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Sample records for early hepatocellular carcinoma

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  2. A qualitative signature for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on relative expression orderings.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lu; Zhang, Zimei; Guan, Qingzhou; Guo, Yating; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Lv, Xingwei; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huarong; Wang, Xianlong; Guo, Zheng

    2018-04-23

    Currently, using biopsy specimens to confirm suspicious liver lesions of early hepatocellular carcinoma are not entirely reliable because of insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. It is necessary to develop a signature to aid early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis using biopsy specimens even when the sampling location is inaccurate. Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a simple qualitative signature to distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients. A signature consisting of 19 gene pairs was identified in the training data sets and validated in 2 large collections of samples from biopsy and surgical resection specimens. For biopsy specimens, 95.7% of 141 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and all (100%) of 108 cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients were correctly classified. Especially, all (100%) of 60 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues and 77.5% of 80 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. For surgical resection specimens, 99.7% of 733 hepatocellular carcinoma specimens were correctly classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, while 96.1% of 254 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues and 95.9% of 538 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, 17.0% of 47 cirrhosis from non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients waiting for liver transplantation were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating that some patients with long-lasting cirrhosis could have already gained hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics. The signature can distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and tumour-adjacent tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients even using inaccurately sampled biopsy specimens, which can aid early

  3. Biomarkers for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Saito, Keigo; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, the 5-year survival rate is > 70% if patients are diagnosed at an early stage. However, early diagnosis of HCC is complicated by the coexistence of inflammation and cirrhosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are required. Currently, the diagnosis of HCC without pathological correlation is achieved by analyzing serum α-fetoprotein levels combined with imaging techniques. Advances in genomics and proteomics platforms and biomarker assay techniques over the last decade have resulted in the identification of numerous novel biomarkers and have improved the diagnosis of HCC. The most promising biomarkers, such as glypican-3, osteopontin, Golgi protein-73 and nucleic acids including microRNAs, are most likely to become clinically validated in the near future. These biomarkers are not only useful for early diagnosis of HCC, but also provide insight into the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. In addition, such molecular insight creates the basis for the development of potentially more effective treatment strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of the biomarkers that are currently used for the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:26457017

  4. Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2009-08-01

    Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c approximately 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC.

  5. Risk factors of early recurrence after curative hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Mi; Cho, Mong; Yoon, Ki Tae; Chu, Chong Woo; Yang, Kwang Ho; Park, Yong Mok; Rhu, Je Ho

    2017-10-01

    Early recurrence is common after curative hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify risk factors of early recurrence after curative hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma. Overall, 63 patients who underwent curative hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. Patients were divided into the early recurrence group, who developed recurrence within 12 months after hepatectomy (n = 10), and the non-early recurrence group (n = 53). Clinicopathological factors of early recurrence were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 63 patients, 10 (15.9%) patients experienced early recurrence. Univariate analysis showed tumor necrosis (p = 0.012), level of PIVKA-II (prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II; p = 0.002), and microvascular invasion (p = 0.029) to be associated with early recurrence. By multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in high PIVKA-II (p < 0.001) and tumor necrosis (p = 0.012) in patients with early recurrence. The optimal cutoff values of PIVKA-II and tumor necrosis were 46 mAU/mL and 3% of total tumor volume, respectively. Patients with a high preoperative PIVKA-II level and extent of tumor necrosis, which are independent risk factors for early recurrence, should be actively treated and monitored closely after hepatectomy.

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening Associated with Early Tumor Detection and Improved Survival Among Patients with Cirrhosis in the US.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Mittal, Sahil; Yerokun, Olutola A; Ahn, Chul; Marrero, Jorge A; Yopp, Adam C; Parikh, Neehar D; Scaglione, Steve J

    2017-09-01

    Professional societies recommend hepatocellular carcinoma screening in patients with cirrhosis, but high-quality data evaluating its effectiveness to improve early tumor detection and survival in "real world" clinical practice are needed. We aim to characterize the association between hepatocellular carcinoma screening and early tumor detection, curative treatment, and overall survival among patients with cirrhosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between June 2012 and May 2013 at 4 health systems in the US. Patients were categorized in the screening group if hepatocellular carcinoma was detected by imaging performed for screening purposes. Generalized linear models and multivariate Cox regression with frailty adjustment were used to compare early detection, curative treatment, and survival between screen-detected and non-screen-detected patients. Among 374 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 42% (n = 157) were detected by screening. Screen-detected patients had a significantly higher proportion of early tumors (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A 63.1% vs 36.4%, P <.001) and were more likely to undergo curative treatment (31% vs 13%, P = .02). Hepatocellular carcinoma screening was significantly associated with improved survival in multivariate analysis (hazards ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.65) after adjusting for patient demographics, Child-Pugh class, and performance status. Median survival of screen-detected patients was 14.6 months, compared with 6.0 months for non-screen-detected patients, with the difference remaining significant after adjusting for lead-time bias (hazards ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.93). Hepatocellular carcinoma screening is associated with increased early tumor detection and improved survival; however, a minority of hepatocellular carcinoma patients are detected by screening. Interventions to increase screening use in patients with cirrhosis may

  7. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-11-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas.

  8. Novel Mahalanobis-based feature selection improves one-class classification of early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Ricardo de Lima; Carneiro, Pedro Cunha; Bonin, João Eliton; Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves; Patrocinio, Ana Claudia; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa

    2018-05-01

    Detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for increasing survival rates in up to 40%. One-class classifiers can be used for modeling early HCC in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), but demand the specific knowledge pertaining to the set of features that best describes the target class. Although the literature outlines several features for characterizing liver lesions, it is unclear which is most relevant for describing early HCC. In this paper, we introduce an unconstrained GA feature selection algorithm based on a multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function to improve the classification performance for early HCC. We compared our approach to a constrained Mahalanobis function and two other unconstrained functions using Welch's t-test and Gaussian Data Descriptors. The performance of each fitness function was evaluated by cross-validating a one-class SVM. The results show that the proposed multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function is capable of significantly reducing data dimensionality (96.4%) and improving one-class classification of early HCC (0.84 AUC). Furthermore, the results provide strong evidence that intensity features extracted at the arterial to portal and arterial to equilibrium phases are important for classifying early HCC.

  9. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  10. Noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma: derivation from hepatocellular adenoma? Clinicopathologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Chiang; Vachharajani, Neeta; Chapman, William C.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of hepatocellular carcinomas arise in background chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of non-cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas remains unclear. While malignant transformation reportedly occurs in <15% of hepatocellular adenoma, the prevalence of noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas arising from a pre-existing adenoma is a challenge to study. Cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma may be subclassified by molecular pathways, but little is known in noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. We aim to delineate clinical, morphologic and immunohistochemical features of noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate for possible derivation from hepatocellular adenoma. We evaluated the clinicopathologic features of 74 noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas from 72 patients for underlying clinical conditions and immunohistochemical markers known to be associated with hepatocellular adenoma. Men were more commonly affected (59%); however, in the < 50 year old group, women predominated (8:1). The age range was wide: 18year – 83year; median 64year. Underlying liver diseases were identified in only 7%; however 25% had diabetes mellitus, 69% were overweight or obese, and 58% had metabolic syndrome. Only 50% of the noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma were encapsulated. As published in hepatocellular adenoma, multifocality and larger tumor size were more common in liver fatty acid binding protein-negative noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. Beta-catenin nuclear positivity was uncommon (5%), and was restricted to hepatocellular carcinomas in older men. Serum amyloid A positivity was not restricted to any subtype. In summary, we present the largest series to date examining noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. We evaluated these with current hepatocellular adenoma subclassification markers for possible associations. Thirty percent of the 74 noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma had some clinical

  11. Global PROTOMAP profiling to search for biomarkers of early-recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Masato; Morofuji, Noriaki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Ojima, Hidenori; Kubota, Daisuke; Terukina, Goro; Nobe, Yuko; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Kosuge, Tomoo; Isobe, Toshiaki; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-11-07

    This study used global protein expression profiling to search for biomarkers to predict early recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC tissues surgically resected from patients with or without recurrence within 2 years (early recurrent) after surgery were compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and with normal liver tissue. We used the PROTOMAP strategy for comparative profiling, which integrates denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis migratory rates and high-resolution, semiquantitative mass-spectrometry-based identification of in-gel-digested tryptic peptides. PROTOMAP allows examination of global changes in the size, topography, and abundance of proteins in complex tissue samples. This approach identified 8438 unique proteins from 45 708 nonredundant peptides and generated a proteome-wide map of changes in expression and proteolytic events potentially induced by intrinsic apoptotic/necrotic pathways. In the early recurrent HCC tissue, 87 proteins were differentially expressed (≥20-fold) relative to the other tissues, 46 of which were up-regulated or specifically proteolyzed and 41 of which were down-regulated. This data set consisted of proteins that fell into various functional categories, including signal transduction and cell organization and, notably, the major catalytic pathways responsible for liver function, such as the urea cycle and detoxification metabolism. We found that aberrant proteolysis appeared to occur frequently during recurrence of HCC in several key signal transducers, including STAT1 and δ-catenin. Further investigation of these proteins will facilitate the development of novel clinical applications.

  12. Quantitative proteomics analysis of early recurrence/metastasis of huge hepatocellular carcinoma following radical resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic resection is the preferred treatment for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (>10 cm in diameter; H-HCC). However, the patients with H-HCC suffer from poor prognosis due to the early recurrence/metastasis. The underlying mechanism of H-HCC’s early recurrence/metastasis is currently not well understood. Results Here, we describe an Isobaric Tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach to analyze the early recurrence/metastasis related proteins of H-HCC after radical resection through multidimensional chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2DLC-MS/MS). The different protein expression profiles between the early recurrence/metastasis within 6 months(R/M≤6months) and late recurrence/metastasis within 6–12 months after surgery (R/M6-12months) were confirmed and might reveal different underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified 44 and 49 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the R/M≤6months group and the R/M6-12months group compared to the group who had no recurrence within 2 years post surgery (the NR/M group), respectively. Moreover, among those proteins, S100A12 and AMACR were down regulated in the R/M≤6months group but up-regulated in the R/M6-12months group; and this regulation was further confirmed in mRNA and protein level by Q-PCR, Western-Blot and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Conclusions This current study presents the first proteomic profile of the early recurrence/metastasis of H-HCC. The results suggest that S100A12 and AMACR might be potential prognostic markers for predicting the early recurrence/metastasis of H-HCC after hepatectomy. PMID:24839399

  13. Cost-effectiveness of hepatic resection versus percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessandro; Piscaglia, Fabio; Cescon, Matteo; Colecchia, Antonio; Ercolani, Giorgio; Bolondi, Luigi; Pinna, Antonio D

    2013-08-01

    Both hepatic resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are considered curative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their economic impact still remains not determined. Aim of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness (CE) of these two strategies in early stage HCC (Milan criteria). As first step, a meta-analysis of the pertinent literature of the last decade was performed. Seventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 3996 patients underwent resection and 4424 underwent RFA for early HCC. Data obtained from the meta-analysis were used to construct a Markov model. Costs were assessed from the health care provider perspective. A Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to estimate outcomes with distribution samples of 1000 patients for each treatment arm. In a 10-year perspective, for very early HCC (single nodule <2 cm) in Child-Pugh class A patients, RFA provided similar life-expectancy and quality-adjusted life-expectancy at a lower cost than resection and was the most cost-effective therapeutic strategy. For single HCCs of 3-5 cm, resection provided better life-expectancy and was more cost-effective than RFA, at a willingness-to-pay above €4200 per quality-adjusted life-year. In the presence of two or three nodules ≤3 cm, life-expectancy and quality-adjusted life-expectancy were very similar between the two treatments, but cost-effectiveness was again in favour of RFA. For very early HCC and in the presence of two or three nodules ≤3 cm, RFA is more cost-effective than resection; for single larger early stage HCCs, surgical resection remains the best strategy to adopt as a result of better survival rates at an acceptable increase in cost. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gain of GRHL2 is associated with early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Kanai, Fumihiko; Tada, Motohisa; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Sanada, Masashi; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ohta, Miki; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Seto, Motoko; Shiina, Shuichiro; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Kawabe, Takao; Yokosuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Seishi; Omata, Masao

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify genomic changes that might be implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, and evaluate the associations with clinico-pathological features. The genomic DNA of 17 hepatoma cell lines was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 50K high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We selected representative genes from recurrent amplified regions and measured the copy number of these genes in 70 HCC clinical samples. We found 10 recurrent high-grade gain regions spanning less than 3 Mb in at least two hepatoma cell lines, and selected 10 representative genes. The copy number was almost normal in non-cancerous tissue and frequently amplified in Edmondson grade II or III HCC compared to Edmondson grade I HCC. Gain of TAX1BP1 in 7p15.2-1 was associated with larger tumor size and positivity of HCV antibody, and gain of CCND1 in 11q13.2-3 was associated with larger tumor size by multivariate analysis. Furthermore, a gain of GRHL2 in 8q22.3 was associated with early recurrence of HCC, controlling for clinical parameters. Decreased GRHL2 expression by RNA interference inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells, suggesting its association with cell proliferation. A gain of GRHL2 might be a predictive marker for HCC recurrence.

