, however, whether these relationships only characterize populations with typical Western diets or if they also may develop in groups at the early stages of a dietary transition. Our longitudinal study of traditional rural populations in the Southwest Pacific during a period of extremely rapid modernization in diet and life-styles shows a nascent association between child growth retardation, subsequent growth acceleration, and adult lipid values in spite of a continuing prevalence of very low lipid levels. However, our results do not entirely conform to results from populations with "modern" diets. Outcome (i.e., young adult) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are more consistently related to initial measures of body fat and growth in body fat measures than with stature, while outcome apo A-1 is more consistently related to initial stature or stature growth than to measures of body fat. We suggest this may reflect a pattern characteristic of the initial stages of "modernization" associated with dietary change, with stronger and more pervasive relationships emerging only later as populations complete the dietary transition.

  14. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: key distal household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Schott, Whitney B; Crookston, Benjamin T; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2013-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40-71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26-47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers' height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child's starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex.

  15. Liver graft hyperperfusion in the early postoperative period promotes hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hye; Yang, Hae Soo; Kim, Jong Hae

    2016-01-01

    vascular velocities and a small-sized graft in the early postoperative period contributes to hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after LDLT. PMID:27861381

  16. Examining the predictive relations between two aspects of self-regulation and growth in preschool children's early literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Phillips, Beth M

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills, both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between 2 components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (mean age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children's classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children's initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children's language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Can bone age determination provide criteria for growth hormone treatment in adopted girls with early puberty?

    PubMed

    Proos, L A; Lönnerholm, T; Jonsson, B; Tuvemo, T

    2006-01-01

    In treatment of idiopathic central precocious puberty, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) have been accepted as the treatment of choice. Since growth velocity may be impaired with GnRHa treatment growth hormone (GH) treatment has been added in clinical trials. Recently, a study followed adopted girls with early or precocious puberty on GnRHa or combined GnRHa and GH treatment to final height. It was found that final height was significantly higher in the combined treatment group, although the difference was small. It was seen that patients that were extremely short at arrival and short at start of treatment seemed to be candidates for combined treatment. We have now analysed the data in order to define criteria for the sub-group in need of combined GnRHa-GH treatment in order to achieve normal final height, i.e. above -2 SDS. Bone ages of 46 patients at start of treatment, randomized to either GnRHa treatment or GnRHa treatment combined with GH, were examined blindly by the same radiologist and the PAH calculated. The methods according to Greulich-Pyle / Bayley-Pinneau (GP/BP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) were used. Predictions versus final height data were analysed. The accuracy of FH prediction was greatest for GnRHa treated group using the GP/BP method. The GP/BP method gave useful cut off limits for when combined treatment was necessary to possibly achieve normal height. If pre-treatment GP/PAH was > 157cm, the patients attained normal height with GnRHa treatment only. Ten out of 13 (77%) such girls could be correctly identified. Using TW2 with a cut off of 164 cm, 9 out of 13 could be selected. Using a multi regression equation of best fit the number of correctly selected cases for GnRHa treatment only, could not be further increased in this group. We conclude that bone age determination and adult height prediction with the Greulich-Pyle/Bayley-Pinneau method, provides useful criteria for selecting the subgroup of adopted girls with early puberty where combined treatment

  18. Early growth response 1 mediates the systemic and hepatic inflammatory response initiated by hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jose M; Ming, Mei Jian; Levy, Ryan M; Liu, Shubing; Pinsky, David J; Vodovotz, Yoram; Billiar, Timothy R

    2007-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The early growth response 1 (Egr-1) transcription factor is induced by a variety of cellular stresses, including hypoxia, and may function as a master switch to trigger the expression of numerous key inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that HS would induce hepatic expression of Egr-1 and that Egr-1 upregulates the inflammatory response after HS. The Egr-1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls (n>or=5 for all groups) were subjected to HS alone or HS followed by resuscitation (HS/R). Other mice were subjected to a sham procedure which included general anesthesia and vessel cannulation but no shock (sham). After the HS, HS/R, or sham procedures, mice were euthanized for determination of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, and alanine aminotransferase. Northern blot analysis was performed to evaluate Egr-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Liver whole cell lysates were evaluated for Egr-1 protein expression by Western blot analysis. Hepatic expression of IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The Egr-1 DNA binding was assessed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Hemorrhagic shock results in a rapid and transient hepatic expression of Egr-1 mRNA in WT mice by 1 h, whereas protein and DNA binding activity was evident by 2.5 h. The Egr-1 mRNA expression diminished after 4 h of resuscitation, whereas Egr-1 protein expression and DNA binding activity persisted through resuscitation. The Egr-1 mice exhibited decreased levels of hepatic inflammatory mediators compared with WT controls with a decrease in hepatic mRNA levels of IL-6 by 42%, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by 39%, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 by 43%. Similarly, Egr-1 mice demonstrated a decreased systemic inflammatory response and hepatic injury after HS

