Science.gov

Sample records for early growth stage

  1. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  2. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ˜100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  3. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  4. Numerical insights into the early stages of nanoscale electrodeposition: nanocluster surface diffusion and aggregative growth.

    PubMed

    Mamme, Mesfin Haile; Köhn, Christoph; Deconinck, Johan; Ustarroz, Jon

    2018-04-19

    Fundamental understanding of the early stages of electrodeposition at the nanoscale is key to address the challenges in a wide range of applications. Despite having been studied for decades, a comprehensive understanding of the whole process is still out of reach. In this work, we introduce a novel modelling approach that couples a finite element method (FEM) with a random walk algorithm, to study the early stages of nanocluster formation, aggregation and growth, during electrochemical deposition. This approach takes into account not only electrochemical kinetics and transport of active species, but also the surface diffusion and aggregation of adatoms and small nanoclusters. The simulation results reveal that the relative surface mobility of the nanoclusters compared to that of the adatoms plays a crucial role in the early growth stages. The number of clusters, their size and their size dispersion are influenced more significantly by nanocluster mobility than by the applied overpotential itself. Increasing the overpotential results in shorter induction times and leads to aggregation prevalence at shorter times. A higher mobility results in longer induction times, a delayed transition from nucleation to aggregation prevalence, and as a consequence, a larger surface coverage of smaller clusters with a smaller size dispersion. As a consequence, it is shown that a classical first-order nucleation kinetics equation cannot describe the evolution of the number of clusters with time, N(t), in potentiostatic electrodeposition. Instead, a more accurate representation of N(t) is provided. We show that an evaluation of N(t), which neglects the effect of nanocluster mobility and aggregation, can induce errors of several orders of magnitude in the determination of nucleation rate constants. These findings are extremely important towards evaluating the elementary electrodeposition processes, considering not only adatoms, but also nanoclusters as building blocks.

  5. Intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage prevents parathyroid gland growth

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Background. Both the phenotypic alterations of parathyroid (PT) cells, e.g. down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor, and the increase of the PT cell number in nodular hyperplasia are the main causes of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism. It is of great importance to prevent PT growth in an early stage. Methods. To examine a more effective method of calcitriol therapy for the prevention of PT hyperplasia, we randomized haemodialysis patients with mild hyperparathyroidism to receive either daily orally administered calcitriol (n = 33) or intravenous calcitriol (n = 27) over a 12-month study period. Calcitriol was modulated so as to keep the serum intact PTH level between 100 and 150 pg/ml. Results. Both groups showed similar reductions of the serum PTH level and similar increases in serum calcium. In both groups, there were no significant changes in the serum phosphate level. Long-term daily oral calcitriol therapy failed to prevent the increase of both maximum PT volume and total volume, as assessed by ultrasonography; however, intravenous calcitriol therapy successfully suppressed this progression. In the daily, oral group, both the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the N-telopeptide cross-linked of type I collagen (NTX) significantly decreased, which was probably due to the PTH suppression. However, these bone metabolism markers remained stable in the intravenous group. The total dosage of calcitriol during the study was comparable in both groups. Conclusions. These data indicate that intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism is necessary to prevent PT growth and to keep a good condition of bone metabolism. PMID:18515308

  6. The Effect of Additives on the Early Stages of Growth of Calcite Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Colin L.; Gong, Xiuqing; Levenstein, Mark A.; Wang, Yunwei; Kulak, Alexander; Anduix‐Canto, Clara; Lee, Phillip A.; Li, Shunbo; Chen, Li; Christenson, Hugo K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As crystallization processes are often rapid, it can be difficult to monitor their growth mechanisms. In this study, we made use of the fact that crystallization proceeds more slowly in small volumes than in bulk solution to investigate the effects of the soluble additives Mg2+ and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) on the early stages of growth of calcite crystals. Using a “Crystal Hotel” microfluidic device to provide well‐defined, nanoliter volumes, we observed that calcite crystals form via an amorphous precursor phase. Surprisingly, the first calcite crystals formed are perfect rhombohedra, and the soluble additives have no influence on the morphology until the crystals reach sizes of 0.1–0.5 μm for Mg2+ and 1–2 μm for PSS. The crystals then continue to grow to develop morphologies characteristic of these additives. These results can be rationalized by considering additive binding to kink sites, which is consistent with crystal growth by a classical mechanism. PMID:28767197

  7. Early growth stages salinity stress tolerance in CM72 x Gairdner doubled haploid barley population

    PubMed Central

    Angessa, Tefera Tolera; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Wenying

    2017-01-01

    A doubled haploid (DH) population of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) generated from salinity tolerant genotype CM72 and salinity sensitive variety Gairdner was studied for salinity stress tolerance at germination, seedling emergence and first leaf full expansion growth stages. Germination study was conducted with deionized water, 150 mM and 300 mM NaCl treatments. Seedling stage salinity tolerance was conducted with three treatments: control, 150 mM NaCl added at seedling emergence and first leaf full expansion growth stages. Results from this study revealed transgressive phenotypic segregations for germination percentage and biomass at seedling stage. Twelve QTL were identified on chromosomes 2H–6H each explaining 10–25% of the phenotypic variations. A QTL located at 176.5 cM on chromosome 3H was linked with fresh weight per plant and dry weight per plant in salinity stress induced at first leaf full expansion growth stage, and dry weight per plant in salinity stress induced at seedling emergence. A stable QTL for germination at both 150 and 300 mM salinity stress was mapped on chromosome 2H but distantly located from a QTL linked with seedling stage salinity stress tolerance. QTL, associated markers and genotypes identified in this study play important roles in developing salinity stress tolerant barley varieties. PMID:28640858

  8. Effect of aluminum stress in early-stage growth of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagala, D.; Suzanna, E.; Prihanani; Ghulamahdi, M.; Lubis, I.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity of soybean to aluminum stress is well known. One of the abiotic stresses in tidal swamps is the aluminum toxicity. Therefore, it is necessary to find the appropriate management and cropping pattern to obtain a high yield of soybean in the tidal land. We supposed that it would be related to the development stage of soybean. This study was aimed to find the most sensitive of soybean vegetative growth stage to aluminum. Three cultivars of soybean (tanggamus, Karasumame, and M652) and four aluminum treatments (control, 10 days after planting/DAP, 20 DAP, 30 DAP) were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Measurements have been made on root length, root/shoot ratio, biomass dry weight, leaves Aluminum content, leaves the area, and sensitivity index. Overall, observation results indicate that the earlier soybean experience aluminum stress, the more its vegetative growth is disturbed.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 23, iron and inflammation - are they related in early stages of chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Commercially available kits were used to measure: intact FGF-23, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In patients with CKD no differences in FGF-23 concentration according to iron status were observed. Lower iron concentration was associated with higher concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen. In univariate and multivariate analysis FGF-23 correlated with fibrinogen ( r = -0.23, p < 0.05) and eGFR ( r = -0.36, p < 0.05). FGF-23 is affected by kidney function and fibrinogen but not iron status parameters in the early stages of CKD. Our data are paving the way for further studies on the role of FGF-23 in iron metabolism, especially in early stages of CKD.

  10. Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  11. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  12. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei, E-mail: red0828@hotmail.co.j; Mizukami, Sayaka, E-mail: non_sugar_life@hotmail.co.j; Takahashi, Miwa, E-mail: mtakahashi@nihs.go.j

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter ofmore » Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad

  13. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  14. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  15. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  16. Multiscale simulations of the early stages of the growth of graphene on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, P.; Chanier, T.; Henrard, L.; Moskovkin, P.; Lucas, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have performed multiscale simulations of the growth of graphene on defect-free copper (111) in order to model the nucleation and growth of graphene flakes during chemical vapour deposition and potentially guide future experimental work. Basic activation energies for atomic surface diffusion were determined by ab initio calculations. Larger scale growth was obtained within a kinetic Monte Carlo approach (KMC) with parameters based on the ab initio results. The KMC approach counts the first and second neighbours to determine the probability of surface diffusion. We report qualitative results on the size and shape of the graphene islands as a function of deposition flux. The dominance of graphene zigzag edges for low deposition flux, also observed experimentally, is explained by its larger dynamical stability that the present model fully reproduced.

  17. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  18. [Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean.

  19. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

    1998-01-01

    The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism. PMID:9637695

  20. Remodelling of the bovine placenta: Comprehensive morphological and histomorphological characterization at the late embryonic and early accelerated fetal growth stages.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Consuelo Amor S; Kind, Karen L; Derks, Anna; Xiang, Ruidong; Faulkner, Nicole; Mohrdick, Melina; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Kruk, Zbigniew; Grutzner, Frank; Roberts, Claire T; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Placental function impacts growth and development with lifelong consequences for performance and health. We provide novel insights into placental development in bovine, an important agricultural species and biomedical model. Concepti with defined genetics and sex were recovered from nulliparous dams managed under standardized conditions to study placental gross morphological and histomorphological parameters at the late embryo (Day48) and early accelerated fetal growth (Day153) stages. Placentome number increased 3-fold between Day48 and Day153. Placental barrier thickness was thinner, and volume of placental components, and surface areas and densities were higher at Day153 than Day48. We confirmed two placentome types, flat and convex. At Day48, there were more convex than flat placentomes, and convex placentomes had a lower proportion of maternal connective tissue (P < 0.01). However, this was reversed at Day153, where convex placentomes were lower in number and had greater volume of placental components (P < 0.01- P < 0.001) and greater surface area (P < 0.001) than flat placentomes. Importantly, embryo (r = 0.50) and fetal (r = 0.30) weight correlated with total number of convex but not flat placentomes. Extensive remodelling of the placenta increases capacity for nutrient exchange to support rapidly increasing embryo-fetal weight from Day48 to Day153. The cellular composition of convex placentomes, and exclusive relationships between convex placentome number and embryo-fetal weight, provide strong evidence for these placentomes as drivers of prenatal growth. The difference in proportion of maternal connective tissue between placentome types at Day48 suggests that this tissue plays a role in determining placentome shape, further highlighting the importance of early placental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  2. Effects of arsenic toxicity on morphological characters in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) during early growth stage.

    PubMed

    Shamim, M Z; Pandey, A

    2017-07-31

    Blackgram is an important pulse crop of the tropic and sub-tropic area and has been identified as a potential crop in many countries. In the south-East Asia arsenic toxicity in soil and water is one of the most environmental problems. Crop productivity is highly affected by cultivation in arsenic polluted soil or irrigation through arsenic polluted water. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) on fresh shoot length, fresh shoot weight, fresh root length, fresh shoot weight and total fresh biomass, The results indicate that root length is more affected than shoot length due to arsenic toxicity. The fresh shoot weight observed was more affected than fresh root weight. This study indicates that arsenic toxicity causes the deleterious effect on blackgram growth. The toxic effect of blackgram depends on the genotypic variability. Some blackgram genotypes show very less toxic effect of arsenic due to its genetic makeup. Experimental findings of study indicate that longer root length and more shoot weight in arsenic stress condition may be tolerant blackgram genotype to arsenic toxicity.

  3. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  4. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by usemore » of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from

  5. Ensemble docking to difficult targets in early-stage drug discovery: Methodology and application to fibroblast growth factor 23.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Hector A; Riccardi, Demian; Xiao, Zhousheng; Quarles, Leigh Darryl; Yates, Charless Ryan; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C

    2018-02-01

    Ensemble docking is now commonly used in early-stage in silico drug discovery and can be used to attack difficult problems such as finding lead compounds which can disrupt protein-protein interactions. We give an example of this methodology here, as applied to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a protein hormone that is responsible for regulating phosphate homeostasis. The first small-molecule antagonists of FGF23 were recently discovered by combining ensemble docking with extensive experimental target validation data (Science Signaling, 9, 2016, ra113). Here, we provide a detailed account of how ensemble-based high-throughput virtual screening was used to identify the antagonist compounds discovered in reference (Science Signaling, 9, 2016, ra113). Moreover, we perform further calculations, redocking those antagonist compounds identified in reference (Science Signaling, 9, 2016, ra113) that performed well on drug-likeness filters, to predict possible binding regions. These predicted binding modes are rescored with the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) approach to calculate the most likely binding site. Our findings suggest that the antagonist compounds antagonize FGF23 through the disruption of protein-protein interactions between FGF23 and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  7. Early Stages Of Biome Shift in Boreal Alaska: Climate Sensitivity of Tree Growth and Accelerated Tree Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Grant, T.; Alix, C. M.; Spencer, D. L.; Beck, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    rapidly in alder shrubs, so nearly all woody species face health challenges. Temperatures and precipitation on many Interior sites are now at or beyond tolerance limits for white spruce, aspen, and Alaska birch. Two episodes of acute drought injury were widespread in birch during the last decade. Deficits in climate predicted tree growth are synchronous with the major insect outbreaks as recorded in insect trapping records and aerial surveys of area affected. Over the past 25 years tree mortality of 50% or more occurred in nearly all long-term monitoring plots in mature stands on productive sites in the Interior, but to date trees have successfully regenerated on most disturbed sites. These environmental changes and tree responses, including opposite responses, are coherent, and consistent with early stages of a biome shift eliminating boreal forest on dry Interior sites, and emergence of a new climate optimum zone in western Alaska currently only sparsely populated with forest.

  8. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development, and growth of early life stage sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Du Gas, Lindsay M; Ross, Peter S; Walker, Janessa; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of 2 currently used commercial pesticide formulations on Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), from fertilization to emergence, were evaluated in a gravel-bed flume incubator that simulated a natural streambed. Embryos were exposed to atrazine at 25 µg/L (low atrazine) or atrazine at 250 µg/L (high atrazine) active ingredient (a.i.), and chlorothalonil at 0.5 µg/L (low chlorothalonil) or chlorothalonil at 5 µg/L a.i. (high chlorothalonil) and examined for effects on developmental success and timing, as well as physical and biochemical growth parameters. Survival to hatch was reduced in the high chlorothalonil group (55% compared with 83% in controls), accompanied by a 24% increase in finfold deformity incidence. Reduced alevin condition factor (2.9-5.4%) at emergence and elevated triglyceride levels were seen in chlorothalonil-exposed fish. Atrazine exposure caused premature hatch (average high atrazine time to 50% hatch [H50] = 100 d postfertilization [dpf]), and chlorothalonil exposure caused delayed hatch (high chlorothalonil H50 = 108 dpf; controls H50 = 102 dpf). All treatments caused premature emergence (average time to 50% emergence [E50]: control E50 = 181 dpf, low chlorothalonil E50 = 175 dpf, high chlorothalonil E50 = 174 dpf, high atrazine E50 = 175 dpf, low atrazine E50 = 174 dpf), highlighting the importance of using a gravel-bed incubator to examine this subtle, but critical endpoint. These alterations indicate that atrazine and chlorothalonil could affect survival of early life stages of sockeye salmon in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1354-1364. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  10. Tumor-targeted SN38 inhibits growth of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a KRas/p53 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Deneka, Alexander Y; Haber, Leora; Kopp, Meghan C; Gaponova, Anna V; Nikonova, Anna S; Golemis, Erica A

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a 5-year survival of only ~16%. Potential strategies to address NSCLC mortality include improvements in early detection and prevention, and development of new therapies suitable for use in patients with early and late stage diagnoses. Controlling the growth of early stage tumors could yield significant clinical benefits for patients with comorbidities that make them poor candidates for surgery: however, many drugs that limit cancer growth are not useful in the setting of long-term use or in comorbid patients, because of associated toxicities. In this study, we explored the use of a recently described small molecule agent, STA-8666, as a potential agent for controlling early stage tumor growth. STA-8666 uses a cleavable linker to merge a tumor-targeting moiety that binds heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) with the cytotoxic chemical SN38, and has been shown to have high efficacy and low toxicity, associated with efficient tumor targeting, in preclinical studies using patient-derived and other xenograft models for pancreatic, bladder, and small cell lung cancer. Using a genetically engineered model of NSCLC arising from induced mutation of KRas and knockout of Trp53, we continuously dosed mice with STA-8666 from immediately after tumor induction for 15 weeks. STA-8666 significantly slowed the rate of tumor growth, and was well tolerated over this extended dosing period. STA-8666 induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and reduced proliferation and phosphorylation of the proliferation-associated protein ERK1/2, selectively in tumor tissue. In contrast, STA-8666 did not affect tumor features, such as degree of vimentin staining, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), or downregulate tumor expression of HSP90. These data suggest STA-8666 and other similar targeted compounds may be useful additions to control the growth of early stage NSCLC in patient populations.

  11. Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Soumya

    Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in the beta matrix, instilled in them during non equilibrium heat treatments. The present work is an effort to investigate such a phenomenon. Here studies have been conducted primarily on two different beta-Titanium alloys of commercial relevance- Ti5553 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe), an alloy used in the aerospace industry for landing gear applications and, TNZT (Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta), a potential load bearing orthopedic implant alloy. Apart from the effect of thermal treatment on these alloys, the focus of this work is to study the interplay between different alpha and beta stabilizers present in them. For this, advanced nano-scale characterization tools such as High Resolution STEM, High Resolution TEM, EFTEM and 3D Atom Probe have been used to determine the structure, distribution and composition of the non equilibrium instabilities such as beta' and o, and also to investigate the subsequent nucleation of stable alpha. Thus in this work, very early stages of phase separation via spinodal decomposition and second phase nucleation in titanium alloys are successfully probed at an atomic resolution. For the first time, atomically resolved HRSTEM 'Z'-contrast image is recorded showing modulated structures within the as-quenched beta matrix. Also in the same condition HRTEM results showed the presence of nanoscale alpha regions. These studies are revalidated by conventional selected area diffraction and 3D atom probe reconstruction results. Also TEM dark field and selected are diffraction studies are conducted to understand the effect of quenching and subsequent aging of

  12. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Wei, Jiankai; Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-04-24

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L. vannamei. As a result, more than six hundred unigenes related to exoskeleton development were identified both in the early developmental stages and adult-moulting. A cascade of sequential expression events of exoskeleton-related genes were summarized, including exoskeleton formation, regulation, synthesis, degradation, mineral absorption/reabsorption, calcification and hardening. This new insight on major transcriptional events provide a deep understanding for exoskeleton formation and reconstruction in L. vannamei. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles cover the entire exoskeleton development from zygote to adult-moulting in a crustacean, and these findings will serve as significant references for exoskeleton developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  13. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, Milo D.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n= 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000−02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  14. Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 μm (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

  15. Dentoalveolar growth of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate by early two-stage furlow and push-back method: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Taiji; Kohara, Hiroshi; Sohmura, Taiji; Takahashi, Junzo; Tachimura, Takashi; Wada, Takeshi; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2004-09-01

    This study examined dentoalveolar growth changes prior to the time of palatoplasty up to 3 years of age by the early two-stage Furlow and push-back methods. Thirty-four Japanese patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) treated with either a two-stage Furlow procedure (Furlow group: seven boys, eight girls) from 1998 to 2002 or a push-back procedure (push-back group; 12 boys, 7 girls) from 1993 to 1997. Consecutive plaster models were measured by three-dimensional laser scanner, before primary palatoplasty, before hard palate closure (Furlow group only), and at 3 years of age. Bite measures were taken at 3 years of age. In the Furlow group, arch length, canine width, first and second deciduous molar width and cross-sectional area, and depth and volume at midpoint showed greater growth than in the push-back group. In the Furlow group, the crossbite score was also better than in the push-back group at 3 years of age. In comparison with the push-back group, inhibition of growth impediment in the anterior region was observed in the horizontal direction in the Furlow group. In the midregion, it was observed in the horizontal and vertical directions, and in the posterior region it was observed in the horizontal direction. The results demonstrate that the early two-stage Furlow method showed progressive alveolar growth. Therefore, the early two-stage Furlow method is a more beneficial procedure than the push-back method.

  16. Disparities in Use of Human Epidermal Growth Hormone Receptor 2-Targeted Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Peacock Hinton, Sharon; Meng, Ke; Carey, Lisa A; Dusetzina, Stacie B

    2016-06-10

    Trastuzumab is a key component of adjuvant therapy for stage I to III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. The rates and patterns of trastuzumab use have never been described in a population-based sample. The recent addition of HER2 information to the SEER-Medicare database offers an opportunity to examine patterns of trastuzumab use and to evaluate possible disparities in receipt of trastuzumab. We examined a national cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with incident stage I to III HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed in 2010 and 2011 (n = 1,362). We used insurance claims data to track any use of trastuzumab in the 12 months after diagnosis as well as to identify chemotherapy drugs used in partnership with trastuzumab. We used modified Poisson regression analysis to evaluate the independent effect of race on likelihood of receiving trastuzumab by controlling for clinical need, comorbidity, and community-level socioeconomic status. Overall, 50% of white women and 40% of black women received some trastuzumab therapy. Among women with stage III disease, 74% of whites and 56% of blacks received trastuzumab. After adjustment for tumor characteristics, poverty, and comorbidity, black women were 25% less likely to receive trastuzumab within 1 year of diagnosis than white women (risk ratio, 0.745; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.93). Approxemately one half of patients 65 years of age and older with stage I to III breast cancer do not receive trastuzumab-based therapy, which includes many with locally advanced disease. Significant racial disparities exist in the receipt of this highly effective therapy. Further research that identifies barriers to use and increases uptake of trastuzumab could potentially improve recurrence and survival outcomes in this population, particularly among minority women. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Growth of C60 thin films on Al2O3/NiAl(100) at early stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Liao, C.-H.; Hung, T.-C.; Wu, Y.-C.; Lai, Y.-L.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Luo, M.-F.

    2018-03-01

    The growth of thin films of C60 on Al2O3/NiAl(100) at the earliest stage was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. C60 molecules, deposited from the vapor onto an ordered thin film of Al2O3/NiAl(100) at 300 K, nucleated into nanoscale rectangular islands, with their longer sides parallel to direction either [010] or [001] of NiAl. The particular island shape resulted because C60 diffused rapidly, and adsorbed and nucleated preferentially on the protrusion stripes of the crystalline Al2O3 surface. The monolayer C60 film exhibited linear protrusions of height 1-3 Å, due to either the structure of the underlying Al2O3 or the lattice mismatch at the boundaries of the coalescing C60 islands; such protrusions governed also the growth of the second layer. The second layer of the C60 film grew only for a C60 coverage >0.60 ML, implying a layer-by-layer growth mode, and also ripened in rectangular shapes. The thin film of C60 was thermally stable up to 400 K; above 500 K, the C60 islands dissociated and most C60 desorbed.

  18. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Hak

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-β1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). The levels of TGF-β1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention.

  19. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  20. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  1. Stimulating seedling growth in early stages of secondary forest succession: a modeling approach to guide tree liberation

    PubMed Central

    van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P. R.; Oomen, Roelof J.; Schieving, Feike

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth of non-woody plants and shrubs on degraded lands can strongly hamper tree growth and thus secondary forest succession. A common method to accelerate succession, called liberation, involves opening up the vegetation canopy around young target trees. This can increase growth of target trees by reducing competition for light with neighboring plants. However, liberation has not always had the desired effect, likely due to differences in light requirement between tree species. Here we present a 3D-model, which calculates photosynthetic rate of individual trees in a vegetation stand. It enables us to examine how stature, crown structure, and physiological traits of target trees and characteristics of the surrounding vegetation together determine effects of light on tree growth. The model was applied to a liberation experiment conducted with three pioneer species in a young secondary forest in Vietnam. Species responded differently to the treatment depending on their height, crown structure and their shade-tolerance level. Model simulations revealed practical thresholds over which the tree growth response is heavily influenced by the height and density of surrounding vegetation and gap radius. There were strong correlations between calculated photosynthetic rates and observed growth: the model was well able to predict growth of trees in young forests and the effects of liberation there upon. Thus, our model serves as a useful tool to analyze light competition between young trees and surrounding vegetation and may help assess the potential effect of tree liberation. PMID:25101100

  2. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of icotinib on early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer as neoadjuvant treatment with different epidermal growth factor receptor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Zhi; Liang, Naichao; Zhang, Yundong; Dong, Zhouhuan; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have demonstrated efficacy in treating advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preliminary findings suggested that EGFR-TKIs might also be beneficial in neoadjuvant therapy in treating NSCLC. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapy with icotinib in patients with early-stage NSCLC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical history of patients who were initially diagnosed with stage IA-IIIA NSCLC and were under icotinib administration before surgery between December 2011 and December 2014. Tumor assessment was conducted between the second and fourth week from initial icotinib treatment. The association between personal characteristics, smoking status, disease stage, EGFR mutation status, and clinical outcomes were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 67 patients with NSCLC were reviewed, and approximately half (38/67) of them were identified as having EGFR-mutant tumors. The overall response rate of all patients was 26.7% at 2-4 weeks' assessment. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (38.5% versus 10.7% in males, P=0.028) and EGFR mutation status (42.1% versus 6.9% in EGFR wild type, P=0.011) were independent predictive factors. The analysis also showed that the most common adverse effects were rash (43.3%) and dry skin (34.4%), which were tolerable. Icotinib induced clinical response with minimal toxicity as neoadjuvant treatment in early NSCLC, especially in patients with common EGFR mutations. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu; Yang Qifeng; Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpressionmore » of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin

  5. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor family members is associated with prognosis in early stage cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chel Hun; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-05-06

    The oncogenic role of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) has been recognized in a number of different cancer types. However, the prognostic significance of FGFRs has not been elucidated yet in cervical cancer. In the present study, we investigate the expression of FGFRs and their prognostic value in cervical cancer patients. FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in conjunction with quantitative digital image analysis of 336 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and 61 normal cervical tissues, as well as NCI60 cell microarray. Subsequently, the association between clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival was assessed. FGFRs proteins were differentially expressed in the NCI60 cell line panel and showed considerable correlation between protein and mRNA expression. The expression of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR4 were higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues, whereas the expression of FGFR3 was higher in normal tissues. FGFR1 was highly expressed in adeno-/adenosquamous carcinoma (P = 0.020), while FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4 expression were more prominent in squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.020, respectively). FGFR2 expression was significantly higher in small sized tumors (P = 0.020). Additionally, high FGFR2 and FGFR4 were correlated with negative lymph node metastasis (P = 0.048 and P = 0.040, respectively). FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 were highly expressed in tumors without parametrial involvement (P = 0.030, P = 0.005, and P = 0.010, respectively). In survival analysis, high expressions of FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4 was associated with longer disease-free survival (P = 0.006, P = 0.035, P = 0.001, respectively) and overall survival (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.003, respectively). Notably, the co-expression of all three FGFRs was significantly associated with favorable disease-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P

  6. Clipping affects flowering of California poppy at two growth stages

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Richard L. Hubbard

    1975-01-01

    The effects of clipping California-poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.) at various growth stages on plant survival, flowering, herbage yield, and root production were studied at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, in central California. Plants were clipped once to a 2-cm stubble at one of six stages. Through the early reproductive stage, a single...