  15. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-05-07

    To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test ( P = 0.002). The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after RFA was significantly lower

  16. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. METHODS Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after

  17. Early development of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting agent therapy: Comparison with pegylated interferon-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S H; Kwon, J H; Nam, S W; Kim, H Y; Kim, C W; You, C R; Choi, S W; Cho, S H; Han, J-Y; Song, D S; Chang, U I; Yang, J M; Lee, H L; Lee, S W; Han, N I; Kim, S-H; Song, M J; Hwang, S; Sung, P S; Jang, J W; Bae, S H; Choi, J Y; Yoon, S K

    2018-04-16

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieve a sustained viral response after pegylated interferon therapy have a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the risk after treatment with direct-acting antivirals is unclear. We compared the rates of early development of hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting antivirals and after pegylated interferon therapy. We retrospectively analysed 785 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no history of hepatocellular carcinoma (211 treated with pegylated interferon, 574 with direct-acting antivirals) and were followed up for at least 24 weeks after antiviral treatment. De novo hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 6 of 574 patients receiving direct-acting antivirals and in 1 of 211 patients receiving pegylated interferon. The cumulative incidence of early hepatocellular carcinoma development did not differ between the treatment groups either for the whole cohort (1.05% vs 0.47%, P = .298) or for those patients with Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis (3.73% vs 2.94%, P = .827). Multivariate analysis indicated that alpha-fetoprotein level >9.5 ng/mL at the time of end-of-treatment response was the only independent risk factor for early development of hepatocellular carcinoma in all patients (P < .0001, hazard ratio 176.174, 95% confidence interval 10.768-2882.473) and in patients treated with direct-acting agents (P < .0001, hazard ratio 128.402, 95% confidence interval 8.417-1958.680). In conclusion, the rate of early development of hepatocellular carcinoma did not differ between patients treated with pegylated interferon and those treated with direct-acting antivirals and was associated with the serum alpha-fetoprotein level at the time of end-of-treatment response. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Morphologic Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be further divided into distinct subtypes that provide important clinical information and biological insights. These subtypes are distinct from growth patterns and are on based on morphologic and molecular findings. There are 12 reasonably well-defined subtypes as well as 6 provisional subtypes, together making up 35% of all hepatocellular carcinomas. These subtypes are discussed, with an emphasis on their definitions and the key morphologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  20. Radiation Segmentectomy versus Selective Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Derek M; Titano, Joseph J; Korff, Ricki A; Fischman, Aaron M; Patel, Rahul S; Nowakowski, Francis S; Lookstein, Robert A; Kim, Edward

    2018-01-01

    To compare outcomes of radiation segmentectomy (RS) and segmental transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of unresectable, solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤ 3 cm. From January 2012 to January 2016, 534 and 877 patients were treated with radioembolization and transarterial chemoembolization, respectively. A cohort of 112 (radiation segmentectomy [RS], 55; chemoembolization, 57) locoregional therapy-naïve patients with solitary HCC ≤ 3 cm without vascular invasion or metastasis was retrospectively identified and stratified according to baseline patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and laboratory values. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted using a nearest neighbor algorithm (1:1). Outcomes analyzed included laboratory toxicities, imaging response, time to secondary therapy (TTST), and overall survival. Before PSM, complete response (CR) rate was 81.2% for RS and 49.1% for chemoembolization (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.3; P < .001). Median (95% CI) TTST after initial therapy was 246 days (135-250 d) in chemoembolization group and 700 days (308-812 d) in RS group (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P = .009). Overall survival before PSM was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .29). Overall CR rate after PSM was 92.1% in RS group and 52.6% in chemoembolization group (P = .005). Median (95% CI) TTST after matching was 161 days (76-350 d) in chemoembolization group and 812 days (363-812 d) in RS group (P = .001). Overall survival after matching was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .71). RS results in improved imaging response and longer TTST compared with transarterial chemoembolization in treatment of early-stage HCC. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively.more » Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and

  2. Early dynamic 18F-FDG PET to detect hyperperfusion in hepatocellular carcinoma liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Schierz, Jan-Henning; Opfermann, Thomas; Steenbeck, Jörg; Lopatta, Eric; Settmacher, Utz; Stallmach, Andreas; Marlowe, Robert J; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    In addition to angiographic data on vascularity and vascular access, demonstration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) liver nodule hypervascularization is a prerequisite for certain intrahepatic antitumor therapies. Early dynamic (ED) (18)F-FDG PET/CT could serve this purpose when the current standard method, contrast-enhanced (CE) CT, or other CE morphologic imaging modalities are unsuitable. A recent study showed ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT efficacy in this setting but applied a larger-than-standard (18)F-FDG activity and an elaborate protocol likely to hinder routine use. We developed a simplified protocol using standard activities and easily generated visual and descriptive or quantitative endpoints. This pilot study assessed the ability of these endpoints to detect HCC hyperperfusion and, thereby, evaluated the suitability in of the protocol everyday practice. Twenty-seven patients with 34 HCCs (diameter ≥ 1.5 cm) with hypervascularization on 3-phase CE CT underwent liver ED (18)F-FDG PET for 240 s, starting with (18)F-FDG (250-MBq bolus injection). Four frames at 15-s intervals, followed by 3 frames at 60-s intervals were reconstructed. Endpoints included focal tracer accumulation in the first 4 frames (60 s), subsequent focal washout, and visual and quantitative differences between tumor and liver regions of interest in maximum and mean ED standardized uptake value (ED SUVmax and ED SUVmean, respectively) 240-s time-activity curves. All 34 lesions were identified by early focal (18)F-FDG accumulation and faster time-to-peak ED SUVmax or ED SUVmean than in nontumor tissue. Tumor peak ED SUVmax and ED SUVmean exceeded liver levels in 85% and 53%, respectively, of lesions. Nadir tumor signal showed no consistent pattern relative to nontumor signal. HCC had a significantly shorter time to peak and significantly faster rate to peak for both ED SUVmax and ED SUVmean curves and a significantly higher peak ED SUVmax but not peak ED SUVmean than the liver. This pilot study

  3. Biomarker Discovery for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis C–infected Patients*

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mehnaz G.; Petersen, John R.; Ju, Hyunsu; Cicalese, Luca; Snyder, Ned; Haidacher, Sigmund J.; Denner, Larry; Elferink, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatic disease damages the liver, and the resulting wound-healing process leads to liver fibrosis and the subsequent development of cirrhosis. The leading cause of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and of the patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis, 2% to 5% develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a survival rate of 7%. HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the poor survival rate is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, which makes successful intervention difficult, if not impossible. The lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and the urgent need for early-stage diagnosis prompted us to discover new candidate biomarkers for HCV and HCC. We used aptamer-based fractionation technology to reduce serum complexity, differentially labeled samples (six HCV and six HCC) with fluorescent dyes, and resolved proteins in pairwise two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. DeCyder software was used to identify differentially expressed proteins and spots picked, and MALDI-MS/MS was used to determine that ApoA1 was down-regulated by 22% (p < 0.004) in HCC relative to HCV. Differential expression quantified via two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was confirmed by means of 18O/16O stable isotope differential labeling with LC-MS/MS zoom scans. Technically independent confirmation was demonstrated by triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays with three peptides specific to human ApoA1 (DLATVYVDVLK, WQEEMELYR, and VSFLSALEEYTK) using 18O/16O-labeled samples and further verified with AQUA peptides as internal standards for quantification. In 50 patient samples (24 HCV and 26 HCC), all three SRM assays yielded highly similar differential expression of ApoA1 in HCC and HCV patients. These results validated the SRM assays, which were independently confirmed by Western blotting. Thus, ApoA1 is a candidate member of an SRM biomarker panel for early diagnosis

  4. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in undamaged liver].

    PubMed

    Feketé, F; Belghiti, J; Flejou, J F; Panis, Y; Molas, G

    1991-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma mainly affects patients with cirrhosis or with various degrees of fibrosis. From 1979 to 1990, among 87 patients who underwent hepatic resection for non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 (14%) had a non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma developed in a normal liver. There were 8 men and 4 women, aged 29 to 74 years. In 7 patients (58%) hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with clinical manifestations. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen were absent in all patients. Serum alphafetoprotein level was less than 100 mg/ml in 10 (83%), size of the tumor was greater than or less than 5 cm in 10 (83%) and capsule was present in 10 (83%). Resections included removal of 2 segments or more in 11 (91%). One patient died postoperatively. Actuarial survival rate at 3 and 5 years were respectively 57% and 38%. Intra or extrahepatic recurrence was recognized in 8 (67%), 2 patients were alive respectively 28 and 16 months after treatment of their intrahepatic recurrence (resection in one and intra-arterial embolisation in one). In conclusion, our results suggest that aggressive surgical efforts are justified in non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma arising in normal liver.

  5. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: Risk factors for survival

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Luciana; Menezes, Marcos; Chagas, Aline L; Tani, Claudia M; Alencar, Regiane SSM; Diniz, Marcio A; Alves, Venâncio AF; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Carrilho, Flair José

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify survival- and recurrence-related factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with early HCC by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (single nodule of ≤ 5 cm, or multi- (up to 3) nodules of ≤ 3 cm each) and who underwent RFA treatment with curative intent between January 2010 and August 2011 at the Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil were enrolled in the study. RFA of the liver tumors (with 1.0 cm ablative margin) was carried out under CT-fluoro scan and ultrasonic image guidance of the percutaneous ablation probes. Procedure-related complications were recorded. At 1-mo post-RFA and 3-mo intervals thereafter, CT and MRI were performed to assess outcomes of complete response (absence of enhancing tissue at the tumor site) or incomplete response (enhancing tissue remaining at the tumor site). Overall survival and disease-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log rank test or simple Cox regression. The effect of risk factors on survival was assessed by the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 38 RFA sessions were performed during the study period on 34 patients (age in years: mean, 63 and range, 49-84). The mean follow-up time was 22 mo (range, 1-33). The study population showed predominance of male sex (76%), less severe liver disease (Child-Pugh A, n = 26; Child-Pugh B, n = 8), and single tumor (65%). The maximum tumor diameters ranged from 10 to 50 mm (median, 26 mm). The initial (immediately post-procedure) rate of RFA-induced complete tumor necrosis was 90%. The probability of achieving complete response was significantly greater in patients with a single nodule (vs patients with multi-nodules, P = 0.04). Two patients experienced major complications, including acute pulmonary edema (resolved with intervention) and intestinal perforation

  6. Percutaneous ethanol injection or percutaneous acetic acid injection for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weis, Sebastian; Franke, Annegret; Berg, Thomas; Mössner, Joachim; Fleig, Wolfgang E; Schoppmeyer, Konrad

    2015-01-26

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common global cancer. When HCC is diagnosed early, interventions such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI), or radiofrequency (thermal) ablation (RF(T)A) may have curative potential and represent less invasive alternatives to surgery. To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of PEI or PAI in adults with early HCC defined according to the Milan criteria, that is, one cancer nodule up to 5 cm in diameter or up to three cancer nodules up to 3 cm in diameter compared with no intervention, sham intervention, each other, other percutaneous interventions, or surgery. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (July 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (1976 to July 2014), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to July 2014). We handsearched meeting abstracts of six oncological and hepatological societies and references of articles to July 2014. We contacted researchers in the field. We considered randomised clinical trials comparing PEI or PAI versus no intervention, sham intervention, each other, other percutaneous interventions, or surgery for the treatment of early HCC regardless of blinding, publication status, or language. We excluded studies comparing RFA or combination of different interventions as such interventions have been or will be addressed in other Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group systematic reviews. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted and analysed data. We calculated the hazard ratios (HR) for median overall survival and recurrence-free survival using the Cox regression model with Parmar's method. We reported type and number of adverse events descriptively. We assessed risk of bias by The Cochrane Collaboration domains to reduce systematic errors and risk of play of chance by trial sequential analysis to

  7. Fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yun Shin; Zimmitti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare primary liver cancer occurring in adolescents and young adults without chronic liver disease or known risk factors. Histologically, it is defined by lamellar bands of fibrosis surrounding well-differentiated tumor cells. Radiologic imaging typically demonstrates a large, solitary mass with calcifications and a central scar. Lymph node metastases in the porta hepatis are frequently diagnosed upon presentation. More patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma are candidates for surgical resection than those with conventional hepatocellular carcinoma, owing to their young age and absence of cirrhosis. The most important prognostic factor is surgical resection, which results in 5-year overall survival rates ranging between 50 and 76 %. Despite complete surgical resection, relapse rates are high, and novel therapies are needed to prevent and treat recurrent disease.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  9. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  10. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Fumio, E-mail: fnomura@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Noda, Kenta

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Ku86 in human liver cancer was shown by immunohistochemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 was significantly elevated in early hepatocellular carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-Ku86 may be more sensitive than the conventional markers for early detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serum anti-Ku86 significantly decreased after surgical resection of liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevation of serum anti-Ku86 in other non-liver solid tumors was minimal. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Imaging studies including ultrasound and computed tomography are recommended for early detectionmore » of HCC, but they are operator dependent, costly and involve radiation. Therefore, there is a need for simple and sensitive serum markers for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our recent proteomic studies, a number of proteins overexpressed in HCC tissues were identified. We thought if the serum autoantibodies to these overexpressed proteins were detectable in HCC patients. Of these proteins, we focused on Ku86, a nuclear protein involved in multiple biological processes and aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serum anti-Ku86 in the early detection of HCC. Serum samples were obtained prior to treatment from 58 consecutive patients with early or relatively early hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC and 137 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis without evidence of HCC. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure serum levels of autoantibodies. Serum levels of anti-Ku86 antibodies were significantly elevated in HCC patients compared to those in liver cirrhosis patients (0.41 {+-} 0.28 vs. 0.18 {+-} 0.08 Abs at 450 nm, P < 0001). Setting the cut-off level to give 90% specificity, anti-Ku86 was positive in 60

  11. The evolutionary scenario of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy: an update.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Garuti, Francesca; Lenzi, Barbara; Pecorelli, Anna; Farinati, Fabio; Giannini, Edoardo G; Granito, Alessandro; Ciccarese, Francesca; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Di Marco, Maria; Caturelli, Eugenio; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Sacco, Rodolfo; Cammà, Calogero; Virdone, Roberto; Marra, Fabio; Felder, Martina; Morisco, Filomena; Benvegnù, Luisa; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Missale, Gabriele; Masotto, Alberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Colecchia, Antonio; Bernardi, Mauro; Trevisani, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma is changing worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating the changing scenario of aetiology, presentation, management and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy during the last 15 years. Retrospective analysis of the ITA.LI.CA (Italian Liver Cancer) database including 5192 hepatocellular carcinoma patients managed in 24 centres from 2000 to 2014. Patients were divided into three groups according to the date of cancer diagnosis (2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). The main results were as follows: (i) progressive patient aging; (ii) progressive expansion of non-viral cases and, namely, of "metabolic" hepatocellular carcinomas; (iii) increasing proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed during a correct (semi-annual) surveillance programme; (iv) favourable cancer stage migration; (v) increased use of radiofrequency ablation to the detriment of percutaneous ethanol injection; (vi) improved outcomes of ablative and transarterial treatments; (vii) improved overall survival (adjusted for the lead time in surveyed patients), particularly after 2009, of both viral and non-viral patients presenting with an early- or intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. During the last 15 years several aetiological and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma patients have changed, as their management. The observed improvement of overall survival was owing both to the wider use of semi-annual surveillance, expanding the proportion of tumours that qualified for curative treatments, and to the improved outcome of loco-regional treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Check Early, Treat Hard

    PubMed Central

    Garlassi, Elisa; Cacopardo, Bruno; Cappellani, Alessandro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, Stefania; De Paoli, Paolo; Lleshi, Arben; Izzi, Immacolata; Torresin, Augusta; Di Gangi, Pietro; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Ferrari, Mariachiara; Bearz, Alessandra; Berretta, Salvatore; Nasti, Guglielmo; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Balestreri, Luca; Tirelli, Umberto; Ventura, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. The aims of this study were to describe HCC tumor characteristics and different therapeutic approaches, to evaluate patient survival time from HCC diagnosis, and to identify clinical prognostic predictors in patients with and without HIV infection. Patients and Methods. A multicenter observational retrospective comparison of 104 HIV-infected patients and 484 uninfected patients was performed in four Italian centers. HCC was staged according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) criteria. Results. Tumor characteristics of patients with and without HIV were significantly different for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) score ≤1, and etiology of chronic liver disease. Despite the similar potentially curative option rate and better BCLC stage at diagnosis, the median survival time was significantly shorter in HIV+ patients. HIV+ patients were less frequently retreated at relapse. Independent predictors of survival were: BCLC stage, potentially effective HCC therapy, tumor dimension ≤3 cm, HCC diagnosis under a screening program, HCC recurrence, and portal vein thrombosis. Restricting the analysis to HIV+ patients only, all positive prognostic factors were confirmed together with HAART exposure. Conclusion. This study confirms a significantly shorter survival time in HIV+ HCC patients. The less aggressive retreatment at recurrence approach does not balance the benefit of younger age and better BCLC stage and PS score of HIV+ patients. Thus, considering the prognosis of HIV+ HCC patients, effective screening techniques, programs, and specific management guidelines are urgently needed. PMID:21868692

  13. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  14. Applying NGS Data to Find Evolutionary Network Biomarkers from the Early and Late Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major liver tumor (~80%), besides hepatoblastomas, angiosarcomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we found that the two networks showed some common mechanisms and some significantly different mechanisms. To obtain differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two stages of liver cancer by systems biology method using NGS data from cancer cells and adjacent noncancer cells. Using carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 43 and 80 significant proteins and their PPINs (network markers) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, a primary pathway analysis showed that common pathways of the early and late stages were those related to ordinary cancer mechanisms. A pathway specific to the early stage was the mismatch repair pathway, while pathways specific to the late stage were the spliceosome pathway, lysine degradation pathway, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway. This study provides a new direction for cancer-targeted therapies at different stages. PMID:26366411