  19. Effects of clustered transmission on epidemic growth Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merler, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing the early growth profile of an epidemic outbreak is key for predicting the likely trajectory of the number of cases and for designing adequate control measures. Epidemic profiles characterized by exponential growth have been widely observed in the past and a grounding theoretical framework for the analysis of infectious disease dynamics was provided by the pioneering work of Kermack and McKendrick [1]. In particular, exponential growth stems from the assumption that pathogens spread in homogeneous mixing populations; that is, individuals of the population mix uniformly and randomly with each other. However, this assumption was readily recognized as highly questionable [2], and sub-exponential profiles of epidemic growth have been observed in a number of epidemic outbreaks, including HIV/AIDS, foot-and-mouth disease, measles and, more recently, Ebola [3,4].

  20. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  1. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    PubMed

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  2. Evidence for a trade-off between early growth and tooth wear in Svalbard reindeer.

    PubMed

    Veiberg, Vebjørn; Mysterud, Atle; Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Langvatn, Rolf; Loe, Leif Egil; Irvine, R Justin; Bonenfant, Christophe; Couweleers, Fred; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2007-11-01

    Ruminants depend on efficient physical degradation of forage through chewing to increase the surface area of the food particles presented to the microflora. Fossil evidence suggests that increased molar height is an adaptation for wear tolerance in dry ecosystems with sparse vegetation, but no study has shown selection pressure for hypsodonty in contemporary ruminants. We explored the relationships between particle size in rumen, tooth wear (scanned molar occlusal topography), age and body mass of female Svalbard reindeer living in an arctic desert at 78 degrees latitude on Svalbard. We predicted that (H1) if the rumen particle size is determined mainly by constraints due to tooth wear, and if tooth wear is mainly a function of age, average particle size in rumen should increase with age. From allometric relations it is known that larger individuals can survive on a lower-quality diet, we therefore predicted (H2) larger particle sizes with increases in (ln) body mass, irrespective of age and wear. Lastly, if there is a trade-off between growth and tooth wear in dry ecosystems (a selection pressure for hypsodonty), we predicted (H3) that teeth of heavier animals should be more worn than those of lighter animals of the same age. The proportion of small particles (<1.0 mm) decreased rapidly with increasing age (consistent with H1). Heavier females within an age class had more worn teeth (consistent with H3) than lighter ones. A close-to-isometric relationship between particle size and body mass suggested that heavier animals partly compensated for reduced tooth efficiency by chewing more. We provide the first evidence of a trade-off between fast early growth and wear (a somatic cost) of a senescence-related trait--the structure and height of the molar--in a wild ruminant inhabiting an arctic desert where selection pressure for increased tooth height is expected. This suggests that foraging conditions are more extreme than the environment in which the species

  3. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  4. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  5. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  6. Activation of transforming growth factor-beta1 and early atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michelle; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Bruce, Ian N; Coupes, Beatrice; Brenchley, Paul E C

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of activating latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may control the balance between inflammation and fibrosis, modulating the disease phenotype. To test this hypothesis we studied the ability to activate TGF-beta1 in SLE patients and control individuals within the context of inflammatory disease activity, cumulative organ damage and early atherosclerosis. An Activation Index (AI) for TGF-beta1 was determined for 32 patients with SLE and 33 age-matched and sex-matched control individuals by quantifying the increase in active TGF-beta1 under controlled standard conditions. Apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured using standard Doppler ultrasound. These measures were compared between patients and control individuals. In an analysis conducted in patients, we assessed the associations of these measures with SLE phenotype, including early atherosclerosis. Both intima-media thickness and TGF-beta1 AI for SLE patients were within the normal range. There was a significant inverse association between TGF-beta1 AI and levels of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after 24 hours in culture for both SLE patients and control individuals. Only in SLE patients was there a significant negative correlation between TGF-beta1 AI and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.404; P = 0.022) and between TGF-beta1 AI and carotid artery intima-media thickness (r = -0.587; P = 0.0004). A low AI was associated with irreversible damage (SLICC [Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics] Damage Index > or = 1) and was inversely correlated with disease duration. Intima-media thickness was significantly linked to total cholesterol (r = 0.371; P = 0.037). To conclude, in SLE low normal TGF-beta1 activation was linked with increased lymphocyte apoptosis, irreversible organ damage, disease duration

  7. The Impact of Early Academic Growth on College Readiness: A Study of a Suburban Chicago School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find some of the key factors determining college readiness. School districts are under increased pressure to provide all students with experiences and the preparation to ensure they are college-ready. This study investigates a few key, potential factors in the journey to college readiness: early academic growth,…

  8. The effect of low-to-moderate-dose ethanol consumption on rat mammary gland structure and function and early postnatal growth of offspring.