  7. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  8. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  9. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  10. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  11. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  12. The early stages of duplicate gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplications are one of the primary driving forces in the evolution of genomes and genetic systems. Gene duplicates account for 8–20% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes, and the rates of gene duplication are estimated at between 0.2% and 2% per gene per million years. Duplicate genes are believed to be a major mechanism for the establishment of new gene functions and the generation of evolutionary novelty, yet very little is known about the early stages of the evolution of duplicated gene pairs. It is unclear, for example, to what extent selection, rather than neutral genetic drift, drives the fixation and early evolution of duplicate loci. Analysis of recently duplicated genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals significantly reduced species-wide levels of nucleotide polymorphisms in the progenitor and/or duplicate gene copies, suggesting that selective sweeps accompany the initial stages of the evolution of these duplicated gene pairs. Our results support recent theoretical work that indicates that fates of duplicate gene pairs may be determined in the initial phases of duplicate gene evolution and that positive selection plays a prominent role in the evolutionary dynamics of the very early histories of duplicate nuclear genes. PMID:14671323

  13. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  15. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  16. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  17. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our

  18. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  19. Effects at early stage of life of elevated milk replacer feeding on growth rate, plasma IGF-I concentration and intestinal nutrient transporter expression in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Orihashi, Takenori; Mashiko, Takanori; Sera, Kenji; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of an elevated amount of modified milk replacer on body weight, daily gain, starter intake, plasma endocrine parameters and expression of nutrient transporters in small intestinal epithelia, Holstein bull calves (n=24) were fed for 60days either with the usual amount of 24% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat milk (CF) replacer (C group), or with a double amount of a modified milk replacer of 28% CP and 16% CF (E group). Body weight from D20 to D60 and daily gain before D40 was greater or tended to be greater for the E group than the C group. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin were greater for the E group than the C group on D28 but not on D56, without changing plasma growth hormone levels. Gene expression for sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid translocase (CD36) was altered in day- and intestine-dependent manners. From these findings, we conclude that an elevated intake of milk replacer given up to 40days old is sufficient to enhance body weight, which may be associated with increased plasma IGF-I concentrations, in Holstein bulls. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Early-stage aeolian protodune development and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Baddock, M. C.; Wiggs, G.

    2017-12-01

    Early-stage bedforms, or protodunes, can be observed to form on sandy beaches, desert gravels or superimposed on the surfaces of larger dunes and can develop topography of 0.1 m or more over several hours. These protodunes are the precursors to embryo and eventually mature dunes, and so it is important to understand how feedbacks between flow, transport and form contribute to this development sequence. Whilst theory and conceptual models have offered some explanation for protodune existence and development, we know surprisingly little about how these bedforms initiate and migrate because it is difficult to measure small changes in form (millimetres; seconds) on highly active surfaces of limited topographic expression. Here, we employ terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure morphological change at the high frequency and spatial resolution (sub-millimetre) required to gain new insights into protodune behaviour. Along with TLS derived saltation and surface moisture, additional sediment flux and windspeed measurements help to elucidate how the protodune topography interacts with airflow and sand transport. We focus on a number of coastal bedforms in various development stages including a 0.06 m high protodune which grew vertically by 0.005 m in two hours with the switch from erosion to deposition identified to occur at a point 0.07 m upwind of the crest. This growth was associated with a reduction in time-averaged sediment flux of 18% over the crestal region. We also observed a decline in lower stoss slope steepness (by 3°) and a steepening of the lee slope, indicating a reshaping of initial protodune form towards the morphology of a more mature dune. Our findings highlight the crucial role of form-flow feedbacks, even on very small bedforms, in driving early-stage bedform growth and development, and show how the use of high resolution TLS to measure both surface topography and grains moving above the surface, can offer new insights into a long standing deficiency

  2. Prospective study of the impact of the Prosigna assay on adjuvant clinical decision-making in unselected patients with estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor negative, node negative early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martín, Miguel; González-Rivera, Milagros; Morales, Serafín; de la Haba-Rodriguez, Juan; González-Cortijo, Lucía; Manso, Luis; Albanell, Joan; González-Martín, Antonio; González, Sónia; Arcusa, Angels; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Rojo, Federico; Vidal, María; Galván, Patricia; Aguirre, Elena; Morales, Cristina; Ferree, Sean; Pompilio, Kristen; Casas, Maribel; Caballero, Rosalía; Goicoechea, Uxue; Carrasco, Eva; Michalopoulos, Steven; Hornberger, John; Prat, Aleix

    2015-06-01

    Improved understanding of risk of recurrence (ROR) is needed to reduce cases of recurrence and more effectively treat breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine how a gene-expression profile (GEP), identified by Prosigna, influences physician adjuvant treatment selection for early breast cancer (EBC) and the effects of this influence on optimizing adjuvant treatment recommendations in clinical practice. A prospective, observational, multicenter study was carried out in 15 hospitals across Spain. Participating medical oncologists completed pre-assessment, post-assessment, and follow-up questionnaires recording their treatment recommendations and confidence in these recommendations, before and after knowing the patient's ROR. Patients completed questionnaires on decision-making, anxiety, and health status. Between June 2013 and January 2014, 217 patients enrolled and a final 200 were included in the study. Patients were postmenopausal, estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth hormone factor negative, and node negative with either stage 1 or stage 2 tumors. After receiving the GEP results, treatment recommendations were changed for 40 patients (20%). The confidence of medical oncologists in their treatment recommendations increased in 41.6% and decreased in 6.5% of total cases. Patients reported lower anxiety after physicians made treatment recommendations based on the GEP results (p < 0.05). Though this study does not include evaluation of the impact of GEP on long-term outcomes, it was found that GEP results influenced the treatment decisions of medical oncologists and their confidence in adjuvant therapy selection. Patients' anxiety about the selected adjuvant therapy decreased with use of the GEP.

  3. Economic evaluation of the 70-gene prognosis-signature (MammaPrint®) in hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative early stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-06-01

    The 70-gene prognosis-signature is validated as a good predictor of recurrence for hormone receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early stage breast cancer (ESBC) in Japanese patient population. Its high cost and potential in avoiding unnecessary adjuvant chemotherapy arouse interest in its economic impact. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of including the assay into Japan's social health insurance benefit package. An economic decision tree and Markov model under Japan's health system from the societal perspective is constructed with clinical evidence from the pool analysis of validation studies. One-way sensitivity analyses are also performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated as ¥3,873,922/quality adjusted life year (QALY) (US$43,044/QALY), which is not more than the suggested social willingness-to-pay for one QALY gain from an innovative medical intervention in Japan, ¥5,000,000/QALY (US$55,556/QALY). However, sensitivity analyses show the instability of this estimation. The introduction of the assay into Japanese practice of ER+, LN-, HER2- ESBC treatment by including it to Japan's social health insurance benefit package has a reasonable chance to be judged as cost-effective and may be justified as an efficient deployment of finite health care resources.

  4. Kinetic Model of the Initial Stage of the Nanowire Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, S. N.; Hervieu, Yu. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    A kinetic model of the formation of pyramid-like bulges (pedestals) at the bases of vertical nanowires is proposed. The formation of the pedestals at the early stage of the nanowire growth is assumed to be induced by a higher nucleation rate of two-dimensional islands under the catalyst droplet, as compared to the nucleation rate at the non-activated surface areas. Kinetics of the nucleation and propagation of the steps in the pyramid is described with a model of the multilayer growth, taking into account that the catalyst droplet at the nanowire top is a strong sink for adatoms. It is shown that the transition from the growth of the pyramid to the axial growth of the nanowire is possible if the appearance of a nucleus of the new layer under the catalyst droplet results in a partial dissolution of the underlying layer. In this case a segment of the nanowire sidewall is formed, preventing the lateral growth of the layers generated by the droplet.

  5. Weed Growth Stage Estimator Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Teimouri, Nima; Dyrmann, Mads; Nielsen, Per Rydahl; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Somerville, Gayle J; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2018-05-16

    This study outlines a new method of automatically estimating weed species and growth stages (from cotyledon until eight leaves are visible) of in situ images covering 18 weed species or families. Images of weeds growing within a variety of crops were gathered across variable environmental conditions with regards to soil types, resolution and light settings. Then, 9649 of these images were used for training the computer, which automatically divided the weeds into nine growth classes. The performance of this proposed convolutional neural network approach was evaluated on a further set of 2516 images, which also varied in term of crop, soil type, image resolution and light conditions. The overall performance of this approach achieved a maximum accuracy of 78% for identifying Polygonum spp. and a minimum accuracy of 46% for blackgrass. In addition, it achieved an average 70% accuracy rate in estimating the number of leaves and 96% accuracy when accepting a deviation of two leaves. These results show that this new method of using deep convolutional neural networks has a relatively high ability to estimate early growth stages across a wide variety of weed species.

  6. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate < 0.05) were detected by pairwise comparison. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs are mainly involved in the processes of cell growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P < 0.1) related to growth and development: extracellular matrix–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development. PMID:28291821

  7. Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2009-08-01

    Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c approximately 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC.

  8. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  9. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  10. Characteristics of Early Stages of Corrosion Fatigue in Aircraft Skin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    SRI International is conducting research to characterize and quantitatively describe the early stages of corrosion fatigue in the fuselage skin of commercial aircraft. Specific objectives are to gain an improved deterministic understanding of the tra...

  11. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  13. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  15. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  16. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  17. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, J A; Bermejo, B; Estevez, L G; Palomo, A G; Gonzalez-Farre, X; Margeli, M; Pernas, S; Servitja, S; Rodriguez, C A; Ciruelos, E

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  18. The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

  19. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  20. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  1. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  2. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  3. Falls, sarcopenia and growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Avan Aihie; Syddall, Holly E; Martin, Helen J; Dennison, Elaine M; Anderson, Frazer H; Cooper, Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that people with poor early growth have an increased risk of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is an important risk factor for falls but it is not known whether poor early growth is related to falls. We investigated this in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study where 2148 participants completed a falls history. Grip strength was used as a marker of sarcopenia. Birth weight, weight at one year and conditional infant growth were analysed in relation to falls history. The prevalence of any fall in the last year was 14.3% for men and 22.5% for women. Falls in the last year were inversely related to adult grip strength, height and walking speed in men and women as well as to lower conditional infant growth in men (OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.04, 1.56] per SD decrease in conditional infant growth, p=0.02). This association was attenuated after adjustment for grip strength. Our findings support an association between poor early growth and falls in older men which appears to be mediated partly through sarcopenia. The lack of relationship with birth weight suggests that postnatal rather than prenatal influences on muscle growth and development may be important for risk of falls in later life. PMID:16905644

  4. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  5. Spiritual Diversity and Living with Early-Stage Dementia.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jocelyn Shealy; Zhao, Holly Carlson; Myers, Dennis R; Seela Eaton, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Attention to spiritual diversity is necessary for the provision of culturally informed clinical care for people with early-stage dementia and their family members. In this article, an evidence-based theoretical framework for conceptualizing spiritual diversity is described in detail (Pargament, 2011). The framework is then applied to two clinical case studies of people living with early-stage dementia to elucidate the multilayered components of spiritual diversity in this population. The case studies were selected from a larger mixed-methods study on spirituality, positive psychological factors, health, and well-being in people living with early-stage dementia and their family members. To our knowledge this is the first systematic attempt to apply a theoretical framework for understanding spiritual diversity in this population. Implications for clinical practice are provided.

  6. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The early growth of the first black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  8. The early growth of the first black holes

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  9. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  10. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  11. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  12. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  13. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Gallo, Alessandra; Silvestre, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development. Three stages of immature oocytes were discriminated in the ovary, with the germinal vesicle showing specific different features of growth and maturation. Stage-A (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes exhibited the highest L-type calcium current activity and were incompetent for meiosis resumption. Stage-B (vitellogenic) oocytes showed a progressive disappearance of calcium currents and the first appearance of sodium currents that remained high during the maturation process, up to the post-vitellogenic stage-C oocytes. The latter had acquired meiotic competence, undergoing spontaneous in vitro maturation and interacting with the spermatozoon. However, fertilized oocytes did not produce normal larvae, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation may affect embryo development. In mature oocytes at the metaphase I stage, sodium currents were present and remained high up to the zygote stage. Oocytes fertilized in the absence of sodium showed significant reduction of the fertilization current amplitude and high development of anomalous "rosette" embryos. Current amplitudes became negligible in embryos at the 2- and 4-cell stage, whereas resumption of all the current activities occurred at the 8-cell embryo. Taken together, these results suggest: (i) an involvement of L-type calcium currents in initial oocyte meiotic progression and growth; (ii) a role of sodium currents at fertilization; (iii) a role of the fertilization current in ensuring normal embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Methods A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian’s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. Conclusions The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. PMID:27625553

  15. Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Reshma; Nayak, Us Krishna; Hegde, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of Populus trichocarpa early stem from primary to secondary growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinwen; Hai, Guanghui; Wang, Chong; Cao, Shenquan; Xu, Wenjing; Jia, Zhigang; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Jack P; Dai, Shaojun; Cheng, Yuxiang

    2015-08-03

    Wood is derived from the secondary growth of tree stems. In this study, we investigated the global changes of protein abundance in Populus early stems using a proteomic approach. Morphological and histochemical analyses revealed three typical stages during Populus early stems, which were the primary growth stage, the transition stage from primary to secondary growth and the secondary growth stage. A total of 231 spots were differentially abundant during various growth stages of Populus early stems. During Populus early stem lignifications, 87 differential spots continuously increased, while 49 spots continuously decreased. These two categories encompass 58.9% of all differential spots, which suggests significant molecular changes from primary to secondary growth. Among 231 spots, 165 unique proteins were identified using LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, which were classified into 14 biological function groups. The proteomic characteristics indicated that carbohydrate metabolism, oxido-reduction, protein degradation and secondary cell wall metabolism were the dominantly occurring biochemical processes during Populus early stem development. This study helps in elucidating biochemical processes and identifies potential wood formation-related proteins during tree early stem development. It is a comprehensive proteomic investigation on tree early stem development that, for the first time, reveals the overall molecular networks that occur during Populus early stem lignifications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  18. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to thosemore » for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.« less

  19. Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Modeling of Colon Cancer Organoids Reveals that Multimodal Control of Stem Cell Self-Renewal is a Critical Determinant of Size and Shape in Early Stages of Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaming; Konstorum, Anna; Lowengrub, John S

    2018-05-01

    We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal. We demonstrate that SCs play a central role in normal and cancer colon organoids. Spatial patterning of the SC self-renewal promoter gives rise to SC clusters, which mimic stem cell niches, around the organoid surface, and drive the development of invasive fingers. We also study the effects of externally applied signaling factors. Applying bone morphogenic proteins, which inhibit SC and CP self-renewal, reduces invasiveness and organoid size. Applying hepatocyte growth factor, which enhances SC self-renewal, produces larger sizes and enhances finger development at low concentrations but suppresses fingers at high concentrations. These results are consistent with recent experiments on colon organoids. Because many cancers are hierarchically organized and are subject to feedback regulation similar to that in normal tissues, our results suggest that in cancer, control of cancer stem cell self-renewal should influence the size and shape in similar ways, thereby opening the door to novel therapies.

  20. Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Modeling of Colon Cancer Organoids Reveals that Multimodal Control of Stem Cell Self-Renewal is a Critical Determinant of Size and Shape in Early Stages of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huaming; Konstorum, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal. We demonstrate that SCs play a central role in normal and cancer colon organoids. Spatial patterning of the SC self-renewal promoter gives rise to SC clusters, which mimic stem cell niches, around the organoid surface, and drive the development of invasive fingers. We also study the effects of externally applied signaling factors. Applying bone morphogenic proteins, which inhibit SC and CP self-renewal, reduces invasiveness and organoid size. Applying hepatocyte growth factor, which enhances SC self-renewal, produces larger sizes and enhances finger development at low concentrations but suppresses fingers at high concentrations. These results are consistent with recent experiments on colon organoids. Because many cancers are hierarchically organized and are subject to feedback regulation similar to that in normal tissues, our results suggest that in cancer, control of cancer stem cell self-renewal should influence the size and shape in similar ways, thereby opening the door to novel therapies. PMID:28681151

  1. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop.

  2. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage... Webinars regarding its proposed Early Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule. The proposed Early Stage SBIC rule defines a new sub-category of small business investment companies...

  3. Changes in content of triterpenoids and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lingzhi at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Tamrakar, Sonam; Amen, Yhiya; Mori, Yasuhiro; Suhara, Hiroto; Kaneko, Shuhei; Kawashima, Hiroko; Okuzono, Kotaro; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Ganoderma lingzhi is a traditional medicinal mushroom, and its extract contains many bioactive compounds. Triterpenoids and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive components that contribute to its medicinal properties. In this study, we quantified 18 triterpenoids, total triterpenoid content and total polysaccharide content in the ethanol and water extracts of G. lingzhi at different growth stages. Triterpenoids were quantified by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. Total triterpenoid and total polysaccharide content were determined by colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the fruit bodies at an early growth stage had a higher content of ganoderic acid A, C2, I and LM2, as well as of ganoderenic acid C and D, than those at a later growth stage. In contrast, ganoderic acid K, TN and T-Q contents were higher in mature fruit bodies (maturation stage). The highest total triterpenoid and total polysaccharide contents were found in fruit bodies before maturity (stipe elongation stage or early stage of pileus formation). Our results provide information which will contribute to the establishment of an efficient cultivation system for G. lingzhi with a higher content of triterpenoids.

  4. Respiratory ATP cost and benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with Nicotiana tabacum at different growth stages and under salinity.

    PubMed

    Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Romero-Munar, Antonia; Alonso, David; Aroca, Ricardo; Baraza, Elena; Flexas, Jaume; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2017-11-01

    Growth and maintenance partly depend on both respiration and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation in leaves. Under stress, ATP is needed to maintain the accumulated biomass. ATP production mostly proceeds from the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP), while respiration via the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) may decrease the production of ATP per oxygen consumed, especially under phosphorus (P) limitation and salinity conditions. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reputed by their positive effect on plant growth under stress at mature stages of colonization; however, fungal colonization may decrease plant growth at early stages. Thus, the present research is based on the hypothesis that AM fungus colonization will increase both foliar respiration and ATP production at mature stages of plant growth while decreasing them both at early stages. We used the oxygen-isotope-fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities and ATP production of the COP and AOP in AM and non-AM (NM) tobacco plants grown under P-limiting and saline conditions in sand at different growth stages (14, 28 and 49days). Our results suggest that AM symbiosis represents an ATP cost detrimental for shoot growth at early stages, whilst it represents a benefit on ATP allowing for faster rates of growth at mature stages, even under salinity conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Dyslipidogenic microangiopathy in guinea pigs at early stages of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bersenev, A V; Klimenko, E D; Kobozeva, L P; Michunskaya, A B; Onishchenko, N A; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia on lipid metabolism, state of microcirculatory system, and morphological alterations in the aorta and liver of guinea pigs at the early stages of experimental atherogenesis. The important role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of regional pathology and atherosclerosis is confirmed. The proposed alimentary model can be used in the development of novel methods for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  6. Multimodal imaging findings in 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS.

    PubMed

    Cahuzac, Armelle; Wolff, Benjamin; Mathis, Thibaud; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2017-10-01

    To describe a new stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), occurring at a very early phase of the disease. Retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and tomographic findings in four patients with 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS. In four patients seen within 1 week of the onset of symptoms, fundus analysis revealed macular granity and the classic yellow-white dots, some having no corresponding hyperautofluorescent pattern. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed central foveal disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation layer with a hyper-reflective dome-shaped lesion. In two patients, fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed an intermediate hypofluorescent perimacular halo, whereas late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) showed a hyperfluorescent halo as well as the classic MEWDS features. After a few days, the EZ disruption appeared complete on OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in all patients. Visual acuity, OCT and FAF findings had fully recovered within 3 months. We have shown a new feature of MEWDS on FAF, OCT, FA and ICGA, corresponding to a very early stage of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  8. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal

    PubMed Central

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-01-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  9. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  10. Cysts mark the early stage of metastatic tumor development in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Rapp, Ulf R.; Rudel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying metastatic tumor growth at an early stage has been one of the biggest challenges in the treatment of lung cancer. By genetic lineage tracing approach in a conditional model of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in mice, we demonstrate that cystic lesions represent an early stage of metastatic invasion. We generated a mouse model for NSCLC which incorporated a heritable DsRed fluorescent tag driven by the ubiquitous CAG promoter in the alveolar type II cells of the lung. We found early cystic lesions in a secondary organ (liver) that lacked the expression of bona fide lung makers namely Scgb1a1 and surfactant protein C Sftpc and were DsRed positive hence identifying lung as their source of origin. This demonstrates the significant potential of alveolar type II cells in orchestrating the process of metastasis, rendering it as one of the target cell types of the lung of therapeutic importance in human NSCLC. PMID:29464089

  11. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ray; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2011-06-01

    The treatment of breast cancer involves a multi-disciplinary approach with radiation therapy playing a key role. Breast-conserving surgery has been an option for women with early-stage breast cancer for over two decades now. Multiple randomized trials now have demonstrated the efficacy of breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. With the advancements in breast imaging and the successful campaign for early detection of breast cancer, more women today are found to have early-stage small breast cancers. Patient factors (breast size, tumor location, history of prior radiation therapy, preexisting conditions such as collagen vascular disease, age, having prosthetically augmented breasts), pathological factors (margin status, tumor size, presence of extensive intraductal component requiring multiple surgical excisions), as well as patient preference are all taken into consideration prior to surgical management of breast cancer. Whole-breast fractionated radiation therapy between 5 and 7 weeks is considered as the standard of care treatment following breast-conserving surgery. However, new radiation treatment strategies have been developed in recent years to provide alternatives to the conventional 5-7 week whole-breast radiation therapy for some patients. Accelerated partial breast radiation therapy (APBI) was introduced because the frequency of breast recurrences outside of the surgical cavity has been shown to be low. This technique allows treatments to be delivered quicker (usually 1 week, twice daily) to a limited volume. Often times, this treatment involves the use of a brachytherapy applicator to be placed into the surgical cavity following breast-conserving surgery. Accelerated hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation may be another faster way to deliver radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery. This journal article reviews the role of radiation therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer addressing patient selection in breast

  13. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  14. An assessment of early mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E F; L'Abbé, E N; Oettlé, A C

    2012-04-10

    Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch

  15. Laminarin improves developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuang; Yao, Xue-Rui; Jin, Yong-Xun; Shen, Xing-Hui; Yuan, Bao; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2018-04-23

    Laminarin (LMA), a β-glucan mixture with good biocompatibility, improves the growth performance and immune response when used as food additives and nutraceuticals. The aim of the present research was to explore the effects of LMA on porcine early stage embryo development, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos was dramatically improved after LMA supplementation during the in vitro culture period. The presence of 20 μg/mL LMA during the in vitro culture period significantly improved cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rates, hatching rate, and total cell number in the blastocyst compared to that in the control group. Notably, LMA attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation induced by H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, LMA not only increased intracellular glutathione levels, but also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the expression of a zygotic genome activation related gene (YAP1), pluripotency-related genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and hatching-related genes (COX2, GATA4, and ITGA5) were up-regulated following LMA supplementation during porcine early stage embryo development. These results demonstrate that LMA has beneficial effects on the development of porcine early stage embryos via regulation of oxidative stress. This evidence provides a novel method for embryo development improvement associated with exposure to LMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    PubMed

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  17. Frustration Sculpts the Early Stages of Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Di Silvio, Eva; Brunori, Maurizio; Gianni, Stefano