  15. Prospective study to determine early hypertrophy of the contra-lateral liver lobe after unilobar, Yttrium-90, selective internal radiation therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jin Yao; Allen, John Carson; Ng, David Chee Eng; Abdul Latiff, Julianah Bee; Choo, Su Pin; Tai, David Wai-Meng; Low, Albert Su Chong; Cheah, Foong Koon; Chang, Jason Pik Eu; Kam, Juinn Huar; Lee, Victor T W; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Chan, Chung Yip; Chow, Pierce Kah Hoe; Goh, Brian K P

    2018-05-01

    Liver resection is a major curative option in patients presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma. An inadequate functional liver remnant is a major limiting factor precluding liver resection. In recent years, hypertrophy of the functional liver remnant after selective internal radiation therapy hypertrophy has been observed, but the degree of hypertrophy in the early postselective internal radiation therapy period has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective study on patients undergoing unilobar, Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate early hypertrophy at 4-6 weeks and 8-12 weeks after selective internal radiation therapy. In the study, 24 eligible patients were recruited and had serial volumetric measurements performed. The median age was 66 years (38-75 years). All patients were either Child-Pugh Class A or B, and 6/24 patients had documented, clinically relevant portal hypertension; 15 of the 24 patients were hepatitis B positive. At 4-6 weeks, modest hypertrophy was seen (median 3%; range -12 to 42%) and this increased at 8-12 weeks (median 9%; range -12 to 179%). No preprocedural factors predictive of hypertrophy were identified. Hypertrophy of the functional liver remnant after selective internal radiation therapy with Yttrium-90 occurred in a subset of patients but was modest and unpredictable in the early stages. Selective internal radiation therapy cannot be recommended as a standard treatment modality to induce early hypertrophy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transarterial embolization of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chang; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung; Wu, Chun-Ying; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative treatment for extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 71-year-old patient had a stable liver condition following treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, but later developed symptomatic mediastinal metastasis. This rapidly growing mediastinal mass induced symptoms including cough and hoarseness. Serial sessions of transarterial embolization (TAE) successfully controlled this mediastinal mass with limited side effects. The patient’s survival time since the initial diagnosis of the mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma was 32 mo, significantly longer than the 12 mo mean survival period of patients with similar diagnoses: metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and a liver condition with a Child-Pugh class A score. Currently, oral sorafenib is the treatment of choice for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that locoregional treatment of extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas might also significantly improve the prognosis in patients with their primary hepatic lesions under control. Many effective locoregional therapies for extrahepatic metastasis, including radiation and surgical resection, may provide palliative effects for hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mediastinal metastasis. This case report demonstrates that TAE of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma provided this patient with tumor control and increased survival time. This finding is important as it can potentially provide an alternative treatment option for patients with similar symptoms and diagnoses. PMID:23801848

  17. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in a telangiectatic hepatocellular adenoma.

    PubMed

    González-Lara, María Fernanda; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Cosme-Labarthe, Juan; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego Luis

    2013-01-01

    Telangiectatic hepatocellular adenoma is a rare, recently recognized subtype of benign liver tumor that may very rarely undergo transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma. We report an unusual case of a 75-year-old woman with no history of oral contraceptive use that underwent malignant transformation of a telangiectactic hepatocellular adenoma. No risk factors for adenoma development were identified in this otherwise healthy woman. Radiological characteristics, gross features and histopathology are herein described. In conclusion, telangiectatic hepatocellular adenoma can undergo malignant transformation. Further studies are needed to better clarify the factors associated with malignant progression.

  19. A long non-coding RNA expression profile can predict early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yufeng; Wei, Wenhao; Huang, Zhong; Chen, Zhichao; Fang, Yuan; Pan, Lili; Han, Xueqiong; Xu, Zihai

    2018-06-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression signature to accurately predict early recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Using expression profiles downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified multiple lncRNAs with differential expression between early recurrence (ER) group and non-early recurrence (non-ER) group of HCC. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for logistic regression models were used to develop a lncRNA-based classifier for predicting ER in the training set. An independent test set was used to validated the predictive value of this classifier. Futhermore, a co-expression network based on these lncRNAs and its highly related genes was constructed and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses of genes in the network were performed. We identified 10 differentially expressed lncRNAs, including 3 that were upregulated and 7 that were downregulated in ER group. The lncRNA-based classifier was constructed based on 7 lncRNAs (AL035661.1, PART1, AC011632.1, AC109588.1, AL365361.1, LINC00861 and LINC02084), and its accuracy was 0.83 in training set, 0.87 in test set and 0.84 in total set. And ROC curve analysis showed the AUROC was 0.741 in training set, 0.824 in the test set and 0.765 in total set. A functional enrichment analysis suggested that the genes of which is highly related to 4 lncRNAs were involved in immune system. This 7-lncRNA expression profile can effectively predict the early recurrence after surgical resection for HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  1. Exome capture sequencing reveals new insights into hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma at the early stage of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Hexiang; Liu, Xingxiang; Zhao, Yingren

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is the third primary cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and formation of HCC remain obscure. In the present study, we performed exome sequencing using tumor and normal tissues from 3 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive BCLC stage A HCC patients. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to find candidate protein-altering somatic mutations. Eighty damaging mutations were validated and 59 genes were reported to be mutated in HBV-related HCCs for the first time here. Further analysis using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of 88 HBV-related HCC patients from the European Genome-phenome Archive database showed that mutations in 33 of the 59 genes were also detected in other samples. Variants of two newly found genes, ZNF717 and PARP4, were detected in more than 10% of the WGS samples. Several other genes, such as FLNA and CNTN2, are also noteworthy. Thus, the exome sequencing analysis of three BCLC stage A patients provides new insights into the molecular events governing the early steps of HBV-induced HCC tumorigenesis.

  2. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and alpha-fetoprotein predict prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, XinWei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in ∼15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n=70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n=109). This noninvasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Alpha-fetoprotein Predict Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Hayashi, Takehiro; Nio, Kouki; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Okada, Hikari; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Honda, Masao; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arii, Shigeki; Wang, Xin Wei; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often individually different even after surgery for early-stage tumors. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced recently to evaluate hepatic lesions with regard to vascularity and the activity of the organic anion transporter OATP1B3. Here, we report that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in combination with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) status reflects the stem/maturational status of HCC with distinct biology and prognostic information. Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was observed in approximately 15% of HCCs. This uptake correlated with low serum AFP levels, maintenance of hepatocyte function with the up-regulation of OATP1B3 and HNF4A expression, and good prognosis. By contrast, HCC showing reduced Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake with high serum AFP levels was associated with poor prognosis and the activation of the oncogene FOXM1. Knockdown of HNF4A in HCC cells showing Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake resulted in the increased expression of AFP and FOXM1 and the loss of OATP1B3 expression accompanied by morphological changes, enhanced tumorigenesis, and loss of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in vivo. HCC classification based on EOB-MRI and serum AFP levels predicted overall survival in a single-institution cohort (n = 70), and its prognostic utility was validated independently in a multi-institution cohort of early-stage HCCs (n = 109). Conclusion: This non-invasive classification system is molecularly based on the stem/maturation status of HCCs and can be incorporated into current staging practices to improve management algorithms, especially in the early stage of disease. PMID:24700365

  4. Radioembolization in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2018-05-02

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A 68-year-old man with a remote history of alcohol abuse presented with vague abdominal pain. A review of systems suggested the patient had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1 (restriction of strenuous physical activity). There were no physical examination findings of note. Laboratory studies disclosed Child-Pugh A liver status (no ascites; no encephalopathy; total bilirubin, 1 mg/dL; albumin, 3.5 g/dL; and international normalized rato, 1.2). The alpha-fetoprotein was mildly elevated (19.5 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast disclosed an infiltrative mass with extensive malignant right and left portal vein thrombosis ( Fig 1A ) with cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The infiltrative mass ( Fig 2A ) was biopsied, revealing hepatocellular carcinoma. No distant metastases were found on a bone scintigraphy or computerized tomography scan. Given these features, this patient was classified as Barcelona Clinic for Liver Cancer stage C. The patient was referred for management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Wook Youn; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop; Hwang, Tea Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-10-25

    Genetic alterations of TERT and CTNNB1 have been documented in hepatocellular carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations are the earliest genetic events in the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis related to cirrhosis. However, analyses of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples have not been performed in the Korean population, where hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is prevalent. In order to identify the role of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in the hepatocarcinogenesis and pathogenesis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed the sequence analyses in 140 hepatocellular nodules (including 107 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 8 pairs of matched primary and relapsed hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations were only observed in hepatocellular carcinomas but not in precursor lesions. Of 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 41 (39.0%) and 15 (14.6%) harbored TERT and CTNNB1 mutations, respectively. TERT promotermutations were significantly more frequent in hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C virus infection (5/6; 83.3%) compared to tumors of other etiologies (P = 0.001). In two cases, discordance in TERT promoter mutation status was observed between the primary and the corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The two patients with discordant cases had early relapses. In conclusion, we identified TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating its pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of TERT promoter mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma as indicated by the discordance in TERT promoter mutations between primary and corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Lou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers with limited therapeutic options. Pathogenesis of this disease involves tumor hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia inducible factors. In this review, we describe the current understanding of hypoxia signaling pathway and summarize the expression, function and target genes of hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma. We also highlight the recent progress in hypoxia-targeted therapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and discuss further the future efforts for the study of hypoxia and/or hypoxia inducible factors in this deadly disease. PMID:28493839

  7. Development of models to predict early post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma that also integrate the quality and characteristics of the liver graft: A national registry study in China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qi; Liu, Jimin; Zhuo, Jianyong; Zhuang, Runzhou; Huang, Haitao; He, Xiangxiang; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-27

    Donor characteristics and graft quality were recently reported to play an important role in the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. Our aim was to establish a prognostic model by using both donor and recipient variables. Data of 1,010 adult patients (training/validation: 2/1) undergoing primary liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma were extracted from the China Liver Transplant Registry database and analyzed retrospectively. A multivariate competing risk regression model was developed and used to generate a nomogram predicting the likelihood of post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Of 673 patients in the training cohort, 70 (10.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with a median recurrence time of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-25 months). Cold ischemia time was the only independent donor prognostic factor for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.234, P = .007). The optimal cutoff value was 12 hours when patients were grouped according to cold ischemia time at 2-hour intervals. Integrating cold ischemia time into the Milan criteria (liver transplantation candidate selection criteria) improved the accuracy for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in both training and validation sets (P < .05). A nomogram composed of cold ischemia time, tumor burden, differentiation, and α-fetoprotein level proved to be accurate and reliable in predicting the likelihood of 1-year hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. Additionally, donor anti-hepatitis B core antibody positivity, prolonged cold ischemia time, and anhepatic time were linked to the intrahepatic recurrence, whereas older donor age, prolonged donor warm ischemia time, cold ischemia time, and ABO incompatibility were relevant to the extrahepatic recurrence. The graft quality integrated models exhibited considerable predictive accuracy in early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk

  8. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  9. MicroRNA-34a expression is predictive of recurrence after radiofrequency ablation in early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xianping; Wu, Yaguang; Wang, Zhiyi; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shikang; Qin, Chengkun

    2015-05-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is mainly associated with tumor recurrence. So far, no tissue biomarker of recurrence has been confirmed in biopsy specimens. Previous studies have reported that aberrant expression of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) is involved in oncogenesis and progression of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of tissue miR-34a expression in patients with HCC treated with RFA. Patients with early-stage single-nodule HCC treated with RFA were included, and tissue expression of miR-34a were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Main clinical endpoints were overall and early recurrence. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot recurrence curves and univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to assess independent predictive factors for recurrence. Of 120 patients, recurrence occurred in 67 patients (55.8 %) with a median follow-up of 31 months. Forty-one patients (34.2 %) recurred within 2 years after RFA. The median miR-34a level was 0.87 (range 0.06-21.54). Low miR-34a level was associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.033) and higher serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (P = 0.004). When analyzed with a Cox regression model, the two independent predictive factors for overall recurrence were high serum AFP level (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; P = 0.039) and low miR-34a level (HR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.72; P = 0.011). The expression of miR-34a was also an independent predictive factor for early recurrence (HR = 1.49; 95 % CI = 1.15-1.79; P = 0.008). Taken together, this study suggests that the expression of miR-34a in HCC biopsy specimens has an independent predictive value of early recurrence after RFA.

  10. Role of surveillance in prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dipanjan

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy and one of the important public health problems in India. The surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an established approach to detect early cancers in patients with defined risks. However, there are still controversies and issues to be addressed regarding the optimal surveillance methods and interval. The current level of awareness among physicians in India about surveillance is low and the need and most cost effective surveillance strategy in developing country like ours is unclear. This article has tried to discuss these issues in their appropriate perspective. To address this complicated issue, a multicenter randomized prospective study however may be required.

  11. Extra-hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Batsis, J A; Halfdanarson, T R; Pitot, H

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a neoplasm with a uniformly poor prognosis. Risk factors for its development include chronic hepatitis B or C infection, haemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but individuals with any type of chronic liver disease are predisposed. The incidence is significantly higher in Asia and Africa although it has been noted to be increasing in the United States. We present a patient with notable atypical clinical features for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had neither predisposing risk factors nor a primary liver lesion causing obstructive jaundice. After multiple tissue specimens were obtained, the final pathological diagnosis was established. Hepatocellular carcinoma generally requires a surgical cure, but patients who are icteric often portend poorer prognoses. For those at high risk, screening may be indicated to identify early curative treatment.

  12. Aldo-Keto Reductases as Early Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Comparison Between Animal Models and Human HCC.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mena, Julia Esperanza; Salazar-Villegas, Karla Noemí; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ricardo; López-Gabiño, Belém; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Arellanes-Robledo, Jaime; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Gutiérrez-Nava, María Angélica; Pérez-Carreón, Julio Isael

    2018-04-01

    The intrinsic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a great challenge for its molecular classification and for detecting predictive biomarkers. Aldo-keto reductase (Akr) family members have shown differential expression in human HCC, while AKR1B10 overexpression is considered a biomarker; AKR7A3 expression is frequently reduced in HCC. To investigate the time-course expression of Akr members in the experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Using DNA-microarray data, we analyzed the time-course gene expression profile from nodules to tumors (4-17 months) of 17 Akr members induced by the resistant hepatocyte carcinogenesis model in the rat. The expression of six members (Akr1c19, Akr1b10, Akr7a3, Akr1b1, Akr1cl1, and Akr1b8) was increased, comparable to that of Ggt and Gstp1, two well-known liver cancer markers. In particular, Akr7a3 and Akr1b10 expression also showed a time-dependent increment at mRNA and protein levels in a second hepatocarcinogenesis model induced with diethylnitrosamine. We confirmed that aldo-keto reductases 7A3 and 1B10 were co-expressed in nine biopsies of human HCC, independently from the presence of glypican-3 and cytokeratin-19, two well-known HCC biomarkers. Because it has been suggested that expression of Akr members is regulated through NRF2 activity at the antioxidant response element (ARE) sequences, we searched and identified at least two ARE sites in Akr1b1, Akr1b10, and Akr7a3 from rat and human gene sequences. Moreover, we observed higher NRF2 nuclear translocation in tumors as compared with non-tumor tissues. Our results demonstrate that Akr7a3 mRNA and protein levels are consistently co-expressed along with Akr1b10, in both experimental liver carcinogenesis and some human HCC samples. These results highlight the presence of AKR7A3 and AKR1B10 from early stages of the experimental HCC and introduce them as a potential application for early diagnosis, staging, and prognosis in human cancer.