    PubMed

    Probyn, Megan E; Lock, Emma-Kate; Anderson, Stephen T; Walton, Sarah; Bertram, John F; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M

    2013-05-15

    High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to growth deficits in early postnatal life. However, the effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy are less clearly defined. The aim of this study was to determine whether low-to-moderate ethanol (EtOH) consumption throughout pregnancy in the rat alters maternal mammary gland morphology and milk protein levels, thereby affecting lactation and the growth of pups after birth. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an ad libitum liquid diet ± 6% vol/vol EtOH throughout pregnancy. Mammary glands from dams were collected at embryonic day (E) 20 or postnatal day (PN) 1, and expression of milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-casein, and whey acidic protein) was examined. In addition, relative amounts of alveoli, lactiferous ducts, adipose tissue, and blood vessels were determined at PN1. A subset of rats gave birth, and offspring growth and milk intake were recorded. Mammary gland weight was unaltered by EtOH, and stereological analysis showed no differences in gland structure compared with control. Although there were no significant changes in mammary gland gene expression at the RNA level, protein levels of α-lactalbumin were increased and whey acidic protein were decreased by EtOH. Offspring of EtOH-fed dams consumed less milk than controls in the lactational period; however, this did not alter their early postnatal growth. Overall, it appears that low-to-moderate-dose prenatal EtOH exposure does not significantly alter mammary gland development but may alter the composition of the various proteins found within the milk in a manner that maintains overall pup growth.

  9. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

  10. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype.

  11. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  12. Early onset of fatty liver in growth-restricted rat fetuses and newborns.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Makiko; Wolfe, Diana; Han, Guang; French, Samuel W; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2011-12-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns have increased risk of adult metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver. However, it is unclear whether the fatty liver development is "programmed" or secondary to the accompanying obesity. In this study, we examined hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid-regulatory factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase) in IUGR and Control fetal (embryonic day 20; e20) and newborn (postnatal day 1; p1) rat pups. Notably, despite of in utero undernutrition state, IUGR fetuses demonstrated "fatty liver" with upregulation of these lipogenic indices at as early as e20. Both IUGR and Control newborns exhibited the same extent of massive increase in hepatic lipid content, whereas IUGR newborns continued to exhibit upregulated lipogenic indices. The persistent upregulation of the lipogenic indices in fetal and newborn IUGR suggests that fatty liver is gestationally programmed. Our study suggested that IUGR offspring were born with an altered metabolic life strategy of increased fuel/lipid storage which could be a distinct metabolic pathway of the thrifty phenotype.

  13. Early onset of fatty liver in growth restricted rat fetuses and newborns

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Makiko; Wolfe, Diana; Han, Guang; French, Samuel W.; Ross, Michael G.; Desai, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) newborns have increased risk of adult metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver. However, it is unclear whether the fatty liver development is “programmed” or secondary to the accompanying obesity. In this study, we examined hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid-regulatory factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase) in IUGR and Control fetal (embryonic day 20; e20) and newborn (postnatal day 1; p1) rat pups. Notably, despite of in utero undernutrition state, IUGR fetuses demonstrated ‘fatty liver’ with upregulation of these lipogenic indices at as early as e20. Both IUGR and Control newborns exhibited the same extent of massive increase in hepatic lipid content whereas IUGR newborns continued to exhibit upregulated lipogenic indices. The persistent upregulation of the lipogenic indices in fetal and newborn IUGR suggests that fatty liver is gestationally programmed. Our study suggested that IUGR offspring were born with an altered metabolic life strategy of increased fuel/lipid storage which could be a distinct metabolic pathway of the thrifty phenotype. PMID:22103455

  14. Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

  15. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

  16. Human Disturbance during Early Life Impairs Nestling Growth in Birds Inhabiting a Nature Recreation Area

    PubMed Central

    Remacha, Carolina; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Bulaic, Mateja; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods. In nests located near recreation facilities, blue tit nestlings that hatched during holidays developed slowly, and fledged with low body mass and poor body condition. However, nestlings that hatched outside of holidays and weekends in these nest boxes developed normally, eventually attaining similar phenotypes as those hatching in the surrounding woods. Within-brood variance in body mass was also higher in broods that began growing during holidays in disturbed areas. Our results show that early disturbance events may have negative consequences for wild birds if they overlap with critical stages of development, unveiling otherwise cryptic impacts of human activities. These new findings may help managers better regulate nature recreation. PMID:27851816

  17. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics.

  18. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    PubMed

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth.

  19. Early and late periodic patterns of even skipped expression are controlled by distinct regulatory elements that respond to different spatial cues.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Macdonald, P; Maniatis, T

    1989-05-05</