    2015-09-07

    The funneled energy landscape theory implies that protein structures are minimally frustrated. Yet, because of the divergent demands between folding and function, regions of frustrated patterns are present at the active site of proteins. To understand the effects of such local frustration in dictating the energy landscape of proteins, here we compare the folding mechanisms of the two alternative spliced forms of a PDZ domain (PDZ2 and PDZ2as) that share a nearly identical sequence and structure, while displaying different frustration patterns. The analysis, based on the kinetic characterization of a large number of site-directed mutants, reveals that although the late stages for folding are very robust and biased by native topology, the early stages are more malleable and dominated by local frustration. The results are briefly discussed in the context of the energy-landscape theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  19. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected bymore » antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These

  20. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  1. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  3. Surgical Staging of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: Comparison Between Laparotomy and Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Nazik, Hakan; Adiguzel, Cevdet; Guzin, Kadir; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the laparotomy (LT) and laparoscopy (LS) in patients who undergone surgical staging for early stage endometrium cancer. Methods Retrospective data were collected and analyzed for amount of intraoperative bleeding, complication rates, total resected and laterality specific number of lymph nodes and duration of operation in patients operated with either LT or LS. Results Seventy-nine stage I endometrium cancer patients were found to be eligible for the trial purposes: 58 (73.4%) treated by LT and 21 (26.6%) treated by LS. The number of lymph nodes was similar in LT (8.9 ± 5.3) and LS (9.2 ± 4.8) (P = 0.8). In LT group, there was no difference in the number of lymph nodes between the right and left sides (10 ± 5.8 and 8.7 ± 4.8 respectively, P = 0.19); in LS group, the number of lymph nodes resected from the right side was higher than the left side (9.8 ± 5 and 7 ± 3.5 respectively, P = 0.039). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization period were significantly higher in LT group. Seventy-nine patients had a median follow-up of 30 months. The two groups were similar for disease-free survival (P = 0.46, log rank test). Conclusions There was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of number of total resected lymph nodes. In early stage endometrial carcinoma, LS has provided adequate staging and similar survival rates with LT. PMID:29147363

  4. Ammonia and urea handling by early life stages of fishes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes. Recent findings have shed considerable light on the mechanisms by which these constraints are overcome in early life. Perhaps most importantly, the discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins as ammonia transporters and their expression in ion-transporting cells on the skin of larval fishes has transformed our understanding of ammonia excretion by fishes in general. The emergence of larval zebrafish as a model species, together with genetic knockdown techniques, has similarly advanced our understanding of ammonia and urea metabolism and excretion by larval fishes. It has also now been demonstrated that ammonia excretion is one of the primary functions of the developing gill in rainbow trout larvae, leading to new hypotheses regarding the physiological demands driving gill development in larval fishes. Here, we highlight and discuss the dramatic changes in nitrogen handling that occur over early life development in fishes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Loss of corticospinal tract integrity in early MS disease stages

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jens; Kaufmann, Jörn; Heidel, Jan; Stadler, Erhard; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine; Sailer, Michael; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated corticospinal tract (CST) integrity in the absence of white matter (WM) lesions using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in early MS disease stages. Methods: Our study comprised 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, for whom MRI measures of CST integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]), T1- and T2-based lesion load, and brain volumes were available. The mean (SD) disease duration was 3.5 (2.1) months, and disability score was low (median Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.5) at the time of the study. Results: Patients with CIS and RRMS had significantly lower CST FA and higher CST MD values compared with controls. These findings were present, irrespective of whether WM lesions affected the CST. However, no group differences in the overall gray or WM volume were identified. Conclusions: In early MS disease stages, CST integrity is already affected in the absence of WM lesions or brain atrophy. PMID:28959706

  6. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant

  7. Early-\\x90stage Electrical Breakdown involving Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Moore, Chris; Schultz, Peter; Bussman, Ezra; Scrymgeour, David; Hopkins, Matt

    The early stage of electrical breakdown from a surface is assumed to involve field emission. In real-world applications, the electrical field is often assumed to be increased by geometrical effects. In addition to these enhancement effects, contamination by adsorbates can lead to reductions in the effective work functions. To develop a physics-based understanding beyond the use of these empirical effects, the field emission currents at early times are being computed and measured. The calculations involve a solution of the Boltzmann equation, and the measurements involve a scanning tunneling microscope. Early results from this collaborative theoretical-experimental project will be described in this presentation. The presentation will focus on results for an ideal system with an absence of geometrical effects. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in themore » trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode

  9. Growth of second stage mineral in Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Seto, Jong; Deymier, A C; Rack, A; Veis, A

    2017-10-30

    Purpose and Aims: Sea urchin teeth consist of calcite and form in two stages with different magnesium contents. The first stage structures of independently formed plates and needle-prisms define the shape of the tooth, and the columns of the second stage mineral cements the first stage structures together and control the fracture behavior of the mature tooth. This study investigates the nucleation and growth of the second stage mineral. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and synchrotron microComputed Tomography characterized the structures of the second phase material found in developing of Lytechinus variegatus teeth. Although the column development is a continuous process, defining four phases of column formation captures the changes that occur in teeth of L. variegatus. The earliest phase consists of small 1-2 µm diameter hemispheres, and the second of 5-10 µm diameter, mound-like structures with a nodular surface, develops from the hemispheres. The mounds eventually bridge the syncytium between adjacent plates and form hyperboloid structures (phase three) that appear like mesas when plates separate during the fracture. The mesa diameter increases with time until the column diameter is significantly larger than its height, defining the fourth phase of column development. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the columns contain more magnesium than the underlying plates; the ratios of magnesium to calcium are consistent with compositions derived from x-ray diffraction. Columns grow from both bounding plates. The presence of first phase columns interspersed among third stage mesas indicates very localized control of mineralization.

  10. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  12. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  13. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  14. Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Caldwell, W. A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Bravman, J. C.; Batterman, B. W.; Nix, W. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-09-01

    Electromigration occurs when a high current density drives atomic motion from the cathode to the anode end of a conductor, such as a metal interconnect line in an integrated circuit. While electromigration eventually causes macroscopic damage, in the form of voids and hillocks, the earliest stage of the process when the stress in individual micron-sized grains is still building up is largely unexplored. Using synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction during an in-situ electromigration experiment, we have discovered an early prefailure mode of plastic deformation involving preferential dislocation generation and motion and the formation of a subgrain structure within individual grains of a passivated Al (Cu) interconnect. This behavior occurs long before macroscopic damage (hillocks and voids) is observed.

  15. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P J

    2003-10-01

    The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  16. Grass competition suppresses savanna tree growth across multiple demographic stages.

    PubMed

    Riginos, Corinna

    2009-02-01

    Savanna ecosystems, defined by the codominance of trees and grasses, cover one-fifth of the world's land surface and are of great socioeconomic and biological importance. Yet, the fundamental question of how trees and grasses coexist to maintain the savanna state remains poorly understood. Many models have been put forward to explain tree-grass coexistence, but nearly all have assumed that grasses do not limit tree growth and demography beyond the sapling stage. This assumption, however, has rarely been tested. Here I show that grass can strongly suppress the growth of trees. I removed grass around trees of three size classes in an Acacia drepanolobium savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. For even the largest trees, grass removal led to a doubling in growth and a doubling in the probability of transitioning to the next size class over two years. These results suggest that grass competition in productive (nutrient-rich) savannas may limit tree growth as much as herbivory and fire (the main factors thought to determine tree demography within a rainfall region) and should be incorporated into savanna models if tree-grass coexistence and savanna dynamics are to be understood.

  17. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Sigma Factor K in Early-Stage Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, David G.; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σK is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

  18. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  19. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-21

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient's quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

  20. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  1. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Initial stages of organic film growth characterized by thermal desorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the increasing importance of organic electronics, a more in-depth understanding of the early stages of organic film growth is indispensable. In this review a survey of several rod-like and plate-like organic molecules (p-quaterphenyl, p-sexiphenyl, hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HATCN), rubicene, indigo) deposited on various application relevant substrates (gold, silver, mica, silicon dioxide) is given. The focus is particularly put on the application of thermal desorption spectroscopy to shed light on the kinetics and energetics of the molecule-substrate interaction. While each adsorption system reveals a manifold of features that are specific for the individual system, one can draw some general statements on the early stages of organic film formation from the available datasets. Among the important issues in this context is the formation of wetting layers and the dewetting as a function of the substrate surface conditions, organic film thickness and temperature. PMID:26778860

  3. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  4. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  5. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  6. Behavioral characteristics of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) steers at different growth stages and seasons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Yeon; Kim, Seong Jin; Jang, Se Young; Oh, Mi Rae; Tang, Yu Jiao; Seong, Hye Jin; Yun, Yeong Sik; Moon, Sang Ho

    2017-10-01

    This research analyzed behavioral characteristics of Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) steers during each season and growth stage to enable measurement of the animals' welfare level for precision livestock farming. A hundred-eight beef steers were divided into three equal groups at a Hanwoo farm according to their growth stage: growing stage (GS), 8 months; early-fattening stage (EFS), 19 months; and late-fattening stage (LFS), 30 months. Twelve behavioral categories were continuously recorded for 13 day-time hours in each four seasons with three replications. Time spent standing was found to be significantly longer in summer at all growth stages (p<0.05). Hanwoos at the GS spent significantly longer standing time in spring and summer than those at the EFS and LFS (p<0.05). Lying time in summer was the shortest for all growth stages (p<0.05). Steers at the LFS spent significantly longer lying time than that at the GS (p<0.05) in summer. For GS and EFS, time spent eating in spring and autumn were longer than in summer and winter (p<0.05). Eating time was the longest for the GS in spring, autumn, and winter, excluding for the LFS in winter (p<0.05). Regarding ruminating, steers at the LFS spent significantly shorter time than those at other stages in all seasons (p<0.05). GS and EFS steers showed the longest walking time in summer compared with other seasons (p<0.05). At GS and LFS, drinking time in summer was the longest of all seasons (p<0.05). Sleeping time was significantly shorter in summer compared with the other seasons (p<0.05). Self-grooming time was the longest in winter for all growth stages (p<0.05). Steers were found to have more variable behavioral patterns during summer and the GS and less active behaviors during the LFS, thus extra care seems necessary during the GS, LFS, and summer period.

  7. On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

    2013-02-01

    The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  9. Nature versus nurture? Consequences of short captivity in early stages.

    PubMed

    Horreo, Jose L; Valiente, America G; Ardura, Alba; Blanco, Aida; Garcia-Gonzalez, Claudia; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Biological changes occurring as a consequence of domestication and/or captivity are not still deeply known. In Atlantic salmon (S almo salar ), endangered (Southern Europe) populations are enhanced by supportive breeding, which involves only 6 months of captive rearing following artificial spawning of wild-collected adults. In this work, we assess whether several fitness-correlated life-history traits (migratory behavior, straying rate, age at maturity, and growth) are affected by early exposure to the captive environment within a generation, before reproduction thus before genetic selection. Results showed significant differences in growth and migratory behavior (including straying), associated with this very short period of captivity in natural fish populations, changing even genetic variability (decreased in hatchery-reared adults) and the native population structure within and between rivers of the species. These changes appeared within a single generation, suggesting very short time of captivity is enough for initiating changes normally attributed to domestication. These results may have potential implications for the long-term population stability/viability of species subjected to restoration and enhancement processes and could be also considered for the management of zoo populations.

  10. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  11. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  12. Association of Marital Status With T Stage at Presentation and Management of Early-Stage Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Cimarron E; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Ming, Michael E; Chu, Emily Y; Fraker, Douglas L; Karakousis, Giorgos C

    2018-05-01

    Early detection of melanoma is associated with improved patient outcomes. Data suggest that spouses or partners may facilitate detection of melanoma before the onset of regional and distant metastases. Less well known is the influence of marital status on the detection of early clinically localized melanoma. To evaluate the association between marital status and T stage at the time of presentation with early-stage melanoma and the decision for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in appropriate patients. This retrospective, population-based study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of 18 population-based registered cancer institutes. Patients with cutaneous melanoma who were at least 18 years of age and without evidence of regional or distant metastases and presented from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014, were identified for the study. Data were analyzed from September 27 to December 5, 2017. Marital status, categorized as married, never married, divorced, or widowed. Clinical T stage at presentation and performance of SLNB for lesions with Breslow thickness greater than 1 mm. A total of 52 063 patients were identified (58.8% men and 41.2% women; median age, 64 years; interquartile range, 52-75 years). Among married patients, 16 603 (45.7%) presented with T1a disease, compared with 3253 never married patients (43.0%), 1422 divorced patients (39.0%), and 1461 widowed patients (32.2%) (P < .001). Conversely, 428 widowed patients (9.4%) presented with T4b disease compared with 1188 married patients (3.3%) (P < .001). The association between marital status and higher T stage at presentation remained significant among never married (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.26-1.39; P < .001), divorced (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P < .001), and widowed (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.60-1.81; P < .001) patients after adjustment for various socioeconomic and patient factors. Independent of T stage and other patient factors, married

  13. [Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yue-Ju; Song, Yan-Yan; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian; Qi, Jun-Ye; Xiao, Xu-Wen; Wang, Lan-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was significantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All five developmental quotients evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale (gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptability and individuality) in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 3 months. At the corrected gestational age of 6 months, the developmental quotients of fine motor and language in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group, however, there were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of gross motor, adaptability and individuality between the two groups. All five developmental quotients in IUGR infants with catch-up lag in weight were significantly lower than in IUGR and AGA infants who had caught up well. Growth retardation at early postnatal stages may adversely affect the early neurodevelopment in infants with IUGR.

  14. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  15. Hydroxamic acid content and toxicity of rye at selected growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clifford P; Park, Yong Bong; Adam, Frédérick; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Teasdale, John R

    2005-08-01

    different stages. Hydroxamic acids may account for the phytoxicity of extracts derived from rye at early growth stages, but other compounds are probably responsible in later growth stages.

  16. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  18. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease.

  19. Multiscale Investigations of the Early Stage Oxidation on Cu Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Penghao; Lian, Xin; Yang, Shen-Che; Henkelman, Grame; Saidi, Wissam; Yang, Judith; University of Pittsburgh Team; University of Texas at Austin Team

    Previous in situ TEM experiments have shown that the oxidation of the three low index Cu surfaces (100), (110) and (111) exhibit different oxide nucleation rates, and the resulting oxides have 3-dimensional (3D) island shapes or 2D rafts under different conditions. In order to better understand these results, we have investigated the early stages of Cu oxidation using a multiscale computational approach that employs density functional theory (DFT), reactive force field (ReaxFF), and kinetic Mote Carlo (KMC). With DFT calculation, we have compared O2 dissociation barriers on Cu (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at high oxygen coverage to evaluate the kinetic barrier of sublayer oxidization. We found that O2 dissociation barriers on Cu(111) surface are all lower than those on (110) and (100) surfaces. This trend agrees with experimental observations that (111) surface is easier to oxidize. These DFT calculated energy barriers are then incorporated into KMC simulations. The large scale ReaxFF molecular dynamics and KMC simulations detail the oxidation dynamics of the different Cu surfaces, and show the formation of various oxide morphologies that are consistent with experimental observations.

  20. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  1. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  2. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  3. Partial breast radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Beryl

    2012-02-01

    This review is to provide an update on the current status of partial breast irradiation (PBI) for women presenting with early-stage breast cancer, as an alternate radiation technique to fractionated, whole breast radiation, following conservation surgery. As more women are asking for and receiving this treatment, both on and off protocols, understanding recent additions to the literature is important to physicians caring for this patient population. Newly published retrospective studies, with follow-up times out to 10 years and the status of both recently completed and still open large prospective phase III trials will be covered, with emphasis on unexpected side effects reported, and some hypothesis-generating radiobiology observations. A recent consensus treatment guideline for PBI use is also discussed. Selected retrospective studies continue to report outcomes matching those achieved with whole breast radiation; however, results from large prospective randomized trials comparing PBI to whole breast radiation have been reported only with short follow-up times, or in two studies, are still pending. A recent consensus guideline is useful at present in selecting patients for discussion of this treatment.

  4. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    JO, WOORI; YU, EUN-SIL; CHANG, MINSUN; PARK, HYUN-KYU; CHOI, HYUN-JI; RYU, JAE-EUN; JANG, SUNGWOONG; LEE, HYO-JU; JANG, JA-JUNE; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma-specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S-transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK-dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high-risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. PMID:26548419

  5. Early-Stage Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ashley; de Pablo, Juan

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, or human amylin) is implicated in the development of type II diabetes. hIAPP is known to aggregate into amyloid fibrils; however, it is prefibrillar oligomeric species, rather than mature fibrils, that are proposed to be cytotoxic. In order to better understand the role of hIAPP aggregation in the onset of disease, as well as to design effective diagnostics and therapeutics, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of early-stage hIAPP aggregation. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with multiple advanced sampling techniques to examine the formation of the hIAPP dimer and trimer. Metadynamics calculations reveal a free energy landscape for the hIAPP dimer, which suggest multiple possible transition pathways. We employ finite temperature string method calculations to identify favorable pathways for dimer and trimer formation, along with relevant free energy barriers and intermediate structures. Results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms and energetics of hIAPP aggregation. In addition, this work demonstrates that the finite temperature string method is an effective tool in the study of protein aggregation. Funded by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  6. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  7. Apple S-RNase interacts with an actin-binding protein, MdMVG, to reduce pollen tube growth by inhibiting its actin-severing activity at the early stage of self-pollination induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Meng, Dong; Gu, Zhaoyu; Li, Wei; Chen, Qiuju; Li, Yang; Yuan, Hui; Yu, Jie; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Tianzhong

    2018-04-18

    In S-RNase-mediated self-incompatibility, S-RNase secreted from the style destroys the actin cytoskeleton of the self-pollen tubes, eventually halting their growth, but the mechanism of this process remains unclear. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that S-RNase does not bind or sever filamentous actin (F-actin). In apple (Malus domestica), we identified an actin-binding protein containing myosin, villin and GRAM (MdMVG), that physically interacts with S-RNase and directly binds and severs F-actin. Immunofluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy indicated that S-RNase inhibits the F-actin-severing activity of MdMVG in vitro. In vivo, the addition of S-RNase to self-pollen tubes increased the fluorescence intensity of actin microfilaments and reduced the severing frequency of microfilaments and the rate of pollen tube growth in self-pollination induction in the presence of MdMVG overexpression. By generating 25 single-, double- and triple-point mutations in the amino acid motif E-E-K-E-K of MdMVG via mutagenesis and testing the resulting mutants with immunofluorescence, we identified a triple-point mutant, MdMVG (E167A/E171A/K185A) , that no longer has F-actin-severing activity or interacts with any of the four S-haplotype S-RNases, indicating that all three amino acids (E167, E171 and K185) are essential for the severing activity of MdMVG and its interaction with S-RNases. We conclude that apple S-RNase interacts with MdMVG to reduce self-pollen tube growth by inhibiting its F-actin-severing activity. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the development of human ovarian early follicles during growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-ren; Yan, Li-ying; Yan, Jie; Lu, Cui-ling; Xia, Xi; Yin, Tai-lang; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Jiang-man; Ding, Ting; Hu, Wei-hong; Guo, Hong-yan; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2014-03-01

    What is the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the growth of individual early human follicles in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system in vitro? The addition of 200 ng bFGF/ml improves human early follicle growth, survival and viability during growth in vitro. It has been demonstrated that bFGF enhances primordial follicle development in human ovarian tissue culture. However, the growth and survival of individual early follicles in encapsulated 3D culture have not been reported. The maturation in vitro of human ovarian follicles was investigated. Ovarian tissue (n= 11) was obtained from 11 women during laparoscopic surgery for gynecological disease, after obtaining written informed consent. One hundred and fifty-four early follicles were isolated by enzymic digestion and mechanical disruption. They were individually encapsulated into alginate (1% w/v) and randomly assigned to be cultured with 0, 100, 200 or 300 ng bFGF/ml for 8 days. Individual follicles were cultured in minimum essential medium α (αMEM) supplemented with bFGF. Follicle survival and growth were assessed by microscopy. Follicle viability was evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope following Calcein-AM and Ethidium homodimer-I (Ca-AM/EthD-I) staining. After 8 days in culture, all 154 follicles had increased in size. The diameter and survival rate of the follicles and the percentage with good viability were significantly higher in the group cultured with 200 ng bFGF/ml than in the group without bFGF (P < 0.05). The percentage of follicles in the pre-antral stage was significantly higher in the 200 ng bFGF/ml group than in the group without bFGF (P < 0.05), while the percentages of primordial and primary follicles were significantly lower (P < 0.05). The study focuses on the effect of bFGF on the development of individual human early follicles in 3D culture in vitro and has limited ability to reveal the specific effect of bFGF at each different stage. The findings

  9. Stock size affects early growth of a loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    David B. South; Al Lyons; Russ Pohl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, forest researchers in the South have known that early gains in survival and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be achieved by planting large-diameter seedlings (South 1993; Wakeley 1949). For P. radiata, increasing size of planting stock also increases early growth of both seedlings (Mason and others 1996) and cuttings (South and others 2005)....

  10. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... respect to geographic location. SBA's primary concern in terms of geography is to ensure that the Early... SBICs is the primary source of cash used to service their SBA debt. SBA expects that some Early Stage...--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  11. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms.

  12. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  13. Health related quality of life of women in TEACH, a randomised placebo controlled adjuvant trial of lapatinib in early stage Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Frances M; Smith, Ian E; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Ejlertsen, Bent; Buzdar, Aman U; Fumoleau, Pierre; Gradishar, William; Martin, Miguel; Moy, Beverly; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Lindquist, Deborah; Amonkar, Mayur; Huang, Yingjie; Rappold, Erica; Williams, Lisa S; Wang-Silvanto, Jing; Kaneko, Tomomi; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goss, Paul E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate health related quality of life (HRQOL) in TEACH, a phase III randomized placebo controlled trial of 12 months of adjuvant lapatinib in HER2 positive (HER2+) early breast cancer which demonstrated marginal benefit in disease-free survival. Women on TEACH completed the Short Form 36-item health survey (version2; SF-36v2) at the baseline, six and 12 months after therapy initiation and six monthly thereafter. Mean changes were compared between treatment groups for two summary measures (Physical and Mental Component Summary scores; PCS and MCS) and eight domain measures (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health), and in patients discontinuing therapy. A five-point change was deemed a Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID). Response analysis compared the proportion of patients demonstrating a MCID in HRQOL, and a regression analysis identified predictors of worsening HRQOL. 3074 (97%) subjects completed baseline SF-36v2. During the initial 12 months, summary SF-36v2 scores decreased in both arms but did not reach Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID) despite significant incidences of diarrhoea and rash in lapatinib treated patients. At six months, women receiving lapatinib had more significant reductions (p < 0.01 versus placebo) in social functioning. Early treatment discontinuations were more frequent on lapatinib (32% versus 18%), and were associated with more substantial decrements of HRQOL in both arms. For those discontinuing primarily due to adverse events, decrements in HRQOL reached MCID in Mental Summary scores (MCS) only. Lower baseline HRQOL was a significant predictor of worsening HRQOL (p < 0.05). Despite frequent but usually mild toxicities, adjuvant lapatinib is not associated with clinically significant decreases in overall HRQOL. These placebo-controlled results may also help to inform physicians and patients using lapatinib in

  14. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Gautham; Hegde, Nanditha; Kumar, Anil; Keshavaraj

    2014-07-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  15. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Gautham; Hegde, Nanditha; Kumar, Anil; Keshavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results and Discussion: The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. Conclusion: The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. PMID:25210386

  16. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  17. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    PubMed

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction <0.0001). The results indicate that the SFP in Malawi is associated with an improvement in reversal learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  18. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations.

  19. The effect of optimal space allowance on growth performance and physiological responses of pigs at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Kim, K S; Kim, J E; Kim, D W; Seol, K H; Lee, S H; Chae, B J; Kim, Y H

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal space allowance for maximizing the growth performance of pigs at each of the following five growth stages (based on BW ranges): stage 1, 11 to 25 kg BW; stage 2, 25 to 45 kg BW; stage 3, 45 to 65 kg BW; stage 4, 65 to 85 kg BW; and stage 5, 85 to 110 kg BW. A total of 1590 crossbred (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) pigs were assigned to one of four treatments at each growth stage, with three replicates each. Pen areas at each growth stage were 6, 11, 16, 19.5 and 20 m2 for stages 1 to 5, respectively. Space allowances for the four treatments at each growth stage were modified by varying the number of pigs per pen (22, 25, 28 and 31 pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Blood samples were collected on the final day of each growth stage. The average daily gain (ADG) decreased significantly with decreased space allowances at all growth stages, except at stage 2. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not significantly affected by space allowances at stages 1 to 4; however, at stage 5, there was a linear effect of space allowance on ADFI. Thus, the feed conversion ratio showed results similar to those for ADG. Serum cortisol concentrations, indicating the level of stress response, increased as space allowances decreased. The highest serum cortisol concentrations were observed in T3 at stages 2 to 5. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in association with a small space allowance than with at large space allowance at stages 2, 4 and 5. Serum interleukin-1β levels also increased in a significant linear manner at every growth stage in pigs reared at a low space allowance, except at stage 4 (P=0.068). This study found that limited space allowance decreases the growth performance of pigs and induces stress and inflammatory responses. We confirmed that no significant effect of space allowance on growth performance and serum cortisol concentrations are observed between T1 and T2 across all growth

  20. Important photosynthetic contribution from the non-foliar green organs in cotton at the late growth stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ya-Li; Luo, Hong-Hai; Li, Wei; Oguchi, Riichi; Fan, Da-Yong; Chow, Wah Soon; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Non-foliar green organs are recognized as important carbon sources after leaves. However, the contribution of each organ to total yield has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the time-course of changes in surface area and photosynthetic activity of different organs at different growth stages. We studied the contribution of leaves, main stem, bracts and capsule wall in cotton by measuring their time-course of surface area development, O(2) evolution capacity and photosynthetic enzyme activity. Because of the early senescence of leaves, non-foliar organs increased their surface area up to 38.2% of total at late growth stage. Bracts and capsule wall showed less ontogenetic decrease in O(2) evolution capacity per area and photosynthetic enzyme activity than leaves at the late growth stage. The total capacity for O(2) evolution of stalks and bolls (bracts plus capsule wall) was 12.7 and 23.7% (total ca. 36.4%), respectively, as estimated by multiplying their surface area by their O(2) evolution capacity per area. We also kept the bolls (from 15 days after anthesis) or main stem (at the early full bolling stage) in darkness for comparison with non-darkened controls. Darkening the bolls and main stem reduced the boll weight by 24.1 and 9%, respectively, and the seed weight by 35.9 and 16.3%, respectively. We conclude that non-foliar organs significantly contribute to the yield at the late growth stage.