  13. Circulating CD14+ HLA-DR-/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells predicted early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-Hui; Tian, Lu; Wu, Jiong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yun-Fan; Hu, Bo; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Guo, Wei; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2017-09-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of MDSCs for early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients undergoing curative resection. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells were measured by flow cytometry. The correlation between MDSCs and tumor recurrence was analyzed using a cohort of 183 patients who underwent curative resection between February 2014 and July 2015. Prognostic significance was further assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests. In vivo, CD14 + HLA-DR -/low MDSCs inhibit T cell proliferation and secretion. The frequency of CD14 + HLA-DR -/low MDSCs was significantly higher in HCC patients (3.7 ± 5.3%, n = 183) than in chronic hepatitis patients (1.4 ± 0.6%, n = 25) and healthy controls (1.1 ± 0.5%, n = 50). High frequency of MDSCs was significantly correlated with recurrence (time to recurrence) (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.034). Patients with HCC in the high MDSC group were prone to more vascular invasion (P = 0.018) and high systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) (P = 0.009) than those in the low MDSC group. Scatter-plot analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between the SII level and the frequency of MDSCs (r = 0.188, P = 0.011). Patients with HCC with a high MDSC frequency and high SII level had significantly shorter time to recurrence (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.028) than those with a low MDSC frequency and low SII. An increased frequency of MDSCs was correlated with early recurrence and predicted the prognosis of patients with HCC undergoing curative resection. The HCC patients with high frequency of MDSCs should be provided more advanced management and frequent monitoring. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Validation of Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Using the guidelines for cancer biomarker validation suggested by Pepe et al. (23), we propose to perform a Phase 2 study of DCP for the detection of early stage HCC. In this proposal, we plan to perform a larger case-control study to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DCP and AFP alone and in combination in differentiating patients with all stages of HCC and more importantly those with early HCC from patients with cirrhosis. We plan to enroll consecutive patients with HCC seen at 7 centers in the United States. Controls are frequency matched to cases (all center combined) using the following criteria: age (±10 years), gender (+10%) and etiology of liver disease (viral vs non-viral (+5%). Within each participating institution, there will be an equal number (+20%) of cases and controls.

  15. Value of α-fetoprotein as an early biomarker for treatment response to sorafenib therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana Isabel Plano; Roces, Lucía Velasco; García, Isabel Zapico; López, Eva Lázaro; Hernandez, Miguel Angel Calleja; Parejo, Maria Isabel Baena; Peña-Díaz, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties, and is used as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have identified an improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with a manageable toxicity profile. α-fetoprotein (AFP) has been revealed to be of great diagnostic and predictive value for tumour staging in multiple studies; however, its role as a predictive factor of response to treatment with sorafenib is not entirely clear. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of sorafenib and investigate the value of AFP as a predictive factor of early response to sorafenib in patients with HCC. Effectiveness was analysed based on median overall survival (mOS) time, while to analyse the possible predictive value of AFP, patients were classified into two groups: Non-responders (≤20% AFP reduction) and responders (>20% AFP reduction) at 6-8 weeks of treatment when compared with basal AFP level. For assessment of toxicity, any adverse effects were recorded. A total of 167 patients were included, who collectively exhibited a mOS time of 11 months with a median treatment duration of 5 months. The mOS time was significantly higher for patients with better hepatic function (12 months in cases of Child-Pugh score A vs. 8 months in cases of Child-Pugh score B; P=0.03) and with basal AFP values ≤200 ng/ml (14 months vs. 8 months in patients with AFP levels >200 ng/ml; P=0.01). A >20% reduction of AFP at 6-8 weeks was determined to be a positive predictive factor upon multivariate analysis (P=0.002), obtaining, for the responder patients, an mOS of 18 months compared with 10 months (P=0.004) for the non-responders. The main adverse reactions were hand-foot syndrome (35/167; 21%), diarrhoea (39/167; 23.4%), anorexia (29/167; 17.4%) and arterial hypertension (30/167; 18%). In conclusion, a >20% drop in AFP at 6-8 weeks may be

  16. CpG Methylation Signature Predicts Recurrence in Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results From a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiliang; Peng, Baogang; Tang, Yunqiang; Qian, Yeben; Guo, Pi; Li, Mengfeng; Luo, Junhang; Chen, Bin; Tang, Hui; Lu, Canliang; Cai, Muyan; Ke, Zunfu; He, Wei; Zheng, Yun; Xie, Dan; Li, Binkui; Yuan, Yunfei

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (E-HCC) is being diagnosed increasingly, and in one half of diagnosed patients, recurrence will develop. Thus, it is urgent to identify recurrence-related markers. We investigated the effectiveness of CpG methylation in predicting recurrence for patients with E-HCCs. Patients and Methods In total, 576 patients with E-HCC from four independent centers were sorted by three phases. In the discovery phase, 66 tumor samples were analyzed using the Illumina Methylation 450k Beadchip. Two algorithms, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination, were used to select significant CpGs. In the training phase, penalized Cox regression was used to further narrow CpGs into 140 samples. In the validation phase, candidate CpGs were validated using an internal cohort (n = 141) and two external cohorts (n = 191 and n =104). Results After combining the 46 CpGs selected by the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation and the Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination algorithms, three CpGs corresponding to SCAN domain containing 3, Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like interacting protein 1, and peptidase inhibitor 3 were highlighted as candidate predictors in the training phase. On the basis of the three CpGs, a methylation signature for E-HCC (MSEH) was developed to classify patients into high- and low-risk recurrence groups in the training cohort ( P < .001). The performance of MSEH was validated in the internal cohort ( P < .001) and in the two external cohorts ( P < .001; P = .002). Furthermore, a nomogram comprising MSEH, tumor differentiation, cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, and antivirus therapy was generated to predict the 5-year recurrence-free survival in the training cohort, and it performed well in the three validation cohorts (concordance index: 0.725, 0.697, and 0.693, respectively). Conclusion MSEH, a three

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33–75 years) and four women (29–65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma

  18. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  19. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Molecular Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Alfa, Ghassan

    2007-01-01

    Advanced and metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are challenging to treat, and no cytotoxic agents have impacted survival. The underlying liver cirrhosis that commonly accompanies HCC provides an additional challenge; indeed, functional scoring of cirrhosis and HCC is a critical component of patient evaluation. Currently, the molecular biology and pathogenesis of HCC are being increasingly investigated, which may lead to better understanding of the evolution of the disease, especially differing etiologies and identification of survival genes that may affect outcome. Early studies of targeted therapies in HCC have shown disease stabilization, and an increased understanding of the mechanism(s) of these novel agents combined with correlative studies may lead to the identification of an active agent or combination of agents that impacts the natural history of HCC. PMID:17178294

  1. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  2. Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Valdes, Daniel; Taner, Timucin; Nagorney, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In select patients, surgical treatment in the form of either resection or transplantation offers a curative option. The aims of this review are to (1) review the current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases/European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines on the surgical management of HCC and (2) review the proposed changes to these guidelines and analyze the strength of evidence underlying these proposals. Three authors identified the most relevant publications in the literature on liver resection and transplantation for HCC and analyzed the strength of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. In the United States, the liver allocation system provides priority for liver transplantation to patients with HCC within the Milan criteria. Current evidence suggests that liver transplantation may also be indicated in certain patient groups beyond Milan criteria, such as pediatric patients with large tumor burden or adult patients who are successfully downstaged. Patients with no underlying liver disease may also benefit from liver transplantation if the HCC is unresectable. In patients with no or minimal (compensated) liver disease and solitary HCC ≥2 cm, liver resection is warranted. If liver transplantation is not available or contraindicated, liver resection can be offered to patients with multinodular HCC, provided that the underlying liver disease is not decompensated. Many patients may benefit from surgical strategies adapted to local resources and policies (hepatitis B prevalence, organ availability, etc). Although current low-quality evidence shows better overall survival with aggressive surgical strategies, this approach is limited to select patients. Larger and well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the benefits and limits of such approach. PMID:28975836

  3. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  5. Genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhao-Shan; Niu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Wen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances in therapeutic approaches for treating HCC have improved the prognoses of patients with HCC, this cancer is still associated with a poor survival rate mainly due to late diagnosis. Therefore, a diagnosis must be made sufficiently early to perform curative and effective treatments. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HCC because these mechanisms are critical for making early diagnoses and developing novel therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis. In particular, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revealed numerous genetic alterations, including recurrently mutated genes and dysregulated signaling pathways in HCC. A better understanding of the genetic alterations in HCC could contribute to identifying potential driver mutations and discovering novel therapeutic targets in the future. In this article, we summarize the current advances in research on the genetic alterations, including genomic instability, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, somatic mutations and deregulated signaling pathways, implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC. We also attempt to elucidate some of the genetic mechanisms that contribute to making early diagnoses of and developing molecularly targeted therapies for HCC. PMID:27895396

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced Liver MR Imaging versus Multidetector CT in the Detection of Dysplastic Nodules and Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Hur, Bo Yun; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kyung Boon; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of contrast material-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT) in the detection of borderline hepatocellular nodules in patients with liver cirrhosis and to determine the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) categories of these detected nodules. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the informed consent requirement. Sixty-eight patients with pathologically proven dysplastic nodules (DNs) (low-grade DNs, n = 20; high-grade DNs, n = 17), early hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (n = 42), or progressed HCCs (n = 33) underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and multidetector CT. An additional 57 patients without any DNs or HCCs in the explanted livers were included as control subjects. Three radiologists independently graded the presence of liver nodules on a five-point confidence scale and assigned LI-RADS categories by using imaging findings. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics (JAFROC) software was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of each modality in lesion detection. Results Reader-averaged figures of merit estimated with JAFROC software to detect hepatocellular nodules were 0.774 for multidetector CT and 0.842 for MR imaging (P = .002). Readers had significantly higher detection sensitivity for early HCCs with MR imaging than with multidetector CT (78.6% vs 52.4% [P = .001], 71.4% vs 50.0% [P = .011], and 73.8% vs 50.0% [P = .001], respectively). A high proportion of overall detected early HCCs at multidetector CT (59.4%) and MR imaging (72.3%) were categorized as LI-RADS category 4. Most early HCCs (76.2%) and high-grade DNs (82.4%) demonstrated hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images. In total, 30 more LI-RADS category 4 early HCCs were identified with MR imaging than with multidetector CT across all readers

  7. Diagnostic Approaches to Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Geske, Michael J; Bloomer, Michele M; Kersten, Robert C; Vagefi, M Reza

    Orbital metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is exceedingly rare and caries a grave prognosis. Three cases of metastatic orbital hepatocellular carcinoma in which the primary tumor was initially unknown and the diagnostic challenges encountered are presented. With hepatocellular carcinoma, open biopsy and palliative tumor debulking has an increased bleeding risk due to the highly vascular nature of the tumor and coagulopathy associated with chronic liver disease. As an alternative, fine needle aspiration biopsy should be considered for hepatocellular carcinoma with a readily accessible mass and the availability of an experienced cytopathologist.

  8. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De-Chen; Mayakonda, Anand; Dinh, Huy Q.; Huang, Pinbo; Lin, Lehang; Liu, Xiaoping; Ding, Ling-wen; Wang, Jie; Berman, Benjamin P.; Song, Er-Wei; Yin, Dong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intratumoral heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is instructive for developing personalized therapy and identifying molecular biomarkers. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing to 69 samples from 11 patients to resolve the genetic architecture of subclonal diversification. Spatial genomic diversity was found in all 11 HCC cases, with 29% of driver mutations being heterogeneous, including TERT, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and STAG2. Similar with other cancer types, TP53 mutations were always shared between all tumor regions i.e. located on the “trunk” of the evolutionary tree. In addition, we found that variants within several drug targets such as KIT, SYK and PIK3CA were mutated in a fully clonal manner, indicating their therapeutic potentials for HCC. Temporal dissection of mutational signatures suggested that mutagenic processes associated with exposure to aristolochic acid and aflatoxin might play a more important role in early, as opposed to late, stages of HCC development. Moreover, we observed extensive intratumoral epigenetic heterogeneity in HCC based on multiple independent analytical methods and showed that intratumoral methylation heterogeneity might play important roles in the biology of HCC cells. Our results also demonstrated prominent heterogeneity of intratumoral methylation even in a stable HCC genome. Together, these findings highlight widespread intratumoral heterogeneity at both the genomic and epigenomic levels in HCC and provide an important molecular foundation for better understanding the pathogenesis of this malignancy. PMID:28302680

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing health problem, representing the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The major risk factor for HCC is cirrhosis. In developing countries, viral hepatitis represent the major risk factor, whereas in developed countries, the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis contribute to the observed increase in HCC incidence. Cirrhotic patients are recommended to undergo HCC surveillance by abdominal ultrasounds at 6-mo intervals. The current diagnostic algorithms for HCC rely on typical radiological hallmarks in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, while the use of α-fetoprotein as an independent tool for HCC surveillance is not recommended by current guidelines due to its low sensitivity and specificity. Early diagnosis is crucial for curative treatments. Surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation and liver transplantation are considered the cornerstones of curative therapy, while for patients with more advanced HCC recommended options include sorafenib and trans-arterial chemo-embolization. A multidisciplinary team, consisting of hepatologists, surgeons, radiologists, oncologists and pathologists, is fundamental for a correct management. In this paper, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic management of HCC, with a focus on the most recent evidences and recommendations from guidelines. PMID:26576088

  10. [Localization of hepatocellular carcinoma with monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y

    1991-07-01

    We prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hepatocellular carcinoma using cell suspensions isolated from surgical fresh hepatoma specimens as antigen. Totally we got 6 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreting MAbs for more than 2 years. Immunocytochemically they stained positively most of the paraffin embedded hepatoma tissues (63.1 to 91.1%) without reaction to the normal liver tissues. Localization of human hepatoma with 125I or 131I labelled MAbs in nude mice was done by IV injection, which showed clear tumor image by ECT radioimmunodetection and autoradiography of tissues. The T/N ratios of different MAbs were 3.1, 3.6, 5.15 and that of HAb 18-F (ab')2 was 14.4. Among 15 patients suspected to have hepatoma and given the labelled MAb, 13 proved pathologically to be hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines.

  12. Rapid and early α-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin responses to initial arterial infusion chemotherapy predict treatment outcomes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, KENJI; KODA, MASAHIKO; SUGIHARA, TAKAAKI; KISHINA, MANABU; MIYOSHI, KENICHI; OKAMOTO, TOSHIAKI; HODOTSUKA, MASANORI; FUJISE, YUKI; MATONO, TOMOMITSU; TOKUNAGA, SHIHO; OKAMOTO, KINYA; HOSHO, KEIKO; OKANO, JUNICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict the effects of transarterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy based on early changes in α-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-four patients who underwent TAI with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C and epirubicin for advanced HCC were enrolled. Antitumor responses were evaluated 6 months after TAI. Rapid and early responses were defined as the ratio of AFP or DCP after 1 week and 1 month compared to baseline. A total of 5, 10, 17 and 42 patients had complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD), respectively. Early AFP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD groups (P<0.01). The early DCP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD. The sensitivity and specificity of rapid and early AFP responses in the CR+PR were 0.78 and 0.72, and 0.80 and 0.73, respectively, and those of rapid and early DCP responses were 0.67 and 0.65, and 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The combination of AFP and DCP responses had higher specificity compared to AFP or DCP alone responses. Patients were divided into responder and non-responder groups to evaluate the prediction of survival outcome. Early responders of AFP, DCP and AFP+DCP, who were divided based on the cut-off values of CR+PR survived significantly longer than the non-responders (P<0.05). In conclusion, rapid or early responses of AFP and/or DCP levels 1 and 4 weeks after TAI chemotherapy helped to predict the treatment effects. PMID:26137283

  13. HepPar1-Positive Circulating Microparticles Are Increased in Subjects with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Predict Early Recurrence after Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Valeria; Marcantoni, Margherita; Giuliante, Felice; Vecchio, Fabio M.; Gatto, Ilaria; Mele, Caterina; Saviano, Antonio; Arciuolo, Damiano; Gaetani, Eleonora; Ferrari, Maria C.; Giarretta, Igor; Ardito, Francesco; Riccardi, Laura; Nicoletti, Alberto; Ponziani, Francesca R.; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Pompili, Maurizio; Pola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are novel potential biomarkers in cancer patients. Their role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is under intensive investigation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MPs expressing the antigen HepPar1 are increased in the blood of subjects with HCC and may serve as markers of early recurrence after liver resection (LR). We studied 15 patients affected by HCC undergoing LR, and used flow cytometry to assess the number of circulating HepPar1+ MPs. Ten subjects without HCC (five with liver cirrhosis and five with healthy livers) were used as controls. After LR, HCC patients underwent a follow-up to check for early recurrence, which occurred in seven cases. The number of circulating HepPar1+ MPs was significantly higher in subjects affected by HCC, compared to individuals without cancer (p < 0.01). We also found that, among HCC patients, the number of circulating HepPar1+ MPs, measured before LR, was significantly higher in those who displayed early recurrence compared to those without recurrence (p = 0.02). Of note, other types of circulating MPs, such as those derived from endothelial cells (CD144+) or those produced by the activated endothelium (CD144+/CD62+), were not associated with HCC, nor could they predict HCC recurrence. HepPar1+ MPs deserve further investigation as novel biomarkers of disease and prognosis in HCC patients. PMID:28498353

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of liver resection versus transplantation for early hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng Choon; Wang, Vivian W; Siddiqui, Fahad J; Shi, Luming; Chan, Edwin S Y; Oh, Hong Choon; Tan, Say Beng; Chow, Pierce K H

    2015-01-01

    Both liver resection (LR) and cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) are potentially curative treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria and with adequate liver function. Adopting either as a first-line therapy carries major cost and resource implications. The objective of this study was to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of LR against CLT for patients with HCC within the Milan criteria using a decision analytic model. A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients aged 55 years with HCC within the Milan criteria and Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis, undergoing LR or CLT, and followed up over their remaining life expectancy. Analysis was performed in different geographical cost settings: the USA, Switzerland and Singapore. Transition probabilities were obtained from systematic literature reviews, supplemented by databases from Singapore and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (USA). Utility and cost data were obtained from open sources. LR produced 3.9 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) while CLT had an additional 1.4 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CLT versus LR ranged from $111,821/QALY in Singapore to $156,300/QALY in Switzerland, and was above thresholds for cost-effectiveness in all three countries. Sensitivity analysis revealed that CLT-related 5-year cumulative survival, one-time cost of CLT, and post-LR 5-year cumulative recurrence rates were the most sensitive parameters in all cost scenarios. ICERs were reduced below threshold when CLT-related 5-year cumulative survival exceeded 84.9% and 87.6% in Singapore and the USA, respectively. For Switzerland, the ICER remained above the cost-effectiveness threshold regardless of the variations. In patients with HCC within the Milan criteria and Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis, LR is more cost-effective than CLT across three different costing scenarios: the USA, Switzerland, Singapore. © 2014 by the American

  15. Diagnostic performance of tumor markers AFP and PIVKA-II in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujing; Jiang, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Yanhua; Ren, Siqian; Wang, Xiaowei; Yin, Peng; Lou, Jinli

    2017-06-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein is an effective biomarker as an aid in hepatocellular carcinoma detection in many countries. However, alpha-fetoprotein has its limitations, especially in early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II is another biomarker that is used for hepatocellular carcinoma detection. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II alone and in combination to explore improving biomarker performance as an aid in early hepatocellular carcinoma detection. In this study a total of 582 serum samples including 132 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 250 non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and 200 healthy volunteers were collected. Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels were measured by both chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay on LUMIPULSE platform and by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay on ARCHITECT platform. Receiver operation characteristic curve analyses were performed for each biomarker and in combination. The results showed that Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in combination have shown higher area under the curve compared to alpha-fetoprotein alone for diagnosis in whole patients (0.906 vs 0.870) in hepatocellular carcinoma early-stage patients (0.809 vs 0.77) and in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.851 vs 0.788) with ARCHITECT platform. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II showed higher area under the curve than alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.901 vs 0.788).We conclude that Combining alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II may improve the diagnostic value for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II performs better

  16. Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt complicated by the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Suddle, Abid; Quaglia, Alberto; Peddu, Praveen; Karani, John; Satyadas, Thomas; Heaton, Nigel

    2015-10-01

    Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, also known as Abernethy malformation, is a rare congenital malformation. It causes shunting of blood through a communication between the portal and systemic veins such as a patent ductus venous. We report 3 cases of Abernethy malformation complicated by the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, we comprehensively reviewed all previously reported cases and highlighted common features that may help in early diagnosis and appropriate management. Patients with Abernethy malformation may have an increased propensity to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. All 5 previously reported cases, plus the three of our patients, have a type 1 (complete) shunt suggesting a role for absent portal blood flow in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt should be sought for in cases with raised serum ammonia, hepatic encephalopathy or hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of cirrhosis.

  17. Androgen associated hepatocellular carcinoma with an aggressive course.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, D; Newbould, M J; Taylor, P; McMahon, R F; Leahy, B C; Warnes, T W

    1991-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinomas that develop in patients treated with androgens have previously been associated with a benign clinical outcome. We describe a man who developed a hepatocellular carcinoma after 24 years of androgen treatment, whose tumour initially showed partial regression after withdrawal of androgens but subsequently pursued an aggressive and fatal course. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1655591

  18. Metastases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Misdiagnosed as Isolated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Greco, Assunta; De Masi, Roberto; Orlando, Stefania; Metrangolo, Antonio; Zecca, Vittorio; Morciano, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Piccinni, Giancarlo

    At present, cardiac metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is rarely mentioned in the literature. We report a hepatocellular carcinoma patient with cardiac metastasis misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 2011. Two years later, on presentation of syncope, an abnormal ventricular septal size was recorded by ultrasound scan, and was subsequently shown by magnetic resonance imaging to be a tumour lesion. A myocardial biopsy confirmed infiltration of hepatocellular carcinoma. This observation underlines the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma cardiac metastasis, manifested in its infiltrative form as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, we suggest that the ultrasound appearance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients should be seen as a "red flag" and recommend the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging assessment of transplant candidates.

  19. Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinomas Not Feasible for Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation: Comparison of Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone and Combined Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: chosk@skku.edu; Shin, Sung Wook

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo report the results of combined therapy with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) considered infeasible for ultrasound (US)-guided RFA in comparison with those of TACE monotherapy.MethodsFrom January 2007 through December 2010, 91 patients with early or very early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA received either TACE alone (TACE group; n = 54) or TACE immediately followed by RFA (TACE–RFA group; n = 37) as a first-line treatment. 1-month tumor response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors.ResultsTACE–RFA group showed a bettermore » 1-month tumor response than TACE group (P < .001). The mean TTP was 29.7 ± 3.4 months (95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 23.0–36.5) in TACE group and 34.9 ± 2.8 months (95 % CIs 29.4–40.4) in TACE–RFA group. TACE–RFA group had a significantly longer TTP (P = .014). Cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates in the TACE and TACE–RFA groups were 91, 79, and 71 % and 100, 97, and 93 %, respectively (P = .008). Initial treatment of TACE was found to be the only significant risk factor for tumor progression and OS in multivariate analysis.ConclusionTACE–RFA combination therapy appears superior to TACE monotherapy in terms of 1-month tumor response, TTP, and OS when performed for early stage HCC infeasible for US-guided RFA.« less

  20. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Yun; Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection.

  1. Sera DNA Methylation of CDH1, DNMT3b and ESR1 Promoters as Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dou, Cheng-Yun; Fan, Yu-Chen; Cao, Chuang-Jie; Yang, Yang; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    DNA methylation mainly affects tumor suppressor genes in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, sera methylation of specific genes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify methylation frequencies of sera E-cadherin (CDH1), DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) promoter in HBV-related HCC and analyze the associated clinical significance. Methylation-specific PCR was used to determine the frequencies of DNA methylation for CDH1, DNMT3b and ESR1 genes in sera from 183 patients with HCC, 47 liver cirrhosis (LC), 126 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 50 normal controls (NCs). Significantly higher frequencies of methylation of CDH1, DNMT3b and ESR1 were found in HBV-related HCC compared with LC, CHB and NCs. Nodule numbers, tumor size and the presence of liver cirrhosis were significantly associated with gene methylation status in HBV-related HCC. Moreover, HBV may have a strong and enhanced effect on the concurrent methylation of CDH1, DNMT3b and ESR1 in HBV-related HCC. More importantly, combined methylation as a biomarker displayed significantly higher diagnostic value than AFP to discriminate HCC from CHB and LC. Aberrant sera DNA methylation of CDH1, DNMT3b and ESR1 gene promoters could be a biomarker in the early diagnosis of HBV-related HCC.

  2. High MRPS23 expression contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and indicates poor survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Meng; Wang, Jianlin; Huang, Qike; Zhao, Ge; Xia, Congcong; Shang, Runze; Zhang, Zhuochao; Bian, Zhenyuan; Yang, Xishegn; Tao, Kaishan

    2017-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most prevalent neoplasms and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 is encoded by a nuclear gene and participates in mitochondrial protein translation. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 overexpression has been found in many types of cancer. In this study, we explored mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 expression in primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumoral liver tissues using mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 messenger RNA and protein levels collected from public databases and clinical samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the relationship between mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 and various clinicopathological features. The results indicated that mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 was significantly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. High mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 expression was correlated with the tumor size and tumor-metastasis-node stage. Moreover, patients with high mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 expression levels presented poorer survival rates. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 was an independent prognostic factor for survival, especially at the early stage of hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 decreased the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we verified for the first time that mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 expression was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. High mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 levels can predict poor clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma, and this protein plays a key role in tumor proliferation. Therefore, mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 may be a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. SIRT3 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianchun; Wang, Nanzhu; Zhai, Hui; Wang, Rongpin; Wu, Jiahong; Pu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality worldwide. SIRT3 may function as either oncogene or tumor suppressor in a panel of cancers; however, the role of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we assayed the expression level of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. A loss-of-function approach was used to examine the effects of SIRT3 on biological activity, including cell proliferative activity and invasive potential. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of SIRT3 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were significantly downregulated compared with those in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, SIRT3 could decrease cell proliferation and inhibit cell migration/invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Taken together, these results elucidated the function of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma development and suggested that SIRT3 might function as tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway.

  4. Treatment options after sorafenib failure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dika, Imane El

    2017-01-01

    Second line therapy after failure of sorafenib continues to be under study. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is measured in months, with median overall survival reaching 10.7 months with sorafenib. Because of the modest net benefit sorafenib has contributed, and rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the world, continued efforts are ongoing to look for efficient upfront, second line, or combination therapies. Herein we review the most relevant to date published literature on treatment options beyond sorafenib, reported studies, ongoing investigational efforts, and possibilities for future studies in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:29151326

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Mono or multipolar?

    PubMed

    Cartier, Victoire; Boursier, Jérôme; Lebigot, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Thermo-ablation by radiofrequency is recognized as a curative treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, local recurrence may occur because of incomplete peripheral tumor destruction. Multipolar radiofrequency has been developed to increase the size of the maximal ablation zone. We aimed to compare the efficacy of monopolar and multipolar radiofrequency for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and determine factors predicting failure. A total of 171 consecutive patients with 214 hepatocellular carcinomas were retrospectively included. One hundred fifty-eight tumors were treated with an expandable monopolar electrode and 56 with a multipolar technique using several linear bipolar electrodes. Imaging studies at 6 weeks after treatment, then every 3 months, assessed local effectiveness. Radiofrequency failure was defined as persistent residual tumor after two sessions (primary radiofrequency failure) or local tumor recurrence during follow-up. This study received institutional review board approval (number 2014/77). Imaging showed complete tumor ablation in 207 of 214 lesions after the first session of radiofrequency. After a second session, only two cases of residual viable tumor were observed. During follow-up, there were 46 local tumor recurrences. Thus, radiofrequency failure occurred in 48/214 (22.4%) cases. By multivariate analysis, technique (P < 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.023) were independent predictors of radiofrequency failure. Failure rate was lower with the multipolar technique for tumors < 25 mm (P = 0.023) and for tumors between 25 and 45 mm (P = 0.082). There was no difference for tumors ≥ 45 mm (P = 0.552). Compared to monopolar radiofrequency, multipolar radiofrequency improves tumor ablation with a subsequent lower rate of local tumor recurrence. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. PGK1 Drives Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis by Enhancing Metabolic Process.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huijun; Tong, Guihui; Zhang, Yupei; Liang, Shu; Tang, Kairui; Yang, Qinhe

    2017-07-27

    During the proliferation and metastasis, the tumor cells prefer glycolysis (Warburg effect), but its exact mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an important enzyme in the pathway of metabolic glycolysis. We observed a significant overexpression of PGK1 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and a correlation between PGK1 expression and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Also, the depletion of PGK1 dramatically reduced cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, indicating an oncogenic role of PGK1 in liver cancer progression. Further experiments showed that PGK1 played an important role in MYC -induced metabolic reprogramming, which led to an enhanced Warburg effect. Our results revealed a new effect of PGK1, which can provide a new treatment strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, as PGK1 is used to indicate the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  7. Immunization With AFP + GM CSF Plasmid Prime and AFP Adenoviral Vector Boost in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hepatoma; Liver Cancer, Adult; Liver Cell Carcinoma; Liver Cell Carcinoma, Adult; Cancer of Liver; Cancer of the Liver; Cancer, Hepatocellular; Hepatic Cancer; Hepatic Neoplasms; Hepatocellular Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neoplasms, Hepatic; Neoplasms, Liver

  8. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunchae; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis. PMID:26770920

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Unusual Complication of Longstanding Wilson Disease.