  1. Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, M.; Munoz, M.; Vidal, O.; Parra, T.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of mantellic peridotites and ultramafic rocks along axial valleys of low spread oceanic ridges plays a key role in different fundamental domains like, 1) energetic gaz production (H2 and hydrocarbons) representing a potential source of energy for future generations, 2) formation of organic pre-biotic molecules in potential relation with the origin of life. Moreover, such complex volcanic-related alteration processes play fundamental role in economic geology, being widely associated to important polymetallic sulphides ore deposits. Recent researches proposed an initial hydrogen production due to the integration of ferric iron in Fe,Mg-serpentine. To better understand the early stages of hydrogen production, a series of natural peridotite rocks have been experimentally exposed to hydrothermal conditions, up to 300°C, 300 bars during different time scales. Experiments have been performed in using autoclaves with a sampling gas system. A systematic mineralogical characterization of the new products was carried out using classical spectroscopic tools. In particular, we focused on the iron behaviour using a redox and structural micro-XANES investigation. Redox information has been accurately derived from the pre-peak features previously calibrated from model compounds, while structural information about short and medium range order around iron has been extracted from the XANES region of the spectra, based both on experimental standards and ab-initio theoretical calculations. Two processes of oxidation emerged. Before two month experiment duration, serpentine displays a not negligible oxidation of ferrous iron in his structure (up to 60%), while after two months, iron oxides and hydroxides appear in the system. These results seem to correspond to natural observations. The iron coordination decreases linearly with time. It means that iron also integrates the serpentine tetrahedral sites. Moreover, high resolution µ-XAS maps on experimental samples

  2. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surfacemore » ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.« less

  3. Is knowledge translation adequate? A quality assurance study of staging investigations in early stage breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Dolly; Hogeveen, Sophie; Sweet Goldstein, Miriam; George, Ralph; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Hoch, Jeffrey; Haq, Rashida; Simmons, Christine E

    2012-02-01

    After primary surgery, patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer undergo radiological investigations based on pathologic stage of disease to rule out distant metastases. Published guidelines can aid clinicians in determining which tests are appropriate based on stage of disease. We wished to assess the consistency of radiological staging in an academic community oncology setting with standard guidelines and to determine the overall impact of non-adherence to these guidelines. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for new breast cancer patients seen at a single institution between January 2009 and April 2010. Patients were included if initial diagnosis and primary surgery was at this institution. Pathologic stage and radiological tests completed were recorded. A literature review was performed and the results were compared with those from this study to determine overall adherence rates. Subsequently, a cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact at this centre. 231 patients met eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. A large proportion of patients were over-staged with 129 patients (55%) undergoing unnecessary investigations according to guidelines. Specifically, 59% of stage I patients and 58% of stage II patients were over-investigated. Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis were found in three patients, all of whom had stage III disease (1.3%). The literature reviewed revealed similar non-adherence rates in other centres. The estimated cost of such non-adherence is in the range of $78 (CDN) per new early stage breast cancer patient seen at this centre. This oncology centre has a low adherence to practice guidelines for staging investigations in breast cancer patients, with 55% of patients undergoing unnecessary tests. Very few patients had metastases at diagnosis, and all had pathological stage III disease. Efforts may need to focus on improving knowledge translation across clinical oncology settings to increase

  4. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle

    PubMed Central

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V.; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal–mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early ‘refractory’ and late ‘competent’ telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active ‘regenerative mode’ of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen

  5. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.

    PubMed

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also

  6. The heterotoxicity of Hordeum vulgare L. extracts in four growth stages on germination and seedlings growth of Avena ludoviciana.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, M; Peivastegan, B; Hadizade, I; Abdali, A

    2008-07-15

    Phytotoxicity of barley extracts (Hordeum vulgare L.) on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu) was investigated. Water extracts five varieties of barley were bioassayed on germination and seedling growth of wild-oat to test the heterotoxicity of barley on wild-oat, study the dynamics of allelopathic potential over four growth stages and identify the most allelopathic plant part of barley in each stage. Whole barley plants were extracted at growth stage 4 (stems not developed enough), whilst for the following growth stages roots, stems, panicles and leaves were extracted separately. Seedling growth bioassays demonstrated that the wild-oat responded differently to the allelopathic potential of barley. For wild-oat radical growth and coleoptile growth were more depressed than germination, though. The allelopathic potential of barley plant parts was not stable over its life cycle for wild-oat. Leaves and stems were the most phytotoxic barley plant parts for wild-oat in the all stages. Among the varieties Eizeh appeared as the best one showing toxicity to seed germination of wild oat at its stage 4 and 8. Results suggested that the response by wild-oat varied depending on the source of allelochemicals (plant part) and the growth stage of the barley plant and kind of variety. The results leaded to conclude that Eizeh variety of barley was good to grow as it has good check on seed germination of wild oat plants as well as it also retarded the growth of root and shoot length of oat.

  7. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  8. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  9. Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early-Stage Fuels Research on

    Science.gov Websites

    Early-Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early -Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree January 4, 2018 Woman preparing a fuel evaluation in a constant volume combustion vessel Drew Cameron, Research Participant Program Intern, prepares a test for

  10. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  11. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib.

    PubMed

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; Clatot, Florian; de Azambuja, Evandro; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib.

  12. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; Clatot, Florian; de Azambuja, Evandro; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib. PMID:28744140

  13. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-19

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  14. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nicolas R.; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A.; Babcock, Russell C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions. PMID:28573015

  15. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  16. Early-Stage Biotech Companies: Strategies for Survival and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wendy; Erickson, Stanford

    2006-01-01

    The promise of start-up biotechnology companies is enormous. So are the risks and the uncertainty of product development. The authors present a checklist for young biotech companies, covering environmental factors, alliances, and strategic planning. PMID:23424362

  17. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  18. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  19. Tumstatin peptide, an inhibitor of angiogenesis, prevents glomerular hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Maeshima, Yohei; Kitayama, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shinji; Takazawa, Yuki; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2004-07-01

    In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes) glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertrophy are observed. It is clinically important to regulate glomerular hypertrophy for preventing glomerulosclerosis. The number of glomerular endothelial cells is known to be increased in diabetic nephropathy associated with enlarged glomerular tufts, suggesting that the mechanism is similar to that of angiogenesis. Tumstatin peptide is an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from type IV collagen and inhibits in vivo neovascularization induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the mediators of glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we show the effect of tumstatin peptide in inhibiting alterations in early diabetic nephropathy. Glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, and albuminuria were suppressed by tumstatin peptide (1 mg/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Glomerular matrix expansion, the increase of total glomerular cell number and glomerular endothelial cells (CD31 positive), and monocyte/macrophage accumulation was inhibited by tumstatin peptide. Increase in renal expression of VEGF, flk-1, and angiopoietin-2, an antagonist of angiopoietin-1, was inhibited by tumstatin treatment in diabetic mice. Alteration of glomerular nephrin expression, a podocyte protein crucial for maintaining glomerular filtration barrier, was recovered by tumstatin in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential use of antiangiogenic tumstatin peptide as a novel therapeutic agent in early diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Time Series Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations for Citrus Crop Growth Stage and Evapotranspiration Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, S. A.; Chakraborty, M.; Suradhaniwar, S.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite based earth observation (EO) platforms have proved capability to spatio-temporally monitor changes on the earth's surface. Long term satellite missions have provided huge repository of optical remote sensing datasets, and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat program is one of the oldest sources of optical EO datasets. This historical and near real time EO archive is a rich source of information to understand the seasonal changes in the horticultural crops. Citrus (Mandarin / Nagpur Orange) is one of the major horticultural crops cultivated in central India. Erratic behaviour of rainfall and dependency on groundwater for irrigation has wide impact on the citrus crop yield. Also, wide variations are reported in temperature and relative humidity causing early fruit onset and increase in crop water requirement. Therefore, there is need to study the crop growth stages and crop evapotranspiration at spatio-temporal scale for managing the scarce resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the citrus crop growth stages using Normalized Difference Time Series (NDVI) time series data obtained from Landsat archives (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). Total 388 Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 scenes (from year 1990 to Aug. 2015) for Worldwide Reference System (WRS) 2, path 145 and row 45 were selected to understand seasonal variations in citrus crop growth. Considering Landsat 30 meter spatial resolution to obtain homogeneous pixels with crop cover orchards larger than 2 hectare area was selected. To consider change in wavelength bandwidth (radiometric resolution) with Landsat sensors (i.e. 4, 5, 7 and 8) NDVI has been selected to obtain continuous sensor independent time series. The obtained crop growth stage information has been used to estimate citrus basal crop coefficient information (Kcb). Satellite based Kcb estimates were used with proximal agrometeorological sensing system

  1. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  2. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cun-Quan; Sun, Yu-Han; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Ke-Qi; Hu, Rui-Yang; Li, Yun

    2014-03-21

    Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

  3. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžběta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Ševčíková, Marie; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L−1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L−1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L−1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L−1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L−1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L−1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  4. Early Stages of Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Beta Annealing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Sargent, G. A.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    The early stages of microstructure evolution during annealing of Ti-6Al-4V in the beta phase field were established. For this purpose, a series of short-time heat treatments was performed using sheet samples that had a noticeable degree of alpha-phase microtexture in the as-received condition. Reconstruction of the beta-grain structure from electron-backscatter-diffraction measurements of the room-temperature alpha-phase texture revealed that microstructure evolution at short times was controlled not by general grain growth, but rather by nucleation-and-growth events analogous to discontinuous recrystallization. The nuclei comprised a small subset of beta grains that were highly misoriented relative to those comprising the principal texture component of the beta matrix. From a quantitative standpoint, the transformation kinetics were characterized by an Avrami exponent of approximately unity, thus suggestive of metadynamic recrystallization. The recrystallization process led to the weakening and eventual elimination of the initial beta texture through the growth of a population of highly misoriented grains.

  5. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  7. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  8. A growth stage and heat unit model for Hedysarum Boreale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A system for staging sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt. [Fabaceae]) through vegetative and reproductive plant development was developed that corresponds with a heat-unit or growing degree day (GDD) model. This system designates 14 finite stages, V1 through V6 (pre-flowering or vegetative), and R1 ...

  9. Involvement of reactive oxygen species during early stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment between Castanea sativa and Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui M; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) establishment is lacking. In this paper, we evaluated ROS production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the early contact of the ECM fungus Pisolithus tinctorius with the roots of Castanea sativa (chestnut tree). Roots were placed in contact with P. tinctorius mycelia, and ROS production was evaluated by determining the levels of H(2)O(2) and O(2) (.-) during the early stages of fungal contact. Three peaks of H(2)O(2) production were detected, the first two coinciding with O(2) (.-) bursts. The first H(2)O(2) production peak coincided with an increase in SOD activity, whereas CAT activity seemed to be implicated in H(2)O(2) scavenging. P. tinctorius growth was evaluated in the presence of P. tinctorius-elicited C. sativa crude extracts prepared during the early stages of fungal contact. Differential hyphal growth that matched the H(2)O(2) production profile with a delay was detected. The result suggests that during the early stages of ECM establishment, H(2)O(2) results from an inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes and plays a role in signalling during symbiotic establishment.

  10. Genome-wide study of the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the early stages of wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Novo, Maite; Mangado, Ana; Quirós, Manuel; Morales, Pilar; Salvadó, Zoel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine

  11. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  13. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another "organ" for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria , mainly family Enterobacteriaceae , was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85%) in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L . vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery.

  14. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another “organ” for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria, mainly family Enterobacteriaceae, was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85%) in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery. PMID:28769916

  15. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  17. Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    patients with early stage ErbB2-overexpressing biopsies and ER- atypia . 13 REFERENCES: 1. Jordan VC. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention. Proc Soc...Summary01-03-2012 Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer Shalini Jain University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston...SUBTITLE “Src Kinase: A Novel Target of Early-Stage ER-Negative Breast Cancer” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  18. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0194 TITLE: DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0194 5c. PROGRAM...determine the copy number gain and loss for early stage high grade ovarian cancers through IlluminaHumanOmniExpress-FFPE BeadChip system • Subtask 1 DNA

  19. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    PubMed

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  20. Clusterin immunoexpression is associated with early stage endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah Ahmed; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham; Bajouh, Osama; Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal

    2016-05-01

    Clusterin has anti-apoptotic, regeneration and migration stimulating effects on tumor cells. This study investigates the relation between clusterin expression and the clinicopathological parameters in endometrial carcinomas. Seventy one cases of previously diagnosed endometrial carcinoma (including 59 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 9 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 clear cell adenocarcinoma, and 2 malignant mixed Mullerian tumor) and 30 tissue samples of non-cancerous endometrium (including 16 proliferative endometrium, 10 secretory endometrium and 4 endometrial polyps) were employed for clusterin detection using tissue microarrays and immunostaining. A total number of 23 (32.4%) cases were positive for clusterin immunostaining. Brown granular cytoplasmic expression of clusterin was detected in 33.9% of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22.2% papillary serous endometrial carcinomas. Three (10%) control cases showed granular cytoplasmic expression. Positive clusterin immunostaining was found more frequent in well differentiated and stage I endometrial carcinomas, showing significant statistical association (p-value=0.036 and p-value=0.002 respectively). Significant difference in clusterin expression was observed between tumor cases and control group (P-Value=0.019), i.e., endometrial carcinoma cases are more than four times likely to show positive clusterin immunostaining (odds ratio 4.313 with 95% confidence interval 1.184-15.701). This study did not find relation between clusterin expression and disease recurrence, survival or any of the other clinicopathological parameters in endometrial tumors. The results of our study confirms the diagnostic values of clusterin in supporting the diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma. When clusterin is expressed in endometrial tumors, it is associated with lower stage. The correlation of clusterin with tumor stage suggests involvement of this molecule in endometrial tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Feedback of ultrasound and RMI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma in early stage].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Routiot, T; Polet-Lefebvre, K; Morel, O

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in France. The therapeutic management is based on preoperative staging. The recommended imaging examination remains the MRI. This is to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in the staging for localized cancers. This is a retrospective observational study, conducted from July 2012 to July 2014, at the University Hospital of Nancy, on all patients care for endometrial cancer stage I, who underwent a pelvic ultrasound and MRI for the assessment of myometrial infiltration. Twenty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 69 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Using ultrasound, we have a sensitivity of 58%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70% and an accuracy of 75%. Using MRI, we have a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 83%, a VPN of 88%, and an accuracy of 86%. Transvaginal sonography should be performed before post-menopausal bleeding. It remains possible in the staging of localized cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression signatures of early-stage and advanced medaka melanomas.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Barbara; Kneitz, Susanne; Regensburger, Martina; Hahn, Lena; Dannemann, Michael; Kelso, Janet; Nickel, Birgit; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley; Kunz, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Schartl, Manfred

    2018-06-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors with a very low survival rate once metastasized. The incidence of newly detected cases increases every year suggesting the necessity of development and application of innovative treatment strategies. Human melanoma develops from melanocytes localized in the epidermis of the skin to malignant tumors because of deregulated effectors influencing several molecular pathways. Despite many advances in describing the molecular changes accompanying melanoma formation, many critical and clinically relevant molecular features of the transformed pigment cells and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To contribute to a better understanding of the molecular processes of melanoma formation, we use a transgenic medaka melanoma model that is well suited for the investigation of melanoma tumor development because fish and human melanocytes are both localized in the epidermis. The purpose of our study was to gain insights into melanoma development from the first steps of tumor formation up to melanoma progression and to identify gene expression patterns that will be useful for monitoring treatment effects in drug screening approaches. Comparing transcriptomes from juvenile fish at the tumor initiating stage with nevi and advanced melanoma of adults, we identified stage specific expression signatures and pathways that are characteristic for the development of medaka melanoma, and are also found in human malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  4. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  5. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  6. Applying a particle filtering technique for canola crop growth stage estimation in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Abhijit; Tan, Weikai; Li, Yifeng; McNairn, Heather; Jiao, Xianfeng; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Accurate crop growth stage estimation is important in precision agriculture as it facilitates improved crop management, pest and disease mitigation and resource planning. Earth observation imagery, specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, can provide field level growth estimates while covering regional scales. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 quad polarization and TerraSAR-X dual polarization SAR data and ground truth growth stage data are used to model the influence of canola growth stages on SAR imagery extracted parameters. The details of the growth stage modeling work are provided, including a) the development of a new crop growth stage indicator that is continuous and suitable as the state variable in the dynamic estimation procedure; b) a selection procedure for SAR polarimetric parameters that is sensitive to both linear and nonlinear dependency between variables; and c) procedures for compensation of SAR polarimetric parameters for different beam modes. The data was collected over three crop growth seasons in Manitoba, Canada, and the growth model provides the foundation of a novel dynamic filtering framework for real-time estimation of canola growth stages using the multi-sensor and multi-mode SAR data. A description of the dynamic filtering framework that uses particle filter as the estimator is also provided in this paper.

  7. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  8. Bisphenol A effects on the chlorophyll contents in soybean at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liya; Ding, Hezhou; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor, can modify normal plant growth and development. Photosynthesis provides material and energy for the growth and development of plants, in which chlorophyll (Chl) plays a significant role. Many studies have shown that the growth and metabolism of plants vary at different growth stages. Thus the sensitivity of plant's responses to environmental pollution is correspondingly different. We studied the effects of BPA on the Chl contents of soybean (Glycine Max L.) at different growth stages (seedling, flowering and podding, seed-filling and maturation) by measuring the contents of essential intermediates (5-aminolevulinic acid, porphobilinogen, protoporphyrin IX, magnesium protoporphyrin and protochlorophyll) and the activities of key enzymes (5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase, porphobilinogen deaminase, uroporphyrinogen III synthase, magnesium chelatase) in chlorophyll synthesis. Low-dose (1.5 mg/L) BPA exposure increased the activities of key enzymes in addition to the contents of intermediates in Chl synthesis at different growth stages, resulting in increases in Chl contents and net photosynthetic rate. In contrast, medium and high-dose (17.2, 50.0 mg/L) BPA exposure produced inhibitory effects on the indices. Following the withdrawal of BPA exposure, the indices recovered to a degree that was related to the plant growth stage. The effect level (high to low) of BPA on these indices at different growth stages was: seedling stage > maturation stage > flowering and podding stage > seed-filling stage. The reverse effect was observed following the withdrawal of BPA exposure. The responses of key enzymes in plant Chl synthesis to BPA illustrate how BPA affects Chl contents. The effects of BPA show clear differences at different plant growth stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  10. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  11. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  12. Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to warming

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future environmental warming (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. Warming reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. Warming did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the warm conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. Warming did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of warming on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764

  13. Effect of thiacloprid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta

    2018-03-01

    Toxicity of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiacloprid to embryos and larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio was assessed under laboratory conditions. Carp embryos and larvae were exposed to thiacloprid at four concentrations: 4.5 (environmental concentration), 45, 225, and 450 μg/L for 35 days and compared to a non-treated control group. The effects on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and reduced glutathione), mortality, growth, development, and histopathogenesis were assessed. Thiacloprid at tested concentrations were not associated with negative effects on hatching, behaviour, embryo viability, or Fulton's condition factor. Carp exposed to 45 μg/L thiacloprid showed lower weight and length compared to controls. Thiacloprid at 225 and 450 μg/L delayed development and led to lower weight and length of carp. Significantly lower superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activity was observed at all tested concentrations of thiacloprid compared with the control group. Chronic thiacloprid exposure of early-life stages of carp affected ontogeny and growth rate, and inhibited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  15. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-15 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. PMID:27451336

  16. Flexibility in Early Stage Design of U. S. Navy Ships: An Analysis of Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Flexibility in Early Stage Design of US Navy Ships: An Analysis of Options by Jonathan Page B.S., Systems Engineering, US Naval Academy, 2002...8217C/ v = (;!;!: ;: Pat Hale Director, Systems Design and Ma~ement Fellows Program E~i_yfering.S~~pivi~i~ Acceptedby...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexibility in Early Stage Design of U. S. Navy Ships: An

  17. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flores, Luis E; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Kühl, Anja A; Drews, Barbara

    2014-05-10

    Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9-11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart

  18. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. Methods In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. Results The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9–11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert’s membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and

  19. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  20. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  1. Early stages of transition in viscosity-stratified channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Jose, Sharath; Brandt, Luca

    2013-11-01

    In parallel shear flows, it is well known that transition to turbulence usually occurs through a subcritical process. In this work we consider a flow through a channel across which there is a linear temperature variation. The temperature gradient leads to a viscosity variation across the channel. A large body of work has been done in the linear regime for this problem, and it has been seen that viscosity stratification can lead to considerable changes in stability and transient growth characteristics. Moreover contradictory effects of introducing a non uniform viscosity in the system have been reported. We conduct a linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations (DNS) for this system. We show that the optimal initial structures in the viscosity-stratified case, unlike in unstratified flow, do not span the width of the channel, but are focussed near one wall. The nonlinear consequences of the localisation of the structures will be discussed.

  2. Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

    1996-01-01

    It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to

  3. Tiotropium in Early-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jinping; Zhao, Dongxing; Yao, Weimin; Zhi, Rongchang; Wei, Liping; He, Bingwen; Zhang, Xiangyan; Yang, Changli; Li, Ying; Li, Fenglei; Du, Juan; Gui, Jianping; Hu, Bin; Bai, Chunxue; Huang, Ping; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Changzheng; Liang, Biao; Li, Yinhuan; Hu, Guoping; Tan, Hui; Ye, Xianwei; Ma, Xitao; Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiwei; Tian, Jia; Zhu, Xiaodan; Shi, Zhe; Du, Xiufang; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shengming; Yu, Ronghuan; Zhao, Jianping; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Canmao; Li, Xiongbin; Chen, Tao; Lin, Yingxiang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changxiu; Ye, Weishu; Luo, Xiangwen; Zeng, Lingshan; Yu, Shuqing; Guan, Wei-Jie; Ran, Pixin

    2017-09-07

    Patients with mild or moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rarely receive medications, because they have few symptoms. We hypothesized that long-term use of tiotropium would improve lung function and ameliorate the decline in lung function in patients with mild or moderate COPD. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted in China, we randomly assigned 841 patients with COPD of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate) severity to receive a once-daily inhaled dose (18 μg) of tiotropium (419 patients) or matching placebo (422) for 2 years. The primary end point was the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) before bronchodilator use. Secondary end points included the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use and the between-group difference in the annual decline in the FEV 1 before and after bronchodilator use from day 30 to month 24. Of 841 patients who underwent randomization, 388 patients in the tiotropium group and 383 in the placebo group were included in the full analysis set. The FEV 1 in patients who received tiotropium was higher than in those who received placebo throughout the trial (ranges of mean differences, 127 to 169 ml before bronchodilator use and 71 to 133 ml after bronchodilator use; P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was no significant amelioration of the mean (±SE) annual decline in the FEV 1 before bronchodilator use: the decline was 38±6 ml per year in the tiotropium group and 53±6 ml per year in the placebo group (difference, 15 ml per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 31; P=0.06). In contrast, the annual decline in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use was significantly less in the tiotropium group than in the placebo group (29±5 ml per year vs. 51±6 ml per year; difference, 22

  4. Effects of Environmental Contamination and Acute Toxicity of N-Nitrate on Early Life Stages of Endemic Arboreal Frog, Polypedates cruciger (Blyth, 1852).

    PubMed

    Balangoda, Anusha; Deepananda, K H M Ashoka; Wegiriya, H C E

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential toxic effects of environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations on development, growth, and mortality of early life stages of common hour-glass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger. Tadpoles from hatchlings through pre-adult were exposed to environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations detected in Mirissa, Sri Lanka. Newly hatched, external gill stage, and internal gill stage tadpoles were exposed to potassium nitrate for bioassay tests. No behavioral changes or abnormalities were observed in control and nitrate-induced group. However, detected environmental nitrate concentration significantly increased (p < 0.05) the growth of the tadpoles up to 25 days old. Results revealed that newly hatched and external gill stage was more susceptible to the nitrate pollution than internal gill stage. The results suggest that environmentally relevant nitrate can cause mortality on the amphibian population in ecosystems associated with agro-pastoral activities through altering the growth and direct toxicological effects on the survivorship.