    PubMed

    Gunjan, Deepak; Shalimar; Nadda, Neeti; Kedia, Saurabh; Nayak, Baibaswata; Paul, Shashi B; Gamanagatti, Shivanand Ramachandra; Acharya, Subrat K

    2017-06-01

    Wilson disease is caused by the accumulation of copper in the liver, brain or other organs, due to the mutation in ATP7B gene, which encodes protein that helps in excretion of copper in the bile canaliculus. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to cirrhosis with decompensation. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a known complication of cirrhosis, but a rare occurrence in Wilson disease. We present a case of neurological Wilson disease, who later developed decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Embolotherapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Alireza; Yang, Xiaoming; Goswami, Gaurav K

    2008-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks fifth in frequency of cancers worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising, primarily due to the number of patients who were infected by hepatitis in the 1960s and 1970s coupled with the rising migrant population from Asia, where hepatitis is widely prevalent. Up to 80% of the patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the option of resection or liver transplantation. The dual blood supply (arterial and portal) to the liver with predominantly arterial supply to the tumor has made embolotherapy a cornerstone in the management of inoperable HCC. The techniques have become refined not only due to the development of microcatheter angiographic capabilities, but also in the ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to these tumors. This article reviews the fundamental principles of bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in the management of HCC.

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as uterine metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Dae; Kim, Cheol Hong; Cho, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Yoon Ha; Choi, Ho Sun; Kim, Seok Mo

    2008-09-01

    Metastatic extragenital cancer that spreads to the uterus is rare. When it occurs, the extragenital primary disease is often in the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We report here on a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that metastasis to the uterus. The patient was admitted for evaluation of a pelvic mass. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was highly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis showed hepatic and uterine masses. The patient underwent surgical treatment. The histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical staining results of the uterine mass were characteristics of metastatic HCC. The endometrium and both ovaries were free of tumor. Up to now, there have been only two cases of uterine metastasis from HCC reported in the English literature. This case is the first documented instance of a metastatic uterine tumor from HCC that spared both ovaries.

  12. Serum MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek K.; Shaker, Olfat G.; El-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Senousy, Mahmoud A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs are deregulated in liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and are candidate biomarkers. This study investigated the potential of serum microRNAs; miR-19a, miR-296, miR-130a, miR-195, miR-192, miR-34a, and miR-146a as early diagnostic biomarkers for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC. As how these microRNAs change during liver fibrosis progression is not clear, we explored their serum levels during fibrosis progression in HCV-associated chronic liver disease (CLD) and if they could serve as non-invasive biomarkers for fibrosis progression to HCC. 112 Egyptian HCV-HCC patients, 125 non-malignant HCV-CLD patients, and 42 healthy controls were included. CLD patients were subdivided according to Metavir fibrosis-scoring. Serum microRNAs were measured by qRT-PCR custom array. Serum microRNAs were deregulated in HCC versus controls, and except miR-130a, they were differentially expressed between HCC and CLD or late fibrosis (F3-F4) subgroup. Serum microRNAs were not significantly different between individual fibrosis-stages or between F1-F2 (early/moderate fibrosis) and F3-F4. Only miR-19a was significantly downregulated from liver fibrosis (F1-F3) to cirrhosis (F4) to HCC. Individual microRNAs discriminated HCC from controls, and except miR-130a, they distinguished HCC from CLD or F3-F4 patients by receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed a panel of four microRNAs (miR-19a, miR-195, miR-192, and miR-146a) with high diagnostic accuracy for HCC (AUC = 0.946). The microRNA panel also discriminated HCC from controls (AUC = 0.949), CLD (AUC = 0.945), and F3-F4 (AUC = 0.955). Studied microRNAs were positively correlated in HCC group. miR-19a and miR-34a were correlated with portal vein thrombosis and HCC staging scores, respectively. In conclusion, studied microRNAs, but not miR-130a, could serve as potential early biomarkers for HCC in high-risk groups, with miR-19a as a biomarker for liver fibrosis

  13. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. [Care pathway of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in France: State of play in 2017].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Charlotte; Ganne-Carrié, Nathalie; Rousseau, Benoit; Gérolami, René; Barbare, Jean-Claude

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major public health problem with one of the highest overall mortality compared to other cancers. The median overall survival in France in a hospital population with hepatocellular carcinoma is 9.4 months. Several publications reported a positive impact of hepatocellular carcinoma screening on diagnosis at an early-stage, eligibility for curative treatment and overall survival. However, the identification of patients to be included in a hepatocellular carcinoma screening program and the application of screening recommendations are not optimal. Other studies suggest a potentially negative impact of delayed diagnosis or treatment initiation on the patient's prognosis. Finally, marked variations between French regions and departments have been described in terms of access to curative treatment and overall survival. In this review article, we propose a state of play of the hepatocellular carcinoma patient's care pathway in France with the aim of identifying potential breaking points with negative impact on prognosis and of developing proposals for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolving landscape of therapeutic drug development for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chong, Dawn Qingqing; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Choo, Su-Pin; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-11-01

    Currently, only one drug, sorafenib, is FDA approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), achieving modest objective response rates while still conferring an overall survival benefit. Unlike other solid tumors, no oncogenic addiction loops have been validated as clinically actionable targets in HCC. Outcomes of HCC could potentially be improved if critical molecular subclasses with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities can be identified, biomarkers that predict recurrence or progression early can be determined and key epigenetic, genetic or microenvironment drivers that determine best response to a specific targeting treatment can be uncovered. Our group and others have examined the molecular heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma. We have developed a panel of patient derived xenograft models to enable focused pre-clinical drug development of rationally designed therapies in specific molecular subgroups. We observed unique patterns, including synergies, of drug activity across our molecularly diverse HCC xenografts, pointing to specific therapeutic vulnerabilities for individual tumors. These efforts inform clinical trial designs and catalyze therapeutic development. It also argues for efficient strategic allocation of patients into appropriate enriched clinical trials. Here, we will discuss some of the recent important therapeutic studies in advanced HCC and also some of the potential strategies to optimize clinical therapeutic development moving forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infrequent widespread microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Itoh, F; Fukushima, H; Kaneto, H; Sasaki, S; Ohmura, T; Satoh, T; Karino, Y; Endo, T; Toyota, J; Imai, K

    2000-03-01

    Widespread or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) due to the defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. The incidence of MSI and underlying DNA MMR defects have been well characterized in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, but not in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address the issue, we analyzed 55 Japanese hepatocellular carcinomas using several indicators of DNA MMR defects, such as microsatellite analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation analysis of MMR genes, methylation of hMLH1 promoter, and frameshift mutations of mononucleotide repeat sequences within possible target genes. Mutation of beta2-microglobulin gene, which is presumably involved in MSI-positive tumor cell escape from immune surveillance was also examined. Some of these analyses were also carried out in 9 human liver cancer cell lines. None of the 3 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide markers sensitive for MSI, BAT26, BAT25, and BAT34C4 presented shortened unstable alleles in any of the carcinoma, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis tissues, or cell lines. LOH at MMR genes was infrequent (4.4 approximately 7.1%), and no mutations were detected. Neither hMLH1 hypermethylation nor frameshift mutation in the target genes was detected. No mutations were found in beta2-microglobulin. Widespread MSI due to the defective DNA MMR appears to play little if any part in Japanese hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin in Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Topic, Aleksandra; Ljujic, Mila; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Context Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant liver-derived, highly polymorphic, glycoprotein in plasma. Hereditary deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin in plasma (A1ATD) is a consequence of accumulation of polymers of A1AT mutants in endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and other A1AT-producing cells. One of the clinical manifestations of A1ATD is liver disease in childhood and cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in adulthood. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of liver failure in early childhood caused by A1ATD are well known, but the association with hepatocellular carcinoma is not clarified. The aim of this article is to review different aspects of association between A1AT variants and hepatocellular carcinoma, with emphasis on the epidemiology and molecular pathogenesis. The significance of A1AT as a biomarker in the diagnosis of HCC is also discussed. Evidence Acquisitions Search for relevant articles were performed through Pub Med, HighWire, and Science Direct using the keywords “alpha-1-antitrypsin”, “liver diseases”, “hepatocellular carcinoma”, “SERPINA1”. Articles published until 2011 were reviewed. Results Epidemiology studies revealed that severe A1ATD is a significant risk factor for cirrhosis and HCC unrelated to the presence of HBV or HCV infections. However, predisposition to HCC in moderate A1ATD is rare, and probably happens in combination with HBV and/or HCV infections or other unknown risk factors. It is assumed that accumulation of polymers of A1ATD variants in endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes leads to damage of hepatocytes by gain-of-function mechanism. Also, increased level of A1AT was recognized as diagnostic and prognostic marker of HCC. Conclusions Clarification of a carcinogenic role for A1ATD and identification of proinflammatory or some still unknown factors that lead to increased susceptibility to HCC associated with A1ATD may contribute to a better understanding of hepatic carcinogenesis and to the

  18. Utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma screening in Australians at risk of hepatitis B virus-related carcinoma and prescribed anti-viral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sheppard-Law, Suzanne; Zablotska-Manos, Iryna; Kermeen, Melissa; Holdaway, Susan; Lee, Alice; George, Jacob; Zekry, Amany; Maher, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    To investigate hepatocellular carcinoma screening utilisation and factors associated with utilisation among patients prescribed hepatitis B virus anti-viral therapy and at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased in Australia over the past three decades with chronic hepatitis B virus infection a major contributor. hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs aim to detect cancers early enabling curative treatment options, longer survival and longer times to recurrence. Multi-site cross-sectional survey. An online study questionnaire was administered to eligible participants attending three Sydney tertiary hospitals. Data were grouped into six mutually exclusive hepatocellular carcinoma risk factor categories as per American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. All analyses were undertaken in STATA. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between covariates and screening utilisation. Multivariate models described were assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit. Of the 177 participants, 137 (77.4%) self-reported that US had been performed in the last six months. Awareness that screening should be performed and knowing the correct frequency of US screening were independently associated with screening utilisation. Participants who knew that screening should be undertaken were three times more likely to have had pretreatment education or were prescribed hepatitis B virus anti-viral treatment for >4 years. Participants reporting a family history of hepatocellular carcinoma were less likely to know that screening should be undertaken every 6 months. While utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs was higher in this study than in previous reports, strategies to further improve surveillance remain necessary. Findings from this research form the basis for proposing strategies to improve utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma screening, inform hepatitis B virus

  19. Effect of smoking on survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kolly, Philippe; Knöpfli, Marina; Dufour, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity and physical activity have gained interest in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma. These factors play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies revealed the impact of tobacco consumption on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and its synergistic effects with viral etiologies (hepatitis B and C). The effects of smoking on survival in patients with a diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been investigated in a Western cohort where hepatitis C infection is a major risk factor. Using data from a prospective cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were followed at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, survival was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis in smokers and nonsmokers, and multivariate Cox regression was applied to control for confounding variables. Of 238 eligible hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 64 were smokers at the time of inclusion and 174 were nonsmokers. Smokers had a significant worse overall survival than nonsmokers (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.58, P=.003). Analysis of patients according to their underlying liver disease, revealed that smoking, and not nonsmoking, affected survival of hepatitis B virus and C virus-infected patients only. In this subgroup, smoking was an independent predictor for survival (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.23, P<.001) and remained independently predictive when adjusted for confounding variables. This study shows that smoking is an independent predictor of survival in hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relatively Long Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting With Carcinoid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Uchenna, Ijoma; Esther, Ofoegbu; Okechukwu, Okafor; Augustine, Onuh; Charity, Ajuyah

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is one of the commonest cancers in Nigeria. Some patients may manifest a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes. Carcinoid syndrome is an extremely rare presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 57-year old man presented with recurrent facial flushing and diarrhea, tricuspid regurgitation, and very high level of urinary hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA) as the first manifestation of a multicentric hepatic lesion which proved histologically to be hepatocellular carcinoma. The lesions also exhibited arterial hypervascularization on contrast enhanced computerized tomography. The patient is still alive after 6 years of symptoms. PMID:27956985

  1. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio (BTR) predicts intrahepatic distant recurrence and survival for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    The Child-Pugh classification system is the most widely used system for assessing hepatic functional reserve in HCC treatment. In the Child-Pugh classification system, serum albumin levels are used to accurately assess the status of protein metabolism and nutrition. To date, a lack of attention has been given to amino acid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether the branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio (BTR) as an indicator of amino acid metabolism can serve as both a prognostic factor for early HCC and a predictive factor for recurrence. We conducted a cohort study of 50 patients with stage I/II HCC enrolled between May 2002 and December 2010. It was investigated whether BTR can serve as both a prognostic factor and a predictive factor for HCC recurrence. Overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with high baseline BTR than in those with low BTR. Multivariate analysis showed that both BTR and serum albumin were prognostic factors, and that BTR was the best predictive factor for recurrence. BTR was a prognostic factor for early HCC and the most predictive factor for intrahepatic distant recurrence and contributing factors for survival.

  2. Transarterial chemoembolization for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma decrease local tumor control and overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Seror, Olivier; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Nault, Jean-Charles; Hervé Trillaud

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims To compare treatment failure and survival associated with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for early-stage HCC in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis patients. Methods 122 cirrhotic patients (RFA: 61; TACE: 61) were well matched according to cirrhosis severity; tumor size and serum alpha-fetoprotein. TACE was performed in case of inconspicuous nodule on US or nodule with “at risk location”. Treatment failure was defined as local tumor progression (LTP) and primary treatment failure (failing to obtain complete response after two treatment session). Treatment failure and overall survival (OS) were compared after coarsened exact matching. Cox proportional model to assess independent predictive factors was performed. Results No significant difference was seen for baseline characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was 3cm in both group with 41% HCC>3cm. Treatment failure rates after TACE was 42.6% (14 primary treatment failures and 12 LTP) and 9.8% after RFA (no primary treatment failure and 6 LTP) P < 0.001. TACE was the only predictive factor of treatment failure (Hazard ratio: 5.573). The 4-years OS after RFA and TACE were 54.1% and 31.5% (P = 0.042), respectively. Conclusion For Child-Pugh A patients with early-stage HCC, alternative treatment as supra-selective TACE to RFA regarded as too challenging using common US guidance decrease significantly the local tumor control and overall survival. Efforts to improve feasibility of RFA especially for inconspicuous target have to be made. PMID:27793027

  3. Atypical regulators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as potential therapeutic targets in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianxiang; Rajasekaran, Muthukumar; Hui, Kam M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, besides mutations in the canonical Wnt components, there must be additional atypical regulation or regulators during Wnt signaling activation that promote liver carcinogenesis. In this mini-review, we have tried to summarize some of these well-established factors and to highlight some recently identified novel factors in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. Impact statement Early recurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cause of poor survival after potentially curative liver resection. Among the deregulated signaling cascades in HCC, evidence indicates that alterations in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play key roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the potential molecular mechanisms how the microtubule-associated Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), a direct Wnt signaling target previously identified in our laboratory to be up-regulated in HCC, in promoting cancer proliferation, stemness, metastasis and tumorigenesis through a complex regulatory circuitry of Wnt3a activities.

  4. Hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arbuthnot, Patrick; Kew, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Individuals who are chronic carriers have a greater than 100-fold increased relative risk of developing the tumour. Several mechanisms of HBV-induced HCC have been proposed. Integration of HBV DNA into the genome of hepatocytes occurs commonly, although integration at cellular sites that are important for regulation of hepatocyte proliferation appears to be a rare event. Functions of the HBx protein are also potentially oncogenic. These include transcriptional activation of cellular growth regulatory genes, modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of nucleotide excision repair of damaged cellular DNA. The effects of HBx are mediated by interaction with cellular proteins and activation of cell signalling pathways. Variations in HBV genome sequences may be important in hepatocarcinogenesis, although their significance has not yet been completely elucidated. Necroinflammatory hepatic disease, which often accompanies chronic HBV infection, may contribute indirectly to hepatocyte transformation in a number of ways, including by facilitating HBV DNA integration, predisposing to the acquisition of cellular mutations and generating mutagenic oxygen reactive species. Although HCC is a malignancy with a poor prognosis, the availability of an effective vaccine against HBV infection, and its inclusion in the Expanded Programme of Immunization of many countries, augurs well for the eventual elimination of HBV-associated HCC. PMID:11454100

  5. Relation between sex hormones and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    El Mahdy Korah, T; Abd Elfatah Badr, E; Mohamed Emara, M; Ahmed Samy Kohla, M; Gamal Saad Michael, G

    2016-11-01

    Males have higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females. Sex hormones may be a risk factor. The aim was to determine the levels of sex hormones in male and female patients with HCC and cirrhosis versus controls and its possible relationship with HCC. This study was conducted on 90 subjects divided into 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 apparently healthy subjects complete blood picture, liver function tests. Determination of AFP levels and hormonal assay of oestrogen, progesterone, total testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH were performed on all subjects. Total testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the two patients groups compared with controls. While oestrogen levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group in comparison with other two groups, prolactin levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group compared with the liver cirrhosis group and increased in the liver cirrhosis group when compared to controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly increased in the HCC group when compared to controls. There is no significant correlation between sex hormones assay and both the size of HCC and degree of cirrhosis in both patient groups. It is concluded that there is no strong relation between sex hormones and HCC when the study was carried out on the levels of sex hormones in patients with HCC. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pollicino, Teresa; Saitta, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is a challenging pathobiological and clinical issue that has been widely debated for several decades. By definition, OBI is characterized by the persistence of HBV DNA in the liver tissue (and in some cases also in the serum) in the absence of circulating HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Many epidemiological and molecular studies have indicated that OBI is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. OBI may exert direct pro-oncogenic effects through the activation of the same oncogenic mechanisms that are activated in the course of an HBsAg-positive infection. Indeed, in OBI as in HBV-positive infection, HBV DNA can persist in the hepatocytes both integrated into the host genome as well as free episome, and may maintain the capacity to produce proteins-mainly X protein and truncated preS-S protein - provided with potential transforming properties. Furthermore, OBI may indirectly favor HCC development. It has been shown that the persistence of very low viral replicative activity during OBI may induce mild liver necro-inflammation continuing for life, and substantial clinical evidence indicates that OBI can accelerate the progression of liver disease towards cirrhosis that is considered the most important risk factor for HCC development. PMID:24876718

  7. Potentiality of immunotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options remain limited for advanced HCC, and as a result prognosis continues to be poor. Current therapeutic options, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have only modest efficacy. New treatment modalities to prolong survival and to minimize the risk of adverse response are desperately needed for patients with advanced HCC. Tumor immunotherapy is a promising, novel treatment strategy that may lead to improvements in both treatment-associated toxicity and outcome. The strategies have developed in part through genomic studies that have yielded candidate target molecules and in part through basic biology studies that have defined the pathways and cell types regulating immune response. Here, we summarize the various types of HCC immunotherapy and argue that the newfound field of HCC immunotherapy might provide critical advantages in the effort to improve prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. Already several immunotherapies, such as tumor-associated antigen therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and cell transfer immunotherapy, have demonstrated safety and feasibility in HCC patients. Unfortunately, immunotherapy currently has low efficacy in advanced stage HCC patients; overcoming this challenge will place immunotherapy at the forefront of HCC treatment, possibly in the near future. PMID:26420958

  8. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  9. Potentiality of immunotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-09-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options remain limited for advanced HCC, and as a result prognosis continues to be poor. Current therapeutic options, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have only modest efficacy. New treatment modalities to prolong survival and to minimize the risk of adverse response are desperately needed for patients with advanced HCC. Tumor immunotherapy is a promising, novel treatment strategy that may lead to improvements in both treatment-associated toxicity and outcome. The strategies have developed in part through genomic studies that have yielded candidate target molecules and in part through basic biology studies that have defined the pathways and cell types regulating immune response. Here, we summarize the various types of HCC immunotherapy and argue that the new-found field of HCC immunotherapy might provide critical advantages in the effort to improve prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. Already several immunotherapies, such as tumor-associated antigen therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and cell transfer immunotherapy, have demonstrated safety and feasibility in HCC patients. Unfortunately, immunotherapy currently has low efficacy in advanced stage HCC patients; overcoming this challenge will place immunotherapy at the forefront of HCC treatment, possibly in the near future.

  10. Updates in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Frenette, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and its increasing incidence worldwide is a cause for concern. Fortunately, advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have contributed to earlier detection and treatment. As cancer epidemiology studies continue to elucidate the natural history of liver diseases, greater understanding of HCC has led to improved risk stratification and earlier enrollment of high-risk patients in cancer screening and surveillance programs. Improved survival rates among HCC patients also reflect significant advances in available treatment options. Advances in surgical techniques are pushing the boundaries of resection for localized disease, and progress in the field of transplantation has led to refinements in listing criteria and improved post-transplantation outcomes. The evolving field of locoregional therapies—including percutaneous ablation and transarterial chemoembolization—continues to provide novel therapeutic options that can be used in place of, or in addition to, surgical approaches. Recent advances in systemic multikinase inhibitor therapies have also demonstrated significant benefits for advanced-stage disease, and these therapies also show promise as adjuvant treatments for earlier-stage disease. This article provides an update on the management of HCC, with a focus on revised guidelines for screening and an in-depth discussion of emerging novel therapies. PMID:21346848

  11. Slug promoted vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Sun, Baocun; Liu, Tieju; Zhao, Xiulan; Che, Na; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Yao, Zhi; Li, Rui; Li, Jing; Chi, Jiadong; Sun, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumour cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator slug have been implicated in the tumour invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between slug and VM formation is not clear. In the study, we demonstrated that slug expression was associated with EMT and cancer stem cell (CSCs) phenotype in HCC patients. Importantly, slug showed statistically correlation with VM formation. We consistently demonstrated that an overexpression of slug in HCC cells significantly increased CSCs subpopulation that was obvious by the increased clone forming efficiency in soft agar and by flowcytometry analysis. Meantime, the VM formation and VM mediator overexpression were also induced by slug induction. Finally, slug overexpression lead to the maintenance of CSCs phenotype and VM formation was demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that slug induced the increase and maintenance of CSCs subpopulation and contributed to VM formation eventually. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of HCC angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:23815612

  12. Recent advances in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy☆

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Rinku; Mahato, Ram I.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called malignant hepatoma, is one of the deadliest cancers due to its complexities, reoccurrence after surgical resection, metastasis and heterogeneity. Incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in Western countries and are expected to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Multiple factors trigger the initiation and progression of HCC including chronic alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C infection, metabolic disorders and age. Although Sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of HCC, numerous treatment modalities such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization/transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiotherapy, locoregional therapy and chemotherapy have been tested in the clinics. Polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles carrying small molecules, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids have attracted great attention for the treatment of various cancers including HCC. Herein, we discuss the pathogenesis of HCC in relation to its various recent treatment methodologies using nanodelivery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), small molecules, miRNAs and peptides. Synopsis of recent clinical trials of mAbs and peptide drugs has been presented with a broad overview of the pathogenesis of the disease and treatment efficacy. PMID:28174094

  13. Mycotoxins are conventional and novel risk biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yasunobu; Wakai, Toshifumi; Kubota, Masayuki; Osawa, Mami; Sanpei, Ayumi; Fujimaki, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant disease with poor prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome, early diagnosis of HCC arising from nonviral agents and hepatitis virus is important. Among several etiological factors, mycotoxins defined as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer might be one of the critical risk factors for nonviral HCC. Aflatoxin B1 is the most well-known carcinogenic mycotoxin for HCC, but the role of the other types of mycotoxin remains unclear. Several studies have reported that a chromatographic separation technique based on high-performance liquid chromatography can successfully detect the concentration of mycotoxins in plasma. In this article, we review recent studies of mycotoxin, and discuss its possible significance as a biomarker of HCC. PMID:23674865

  14. Vitamin D and K signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Louka, Manal L; Fawzy, Ahmed M; Naiem, Abdelrahman M; Elseknedy, Mustafa F; Abdelhalim, Ahmed E; Abdelghany, Mohamed A

    2017-09-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy, and is now the six most common in between malignancies. Early diagnosis of HCC with prompt treatment increases the opportunity of patients to survive. With the advances in understanding the molecular biology of HCC, new therapeutic strategies to treat HCC have emerged. There is a growing consensus that vitamins are important for the control of various cancers. Biochemical evidence clearly indicates that HCC cells are responsive to the inhibitory effect of vitamin D, vitamin D analogues and vitamin K. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms used by vitamin D and K to influence the development of HCC and the latest development of vitamin analogues for potential HCC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA markers in molecular diagnostics for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying-Hsiu; Lin, Selena Y; Song, Wei; Jain, Surbhi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, mainly due to the difficulty of early detection and limited therapeutic options. The implementation of HCC surveillance programs in well-defined, high-risk populations were only able to detect about 40–50% of HCC at curative stages (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages 0 & 1) due to the low sensitivities of the current screening methods. The advance of sequencing technologies has identified numerous modifications as potential candidate DNA markers for diagnosis/surveillance. Here we aim to provide an overview of the DNA alterations that result in activation of cancer pathways known to potentially drive HCC carcinogenesis and to summarize performance characteristics of each DNA marker in the periphery (blood or urine) for HCC screening. PMID:25098554

  16. Liver precancerous lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Massimo; Terracciano, Luigi; Di Tommaso, Luca; David, Ezio; Colombo, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    The current ability to increase the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) relies upon the surveillance of cirrhotic patients. Surveillance allows HCC precursors (dysplastic nodules) and malignant tumors to be recognized at an earlier stage making cure possible. Radiology plays a major role in HCC diagnosis because HCC is characterized by neoarterial vascularisation with a typical imaging pattern. Current international guidelines have restricted the use of the liver biopsy to the characterization of hepatocellular nodules which remain diagnostically equivocal after imaging. Thus pathologists are today facing very challenging and often well differentiated lesions, leading to difficulties in distinguishing high grade dysplasia and well differentiated HCC. In this scenario novel concepts obtained through international consensus have been proposed with emphasis on HCC of small size (up to 2 cm) which includes 2 distinct types, the early and progressed HCC. In this paper we will report the main histopathological criteria of a biopsy which allow the differentiation of HCC precursors (dysplastic nodules) from well differentiated HCC with attention to the role and weight of both classical histopathological criteria and novel immunocytochemical markers. The second part of the paper is devoted to the histopathology report of HCC on surgical specimens including explanted livers and on the differential diagnosis between HCC and liver metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Current status of liver diseases in Korea: hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Il Han; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2009-12-01

    Primary liver cancer, most of which is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the third common leading cancer in Korea. During the last two decades, the incidence rate of primary liver cancer has shown a modest decrease, but its mortality rate has slightly increased. The incidence of HCC, according to age, peaks in the late sixth decade in men and in the early seventh decade in women. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most important risk factor, which represents approximately 70% of all HCC, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcohol are the next in order of major risk factors for the development of HCC in Korea. HBV-associated HCC occurs 10 years earlier than HCV-associated HCC due to a more prolonged exposure to HBV, which is vertically transmitted almost from HBsAg-positive mother in HBV-endemic area. National Cancer Control Institute, which was reorganized in 2005, is now working for several national projects such as National Cancer Registration Program, National R&D Program for Cancer Control and National Cancer Screening Program. International collaboration for the clinico-epidemiologic research would be needed to provide the specific measures for managing HCC in diverse etiologic situations. Finally, the mechanisms of hepatitis virus-associated hepatocellular carcinogenesis might be clarified to provide insights into the advanced therapeutic and preventive approaches for HCC in Korea, where the majority of HCC originate from chronic HBV and HCV infections.

  18. Expanded Criteria for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet; Akdur, Aydıncan; Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Özçay, Figen; Selçuk, Haldun; Özdemir, Handan

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is the third highest cause of malignancy-related death. Because of its typically late diagnosis, median survival is approximately 6 to 20 months, with 5-year survival of < 12%. Hepatocellular carcinoma typically arises in the background of cirrhosis, with liver transplant regarded as the optimal therapy for selected patients. Initially, orthotopic liver transplant was limited to patients with extensive unresectable tumors, resulting in uniformly dismal outcomes due to high tumor recurrence rates. Here, we evaluated our long-term results with expanded-criteria liver transplant. From December 1988 to January 2017, we performed 552 liver transplants at Baskent University. In candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma, our expanded criteria for liver transplant is applied regardless of tumor size and number, includes those without major vascular invasion and without distant metastasis, and those with negative cytology (if the patient has ascites). Since 1994, of 61 liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma, 36 patients received transplants according to our expanded criteria. Of 36 expanded-criteria patients, 11 were children and 25 were adults. Sixteen patients (4 pediatric, 12 adult) were within our expanded criteria both radiologically and pathologically before transplant. The other 20 patients (7 pediatric, 13 adult) were within Milan criteria radiologically before transplant; however, after liver transplant, when pathologic specimens were evaluated, patients were found to be within our center's expanded criteria. During follow-up, 9/36 patients (25%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. In pediatric patients, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 90%; in adults, 5-year survival was 58.7% and 10-year survival was 49.7%. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 71.7% and 62.7%. Liver transplant is safe and effective in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in combination with

  19. Risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma--current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Xie, Li; Yang, Wan-Shui; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Shan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disorder worldwide which ranks 5th and 7th most common cancer among men and women. In recent years, different incidence trends have been observed in various regions, but the reasons are not completely understood. However, due to the great public efforts in HCC prevention and alternation of lifestyle, the roles of some well documented risk factors played in hepatocarcinogenesis might have changed. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma including well established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin and alcohol, as well as possible risk factors such as coffee drinking and other dietary agents.

  20. Angiogenic Blockade and Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa, E-mail: M006565@ms.skh.org.t; Institute of Radiation Science and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Liao, Chao-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: We report our preliminary experience of combining sunitinib and helical tomotherapy in patients with advanced HCC. Methods and Materials: Records of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with helical tomotherapy and sunitinib after radiation therapy (RT) from March 2007 to August 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. We report acute toxicities, radiologic response, serial {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) kinetics, and survival. Results: Of 23 evaluable patients, 60% had {>=}2 hepatic lesions, extrahepatic disease was present in 5 (21.7%), and all received 2 tablets (25 mg) of sunitinib at least 1 week before, during, and 2 weeks after RT. Thirteen patients continued maintenancemore » sunitinib after RT until disease progression. Hypofractionated RT with a median target dose of 52.5 Gy/15 fractions was delivered. An objective response was achieved in 74% of patients. The 1-year survival rate was 70%, with median survival of 16 months. Multivariate analysis showed that maintenance sunitinib was the most significant factor for survival. The time to progression was 10 months in the maintenance group compared with 4 months in the control group. Eighteen out of 21 patients with elevated AFP (85.7%) had {>=}50% decline of AFP within 2 months after RT. There were three episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and one episode of pancreatitis; 10 patients had {>=}Grade 2 elevation of liver enzymes, and 15 had {>=}Grade 2 thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that sunitinib and helical tomotherapy yield high Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and AFP response rates in advanced HCC with an acceptable safety profile. Maintenance sunitinib after RT potentially prolongs survival. A randomized trial is warranted.« less

  1. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Subrat K

    2014-08-01

    Indian data on epidemiology of HCC is not available. Cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. National cancer registry program of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been recently expanded to include 21 population based and 6 hospital based cancer registries. The last published registry data by ICMR available in the cancer registry website (www.ncrpindia.org) was in 2008 which provides information on various cancers from 2006 to 2008. The other source of information was the report published by International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO). According to these available data the age adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India for men ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 and for women 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year. The male:female ratio for HCC in India is 4:1. The age of presentation varies from 40 to 70 years. According to a study conducted by verbal autopsy in 1.1 million homes representing the whole country, the age standardized mortality rate for HCC in India for men is 6.8/100,000 and for women is 5.1/100,000. According to another study the incidence of HCC in cirrhotics in India is 1.6% per year. The unpublished data from various tertiary care centers suggest that the incidence of HCC is increasing in India. There is a need for a multi-centric HCC registry under the aegis of INASL.