  5. Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more defensive strategy of starting treatment with less aggressive doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and intensifying treatment in early interim PET-positive patients has shown encouraging results. New drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical trials of brentuximab vedotin in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma have been initiated. Additionally, biomarker-based treatment de-escalation might be a possible route for future improvements. The challenge for future clinical research in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is to continue to cure the majority of patients with first-line treatment while reducing long-term toxicity. New strategies to achieve that goal are currently being developed and will further refine treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

  6. Significance of mediastinal involvement in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mauch, P.; Goodman, R.; Hellman, S.

    1978-09-01

    Between April 1969 and December 1974, 111 consecutive surgically staged I A and II A patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. Patients received 3600 to 4400 rad to mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle regions. Median follow-up was 56 months. Fourteen patients developed relapsing Hodgkin's disease and three patients died of possible treatment-related causes, two with acute myocardial infarctions and one with radiation pneumonitis. Patients with mediastinal enlargement greater than one third of the chest diameter have a significantly higher risk (p < 0.01) of developing relapse (9 of 18) than patients with lessermore » or no mediastinal disease (5 of 93). Of the 18 patients with large mediastinal disease, six relapsed in the mediastinum and two in the lung. There continue to be no pelvic extensions in the entire group. There is a 92% relapse-free and 97% overall survival in the 93 patients without extensive mediastinal disease. We continue to recommend mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle irradiation for these patients. In view of the large number of relapses in patients with extensive mediastinal disease, we are now treating this subgroup of patients with MOPP chemotherapy in addition to mantle and para-aortic irradiation.« less

  7. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Neri, Franco M.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible–infected–removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  8. Slowdown of surface diffusion during early stages of bacterial colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, T.; Peerhossaini, H.; Léopoldès, J.; Méjean, A.; Chauvat, F.; Cassier-Chauvat, C.

    2018-03-01

    We study the surface diffusion of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 during the incipient stages of cell contact with a glass surface in the dilute regime. We observe a twitching motility with alternating immobile tumble and mobile run periods, resulting in a normal diffusion described by a continuous-time random walk with a coefficient of diffusion D . Surprisingly, D is found to decrease with time down to a plateau. This is observed only when the cyanobacterial cells are able to produce released extracellular polysaccharides, as shown by a comparative study between the wild-type strain and various polysaccharides-depleted mutants. The analysis of the trajectories taken by the bacterial cells shows that the temporal characteristics of their intermittent motion depend on the instantaneous fraction of visited sites during diffusion. This describes quantitatively the time dependence of D , related to the progressive surface coverage by the polysaccharides. The observed slowdown of the surface diffusion may constitute a basic precursor mechanism for microcolony formation and provides clues for controlling biofilm formation.

  9. Cost analysis of adjuvant management strategies in early stage (stage I) testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, John A; Gajjar, Shefali R; Lanni, Thomas B; Swanson, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Background Acceptable post-orchiectomy adjuvant therapy strategies for stage I seminoma patients include surveillance, para-aortic radiation therapy (RT), dog-leg RT, and a single cycle of carboplatin. The required follow-up recommendations were amended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2012. Given a cause-specific survival of nearly 100%, a closer analysis of the reimbursement for each treatment strategy is warranted. Methods NCCN guidelines were used to design treatment plans for each acceptable adjuvant treatment strategy. Follow-up charges were generated for 10 years based on 2012 (version 1.2012; unchanged in current version 1.2013) and 2011 NCCN (version 2.2011) surveillance recommendations. The 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates were used to calculate each treatment strategy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare the treatment options. Results Under the current NCCN follow-up recommendations, the total reimbursements generated over 10 years of surveillance, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin were $10,643, $11,678, $9,662, and $10,405, respectively. This is compared with the reimbursements as per the 2011 NCCN recommendations: $20,986, $11,517, $9,394, and $20,365 respectively. Factoring the rates of relapse into a salvage model, observation was found to be more costly and less effective ($–1,831, $−7,318, $–7,010) in the adjuvant management of stage I seminoma patients Conclusion Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, para-aortic RT, dog-leg RT, and carboplatin are cost-effective options for the treatment of stage I seminoma when compared with observation; however, surveillance could potentially spare as many as 80%–85% of men diagnosed with stage I seminoma from additional therapy after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Such cost and reimbursement analyses are becoming increasingly relevant, but are not meant to usurp sound clinical judgment. Further studies are required to validate these findings

  10. Non-destructive Phenotyping of Lettuce Plants in Early Stages of Development with Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Ivan; Hayes, Ryan J.; Furbank, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, non-destructive evaluations of plants can provide valuable information to breeders and growers. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of using non-destructive phenotyping with optical sensors for the evaluations of lettuce plants in early stages of development. We performed the series of experiments to determine if hyperspectral imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can determine phenotypic changes manifested on lettuce plants subjected to the extreme temperature and salinity stress treatments. Our results indicate that top view optical sensors alone can accurately determine plant size to approximately 7 g fresh weight. Hyperspectral imaging analysis was able to detect changes in the total chlorophyll (RCC) and anthocyanin (RAC) content, while chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed photoinhibition and reduction of plant growth caused by the extreme growing temperatures (3 and 39°C) and salinity (100 mM NaCl). Though no significant correlation was found between Fv/Fm and decrease in plant growth due to stress when comparisons were made across multiple accessions, our results indicate that lettuce plants have a high adaptability to both low (3°C) and high (39°C) temperatures, with no permanent damage to photosynthetic apparatus and fast recovery of plants after moving them to the optimal (21°C) temperature. We have also detected a strong relationship between visual rating of the green- and red-leaf color intensity and RCC and RAC, respectively. Differences in RAC among accessions suggest that the selection for intense red color may be easier to perform at somewhat lower than the optimal temperature. This study serves as a proof of

  11. Effects of growth stage on quality characteristics of triticale forages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) in dairy-cropping systems has expanded greatly in recent years, partly to improve land stewardship by providing winter ground cover. Our objectives were to relate the nutritive value of triticale forages grown in central Wisconsin with plant growth sta...

  12. Frequent silencing of the candidate tumor suppressor TRIM58 by promoter methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Watabnabe, Miki; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG. TRIM58 was robustly silenced by hypermethylation even in early-stage primary LADC, and the restoration of TRIM58 expression in LADC cell lines inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo in anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Our findings suggest that aberrant inactivation of TRIM58 consequent to CGI hypermethylation might stimulate the early carcinogenesis of LADC regardless of smoking status; furthermore, TRIM58 methylation might be a possible early diagnostic and epigenetic therapeutic target in LADC. PMID:27926516

  13. Frequent silencing of the candidate tumor suppressor TRIM58 by promoter methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Koichiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Watabnabe, Miki; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-10

    In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG. TRIM58 was robustly silenced by hypermethylation even in early-stage primary LADC, and the restoration of TRIM58 expression in LADC cell lines inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo in anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Our findings suggest that aberrant inactivation of TRIM58 consequent to CGI hypermethylation might stimulate the early carcinogenesis of LADC regardless of smoking status; furthermore, TRIM58 methylation might be a possible early diagnostic and epigenetic therapeutic target in LADC.

  14. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  15. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Binding unfunded commitments from your Institutional Investors that cannot be called for any purpose other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest reserve requirements for... Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Binding unfunded commitments from your Institutional Investors that cannot be called for any purpose other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest reserve requirements for... Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early...

  17. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  18. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures

  20. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a "carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status", several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama's classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami's definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected.

  1. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  2. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Treesearch

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  3. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  4. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p < .001). Hope accounted for 25% of the variance in self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  5. [Aging affects early stage direction selectivity of MT cells in rhesus monkeys].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhen; Chen, Yue-Ming; Meng, Xue; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Bao-Zhuo; Xie, Ying-Ying; He, Wen-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) plays an important role in motion processing. Neurons in this area have a strongly selective response to the moving direction of objects and as such, the selectivity of MT neurons was proposed to be a neural mechanism for the perception of motion. Our previous studies have found degradation in direction selectivity of MT neurons in old monkeys, but this direction selectivity was calculated during the whole response time and the results were not able to uncover the mechanism of motion perception over a time course. Furthermore, experiments have found that direction selectivity was enhanced by attention at a later stage. Therefore, the response should be excluded in experiments with anesthesia. To further characterize the neural mechanism over a time course, we investigated the age-related changes of direction selectivity in the early stage by comparing the proportions of direction selective MT cells in old and young macaque monkeys using in vivo single-cell recording techniques. Our results show that the proportion of early-stage-direction-selective cells is lower in old monkeys than in young monkeys, and that the early stage direction bias (esDB) of old MT cells decreased relative to young MT cells. Furthermore, the proportion of MT cells having strong early stage direction selectivity in old monkeys was decreased. Accordingly, the functional degradation in the early stage of MT cells may mediate perceptual declines of old primates in visual motion tasks.

  6. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  8. Association between circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 and mortality in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Marina; Masuda, Takahiro; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Watanabe, Yuko; Honma, Sumiko; Sekiguchi, Chuji; Miyazawa, Yasuharu; Kusano, Eiji; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Asano, Yasushi; Kuro-O, Makoto; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, including early-stage chronic kidney disease, but its impact on clinical outcomes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients remains unclear. This study enrolled 90 ESRD patients receiving chronic hemodialysis who were categorized into low- and high-FGF21 groups by the median value. We investigated the association between circulating FGF21 levels and the cardiovascular event and mortality during a median follow-up period of 64 months. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the mortality rate was significantly higher in the high-FGF21 group than in the low-FGF21 group (28.3% vs. 9.1%, log-rank, P = 0.034), while the rate of cardiovascular events did not significantly differ between the two groups (30.4% vs. 22.7%, log-rank, P = 0.312). In multivariable Cox models adjusted a high FGF21 level was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-14.27, P = 0.009). Higher circulating FGF21 levels were associated with a high mortality rate, but not cardiovascular events in patient with ESRD, suggesting that circulating FGF21 levels serve as a predictive marker for mortality in these subjects.

  9. Efficient harvesting methods for early-stage snake and turtle embryos.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Reptile development is an intriguing research target for understating the unique morphogenesis of reptiles as well as the evolution of vertebrates. However, there are numerous difficulties associated with studying development in reptiles. The number of available reptile eggs is usually quite limited. In addition, the reptile embryo is tightly adhered to the eggshell, making it a challenge to isolate reptile embryos intact. Furthermore, there have been few reports describing efficient procedures for isolating intact embryos especially prior to pharyngula stage. Thus, the aim of this review is to present efficient procedures for obtaining early-stage reptilian embryos intact. We first describe the method for isolating early-stage embryos of the Japanese striped snake. This is the first detailed method for obtaining embryos prior to oviposition in oviparous snake species. Second, we describe an efficient strategy for isolating early-stage embryos of the soft-shelled turtle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camalier, Corrie R.; Konrad, Peter E.; Gill, Chandler E.; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R.; Nasr, Hana M.; Davis, Thomas L.; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Molinari, Anna L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Charles, David

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn–Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn–Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson’s patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  11. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  12. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  14. Urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Gao, Youhe

    2018-02-01

    As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically. It is anticipated that urine biomarker studies will greatly promote early diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of a variety of diseases, and provide strong support for translational and precision medicine.

  15. Living with early-stage dementia: a review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Steeman, Els; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Godderis, Jan; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a literature review whose aim was to provide better understanding of living with early-stage dementia. Even in the early stages, dementia may challenge quality of life. Research on early-stage dementia is mainly in the domain of biomedical aetiology and pathology, providing little understanding of what it means to live with dementia. Knowledge of the lived experience of having dementia is important in order to focus pro-active care towards enhancing quality of life. Qualitative research is fundamentally well suited to obtaining an insider's view of living with early-stage dementia. We performed a meta-synthesis of qualitative research findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and reviewed the papers cited in the references of pertinent articles, the references cited in a recently published book on the subjective experience of dementia, one thesis, and the journal Dementia. Thirty-three pertinent articles were identified, representing 28 separate studies and 21 different research samples. Findings were coded, grouped, compared and integrated. Living with dementia is described from the stage a person discovers the memory impairment, through the stage of being diagnosed with dementia, to that of the person's attempts to integrate the impairment into everyday life. Memory loss often threatens perceptions of security, autonomy and being a meaningful member of society. At early stages of memory loss, individuals use self-protecting and self-adjusting strategies to deal with perceived changes and threats. However, the memory impairment itself may make it difficult for an individual to deal with these changes, thereby causing frustration, uncertainty and fear. Our analysis supports the integration of proactive care into the diagnostic process, because even early-stage dementia may challenge quality of life. Moreover, this care should actively involve both the individual with dementia and their family so that both parties can adjust positively

  16. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with FIGO stage, clear-cell histology and nonoptimal staging. Optimal staging was achieved in 50%, and nonoptimal staging was associated with advanced age, comorbidity and treatment in a non-referral hospital. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, in grade 3 tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy seems beneficial. Selective treatment of patients with early-stage EOC might reduce adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  19. An ordered EST catalogue and gene expression profiles of cassava (Manihot esculenta) at key growth stages.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Pan, Ying-Hua; Sun, Chang-Bin; Dong, Hai-Tao; Luo, Xing-Lu; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Tang, Ji-Liang; Chen, Baoshan

    2010-12-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from the root tissues of cassava variety Huanan 124 at the root bulking stage. A total of 9,600 cDNA clones from the library were sequenced with single-pass from the 5'-terminus to establish a catalogue of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Assembly of the resulting EST sequences resulted in 2,878 putative unigenes. Blastn analysis showed that 62.6% of the unigenes matched with known cassava ESTs and the rest had no 'hits' against the cassava database in the integrative PlantGDB database. Blastx analysis showed that 1,715 (59.59%) of the unigenes matched with one or more GenBank protein entries and 1,163 (40.41%) had no 'hits'. A cDNA microarray with 2,878 unigenes was developed and used to analyze gene expression profiling of Huanan 124 at key growth stages including seedling, formation of root system, root bulking, and starch maturity. Array data analysis revealed that (1) the higher ratio of up-regulated ribosome-related genes was accompanied by a high ratio of up-regulated ubiquitin, proteasome-related and protease genes in cassava roots; (2) starch formation and degradation simultaneously occur at the early stages of root development but starch degradation is declined partially due to decrease in UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity with root maturity; (3) starch may also be synthesized in situ in roots; (4) starch synthesis, translocation, and accumulation are also associated probably with signaling pathways that parallel Wnt, LAM, TCS and ErbB signaling pathways in animals; (5) constitutive expression of stress-responsive genes may be due to the adaptation of cassava to harsh environments during long-term evolution.

  20. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children’s inhibitory control from ages 2 to 4, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the Family Check-Up (FCU), children’s inhibitory control was assessed yearly at ages 2, 3, and 4. Inhibitory control was initially low and increased linearly to age 4. High levels of harsh parenting and male gender were associated with low initial status in inhibitory control. High levels of supportive parenting were associated with faster growth. Extreme family poverty and African American ethnicity were also associated with slower growth. The results highlight parenting as a target for early interventions in contexts of high socioeconomic risk. PMID:20376201

  1. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  2. Cadmium uptake, accumulation, and remobilization in iron plaque and rice tissues at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Gao, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Li-Wei; Du, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Ping; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2018-05-15

    Rice consumption is considered the main source of human dietary Cd intake in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate Cd uptake, accumulation, and remobilization in iron plaque and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. 'Xiangwanxian 12') tissues at different growth stages. A pot experiment was performed in two Cd-contaminated paddy soils. Cd concentrations in iron plaque and rice tissues at five different growth stages (tillering, booting, milky, dough, and maturing) were measured. Cd concentrations in iron plaque and rice tissues (roots, stems, leaves, spikelet, husks, and brown rice) varied with growth stage. Cd accumulation in rice plants increased with extending growth in both soils, reaching 15.3 and 35.4μg/pot, respectively, at the maturing stage. The amounts of Cd in brown rice increased from the milky to maturing stages, with the greatest percentage uptake during the maturing stage. Cd amount in iron plaque significantly affected the uptake and accumulation of Cd in roots and aerial parts of rice plants. Accumulated Cd in leaves was remobilized and transported during the booting to maturing stages, and the contributions of Cd transportation from leaves to brown rice were 30.0% and 22.5% in the two soils, respectively. A large amount of Cd accumulated in brown rice during the maturing stage. The transportation of remobilized Cd from leaves was also important for the accumulation of Cd in brown rice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chronic crude oil exposure on early developmental stages of the Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica).

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Maj; Moodley, Leon; Dunaevskaya, Evgenia; Ramanand, Sreerekha; Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Sanni, Steinar; Tarling, Geraint A; Bechmann, Renée K

    2017-01-01

    Rising oil and gas activities in northern high latitudes have led to an increased risk of petroleum pollution in these ecosystems. Further, seasonal high UV radiation at high latitudes may elevate photo-enhanced toxicity of petroleum pollution to marine organisms. Zooplanktons are a key ecological component of northern ecosystems; therefore, it is important to assess their sensitivity to potential pollutants of oil and gas activity. As ontogenetic development may be particularly sensitive, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of chronic exposure to oil water dispersion (OWD) on development and feeding of early life stages of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In a range of experiments, embryonic, nonfeeding, and feeding larval stages were exposed to concentrations of between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L of oil or photo-modified oil for 19 and 21 d. No significant effects on egg respiration, hatching success, development, length and larval survival were observed from these treatments. Similarly, evolution of fatty acid composition patterns during ontogenetic development was unaffected. The results indicates a high degree of resilience of these early developmental stages to such types and concentrations of pollutants. However, feeding and motility in later calyptopis-stage larvae were significantly impaired at exposure of 0.1 mg/L oil. Data indicate that feeding larval stage of krill was more sensitive to OWD than early nonfeeding life stages. This might be attributed to the narcotic effects of oil pollutants, their direct ingestion, or accumulated adverse effects over early development.

  4. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  5. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  6. Tracing of the fecal microbiota of commercial pigs at five growth stages from birth to shipment.

    PubMed

    Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Choi, Yo Han; Kang, Sang-Kee; Chae, Byung Jo; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2018-04-16

    The intestinal microbiota affect various physiological traits of host animals such as brain development, obesity, age, and the immune system. In the swine industry, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and growth stage is essential because growth stage is directly related to the feeding system of pigs, thus we studied the intestinal microbiota of 32 healthy pigs across five sows at 10, 21, 63, 93, and 147 d of ages. The intestinal microbiota were altered with growth of pigs and were separated into three distinct clusters. The relative abundance of several phyla and genera were significantly different between growth stages. We observed co-occurrence pattern of the intestinal microbiota at each growth stage. In addition, we predicted the functions of the intestinal microbiota and confirmed that several KEGG pathways were significantly different between growth stages. We also explored the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and innate factors such as the maternal effect and gender. When pigs were young, innate factors affected on construction of intestinal microbiota, however this tendency was disappeared with growth. Our findings broaden the understanding of microbial ecology, and the results will be used as a reference for investigating host-microbe interactions in the swine industry.

  7. Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: Aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Cropley, Vanessa L; Wannan, Cassandra; Di Biase, Maria; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-05-01

    This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model. In general, grey matter (and, to a lesser extent, white matter) declines across multiple frontal, temporal (especially superior regions), insular and parietal regions during the first episode of psychosis, which has a steeper trajectory than that of age-matched healthy counterparts. Although the ultra-high-risk of psychosis literature is considerably mixed, evidence indicates that certain volumetric structural aberrations predate psychotic illness onset (e.g. prefrontal cortex thinning), while other abnormalities present in ultra-high-risk of psychosis populations are potentially non-psychosis-specific (e.g. hippocampal volume reductions). We highlight the advantages of longitudinal designs, discuss the implications such studies have on clinical staging and provide directions for future research.

  8. EGFR mutations in early-stage and advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma: Analysis based on large-scale data from China.

    PubMed

    Pi, Can; Xu, Chong-Rui; Zhang, Ming-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Xiao; Wei, Xue-Wu; Gao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2018-05-02

    EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations in advanced NSCLC occur in approximately 35% of Asian patients and 60% of patients with adenocarcinoma. However, the frequency and type of EGFR mutations in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. We retrospectively collected data on patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma tested for EGFR mutation. Early stage was defined as pathological stage IA-IIIA after radical lung cancer surgery, and advanced stage was defined as clinical stage IIIB without the opportunity for curative treatment or stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edition. A total of 1699 patients were enrolled in this study from May 2014 to May 2016; 750 were assigned to the early-stage and 949 to the advanced-stage group. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced, except that there were more smokers in the advanced-stage group (P < 0.001). The total EGFR mutation rate in the early-stage group was similar to that in the advanced-stage group (53.6% vs. 51.4%, respectively; P = 0.379). There was no significant difference in EGFR mutation type between the two groups. In subgroup analysis of smoking history, there was no difference in EGFR mutation frequency or type between the early-stage and advanced-stage groups. Early-stage and advanced-stage groups exhibited the same EGFR mutation frequencies and types. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Early-stage valuation of medical devices: the role of developmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan; Young, Terry; Brown, Celia; Lilford, Richard

    2010-08-01

    At the concept stage, many uncertainties surround the commercial viability of a new medical device. These include the ultimate functionality of the device, the cost of producing it and whether, and at what price, it can be sold to a health-care provider (HCP). Simple assessments of value can be made by estimating such unknowns, but the levels of uncertainty may mean that their operational value for investment decisions is unclear. However, many decisions taken at the concept stage are reversible and will be reconsidered later before the product is brought to market. This flexibility can be exploited to enhance early-stage valuations. To develop a framework for valuing a new medical device at the concept stage that balances benefit to the HCP against commercial costs. This is done within a simplified stage-gated model of the development cycle for new products. The approach is intended to complement existing proposals for the evaluation of the commercial headroom available to new medical products. A model based on two decision gates can lead to lower bounds (underestimates) for product value that can serve to support a decision to develop the product. Quantifiable uncertainty that can be resolved before the device is brought to market will generally enhance early-stage valuations of the device, and this remains true even when some components of uncertainty cannot be fully described. Clinical trials and other evidence-gathering activities undertaken as part of the development process can contribute to early-stage estimates of value.

  10. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  11. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  12. Treatment Strategies in Octogenarians with Early-Stage, High-Risk Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna T.; Friedman, Robb S.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna

    2018-01-01

    Background Octogenarians with early-stage breast cancer often have low-risk tumor biology. However, optimal treatment strategies for those with high-risk biology remain unclear. Methods We reviewed the records of women ages 80–89 years with biopsy-proven, Stage I–II invasive breast cancer who were referred for surgical evaluation from January 2001 through December 2010. High-risk was defined as human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2+), triple-negative (TN), or histologic grade 3 disease. Results Among 178 patients, 40 (22%) were high-risk: 12 were grade 1–2 (10 HER2 +, 2 TN); 28 were grade 3 (7 HER2+, 6 TN, 15 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/HER2−). The high-risk group had larger tumors and more often had ductal histology and lymphovascular invasion than the low-risk group and was more likely to undergo mastectomy (18 vs. 5%, p = 0.02), radiotherapy (55 vs. 36%, p = 0.03), and chemotherapy (10 vs. 0%, p = 0.002). Endocrine therapy use was similar among ER+ patients in both groups. The four patients in the high-risk group given chemotherapy were HER2+ and received trastuzumab-based regimens, without any reported toxicities. At median follow-up of 67 months, 10% of the high-risk group had a recurrence (3 distant-only, 1 simultaneous locoregional and distant in a patient treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy). Conclusions Tailored locoregional and systemic therapy resulted in low incidence of failure in these octogenarians with high-risk cancers with low morbidity. Modern adjuvant therapies should be considered for elderly women with high-risk cancers in the absence of significant comorbidities. PMID:29427213

  13. Estimating Crop Growth Stage by Combining Meteorological and Remote Sensing Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Alavi-Shoushtari, N.; Davidson, A. M.; Chipanshi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Shang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Estimations of seeding, harvest and phenological growth stage of crops are important sources of information for monitoring crop progress and crop yield forecasting. Growth stage has been traditionally estimated at the regional level through surveys, which rely on field staff to collect the information. Automated techniques to estimate growth stage have included agrometeorological approaches that use temperature and day length information to estimate accumulated heat and photoperiod, with thresholds used to determine when these stages are most likely. These approaches however, are crop and hybrid dependent, and can give widely varying results depending on the method used, particularly if the seeding date is unknown. Methods to estimate growth stage from remote sensing have progressed greatly in the past decade, with time series information from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) the most common approach. Time series NDVI provide information on growth stage through a variety of techniques, including fitting functions to a series of measured NDVI values or smoothing these values and using thresholds to detect changes in slope that are indicative of rapidly increasing or decreasing `greeness' in the vegetation cover. The key limitations of these techniques for agriculture are frequent cloud cover in optical data that lead to errors in estimating local features in the time series function, and the incongruity between changes in greenness and traditional agricultural growth stages. There is great potential to combine both meteorological approaches and remote sensing to overcome the limitations of each technique. This research will examine the accuracy of both meteorological and remote sensing approaches over several agricultural sites in Canada, and look at the potential to integrate these techniques to provide improved estimates of crop growth stage for common field crops.

  14. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit; ...

    2018-02-05

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy,more » and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm) 4(2-MeIm=2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.« less

  16. AJAP1 is Dysregulated at an Early Stage of Gliomagenesis and Suppresses Invasion Through Cytoskeleton Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Zhang, Kai-Liang; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Zeng, Liang; Di, Chun-Hui; Fee, Brian E.; Rivas, Miriam; Bao, Zhao-Shi; Jiang, Tao; Bigner, Darrell; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Adamson, David Cory

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aims Down-regulation of AJAP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been reported. However, the expression profiles of AJAP1 in gliomas and the underlying mechanisms of AJAP1 function on invasion are still poorly understood. Methods The gene profiles of AJAP1 in glioma patients were studied among four independent cohorts. Confocal imaging was used to analyze the AJAP1 localization. After AJAP1 overexpression in GBM cell lines, cellular polarity, cytoskeleton distribution, and antitumor effect were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results AJAP1 expression was significantly decreased in gliomas compared with normal brain in REMBRANDT and CGCA cohorts. Additionally, low AJAP1 expression was associated with worse survival in GBMs in REMBRANDT and TCGA U133A cohorts and was significantly associated with classical and mesenchymal subtypes of GBMs among four cohorts. Confocal imaging indicated AJAP1 localized in cell membranes in low-grade gliomas and AJAP1-overexpressing GBM cells, but difficult to assess in high-grade gliomas due to its absence. AJAP1 overexpression altered the cytoskeleton and cellular polarity in vitro and inhibited the tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions AJAP1 is dysregulated at an early stage of gliomagenesis and may suppress glioma cell invasion and proliferation, which suggests that AJAP1 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for gliomas. PMID:24483339

  17. Sensitivity of early-life stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Farag, Aïda M.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 μg/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations > 50 μg/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

  18. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy,more » and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm) 4(2-MeIm=2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.« less

  19. [Local injection of exogenous nerve growth factor improves early bone maturation of implants].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Du, Yu; Gu, Xia; Guang, Meng-Kai; Huang, Bo; Gong, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the osteogenic action of implants and the maturation and reconstruction changes in bone tissues in the early stage of osseointegration. The mouse implant model was established by placing titanium in the femoral head of the mouse and locally injecting NGF in the implant zone. On 1, 2 and 4 weeks after operation, stain samples were collected from animals using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining. The effect of NGF on the bone maturation was compared at different time points of early stage osseointegration. The results of HE and Masson staining indicated that the local injection of external NGF can up-regulate bone mass, amount of bone trabecula, and bone maturity in the mouse model. The mature bone rate in treatment group of 1 week and 4 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). NGF can shorten the period of bone maturation.

  20. Investigating Stage-Sequential Growth Mixture Models with Multiphase Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates three types of stage-sequential growth mixture models in the structural equation modeling framework for the analysis of multiple-phase longitudinal data. These models can be important tools for situations in which a single-phase growth mixture model produces distorted results and can allow researchers to better understand…

  1. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  2. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. A case of urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Akifumi; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-06-01

    A 70-year-old man developed urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 encephalitis. A nerve conduction study suggested latent myeloradiculitis. This is the first report of human herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis followed by urinary retention at early stage from the onset like the Elsberg syndrome. Although relatively few similar cases have been reported, we consider that urinary retention is common in HSV-1 encephalitis, in which disturbances of consciousness usually require bladder catheterization from the onset. We further emphasize that urinary retention may occasionally occur in early stages of HSV-1 encephalitis, with a significant possibility of recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  5. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  6. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry.

    PubMed

    LaGrow, Alec P; Besong, Tabot M D; AlYami, Noktan M; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Costa, Pedro M F J; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M

    2017-02-21

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  7. The vertical growth of MoS2 layers at the initial stage of CVD from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiong-Xiong; Feng, Yexin; Chen, Keqiu; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the highly preferred method for mass production of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers, yet the atomic-scale knowledge is still lacking about the nucleation and growth. In this study, by using first-principles calculations, we show that, on Au(111) surface, one-dimensional (1D) MoxSy chains are first formed by coalescing of smaller feeding species and are energetically favored at the early stage of nucleation. Two-dimensional (2D) layers can be stabilized only after the number of Mo atoms exceeds ˜12. A vertical growth mode is revealed which accomplishes the structural transformation from the 1D chains to the 2D layers for the clusters while growing. The competition between intralayer and interlayer interactions is the key. These findings serve as new insights for better understanding the atomistic mechanism of the nucleation and growth of TMDs on the surface.

  8. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon. PMID:27844010

  9. Photons from the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about photon-production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main novelty of our study is the calculation of the contribution of the early-stage photons to the photon spectrum. The initial stage is modeled by an ensemble of classical gluon fields which decay to a quark-gluon plasma via the Schwinger mechanism, and the evolution of the system is studied by coupling classical field equations to relativistic kinetic theory; photon production is then computed by including the pertinent collision processes into the collision integral. We find that the contribution of the early-stage photons to the direct photon spectrum is substantial for pT≈2 GeV and higher, the exact value depending on the collision energy; therefore, we identify this part of the photon spectrum as the sign of the early stage. Moreover, the amount of photons produced during the early stage is not negligible with respect to those produced by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma: We support the idea that there is no dark age in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  10. Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

    2014-03-01

    Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

    2012-12-01

    Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  13. Examining the role of fluctuations in the early stages of homogenous polymer crystallization with simulation and statistical learning

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Jr., Paul Michael

    Here, we propose a relationship between the dynamics in the amorphous and crystalline domains during polymer crystallization: the fluctuations of ordering-rate about a material-specific value in the amorphous phase drive those fluctuations associated with the increase in percent crystallinity. This suggests a differential equation that satisfies the three experimentally observed time regimes for the rate of crystal growth. To test this postulated expression, we applied a suite of statistical learning tools to molecular dynamics simulations to extract the relevant phenomenology. This study shows that the proposed relationship holds in the early time regime. It illustrates the effectiveness of soft computingmore » tools in the analysis of coarse-grained simulations in which patterns exist, but may not easily yield to strict quantitative evaluation. This ability assists us in characterizing the critical early time molecular arrangement during the primary nucleation phase of polymer melt crystallization. In addition to supporting the validity of the proposed kinetics expression, the simulations show that (i) the classical nucleation and growth mechanism is active in the early stages of ordering; (ii) the number of nuclei and their masses grow linearly during this early time regime; and (iii) a fixed inter-nuclei distance is established.« less

  14. Examining the role of fluctuations in the early stages of homogenous polymer crystallization with simulation and statistical learning

    DOE PAGES

    Welch, Jr., Paul Michael

    2017-01-23

    Here, we propose a relationship between the dynamics in the amorphous and crystalline domains during polymer crystallization: the fluctuations of ordering-rate about a material-specific value in the amorphous phase drive those fluctuations associated with the increase in percent crystallinity. This suggests a differential equation that satisfies the three experimentally observed time regimes for the rate of crystal growth. To test this postulated expression, we applied a suite of statistical learning tools to molecular dynamics simulations to extract the relevant phenomenology. This study shows that the proposed relationship holds in the early time regime. It illustrates the effectiveness of soft computingmore » tools in the analysis of coarse-grained simulations in which patterns exist, but may not easily yield to strict quantitative evaluation. This ability assists us in characterizing the critical early time molecular arrangement during the primary nucleation phase of polymer melt crystallization. In addition to supporting the validity of the proposed kinetics expression, the simulations show that (i) the classical nucleation and growth mechanism is active in the early stages of ordering; (ii) the number of nuclei and their masses grow linearly during this early time regime; and (iii) a fixed inter-nuclei distance is established.« less

  15. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    early stage ovarian cancer to help researchers worldwide identify biomarkers that can aid early detection and inform novel targets for therapy. This...to detect differentially expressed genes after transformation using Voom. When using the top 5 genes to build the classifier, it predicted...to analyze expression of micro-RNA in these samples. Thus, at the end of the third year of funding we started a parallel analysis of RNAseq, DNA- CNV

  16. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  17. HMGCR inhibits the early stage of PCV2 infection, while PKC enhances the infection at the late stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Chen, Xinrong; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Liu, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Ting; Peng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Xin; Chen, Fuwang; Pang, Daxin; Bai, Jieying; Ren, Linzhu

    2017-02-02

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the smallest DNA virus, which causes porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD). Due the small size of viral genomic DNA, PCV2 replication predominantly relies on the host factors. In this study, effects of PKC and HMGCR on PCV2 infection were evaluated using real time PCR and western blot. We found that PKC and HMGCR participated in different stages of PCV2 infection. HMGCR works on the early stage of the infection to inhibit the virus infection, while PKC enhances the infection at the late stage. Furthermore, PKC enhances PCV2 replication by activating JNK1/2 and inactivating HMGCR via regulating phosphorylation of these two proteins, while HMGCR can suppress phosphorylation of JNK1/2. The results in the present study will provide new sights in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection, as well as interactions between host factors during PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Sun, Y B; Tahir, N A

    2015-03-01

    A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

  19. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  1. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P = 0.029) and 3.26 (P = 0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001) and 3.72 (P = 0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  3. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Heo, Eun Jin; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC.

  4. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  5. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  6. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the

  9. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  10. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development.

    PubMed

    Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William

    2009-03-10

    Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.

  11. Portfolio management in early stage drug discovery - a traveler's guide through uncharted territory.

    PubMed

    Betz, Ulrich A K

    2011-07-01

    Portfolio management in drug development has become a best practice in the pharmaceutical industry. By contrast, early on in the value chain - the discovery phase - portfolio management is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, owing to the attrition of R&D projects from phase to phase and the cost of capital involved, these early phases of drug discovery play a significant part for the overall cost of bringing new, innovative drugs to the market. This paper describes various approaches to manage a portfolio of projects in early-stage drug discovery and provides crucial factors that determine the success of such an approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the early stages of germination in Candida albicans by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Mika; Cho, Tamaki; Kaminishi, Hidenori; Sudoh, Masayuki; Chibana, Hiroji

    2004-12-01

    By using real-time RT-PCR, we profiled the expression of CGR1, CaMSI3, EFG1, NRG1, and TUP1 in Candida albicans strains JCM9061 and CAI4 under several conditions, including induction of morphological transition, heat shock, and treatment with calcium inhibitors. Expression of CaMSI3 changed under these growth conditions except during heat shock. CGR1 expression increased during the early stages of hyphal growth in JCM9061, while expression was strain-dependent during heat shock. Both EFG1 and NRG1 were similarly expressed under hypha-inducing conditions and heat shock. Expression of TUP1 was slightly different from the expression of EFG1 or NRG1.

  13. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  14. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  15. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  16. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  17. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  18. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  19. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  20. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  1. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  2. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  3. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  4. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  5. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  6. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  8. Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

  9. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  10. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  11. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  12. Studies of the Initial Stages of Epitaxial Growth of Germanium on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan

    The epitaxial growth of ultra-thin films (< 1nm thick) of Ge on Si(100) has been studied in -situ in an Ultra High Vacuum-Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Ge was deposited on clean Si(100) using molecular beam techniques to study two types of growth processes, Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Solid Phase MBE. Ge grows in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, forming islands after initial layer growth. This islanding transition has been studied with high spatial resolution biassed Secondary Electron Imaging and Auger spectroscopy and imaging. Ex -situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Reflection High Energy Diffraction (RHEED) were also used to characterize the transition. The islanding process and its subsequent evolution was monitored with the help of island size distributions, sensitive to islands above 2nm in size. The studies indicate that Ge forms islands in equilibrium with a 3 monolayer (ML) thick intermediate layer. These islands may initially grow coherently strained (dislocation free) with radii usually below 10nm under the conditions. The strain in these islands reduces the adatom sticking coefficient and strongly influences the microstructural evolution. The intermediate layer may grow metastably under certain conditions to as much as 7 ML before collapsing to its equilibrium form. The influence of three types of adatom sinks--strained islands, dislocated islands and contaminant particles have been studied. The contaminant particles are the strongest sinks, followed by dislocated islands and strained islands. Stepped (vicinal) surfaces (1^circ and 5 ^circ toward {110 }) had no significant influence possibly due to the steps being weak adatom sinks. The coarsening of Ge islands does not follow the Ostwald ripening model at the early stages and is influenced by the supersaturation in the intermediate layer and the strain in the coherent islands. A novel mechanism has been observed, where the larger (dislocated) islands grow at the expense

  13. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ○C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to

  14. Complications of growth-sparing surgery in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John B

    2010-12-01

    Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.

  15. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; ...

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe 3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structuremore » with a majority of iron present as Fe 3+ and trace amounts of Fe 2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  16. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-Stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K . V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The prevailing paradigm of NPDR progression is that vessels drop out prior to abnormal, vision-impairing regrowth at late-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, surprising results for our previous preliminary study 1 with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software showed that vessels proliferated considerably during moderate NPDR compared to drop out at both mild and severe NPDR. Validation of our hypothesis will support development of successful early-stage regenerative therapies such as vascular repair by circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS)is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of CACs, a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  17. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  18. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  19. Balancing risk and benefit in early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bröckelmann, Paul J; Sasse, Stephanie; Engert, Andreas

    2018-04-12

    With defined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and risk-adapted treatment, early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become curable in a majority of patients. Hence, a major current goal is to reduce treatment-related toxicity while maintaining long-term disease control. Patients with early-stage favorable disease (ie, limited stage without risk factors [RFs]) are frequently treated with 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (2×ABVD) followed by 20-Gy involved-field or involved-site RT (IF/ISRT). In patients with early-stage unfavorable disease (ie, limited stage with RFs), 4 cycles of chemotherapy are usually consolidated with 30-Gy IF/ISRT. Compared with 4×ABVD, 2 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (2×BEACOPP escalated ) followed by 2×ABVD improved 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), with similar 5-year overall survival. Recently, treatment strategies based on [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) response were evaluated. In early-stage unfavorable HL, a majority of patients achieved a negative interim PET after 2×ABVD and an excellent outcome after 4×ABVD, whereas in those with a positive interim PET, 2×BEACOPP escalated improved 5-year PFS. Furthermore, a PET-guided RT approach was evaluated to decrease long-term toxicity. Although both the RAPID and H10 trials reported poorer disease control without RT, PET-guided omission of RT can constitute a valid therapeutic option in patients with an increased risk of RT-associated toxicity (eg, because of sex, age, or disease localization). Implementation of drugs such as the anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin or the anti-programmed death 1 antibodies nivolumab or pembrolizumab might allow further reduction of overall mortality and improve quality of life in affected patients. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Treatment of Early-stage Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations with Intralesional Interstitial Bleomycin Injection: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunbo; Zou, Yun; Hua, Chen; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xi; Ma, Gang; Chang, Lei; Qiu, Yajing; Lyu, Dongze; Wang, Tianyou; Chang, Shih-Jen; Qiao, Congzhen; Luo, Chunfen; Tremp, Mathias; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection in the treatment of early-stage (Schobinger stage I or II) extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 34 patients with early-stage AVMs, as defined by the Schobinger staging system. The patients received intralesional interstitial bleomycin injected at a maximum dose of 15 000 IU or 1000 IU per kilogram of body weight for children who weighed less than 15 kg per procedure for a total of 6 months (once every month). Therapeutic outcome was evaluated by the degree of devascularization at angiography and the clinical outcome 3 months after the last treatment. Further follow-up was evaluated based on further clinical outcome. Adverse events were recorded according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. Results Of the 34 patients with early-stage AVM, 32 (mean age, 20.5 years; 24 female [75%]) completed the study. The results showed that 27 (84.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.1, 97.7) patients were responsive to bleomycin injection, including nine (28.1%) with a complete response. Four (12.5%) patients showed no response, and one (3.1%) patient experienced worsening 3 months after the last treatment. During further follow-up (mean follow-up time, 20.7 months; range, 5-28 months), the outcome remained stable in 31 (96.9%) of the 32 patients. A major complication, anaphylactic shock, was observed in one (3.1%, 95% CI: 0, 9.5) patient. Common minor complications included hyperpigmentation, nausea, pruritus, and bullae. Conclusion Intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection is a feasible approach for early-stage AVMs and yields safe and effective outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  1. Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2013-03-01

    Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n = 61) and USC (n = 47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n = 8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n = 108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (≥65 years) than G3EC (P = 0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P = 0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P = 0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P = 0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study reveals that USC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with G3EC, only in patients with early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome.

  2. Prognostic model for survival in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Schilthuis, Marten S; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P M; Buist, Marrije R

    2011-02-15

    In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer patients and to reconsider grounds for adjuvant treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic weight of clinical and histological factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) in 710 consecutive patients who had surgery for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] stage IA2-IIA). Prognostic scores were derived by converting the regression coefficients for each prognostic marker and used in a score chart. The discriminative capacity was expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The 5-year DSS was 92%. Tumor diameter, histological type, lymph node metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and parametrial extension were independently associated with DSS and were included in a Cox regression model. This prognostic model, corrected for the 9% overfit shown by internal validation, showed a fair discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.73). The derived score chart predicting 5-year DSS showed a good discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.85). In patients with early stage cervical cancer, DSS can be predicted with a statistical model. Models, such as that presented here, should be used in clinical trials on the effects of adjuvant treatments in high-risk early cervical cancer patients, both to stratify and to include patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  3. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  4. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Phenotype Predicts Early Staged Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Victor W.; Watts, Ray L.; Schrandt, Christian J.; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wang, Deli; Amara, Amy W.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Walker, Harrison C.

    2014-01-01

    Object While many centers place bilateral DBS systems simultaneously, unilateral STN DBS followed by a staged contralateral procedure has emerged as a treatment option for many patients. However little is known about whether the preoperative phenotype predicts when staged placement of a DBS electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus will be required. We aimed to determine whether preoperative clinical phenotype predicts early staged placement of a second subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode in patients who undergo unilateral subthalamic DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Eighty-two consecutive patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral subthalamic DBS contralateral to the most affected hemibody and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression determined preoperative characteristics that predicted staged placement of a second electrode in the opposite subthalamic nucleus. Preoperative measurements included aspects of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor asymmetry index, and body weight. Results At 2 years follow-up, 28 of the 82 patients (34%) had undergone staged placement of a contralateral electrode while the remainder chose to continue with unilateral stimulation. Statistically significant improvements in UPDRS total and part 3 scores were retained at the end of the 2 year follow-up period in both subsets of patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the most important predictors for early staged placement of a second subthalamic stimulator were low asymmetry index (odds ratio 13.4; 95% confidence interval 2.8, 64.9), high tremor subscore (OR 7.2; CI 1.5, 35.0), and low body weight (OR 5.5; CI 1.4, 22.3). Conclusions This single center study provides evidence that elements of the preoperative PD phenotype predict whether patients will require early staged bilateral subthalamic DBS. These data may aid in the management of patients with advanced PD who undergo subthalamic DBS. PMID

  6. Effects of SiO 2 overlayer at initial growth stage of epitaxial Y 2O 3 film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.-H.; Ko, D.-H.; Choi, Y. G.; Lyo, I. W.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the dependence of the Y 2O 3 film growth on Si surface at initial growth stage. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy showed that the film crystallinity and morphology strongly depended on whether Si surface contained O or not. In particular, the films grown on oxidized surfaces revealed significant improvement in crystallinity and surface smoothness. A well-ordered atomic structure of Y 2O 3 film was formed on 1.5 nm thick SiO 2 layer with the surface and interfacial roughness markedly enhanced, compared with the film grown on the clean Si surfaces. The epitaxial film on the oxidized Si surface exhibited extremely small mosaic structures at interface, while the film on the clean Si surface displayed an island-like growth with large mosaic structures. The nucleation sites for Y 2O 3 were provided by the reaction between SiO 2 and Y at the initial growth stage. The SiO 2 layer known to hinder crystal growth is found to enhance the nucleation of Y 2O 3, and provides a stable buffer layer against the silicide formation. Thus, the formation of the initial SiO 2 layer is the key to the high-quality epitaxial growth of Y 2O 3 on Si.

  7. Early two-stage double opposing Z-plasty or one-stage push-back palatoplasty?: comparisons in maxillary development and speech outcome at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Tadashi; Nishio, Juntaro; Sako, Michiyo; Kohara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiko; Yamanishi, Yukiko; Adachi, Tadafumi; Miya, Shigenori; Mukai, Takao

    2011-02-01

    Determining the optimal timing and procedure of palatal surgery for children with cleft lip and palate has long raised a major controversy. An early two-stage palatoplasty protocol has been a recent trend in an attempt to obtain preferable maxillary growth without compromising adequate speech development. In this study, we aim to address whether the resulting maxillofacial growth and speech development obtained by an early 2-stage palatoplasty protocol are better than those obtained by conventional 1-stage push-back palatoplasty. Seventy-two nonsyndromic children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 2 groups: 30 children, who were treated with early 2-stage palatoplasty, in which soft palate closure was performed using a modified Furlow's procedure at 12 months of age and hard palate closure was performed at 18 months of age (Early Tow Stage [ETS] group: 22 boys, 8 girls), and 42 children, who underwent 1-stage Wardill-Kilner push-back palatoplasty at 12 months of age (Push Back [PB] group: 31 boys, 11 girls). Cephalometric analysis for maxillofacial growth and assessments of speech development were performed for each child at 4 years of age. The ETS group showed a lager maxillary length than the PB group [anterior nasal spine (ANS)-ptm': ETS, 46.7 ± 2.0 mm; PB, 43.6 ± 2.3 mm]. The ANS in the ETS group was positioned more anteriorly than that in the PB group (N'-ANS: ETS, 2.5 ± 1.8 mm; PB, 0.26 ± 2.5 mm), whereas the posterior edge of the maxilla positioned anteroposteiorly was comparable between the 2 groups. The anterior facial height was significantly greater in the ETS group than in the PB group (N-N': ETS, 43.3 ± 2.9 mm; PB, 40.1 ± 2.3 mm, S-S': ETS, 29.7 ± 3.2 mm; PB, 31.0 ± 3.2 mm). No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of either velopharyngeal incompetence or articulation errors between the 2 groups at 4 years of age. Our results show that the early 2

  8. Habitat use in irrigation channels by the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella) at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Onikura, Norio; Nakajima, Jun; Kouno, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Yoshiko; Kaneto, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Ecological information on the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella Fowler, 1910) was collected during field surveys and used to analyze habitat use by this species at each growth stage. Surveys were conducted every month for approximately 2 years In an irrigation ditch near the Ushizu River, Kyushu Island, Japan. Based on the characteristic nuptial coloration of males, it was estimated that H. rasborella spawns between spring and summer. Size measurements of 2697 individuals indicated two size classes. The population of age class 1 decreased rapidly after the spawning period. On the basis of growth patterns, the life cycle of H. rasborella was classified into three stages: the growth stage (GS) of age class 0 fish from August to November, the no-growth stage (NGS) of age class 0 fish from December to March, and the growing and spawning stage (GSS) of age class 0 and 1 fish from April to August. Habitat use by GS, NGS, and GSS fish was analyzed with a stepwise multiple linear regression. The average number of fish was negatively correlated with the presence of a concrete revetment in the GS; positively and negatively correlated with minimum water depth and submerged plants, respectively, in the NGS; and positively correlated with maximum water temperature in the GSS. These results suggest that maintenance of the water level in the fallow season and not using concrete revetments are essential for the conservation of this species under the present conditions in Japanese rice fields.

  9. Monitoring Crop Phenology and Growth Stages from Space: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.; Mladenova, I. E.; Kustas, W. P.; Alfieri, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Crop growth stages in concert with weather and soil moisture conditions can have a significant impact on crop yields. In the U.S., crop growth stages and conditions are reported by farmers at the county level. These reports are somewhat subjective and fluctuate between different reporters, locations and times. Remote sensing data provide an alternative approach to monitoring crop growth over large areas in a more consistent and quantitative way. In the recent years, remote sensing data have been used to detect vegetation phenology at 1-km spatial resolution globally. However, agricultural applications at field scale require finer spatial resolution remote sensing data. Landsat (30-m) data have been successfully used for agricultural applications. There are many medium resolution sensors available today or in near future. These include Landsat, SPOT, RapidEye, ASTER and future Sentinel-2 etc. Approaches have been developed in the past several years to integrate remote sensing data from different sensors which may have different sensor characteristics, and spatial and temporal resolutions. This allows us opportunities today to map crop growth stages and conditions using dense time-series remote sensing at field scales. However, remotely sensed phenology (or phenological metrics) is normally derived based on the mathematical functions of the time-series data. The phenological metrics are determined by either identifying inflection (curvature) points or some pre-defined thresholds in the remote sensing phenology algorithms. Furthermore, physiological crop growth stages may not be directly correlated to the remotely sensed phenology. The relationship between remotely sensed phenology and crop growth stages is likely to vary for specific crop types and varieties, growing stages, conditions and even locations. In this presentation, we will examine the relationship between remotely sensed phenology and crop growth stages using in-situ measurements from Fluxnet sites and

  10. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Łukaszyk, Ewelina; Łukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Żórawska, Ewa; Tobolczyk, Jolanta; Bodzenta-Łukaszyk, Anna; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP), creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and zonulin. Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Systemic therapy for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Romond, Edward H

    The advent of the targeted monoclonal antbody trastuzumab for treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer marked a revolution in the understanding and management of mammary carcinoma and, in practice, separated this subtype from other kinds of primary breast malignancy. Long term follow-up from the initial large adjuvant trials continue to show remarkably positive results. Currently, at least four additional agents targeting this receptor, using different and complementary mechanisms of action compared with trastuzumab, have been incorporated into clinical trials. The small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors lapatinib and neratinib, in addition to the antibody pertuzumab and the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab-ematansine, have shown efficacy in metastatic breast cancer and are being evaluated both in neoadjuvant and adjuvant trials for early stage disease. The cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens used in combination with these agents also are evolving and different therapeutic approaches are emerging for patients depending on their relative level of risk from their cancers, thus moving clinical management toward individualized therapy. Much has been learned about managing the toxicities of treatment and pre-operative approaches have provided a means of assessing the sensitivity of individual patients' cancers to specific treatment regimens. This review traces the development of these studies and focuses on improvements in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for patients with HER2-positive disease whose prognosis has changed in the last decade from dire to favorable. A path forward has been set by which the goal of cure is attainable for almost all patients faced with this aggressive form of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  13. Association between growth stunting with dental development and skeletal maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Mauricio, Franco Raul; Orellana, Maria Fernanda; Major, Paul William

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of growth stunting on the maturation stage of the medium phalanx of the third finger (MP3) and the dental development of the left mandibular canine in 280 high school children (140 stunted and 140 normal controls; equally distributed by sex) between 9.5 and 16.5 years of age, from a representative Peruvian school. Periapical radiographs of the MP3 from the left hand were used to determine the skeletal maturity stage, according to an adaptation of the Hägg and Taranger method. Panoramic radiographs were used to determine the dental maturity stage of the lower left canine, according to Demirjian method. Stunting was determined by relating height and age, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. There was no statistically significant difference in the skeletal maturation stage (P = .134) and the dental development stage (P = .497) according to nutritional status, even when considering different age groups (P > .183). A high correlation (r = 0.85) was found between both maturity indicators regardless of the nutritional status (growth stunted, r = 0.855 and normal controls, r = 0.863) or sex (boys, r = 0.809 and girls, r = 0.892). When skeletal level was considered, correlations values were similar between advanced (r = 0.903) and average (r = 0.895) maturers but lower (r = 0.751) for delayed maturers. Growth stunting was not associated with dental development and skeletal maturity stages in Peruvian school children.

  14. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  15. Early infection risk with primary versus staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft implantation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrew S; Gage, Shawn M; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the use of a staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Merit Medical, South Jordan, Utah) implantation strategy incurs increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary HeRO implantation. A retrospective review was performed of 192 hemodialysis patients who underwent HeRO graft implantation: 105 patients underwent primary HeRO implantation in the operating room, and 87 underwent a staged implantation where a previously inserted tunneled central venous catheter was used for guidewire access for the venous outflow component. Within the staged implantation group, 32 were performed via an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter (incidentally staged), and 55 were performed via a tunneled catheter inserted across a central venous occlusion in an interventional radiology suite specifically for HeRO implantation (intentionally staged). Early infection was defined as episodes of bacteremia or HeRO infection requiring resection ≤30 days of HeRO implantation. For staged HeRO implantations, the median interval between tunneled catheter insertion and conversion to a HeRO graft was 42 days. The overall HeRO-related infection rate ≤30 days of implantation was 8.6% for primary HeRO implantation and 2.3% for staged implantations (P = .12). The rates of early bacteremia and HeRO resection requiring surgical resection were not significantly different between groups (P = .19 and P = .065, respectively), nor were age, gender, laterality, anastomosis to an existing arteriovenous access, human immunodeficiency virus status, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy, body mass index, or graft location. None of the patient variables, techniques, or graft-related variables correlated significantly with the early infection rate. The staged HeRO implantation strategy did not result in an increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary implantation and is thus a reasonable strategy for HeRO insertion in hemodialysis patients

  16. The effects of DELLAs on growth change with developmental stage and brassinosteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Stewart Lilley, Jodi L; Gan, Yinbo; Graham, Ian A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    There are two stages in photomorphogenesis. First, seedlings detect light and open their cotyledons. Second, seedlings optimize their light environment by controlled elongation of the seedling stem or hypocotyl. In this study, we used time-lapse imaging to investigate the relationship between the brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) hormones across both stages of photomorphogenesis. During the transition between one stage and the other, growth promotion by BRs and GAs switched from an additive to a synergistic relationship. Molecular genetic analysis revealed unexpected roles for known participants in the GA pathway during this period. Members of the DELLA family could either repress or enhance BR growth responses, depending on developmental stage. At the transition point for seedling growth dynamics, the BR and GA pathways had opposite effects on DELLA protein levels. In contrast to GA-induced DELLA degradation, BR treatments increased the levels of REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and mimicked the molecular effects of stabilizing DELLAs. In addition, DELLAs showed complex regulation of genes involved in BR biosynthesis, implicating them in BR homeostasis. Growth promotion by GA alone depended on the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of master growth regulators. The effects of BR, including the synergistic effects with GA, were largely independent of PIFs. These results point to a multi-level, dynamic relationship between the BR and GA pathways. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Ranga Ram

    2012-07-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

  18. Elongator promotes germination and early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Woloszynska, Magdalena; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2018-01-02

    The Elongator complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and via histone acetylation and DNA demethylation facilitates epigenetically the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes in plants, including growth, development, and immune response. Recently, we have shown that the Elongator complex promotes hypocotyl elongation and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating the photomorphogenesis and growth-related gene network that converges on genes implicated in cell wall biogenesis and hormone signaling. Here, we report that germination in the elo mutant was delayed by 6 h in the dark when compared to the wild type in a time lapse and germination assay. A number of germination-correlated genes were down-regulated in the elo transcriptome, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by Elongator. We also show that the hypocotyl elongation defect observed in the elo mutants in darkness originates very early in the post-germination development and is independent from the germination delay.

  19. Knowledge-based compact disease models identify new molecular players contributing to early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-throughput profiling of human tissues typically yield as results the gene lists comprised of a mix of relevant molecular entities with multiple false positives that obstruct the translation of such results into mechanistic hypotheses. From general probabilistic considerations, gene lists distilled for the mechanistically relevant components can be far more useful for subsequent experimental design or data interpretation. Results The input candidate gene lists were processed into different tiers of evidence consistency established by enrichment analysis across subsets of the same experiments and across different experiments and platforms. The cut-offs were established empirically through ontological and semantic enrichment; resultant shortened gene list was re-expanded by Ingenuity Pathway Assistant tool. The resulting sub-networks provided the basis for generating mechanistic hypotheses that were partially validated by literature search. This approach differs from previous consistency-based studies in that the cut-off on the Receiver Operating Characteristic of the true-false separation process is optimized by flexible selection of the consistency building procedure. The gene list distilled by this analytic technique and its network representation were termed Compact Disease Model (CDM). Here we present the CDM signature for the study of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. The integrated analysis of this gene signature allowed us to identify the protein traffic vesicles as prominent players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Considering the distances and complexity of protein trafficking in neurons, it is plausible that spontaneous protein misfolding along with a shortage of growth stimulation result in neurodegeneration. Several potentially overlapping scenarios of early-stage Alzheimer pathogenesis have been discussed, with an emphasis on the protective effects of AT-1 mediated antihypertensive response on cytoskeleton remodeling, along with

  20. Size-selective mortality of steelhead during freshwater and marine life stages related to freshwater growth in the Skagit River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated freshwater growth and survival from juvenile (ages 0–3) to smolt (ages 1–5) and adult stages in wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss sampled in different precipitation zones of the Skagit River basin, Washington. Our objectives were to determine whether significant size-selective mortality (SSM) in steelhead could be detected between early and later freshwater stages and between each of these freshwater stages and returning adults and, if so, how SSM varied between these life stages and mixed and snow precipitation zones. Scale-based size-at-annulus comparisons indicated that steelhead in the snow zone were significantly larger at annulus 1 than those in the mixed rain–snow zone. Size at annuli 2 and 3 did not differ between precipitation zones, and we found no precipitation zone × life stage interaction effect on size at annulus. Significant freshwater and marine SSM was evident between the juvenile and adult samples at annulus 1 and between each life stage at annuli 2 and 3. Rapid growth between the final freshwater annulus and the smolt migration did not improve survival to adulthood; rather, it appears that survival in the marine environment may be driven by an overall higher growth rate set earlier in life, which results in a larger size at smolt migration. Efforts for recovery of threatened Puget Sound steelhead could benefit by considering that SSM between freshwater and marine life stages can be partially attributed to growth attained in freshwater habitats and by identifying those factors that limit growth during early life stages.

  1. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  2. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Is Breast Conserving Therapy a Safe Modality for Early-Stage Male Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Zaenger, David; Rabatic, Bryan M; Dasher, Byron; Mourad, Waleed F

    2016-04-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and lacks data-based treatment guidelines. Most men are currently treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or simple mastectomy (SM). We compared the oncologic treatment outcomes of early-stage MBC to determine whether breast conservation therapy (BCT) is appropriate. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for MBC cases. That cohort was narrowed to cases of stage I-II, T1-T2N0 MBC with surgical and radiation therapy (RT) data available. The patients had undergone MRM, SM, or breast conservation surgery (BCS) with or without postoperative RT. We calculated the actuarial 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS). We identified 6263 MBC cases and included 1777 men with stage I or II, T1-T2, node-negative disease, who had the required treatment information available. MRM without RT was the most common treatment (43%). Only 17% underwent BCS. Of the BCS patients, 46% received adjuvant RT to complete the traditional BCT. No deaths were recorded in the BCT group, regardless of stage, or in the 3 stage I surgical groups if the men had received RT. The actuarial 5-year CSS was 100% in each BCT group. MRM alone resulted in an actuarial 5-year CSS of 97.3% for stage 1% and 91.2% for stage 2. The results from our study suggest that BCT for early-stage MBC yields comparable survival compared with more invasive treatment modalities (ie, MRM or SM alone). This could shift the treatment paradigm to less-invasive interventions and might have the added benefit of increased functional and psychological outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Financial Implication of Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Early-Stage Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Bu Ali, Daniah; Srivastav, Sudesh; Kandil, Emad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate disease-specific survival and cost related to radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) utilization in patients with early-stage papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This was a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 2004-2012. A total of 38,374 patients with PTC were identified. Of those, 56.3% had adjuvant RAI. RAI administration was not associated with a survival advantage in patients with PTC stage I (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11, 14.54; p = 0.85) or stage II (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05, 4.88; p = 0.55). Patients with PTC stage III who underwent adjuvant RAI had an improved survival (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10, 0.91; p = 0.033). In 2012, RAI was used in 45.5% of patients with stage I and in 71.4% of patients with stage II. The total expenditure on adjuvant RAI for PTC stage I throughout the study period was estimated to be USD 82.3 million with an annual average of USD 9.1 (±2.0) million/year. If the decline rate in the utilization of RAI continued, the model projected that the annual expenditure would decrease by USD 0.14 million/year. There is a high prevalence of adjuvant RAI utilization for early-stage PTC that is causing financial burden on the health system with no evidence of survival benefit. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST): A case report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors.

  6. Identification of early B cell precursors (stage 1 and 2 hematogones) in the peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kurzer, Jason H; Weinberg, Olga K

    2018-05-25

    Differentiating malignant B-lymphoblasts from early benign B cell precursors (hematogones) is a vital component of the diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. It has been previously reported that only late-stage B cell precursors circulate in the peripheral blood. Consequently, flow cytometric detection of cells with immunophenotypic findings similar to earlier stage precursors in the peripheral blood justifiably raises concern for involvement by B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. We report here, however, that benign early B cell precursors can indeed be detected in the peripheral blood, thus complicating the interpretation of flow cytometric findings derived from these sample types. A retrospective search of our collective databases identified 13 cases containing circulating early stage B cell precursors. The patients ranged in age from 15 days to 85 years old. All positive cases demonstrated that the earlier B cell precursors were associated with later stage precursors, a finding that could help differentiate these cells from B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

  8. [Clinical Advanced in Early-stage ALK-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiongqiong; Jiang, Xiangli; Huang, Chun

    2017-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, with the majority of the cases diagnosed at the advanced stage. Molecular targeted therapy is becoming the focus attention for advanced NSCLC. Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (EML4-ALK) is among the most common molecular targets of NSCLC; its specific small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for use in advanced NSCLC cases of ALK-positive. However, the influence of EML4-ALK fusion gene on the outcome of early-stage NSCLC cases and the necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients are still uncertain. In this paper, we summarized the progression of testing methods for ALK-positive NSCLC patients as well as clinicopathological implication, outcome, and necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients.

  9. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.

  10. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C

    2013-09-01

    Healthy growth in utero and after birth is fundamental for lifelong health and wellbeing. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published standards for healthy growth from birth to 6 years of age; analogous standards for healthy fetal growth are not currently available. Current fetal growth charts in use are not true standards, since they are based on cross-sectional measurements of attained size under conditions that do not accurately reflect normal growth. In most cases, the pregnant populations and environments studied are far from ideal; thus the data are unlikely to reflect optimal fetal growth. A true standard should reflect how fetuses and newborns 'should' grow under ideal environmental conditions. The development of prescriptive intrauterine and newborn growth standards derived from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project provides the data that will allow us for the first time to establish what is 'normal' fetal growth. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) study centres provide the data set obtained under pre-established standardised criteria, and details of the methods used are also published. Multicentre study with sites in all major geographical regions of the world using a standard evaluation protocol. These standards will assess risk of abnormal size at birth and serve to evaluate potentially effective interventions to promote optimal growth beyond securing survival. The new normative standards have the potential to impact perinatal and neonatal survival and beyond, particularly in developing countries where fetal growth restriction is most prevalent. They will help us identify intrauterine growth restriction at earlier stages of development, when preventive or corrective strategies might be more effective than at present. These growth standards will take us one step closer to effective action in preventing and potentially reversing abnormal intrauterine growth. Achieving 'optimal' fetal growth requires that we act not only during pregnancy but that we optimize the

  11. Adjuvant therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Serke, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Evidence clearly supports adjuvant chemotherapy following resection in patients with stage II or III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on 3 landmark studies, adjuvant chemotherapy has become standard in completely resected NSCLC stage II and IIIA. Survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy is estimated to be between 3% and 15%, depending on stage. Treatment should include 4 cycles of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. There is uncertainty about chemotherapy prescription in those patients with resected stage IB NSCLC, as the risk of recurrence is lower in early NSCLC and the magnitude of benefit of adjuvant therapy is proportional to the risk of relapse according to stage. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) should not be used for stage I or II NSCLC, and remains controversial in resected stage IIIA (N2) disease. All positive adjuvant trials have utilized a cisplatin-based regimen, usually in combination with vinorelbine, and this should be considered the standard approach. Prognostic factors to select patients who will benefit from adjuvant therapy in general or from platinum-based chemotherapy are under discussion, but not yet established. In future we hope to optimize treatment convenience for the patients by using other combinations with the hope of better efficacy results. Work is currently under way to identify prognostic factors which in future may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage.

  13. Driving in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rebecca L; Ohman, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    One of the most difficult decisions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is when to stop driving. Because driving is a fundamental activity linked to socialization, independent functioning, and well-being, making the decision to stop driving is not easy. Cognitive decline in older adults can lead to getting lost while driving, difficulty detecting and avoiding hazards, as well as increased errors while driving due to compromised judgment and difficulty in making decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize evidence regarding how individuals with early-stage AD, their families, and providers make determinations about driving safety, interventions to increase driving safety, and methods to assist cessation and coping for individuals with early-stage AD. The evidence shows that changes in driving ability start early and progress throughout the trajectory of AD. Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage AD may be safe to drive for a period of time. Support groups aimed at helping with the transition have been shown to be helpful for individuals who stop driving. Research and practice must support interventions to help individuals maintain safety while driving, as well as cope with driving cessation. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):86-100.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  15. Photoautotrophic Culture of Coffea arabusta Somatic Embryos: Photosynthetic Ability and Growth of Different Stage Embryos

    PubMed Central

    AFREEN, F.; ZOBAYED, S. M. A.; KOZAI, T.

    2002-01-01

    Coffea arabusta somatic embryos were cultured and development of stomata, rate of CO2 fixation or production, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were studied in embryos at different stages of development. Cotyledonary and germinated embryos have photosynthetic capacity, although pretreatment at a high photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) (100 µmol m–2 s–1) for 14 d increased photosynthetic ability. Except in a very small number of cases, stomata did not develop fully in precotyledonary stage embryos and were absent in torpedo stage embryos. Low chlorophyll content (90–130 µg g–1 fresh mass) was noted in torpedo and precotyledonary stage embryos compared with cotyledonary and germinated embryos (300–500 µg g–1 fresh mass). Due to the absence of stomata and low chlorophyll content in the torpedo and precotyledonary stage embryos, the photosynthetic rate was low and, in some cases, CO2 production was observed. These data suggest that the cotyledonary stage is the earliest stage that can be cultured photoautotrophically to ensure plantlet development. When grown photoautotrophically (in a sugar‐free medium with CO2 enrichment in the culture headspace and high photosynthetic photon flux), torpedo and precotyledonary stage embryos lost 20–25 % of their initial dry mass after 60 d of culture. However, in cotyledonary and germinated embryos, the dry mass of each embryo increased by 10 and 50 %, respectively. By using a porous supporting material, growth (especially root growth) was increased in cotyledonary stage embryos. In addition, photoautotrophic conditions, high PPF (100–150 µmol m–2 s–1) and increased CO2 concentration (1100 µmol mol–1) were found to be necessary for the development of plantlets from cotyledonary stage embryos. PMID:12125763

  16. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  17. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  18. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  19. Role of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of several randomized trials and meta-analyses, adjuvant chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for certain patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage II, IIIA, or large (≥ 4 cm) IB tumors are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival improvement with adjuvant chemotherapy is approximately 5% at 5 years, though certain trials have suggested that it can be 8% to 10%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also has shown a survival advantage, though the volume of data with this approach is far less than that of adjuvant chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is the most well-studied regimen, but current consensus is to use four cycles of any of the platinum-based chemotherapy regimens commonly used as front-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. Trials to define biomarkers that can predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy have not been successful, but results of other such trials are still awaited. On the basis of the benefit observed with targeted agents in patients with advanced-stage disease and driver genetic alterations in their tumors, ongoing trials are evaluating the utility of these targeted agents as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, clinical benefit observed with checkpoint inhibitors has prompted assessment of these drugs in patients with early-stage NSCLC. It is very likely, in the future, that factors other than the anatomy of the tumor will be used to select patients with early-stage NSCLC for systemic therapy and that the choice of systemic therapy will extend beyond platinum-based chemotherapy.

  20. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  1. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance.

  2. Usability of tablet computers by people with early-stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fabian S; Wallace, Tim; Luszcz, Mary A; Reynolds, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers are generally associated with an intuitive interface. The adoption and use of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context could potentially assist in daily living and provide users with a source for leisure activities and social networking. As dementia mainly affects the older adult population, it is expected that many people with dementia and even their carers do not use tablet computers as part of their everyday living. This paper explores the usability of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context as a source of leisure for people with dementia. The main advantage of the use of tablet computers in this manner is to provide carers some reprieve from the constant care and attention often required in caring for people with dementia. Seven-day in-home trials were conducted to determine whether people with early-stage dementia were -capable of using a tablet computer independently. Twenty-one people with early-stage dementia and carer dyads participated in the trial. Feedback was gathered through questionnaires from both the person with dementia and their carer regarding the use of a tablet computer as part of their everyday living. Approximately half the participants with dementia were able to engage with and use the tablet computer independently, which proved to be helpful to their carers. No significant traits were observed to help identify those who were less likely to use a tablet computer. Carer relief was quantified by the amount of time participants with dementia spent using the device without supervision. The results and feedback from the trial provide significant insights to introducing new technology within the early-stage dementia context. Users' needs must be considered on a case-by-case basis to successfully facilitate the uptake of tablet computers in the dementia context. The trial has provided sufficient justification to further explore more uses of tablet computers in the dementia context, and not just for

  3. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000; Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not formmore » a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.« less

  4. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  5. Effect of ripeness stage during processing on Listeria monocytogenes growth on fresh-cut 'Conference' pears.

    PubMed

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Abadias, Maribel; Alegre, Isabel; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2015-08-01

    There are several factors that affect the shelf life of fresh-cut fruit, including the cultivar, the ripeness stage of the fruit during processing and the fruit's storage atmosphere and temperature. The effect of fruit ripeness during processing on the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut 'Conference' pear slices at different temperatures (5, 10 and 20 °C) was studied. The four ripeness stages studied in this work (assessed by a fruit's firmness) were mature-green (54-60 N), partially ripe (43-53 N), ripe (31-42 N) and overripe (<31 N). In our studies, pH, acidity and soluble solids content did not significantly change during conditioning at 20 °C. L. monocytogenes grew under all experimental conditions, showing an increase of approximately 2 log CFU g(-1) after 8 days of storage at 5 °C. There were significant differences in the L. monocytogenes population between different ripeness stages at the end of the experiments at 10 and 20 °C. Regardless of the ripeness stage of a fresh-cut pear, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes increased with increasing temperature. A pear's ripeness stage during processing is an important consideration to ensure the quality of a fresh-cut pear, but it is not as important for preventing L. monocytogenes growth at common storage temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  7. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  8. [Compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Pei-Tong; Li, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jian-Mei; Han, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction (SD) at bud stage and its effect on yield formation, a pot experiment was conducted in which soil salt content was declined from 5 per thousand level to 2 per thousand level at cotton bud stage. The results showed that the plant height, biomass, total fruit branch and fruit node number, boll number, boll mass of cotton plants increased after soil salt content reduction at bud stage. The distribution proportions of biomass in root and boll decreased after soil salt content reduction, however, the distribution proportions of biomass in leaf, main stem and fruit branch were on the rise. The growth rate of cotton plant increased after soil salt content reduction. Plant dry matter accumulation rate of SD cotton exceeded CK cotton at 22 days after soil salt content reduction. The response of different organs of cotton plant were different to soil salt content reduction, the plant height was the earliest, followed by the fruit branch and fruit node formation, and the bud and boll were the latest, which indicated that the compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage firstly appeared on the formation and growth of new leaf, fruit branch and fruit node, and on this basis, gradually brought out yield compensation.

  9. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  10. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3′ processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3′ UTR and mRNA 3′ processing factors. PMID:20201103

  11. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for growth stage classification of cannabis cultivated in a greenhouse from seized seeds.

    PubMed

    Borille, Bruna Tassi; Marcelo, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre; Ortiz, Rafael Scorsatto; Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2017-02-15

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The plants were cultivated in a homemade greenhouse under controlled conditions. In three different growth periods (5.5weeks, 7.5weeks and 10weeks), they were harvested, dried, ground and directly analyzed. The iPCA was used to select the best NIR spectral range (4000-4375cm -1 ) in order to develop unsupervised and supervised methods. The PCA and HCA showed a good separation between the three groups of cannabis samples at different growth stages. The PLS-DA and SVM-DA classified the samples with good results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity for SVM-DA classification were equal to unity. This separation may be due to the correlation of cannabinoids and volatile compounds concentration during the growth of the cannabis plant. Therefore, the growth stage of cannabis can be predicted by NIR spectroscopy and chemometric tools in the early stages of indoor cannabis cultivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for growth stage classification of cannabis cultivated in a greenhouse from seized seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borille, Bruna Tassi; Marcelo, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre; Ortiz, Rafael Scorsatto; Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The plants were cultivated in a homemade greenhouse under controlled conditions. In three different growth periods (5.5 weeks, 7.5 weeks and 10 weeks), they were harvested, dried, ground and directly analyzed. The iPCA was used to select the best NIR spectral range (4000-4375 cm- 1) in order to develop unsupervised and supervised methods. The PCA and HCA showed a good separation between the three groups of cannabis samples at different growth stages. The PLS-DA and SVM-DA classified the samples with good results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity for SVM-DA classification were equal to unity. This separation may be due to the correlation of cannabinoids and volatile compounds concentration during the growth of the cannabis plant. Therefore, the growth stage of cannabis can be predicted by NIR spectroscopy and chemometric tools in the early stages of indoor cannabis cultivation.

  13. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  14. Early, asymptomatic stage of degenerative joint disease in canine hip joints.

    PubMed

    Lust, G; Summers, B A

    1981-11-01

    The early stages of degenerative joint disease were investigated in coxofemoral joints from dogs with a hereditary predisposition to hip dysplasia. Alterations observed included mild nonsuppurative synovitis, increased volume of both synovial fluid and the ligamentum teres, and focal degenerative articular cartilage lesions. On radiologic examination, subluxation of the femoral head was seen, but only in the most severely affected joints. Synovial inflammation with increased synovial fluid and ligament volumes were indicators of early degenerative joint disease in dogs. These changes seemed to coincide with, or perhaps to precede, microscopic evidence for articular cartilage degeneration and occurred before radiologic abnormalities were detected.

  15. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Theory of the intermediate stage of crystal growth with applications to insulin crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    A theory for the intermediate stage of crystal growth, where two defining equations one for population continuity and another for mass-balance, is used to study the kinetics of the supersaturation decay, the homogeneous nucleation rate, the linear growth rate and the final distribution of crystal sizes for the crystallization of bovine and porcine insulin from solution. The cited experimental reports suggest that the crystal linear growth rate is directly proportional to the square of the insulin concentration in solution for bovine insulin and to the cube of concentration for porcine. In a previous work, it was shown that the above mentioned system could be solved for the case where the growth rate is directly proportional to the normalized supersaturation. Here a more general solution is presented valid for cases where the growth rate is directly proportional to the normalized supersaturation raised to the power of any positive integer. The resulting expressions for the time dependent normalized supersaturation and crystal size distribution are compared with experimental reports for insulin crystallization. An approximation for the maximum crystal size at the end of the intermediate stage is derived. The results suggest that the largest crystal size in the distribution at the end of the intermediate stage is maximized when nucleation is restricted to be only homogeneous. Further, the largest size in the final distribution depends only weakly upon the initial supersaturation.

  17. Anorectal Manometric Dysfunctions in Newly Diagnosed, Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hye Young; Kim, Yeong-In; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anorectal dysmotility is common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but there have been few evaluations in newly diagnosed PD patients. Methods We conducted anorectal manometric evaluations in 19 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients. All of the PD patients were questioned regarding the presence of anorectal symptoms. Results Anorectal manometry was abnormal in 12 of the 19 patients. These abnormalities were more common in patients with more severe anorectal symptoms, as measured using a self-reported scale. However, more than 40% of patients with no or minimal symptoms also exhibited manometric abnormalities. Conclusions These results suggest that anorectal dysmotility manifests in many early-stage PD patients, which this represent evidence for the involvement of neuronal structures in such nonmotor manifestations in PD. PMID:23091527

  18. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  19. A general theory of early growth?. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Chowell et al. [1] consider the early growth behaviour of various epidemic models that range from phenomenological approaches driven by data to mechanistic descriptions of complex interactions between individuals. This is particularly timely given the recent Ebola epidemic, although non-exponential early growth may be more common (but less immediately evident) than we realise.

  20. Prognostic value of periostin in early-stage breast cancer treated with conserving surgery and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyou; Xu, Jing; Wang, Qi; Geng, Shaoqing; Yan, Zheng; You, Jin; Li, Zhenfeng; Zou, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    The present study was performed to explore the prognostic significance of periostin expression in a cohort of patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery following radiotherapy. A tissue microarray of tumor samples from 259 patients with early-stage breast cancer was assayed for periostin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 and Ki-67 expression by immunohistochemistry. The association of periostin with other clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes, including local recurrence free survival (RFS), distant metastasis free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), were assessed through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate analysis. Periostin expression was identified in 91 of the 259 tissue samples (35%). The periostin status was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.001), nodal status (P=0.023), molecular subtype (P<0.01), ER status (P<0.01), PR status (P<0.01) and Ki-67 expression (P=0.011). Furthermore, periostin expression was associated with an increased risk of five-year local recurrence (95.8% vs. 89.0%; P=0.017) and distant metastasis (92.3% vs. 79.1%; P=0.001) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazards model demonstrated that periostin expression was an independent predictor of all clinical outcomes in breast cancer (RFS, P=0.018; DFS, P=0.025; OS, P=0.047). Therefore, it was concluded that periostin is associated with an increased risk of local relapse and distant metastasis in early-stage breast cancer treated with conserving surgery and radiotherapy. This association should be further investigated in larger cohorts to validate the clinical significance of periostin expression.

  1. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Cui, Y

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independentmore » validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.« less

  2. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of radial keratoneuritis in patients with early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Ishibashi, Yasuhisa; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-07-01

    To investigate in vivo corneal changes of keratoneuritis in early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using in vivo laser confocal microscopy. Single-center, prospective, clinical study. Thirteen eyes (12 patients; 5 men and 7 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 22.3 ± 4.2 years) with keratoneuritis resulting from early stage AK were included in this study. In vivo laser confocal microscopy was performed, paying special attention to keratoneuritis. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits. In all patients, Acanthamoeba cysts were observed clearly in the basal epithelial cell layer as highly reflective round particles with a diameter of 10 to 20 μm. Bowman's layer infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts was observed in only 1 case, and no cases showed stromal or nerve infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts. In the stroma, all cases showed highly reflective activated keratocytes forming a honeycomb pattern; these changes were significant around the keratoneuritis. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, possibly polymorphonuclear cells, was observed along with keratocyte bodies in all cases. Numerous highly reflective spindle-shaped materials were observed around the keratoneuritis. Most notably, highly reflective patchy lesions were observed around the keratoneuritis in 11 cases (84.6%). Inflammatory cells also were observed in the endothelial cell layer in 4 cases (30.8%). In vivo laser confocal microscopy identified consistent corneal abnormalities around keratoneuritis in early stage AK patients, of which highly reflective patchy lesions may be characteristic of keratoneuritis. Further morphologic studies of corneas with early stage AK in a larger number of patients may elucidate the clinical significance of radial keratoneuritis and may help us to understand the interaction between Acanthamoeba organisms and host corneal cells or nerves. Copyright © 2013 American

  3. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxin; Zhai, Fei; Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis.

  4. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis. PMID:28107385

  5. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ∼ 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention.

  6. Early Stages of Figure–Ground Segregation during Perception of the Face–Vase

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Michael A.; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure–ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects’ perceptions of the face–vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects’ figure–ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ~150–200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early “border ownership” stage, and a subsequent “figure–ground segregation” stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure–ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure–ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention. PMID:20146604

  7. Survival benefit of patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma treated with paclitaxel chemotherapeutic regimens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. Methods Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3–6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. Results A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3–5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). Conclusion Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age. PMID:29185274

  8. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Fucà, Giovanni; Maltese, Giuseppa; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lecce, Francesca; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2016-11-01

    We sought to review the current evidence in order to test the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in improving disease-free survival in patients affected by early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma. On July 2016, literature was searched in order to identify trials comparing different postoperative adjuvant strategies for patients diagnosed with early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma. Our analysis included 360 patients: 145 (40%), 53 (15%), and 155 (43%) had chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy), radiotherapy, and observation, respectively. Seven (2%) patients who had radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were excluded from further analysis in order to reduce risk of biases. Administration of chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) did not improve outcomes in comparison to observation (OR: 0.79 (95%CI: 0.48, 1.29)), or radiotherapy (OR: 0.90 (95%CI: 0.42, 1.94)). Loco-regional recurrence rate was similar comparing patients undergoing chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) with having observation alone (OR: 0.84 (95%CI: 0.44, 1.60)). Similarly, pooled results suggested that chemotherapy administration did not affect distant recurrence rate in comparison to no chemotherapy (OR: 0.80 (95%CI: 0.50, 1.28)), and observation alone (OR: 0.99 (95%CI: 0.60, 1.64)). However, patients undergoing chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) experienced a trend towards lower risk of developing distant recurrences (OR: 0.49 (95%CI: 0.24, 1.03)) and a higher risk of developing loco-regional recurrences (OR: 3.45 (95%CI: 1.02, 11.73)) than patients undergoing radiotherapy. In early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy remains unclear. Owing to the high recurrence rate, even in the early stage of disease, further innovative therapeutic strategies have to be tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Stage Breast Cancer in Older Women: Predictions and Outcomes of Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    found that the proportion of U.S. women with early stage breast cancer who are receiving appropriate care (defined by NIH Consensus statement) declined...surgery increased, and because women undergoing breast-conserving surgery are more likely to receive inappropriate care . We have now shown that patients... Care 2000;38:719-727. 6. Ann B. Nattinger’s Curriculum Vitae. 3 / Annual Report: Grant #DAMD17-96-1-6262 4.) INTRODUCTION Almost half of the incident

  10. Repair of Craniomaxillofacial Traumatic Soft Tissue Defects With Tissue Expansion in the Early Stage.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Jianhui; Tao, Ran; Guo, Lingli; Yang, Hongyan; Zeng, Wei; Song, Baoqiang; Xia, Wensen

    2017-09-01

    Craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects severely affect the function and appearance of the patients. The traditional skin grafting or free flap transplantation can only close the defects in the early stage of operation but cannot ensure similar color, texture, and relative aesthetic contour. In the present study, the authors have explored a novel strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects by tissue expansion in the early stage and have obtained satisfactory results. Eighteen patients suffering large craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects were treated by thorough debridement leaving the wounds unclosed or simply closed with thin split-thickness scalp grafts, adjacent expander implantation in the first stage, and expanded flap transposition in the second stage. There were 11 male patients and 7 female patients ranging in age from 3.5 to 40 years (mean, 19.4 ± 12.2 years), with average 15 months follow-up (range, 3-67 months). The average expansion time was 74.3 days (range, 53-96 days). The 18 patients with a total of 22 expanders were treated with satisfactory results. All the flaps survived and the skin color, texture, and contour well matched those of the peripheral tissue. Only 1 complication of infection happened in the 18 cases (5.56%) and the 22 expanders (4.55%), which was similar to the rate reported in the literature. No other complications related to the expanders occurred. Debridement and tissue expansion in the early stage has been proved to be a more effective strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects. This strategy can not only achieve satisfactory color, unbulky and well-matched texture similar to normal, but also avoid unnecessary donor site injuries.

  11. [Fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth].

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui; Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Li, Huan; Wen, Wei; Huang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Yu-Ping; Yu, Yan-Liang; Chen, Li-Lian; Yuan, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines. The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (P<0.05), and the content was positively correlated with gestational age (P<0.01). On the second day after birth, the low-dose fat emulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (P<0.05). In the early preterm infant and moderate-to-late preterm infant groups, there were no significant differences in the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines between the low- and high-dose fat emulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth. Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.

  12. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Improved early outcome for end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Anne-Marie; van Doorn, Carin; Burch, Michael; Whitmore, Pauline; Neligan, Sophie; Rees, Philip; Radley-Smith, Rosemary; Goldman, Allan; Brown, Katherine; Cohen, Gordon; Tsang, Victor; Elliott, Martin; de Leval, Marc R

    2003-12-01

    To review the impact of management changes on the early outcomes of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children. We conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive children with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy who received hospital treatment since 1992. Over the past 3 years the following management changes were made: (1) more aggressive use of mechanical cardiac assistance; (2) high priority listing for transplantation; and (3) ABO incompatible transplants for infants. Outcomes for 46 patients admitted between 1992 and 1999 (group I) were compared with 53 patients between 2000 and March 2003 (group II). In group I, 12 (26%) patients received mechanical support with recovery in 3 and transplantation in 5 (1 died). In group II, 19 (36%) patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with recovery in 5 and transplantation in 12 (all survived). The use of mechanical assistance was associated with high morbidity related to bleeding, end-organ failure, and long-term mechanical ventilation. Five patients in group II received ABO incompatible transplants and all survived. There have been no episodes of rejection or need for increased immunosuppressive therapy. Hospital mortality has been significantly reduced (group I, 37% vs group II, 11%; P <.05). Recent refinements in the management of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children have significantly reduced early mortality. Identification of markers of early myocardial recovery and development of mechanical devices for longer term and more physiologic support are essential to achieve further improvements in outcome.

  14. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  15. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Rana F.

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers’ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system. PMID:27981122

  16. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early-stage self-assembly of π-conjugated oligopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate early-stage self-assembly. Under low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ≈ -25kBT. Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini (ΔF ≈ -5kBT). In simulations of hundreds of monomers over 70 ns we observe the spontaneous formation of up to undecameric aggregates under low-pH conditions. Modeling assembly as a continuous-time Markovmore » process, we infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide sequence and aromatic core chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates.« less

  17. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 < BMI < 24.9, lean) to Q2 (30 < BMI < 34.9, obese), but marginally from Q2 to Q3 (35 < BMI < 39.9, severely obese) and from Q3 to Q4 (BMI > 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  18. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early-stage self-assembly of π-conjugated oligopeptides

    DOE PAGES

    None, None

    2016-03-22

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate early-stage self-assembly. Under low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ≈ -25kBT. Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini (ΔF ≈ -5kBT). In simulations of hundreds of monomers over 70 ns we observe the spontaneous formation of up to undecameric aggregates under low-pH conditions. Modeling assembly as a continuous-time Markovmore » process, we infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide sequence and aromatic core chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates.« less

  19. Clinical and dosimetric implications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew Christopher, E-mail: wardm3@ccf.org; Pham, Yvonne D.; Kotecha, Rupesh

    2016-04-01

    Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literaturemore » are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients.« less

  20. Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15). PMID:24400111

  1. The Treatment Effect of Porous Titanium Alloy Rod on the Early Stage Talar Osteonecrosis of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT) may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group). The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group). No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT. PMID:23516485

  2. Finite element simulation of ultrasonic waves in corroded reinforced concrete for early-stage corrosion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2017-04-01

    In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, corrosion of steel rebar introduces internal stress at the interface between rebar and concrete, ultimately leading to debonding and separation between rebar and concrete. Effective early-stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can significantly reduce maintenance costs and enable early-stage repair. In this paper, ultrasonic detection of early-stage steel rebar corrosion inside concrete is numerically investigated using the finite element method (FEM). Commercial FEM software (ABAQUS) was used in all simulation cases. Steel rebar was simplified and modeled by a cylindrical structure. 1MHz ultrasonic elastic waves were generated at the interface between rebar and concrete. Two-dimensional plain strain element was adopted in all FE models. Formation of surface rust in rebar was modeled by changing material properties and expanding element size in order to simulate the rust interface between rebar and concrete and the presence of interfacial stress. Two types of surface rust (corroded regions) were considered. Time domain and frequency domain responses of displacement were studied. From our simulation result, two corrosion indicators, baseline (b) and center frequency (fc) were proposed for detecting and quantifying corrosion.

  3. New features of triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways of peanut seeds in early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingli; Liu, Fengzhen; Zhu, Weiwei; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Jiang; Li, Xinzheng

    2015-11-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the three most important oil crops in the world due to its high average oil content (50 %). To reveal the biosynthetic pathways of seed oil in the early developmental stages of peanut pods with the goal of improving the oil quality, we presented a method combining deep sequencing analysis of the peanut pod transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) verification of seed oil-related genes. From the sequencing data, approximately 1500 lipid metabolism-associated Unigenes were identified. The RT-PCR results quantified the different expression patterns of these triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis-related genes in the early developmental stages of peanut pods. Based on these results and analysis, we proposed a novel construct of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of TAG, including the Kennedy pathway, acyl-CoA-independent pathway and proposed monoacylglycerol pathway. It showed that the biosynthetic pathways of TAG in the early developmental stages of peanut pods were much more complicated than a simple, unidirectional, linear pathway.

  4. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana F

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers' support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.

  5. Sleep quality and fatigue after a stress management intervention for women with early-stage breast cancer in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sara; Antoni, Michael H; Carver, Charles S; Lechner, Suzanne C; Wohlgemuth, William; Llabre, Maria; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Glück, Stefan; DerHagopian, Robert P

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disruption and fatigue are ubiquitous among cancer patients and are sources of stress that may compromise treatment outcomes. Previously, we showed that a cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention reduced anxiety and other stress-related processes in women undergoing primary treatment for breast cancer. This study examined secondary outcomes from a CBSM intervention trial for women with early-stage breast cancer to test if CBSM would improve sleep quality and fatigue among these patients at a single site in southern Florida. CBSM-related effects have already been demonstrated for indicators of psychosocial adaptation (e.g., general and cancer-related anxiety). Patients were randomized to CBSM (n= 120) or a 1-day psychoeducation control group (n= 120). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Fatigue Symptom Inventory were completed prior to randomization and 6 and 12 months after the baseline assignment. In latent growth analyses, women in CBSM reported greater improvements in PSQI sleep quality scores than controls, although there were no significant differences between conditions on PSQI total scores. Women in CBSM also reported greater reductions in fatigue-related daytime interference than controls, though there were no significant differences in changes in fatigue intensity. Changes in sleep quality were associated with changes in fatigue. Future work may consider integrating sleep and fatigue content into stress management interventions for women with early-stage breast cancer.

  6. Sleep Quality and Fatigue After A Stress Management Intervention For Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer in Southern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sara; Antoni, Michael H.; Carver, Charles S.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Wohlgemuth, William; Llabre, Maria; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Glück, Stefan; DerHagopian, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption and fatigue are ubiquitous among cancer patients and is a source of stress that may compromise treatment outcomes. Previously we showed that a cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention reduced anxiety and other stress-related processes in women undergoing primary treatment for breast cancer. Purpose This study examined secondary outcomes from a CBSM intervention trial for women with early-stage breast cancer to test if CBSM would improve sleep quality and fatigue among these patients at a single site in Southern Florida. CBSM-related effects have already been demonstrated for indicators of psychosocial adaptation (e.g., general and cancer-related anxiety). Methods Patients were randomized to CBSM (n = 120) or a one-day psychoeducation control group (n = 120). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Fatigue Symptom Inventory were completed prior to randomization and 6 and 12 months after the baseline assignment. Results In latent growth analyses, women in CBSM reported greater improvements in PSQI sleep quality scores than controls, although there were no significant differences between conditions on PSQI total scores. Women in CBSM also reported greater reductions in fatigue-related daytime interference than controls, though there were no significant differences in changes in fatigue intensity. Changes in sleep quality were associated with changes in fatigue. Conclusions Future work may consider integrating sleep and fatigue content into stress management interventions for women with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24318654

  7. Effects of tributyltin on early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Shintaku, Yoko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin, an organotin compound, was used worldwide as an antifouling agent in aquatic environments and there has been much concern about the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of organotin compounds. Even though it has been prohibited worldwide, tributyltin is still detected at low concentrations in aquatic environments. Here we investigated the effects of tributyltin on the early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In adults, exposure to tributyltin at 3.82 μg/L suppressed fecundity and fertility and increased mortality. At 10.48 μg/L all medaka died by the sixth day of exposure. Exposure to tributyltin during early life-stages induced no significant differences in mortality or embryonic development, but growth was suppressed in groups exposed to 0.13 and 0.68 μg/L. Furthermore, there was no abnormal gonadal development in Japanese medaka exposed to tributyltin. These results provide evidence of the negative effects of tributyltin on reproduction in a teleost fish. Tributyltin did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka, but fecundity and fertility were suppressed, although it is not clear whether this suppression resulted from the endocrine-disrupting action of tributyltin or its toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  9. Effectiveness of oxfendazole against early and later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P; Ducharme, N G; Baird, J D

    1986-03-01

    Twenty pony foals (reared worm free), 6.5 to 10 weeks of age, were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris and allocated to 5 groups, each with 4 foals. One week after inoculation, 1 group of 4 foals was given oxfendazole (OFZ) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight, another group was given 2 such treatments 48 hours apart, and a 3rd group was given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Three weeks later, foals were euthanatized and necropsied in a test for efficacy against early 4th-stage larvae. Oxfendazole was 80% and 94.9% effective against early 4th-stage S vulgaris with 1 and 2 doses, respectively. A 4th group of 4 foals was given 2 treatments of OFZ, 48 hours apart, about 8 weeks after inoculation, and a 5th group was given a placebo. These foals were euthanatized and necropsied 5 weeks after treatment in a test for efficacy against later 4th-stage larvae. Two doses of OFZ were 96.6% effective against later 4th-stage larvae.

  10. The relationship of subepidermal moisture and early stage pressure injury by visual skin assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Gyu; Park, Seungmi; Ko, Ji Woon; Jo, Sungho

    2018-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subepidermal moisture and early stage pressure injury by visual skin assessment in elderly Korean. Twenty-nine elderly participated at a particular nursing home. Data were collected for 12 weeks by one wound care nurse. Visual skin assessment and subepidermal moisture value were measured at both buttocks, both ischia, both trochanters, sacrum, and coccyx of each subject once a week. Subepidermal moisture value of stage 1 pressure injury was significantly higher than that of no injury and blanching erythema. After adjustment with covariates, odds ratios of blanching erythema to normal skin and stage 1 pressure injury to blanching erythema/normal skin were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Odds ratio of blanching erythema to normal skin was 1.003 (p = .047) by 1-week prior subepidermal moisture value, and that of concurrent subepidermal moisture value was 1.004 (p = .011). Odds ratio of stage 1 pressure injury to normal skin/blanching erythema was 1.003 (p = .005) by 1-week prior subepidermal moisture value, and that for concurrent subepidermal moisture value was 1.007 (p = .030). Subepidermal moisture was associated with concurrent and future (1 week later) skin damage at both trochanters. Subepidermal moisture would be used to predict early skin damage in clinical nursing field for the effective pressure injury prevention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Can early hepatic fibrosis stages be discriminated by combining ultrasonic parameters?

    PubMed

    Bouzitoune, Razika; Meziri, Mahmoud; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Padilla, Frédéric; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we put forward a new approach to classify early stages of fibrosis based on a multiparametric characterization using backscatter ultrasonic signals. Ultrasonic parameters, such as backscatter coefficient (Bc), speed of sound (SoS), attenuation coefficient (Ac), mean scatterer spacing (MSS), and spectral slope (SS), have shown their potential to differentiate between healthy and pathologic samples in different organs (eye, breast, prostate, liver). Recently, our group looked into the characterization of stages of hepatic fibrosis using the parameters cited above. The results showed that none of them could individually distinguish between the different stages. Therefore, we explored a multiparametric approach by combining these parameters in two and three, to test their potential to discriminate between the stages of liver fibrosis: F0 (normal), F1, F3, and/without F4 (cirrhosis), according to METAVIR Score. Discriminant analysis showed that the most relevant individual parameter was Bc, followed by SoS, SS, MSS, and Ac. The combination of (Bc, SoS) along with the four stages was the best in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis and correctly classified 85% of the liver samples with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, when taking into account only stages F0, F1, and F3, the discriminant analysis showed that the parameters (Bc, SoS) and (Bc, Ac) had a better classification (93%) with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). The combination of the three parameters (Bc, SoS, and Ac) led to a 100% correct classification. In conclusion, the current findings show that the multiparametric approach has great potential in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis, and thus could play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic factors for patients with early-stage uterine serous carcinoma without adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Keisei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Uehara, Takashi; Ikeda, Shun Ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Tomoyasu

    2018-05-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type 2 endometrial cancer. Data on prognostic factors for patients with early-stage USC without adjuvant therapy are limited. This study aims to assess the baseline recurrence risk of early-stage USC patients without adjuvant treatment and to identify prognostic factors and patients who need adjuvant therapy. Sixty-eight patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II USC between 1997 and 2016 were included. All the cases did not undergo adjuvant treatment as institutional practice. Clinicopathological features, recurrence patterns, and survival outcomes were analyzed to determine prognostic factors. FIGO stages IA, IB, and II were observed in 42, 7, and 19 cases, respectively. Median follow-up time was 60 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all cases were 73.9% and 78.0%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cervical stromal involvement and positive pelvic cytology were significant predictors of DFS and OS, and ≥1/2 myometrial invasion was also a significant predictor of OS. Of 68 patients, 38 patients had no cervical stromal invasion or positive pelvic cytology and showed 88.8% 5-year DFS and 93.6% 5-year OS. Cervical stromal invasion and positive pelvic cytology are prognostic factors for stage I-II USC. Patients with stage IA or IB USC showing negative pelvic cytology may have an extremely favorable prognosis and need not receive any adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  14. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  15. Neratinib for the treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, Isabel; López-Tarruella, Sara; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Jerez, Yolanda; Martin, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, including preclinical studies, early-phase trials in advanced cancer with neratinib in monotherapy and in combination, and phase II and large phase III trials in the early setting. Management of neratinib-induced toxicity, future perspectives for the drug, and ongoing trials are also discussed in this review. Expert commentary: Neratinib is emerging as a promising oral drug for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Although FDA and EMA approval is derived from the extended adjuvant treatment, this setting may not be the ideal scenario to obtain the beneficial effects of neratinib. Confirmatory data in the neoadjuvant setting and subgroup analysis from the ExTENET trial might bring some light into the best setting for neratinib therapy. Data from confirmatory trials in the metastatic setting are also required.

  16. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  17. Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-2 August 2007 Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species by J...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...heralding apoptosis . Data analysis. An apoptotic index (API) was established by calculating the percentage of embryos in each life stage with

  18. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  19. Analysis and evaluation of tasty components in the pileus and stipe of Lentinula edodes at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanchao; Li, Wen; Yang, Yan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Jie; Li, Xiaobei; Liu, Yanfang

    2015-01-28

    Tasty components in Lentinula edodes pileus and stipe at different growth stages were studied. Mannitol, trehalose, arabitol, and glucose were the main soluble polyols and sugars, whereas succinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid were the main organic acids. Mannitol contents were the highest in the pileus and increased at mature growth stages, although arabitol contents were the highest in the stipe and peaked at stage 5. Succinic acid contents peaked at stage 5 in the pileus and stipe during mature growth stages. Threonine (sweet taste) values were the highest among all the detected amino acids, followed by glutamic acid (MSG-like taste). MSG-like 5'-nucleotide contents could account for nearly 50% of the total 5'-nucleotides. Equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values of stage 5 exhibited higher levels during mature growth stages. Tasty components in the stipe were rich and EUC values were high, which might be useful for further processing and byproduct development of L. edodes.

  20. Contraction and stress-dependent growth shape the forebrain of the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Kara E; Okamoto, Ruth J; Bayly, Philip V; Taber, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    During early vertebrate development, local constrictions, or sulci, form to divide the forebrain into the diencephalon, telencephalon, and optic vesicles. These partitions are maintained and exaggerated as the brain tube inflates, grows, and bends. Combining quantitative experiments on chick embryos with computational modeling, we investigated the biophysical mechanisms that drive these changes in brain shape. Chemical perturbations of contractility indicated that actomyosin contraction plays a major role in the creation of initial constrictions (Hamburger-Hamilton stages H