  2. Hepatic Iron Overload and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly evident that excess body iron may be complicated by the supervention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) was the first condition in which hepatic iron overload was shown to predispose to the development of HCC. The inherited predisposition to excessive absorption of dietary iron in HH is almost always the result of homozygosity of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, which causes inappropriately low secretion of hepcidin. HCC develops in 8-10% of patients with HH and is responsible for approximately 45% of deaths in the HCC patients. Cirrhosis is almost always present when HCC is diagnosed. Dietary iron overload is a condition which occurs in rural-dwelling Black Africans in southern Africa as a result of the consumption, over time, of large volumes of alcohol home-brewed in iron containers and having, as a consequence, a high iron content. Iron loading of the liver results and may be complicated by malignant transformation of the liver (relative risk of approximately 10.0). Accompanying cirrhosis does occur but is less common than that in HH. The development of HCC as a consequence of increased dietary iron, and the fact that it may develop in the absence of cirrhosis, has been confirmed in an animal model. Drinking water with a high iron content might contribute to the high incidence of HCC in parts of Taiwan. The metabolic syndrome [obesity, insulin resistance type 2 (or diabetes mellitus type 2), non-alcoholic fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] has in recent years become a major public health problem in some resource-rich countries. A link between excess body iron and insulin resistance or the metabolic syndrome has become apparent. The metabolic syndrome may be complicated by the supervention of HCC, and recent evidence suggests that increased body iron may contribute to this complication. PMID:24804175

  3. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Persson, E. Christina; Graubard, Barry I.; Evans, Alison A.; London, W. Thomas; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Chen, Gang; Lin, Wenyao; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p’-DDT), an organochlorine pesticide known to have deleterious health effects in humans, has been linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rodents. A recent study has reported that p,p’-DDT and its most persistent metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE), may also be associated with HCC in humans. To examine whether there is an association between p,p’-DDT and/or p,p’-DDE in a population at high-risk of developing HCC. A nested case-control study was conducted within the 83,794 person Haimen City Cohort in China. Sera and questionnaire data were collected from all participants between 1992 and 1993. The current study included 473 persons who developed HCC and 492 who did not, frequency matched on sex, age and area of residence. p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE levels were determined by mass spectrometry. Hepatitis B viral infection status (based on hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HBsAg) was also determined. Adjusting for age, sex, area of residence, HBsAg, family history of HCC, history of acute hepatitis, smoking, alcohol, occupation (farmers) and levels of p,p’-DDT or p,p’-DDE, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated via unconditional logistic regression, p,p’-DDT and/or p,p’-DDE serum levels were significantly associated with sex, area of residence, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Overall, the highest quintile of p,p’-DDT was associated with an increased risk of HCC, OR= 2.96 95% CI; 1.19–7.40. There were no statistically significant associations with p,p’-DDE. Overall, these results suggest that recent exposure to p,p’-DDT may increase risk of HCC. PMID:22290210

  4. Genomic analysis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Hazard, Florette K; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Jahchan, Nadine; Chaib, Hassan; Garfin, Phillip M; Rangaswami, Arun; Snyder, Michael P; Sage, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric tumors are relatively infrequent, but are often associated with significant lethality and lifelong morbidity. A major goal of pediatric cancer research has been to identify key drivers of tumorigenesis to eventually develop targeted therapies to enhance cure rate and minimize acute and long-term toxic effects. Here, we used genomic approaches to identify biomarkers and candidate drivers for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC), a very rare subtype of pediatric liver cancer for which limited therapeutic options exist. In-depth genomic analyses of one tumor followed by immunohistochemistry validation on seven other tumors showed expression of neuroendocrine markers in FL-HCC. DNA and RNA sequencing data further showed that common cancer pathways are not visibly altered in FL-HCC but identified two novel structural variants, both resulting in fusion transcripts. The first, a 400 kb deletion, results in a DNAJB1-PRKCA fusion transcript, which leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in the index tumor case and other FL-HCC cases compared with normal liver. This PKA fusion protein is oncogenic in HCC cells. The second gene fusion event, a translocation between the CLPTM1L and GLIS3 genes, generates a transcript whose product also promotes cancer phenotypes in HCC cell lines. These experiments further highlight the tumorigenic role of gene fusions in the etiology of pediatric solid tumors and identify both candidate biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets for this lethal pediatric disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Spontaneous complete necrosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Makino, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Seiji; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Hosone, Masaru; Uchida, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in which spontaneous complete necrosis was confirmed with surgical resection. An 80-year-old man with HCC was referred to Nippon Medical School Tama Nagayama Hospital. The medical history included hypertension, managed with medication, and partial lobectomy of the lung owing to a lung schwannoma. A previously untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm, 51 mm in maximum diameter, was detected. The serum concentration of proteins induced by vitamin k antagonism or absence (PIVKA-2) was 14,300 mAU/mL, and that of alpha-fetoprotein was 184.2 ng/mL. Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens and hepatitis C virus were not detected in the serum. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a hypervascular tumor, 68 mm in diameter, in the left paramedian sector of the liver with washout of contrast medium in the delayed phase. An HCC in the left paramedian sector was diagnosed. Laparotomy was performed 40 days after CT scanning. Intraoperative ultrasonography showed that the HCC had shrunk to 30 mm in diameter. A left paramedian sectionectomy was performed. On macroscopic examination the surgical specimen was a firm mass, 30 mm in diameter, with a fibrous capsule. Histologic examination showed that the tumor in the cirrhotic liver had been completely replaced by central coagulative necrosis, circumferential fibrosis, and dense infiltrates of inflammatory cells. No viable HCC cells were observed in the coagulative necrosis. Organized thrombi in the hepatic artery were detected in the tumor. The tumor also contained multiple foci of old hemorrhage, ductular proliferation, and granulation tissue. The patient was discharged 10 days after the operation. After 1 month, the serum concentrations of PIVKA-2 (25 mAU/mL) and alpha-fetoprotein (5.9 ng/mL) had decreased to within their normal ranges.

  6. The overexpression of Rabl3 is associated with pathogenesis and clinicopathologic variables in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuhang; Liu, Zhiyong; Feng, Zhiying; Hui, Dayang; Huang, Xiangqi; Tong, Dayue; Jin, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Overexpression of Rabl3 is associated with some malignancies. However, their relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, the expression of Rabl3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and four pairs of matched hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their adjacent normal hepatic tissues were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. In addition, the protein expression of Rabl3 was examined in 162 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma by immunohistochemistry. Rabl3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines was elevated at both messenger RNA and protein levels, and the Rabl3 protein was significantly upregulated by upto 3.3-fold in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the paired normal hepatic tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that overexpressions of Rabl3 were 80.2% in hepatocellular carcinoma. Rabl3 is expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent normal hepatic tissue (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of Rabl3 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus of the portal vein, and advanced clinical stage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Rabl3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells could significantly enhance cell proliferation and growth ability. Conversely, silencing Rabl3 by small hairpin RNA interference caused an inhibition of cell proliferation and growth. Our studies suggest that the Rabl3 is a valuable marker of hepatocellular carcinoma progression and that the overexpression of Rabl3 plays an important role in the development and pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. SERUM LEPTIN LEVENS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: REVIEW ARTICLE.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Luiza Vitelo; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported. O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos

  8. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Fang; Lao, Yong-Cong; Yuan, Bao-Hong; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xin; Chen, Long; Zhong, Jian-Hong

    2017-05-16

    Portal vein tumor thrombus is a frequent, challenging complication in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein tumor thrombus may show worse liver function, less treatment tolerance and worse prognosis than patients without portal vein tumor thrombus, and they may be at higher risk of comorbidity related to portal hypertension. Western and some Asian guidelines stratify hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus together with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and therefore recommend only palliative treatment with sorafenib or other systemic agents. In recent years, more treatment options have become available for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein tumor thrombus, and an evidence-based approach to optimizing disease management and treatment has become more widespread. Nevertheless, consensus policies for managing hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus have not been established. This comprehensive literature review, drawing primarily on studies published after 2010, examines currently available management options for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein tumor thrombus.

  9. The application of proteomics in different aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma research.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaohua; Liang, Dong; Huang, Yao; Zeng, Yongyi; Han, Xiao; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-08-11

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, which is causing the second leading cancer-related death worldwide. With the significant advances of high-throughput protein analysis techniques, the proteomics offered an extremely useful and versatile analytical platform for biomedical researches. In recent years, different proteomic strategies have been widely applied in the various aspects of HCC studies, ranging from screening the early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to in-depth investigating the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this review, we would like to systematically summarize the current applications of proteomics in hepatocellular carcinoma study, and discuss the challenges of applying proteomics in study clinical samples, as well as discuss the possible application of proteomics in precision medicine. In this review, we have systematically summarized the current applications of proteomics in hepatocellular carcinoma study, ranging from screening biomarkers to in-depth investigating the underlying molecular mechanisms. In addition, we have discussed the challenges of applying proteomics in study clinical samples, as well as the possible applications of proteomics in precision medicine. We believe that this review would help readers to be better familiar with the recent progresses of clinical proteomics, especially in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiajie G; Farukhi, M Aabid; Mayeda, Donna; French, Samuel W

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, where tumor cells stain for both hepatocellular and neuroendocrine markers, is extremely rare. We report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a 14-cm rapidly growing mass in the right lobe of his liver with local extension into the gallbladder and portal vein. Serum AFP was 4625ng/mL. Liver biopsy showed a poorly differentiated neoplasm with cells showing nuclear pleomorphism, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells stain for AFP, glutamine synthase, arginase, and glypican-3. The same tumor regions also stain positively for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Given this histological pattern, this tumor was ultimately diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rottlerin upregulates DDX3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Shen, Gen-Hai; Xie, Jia-Ming; Li, Bin; Gao, Quan-Gen

    2018-01-01

    Rottlerin has been reported to exert its anti-tumor activity in various types of human cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we explored whether rottlerin exhibits its tumor suppressive function in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our MTT assay results showed that rottlerin inhibited cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Moreover, we found that rottlerin induced cell apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Furthermore, our wound healing assay result demonstrated that rottlerin retarded cell migration in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Additionally, rottlerin suppressed cell migration and invasion. Notably, we found that rottlerin upregulated DDX3 expression and subsequently downregulated Cyclin D1 expression and increased p21 level. Importantly, down-regulation of DDX3 abrogated the rottlerin-mediated tumor suppressive function, whereas overexpression of DDX3 promoted the anti-tumor activity of rottlerin. Our study suggests that rottlerin exhibits its anti-cancer activity partly due to upregulation of DDX3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preoperative assessment of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Zheng, Jian; Gönen, Mithat; Jarnagin, William R.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.1 Resection or liver transplantation may be curative in patients with early-stage HCC but early recurrence is common.2, 3 Microvascular invasion (MVI) is one of the most important predictors of early recurrence.3 The identification of MVI prior to surgery would optimally select patients for potentially curative resection or liver transplant. However, MVI can only be diagnosed by microscopic assessment of the resected tumor. The aim of the present study is to apply CT-based texture analysis to identify pre-operative imaging predictors of MVI in patients with HCC. Texture features are derived from CT and analyzed individually as well as in combination, to evaluate their ability to predict MVI. A two-stage classification is employed: HCC tumors are automatically categorized into uniform or heterogenous groups followed by classification into the presence or absence of MVI. We achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.76 and accuracy of 76.7% for uniform lesions and AUC of 0.79 and accuracy of 74.06% for heterogeneous tumors. These results suggest that MVI can be accurately and objectively predicted from preoperative CT scans.

  13. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gou, Qing; He, ShuJiao; Zhou, ZeJian

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common subtype of liver cancer. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 was shown to be upregulated in various cancers. However, the role of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma progression remains incompletely understood. We investigated the clinical and functional significance of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in a series of clinical hepatocellular carcinoma samples and a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We performed suppression analysis of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 using small interfering RNA to determine the biological roles of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition indicators was verified by western blotting in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines after small interfering RNA treatment. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 expression was found to be significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and clinical tissues. Moreover, downregulation of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by small interfering RNA could inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. These results indicate that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 may contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma progression and serves as a promising target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  14. A discussion of serum albumin level in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a medical oncologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, and it is particularly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia. With surgical and/or local interventional treatment methods, survival rates for early-stage hepatocellular cancers have increased. However, it is not yet clear which staging systems are more applicable in hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum albumin level is already being used as a criterion in most staging systems. Albumin is an important serum protein in human bodily functions, but only 5 % of the daily amount needed is synthesized by the liver. The serum albumin level is affected by multifactorial situations, including capillary permeability, drugs, liver insufficiency, inflammation and/or infections, dehydration or overhydration, protein loosing disorders, and decreased nutrition intake in anorexia-malnutrition syndrome and cancer cachexia. Because of this complex situation, serum albumin level may affect many staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma by leading to false-negative results. In this paper, the statuses of current staging systems are reviewed, and possible negative events regarding the serum albumin levels found in these staging systems are discussed.

  15. Silencing of karyopherin α2 inhibits cell growth and survival in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunfeng; Guo, Jian; Hao, Yuxia; Wang, Fuhua; Li, Fengxia; Shuang, Shaomin; Wang, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2), involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, has been reported to be upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and considered as a biomarker for poor prognosis. However, comprehensive studies of KPNA2 functions in hepatocellular carcinogenesis are still lacking. Our study examine the roles and related molecular mechanisms of KPNA2 in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Results show that KPNA2 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. KPNA2 knockdown also inhibited colony formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC-7721. Furthermore, gene expression microarray analysis in HepG2 cells with KPNA2 knockdown revealed that critical signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival were deregulated. In conclusion, this study provided systematic evidence that KPNA2 was an essential factor promoting hepatocellular carcinoma and unraveled potential molecular pathways and networks underlying KPNA2-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:28422734

  16. Silencing of karyopherin α2 inhibits cell growth and survival in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfeng; Guo, Jian; Hao, Yuxia; Wang, Fuhua; Li, Fengxia; Shuang, Shaomin; Wang, Junping

    2017-05-30

    Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2), involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, has been reported to be upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and considered as a biomarker for poor prognosis. However, comprehensive studies of KPNA2 functions in hepatocellular carcinogenesis are still lacking. Our study examine the roles and related molecular mechanisms of KPNA2 in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Results show that KPNA2 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. KPNA2 knockdown also inhibited colony formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC-7721. Furthermore, gene expression microarray analysis in HepG2 cells with KPNA2 knockdown revealed that critical signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival were deregulated. In conclusion, this study provided systematic evidence that KPNA2 was an essential factor promoting hepatocellular carcinoma and unraveled potential molecular pathways and networks underlying KPNA2-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

    PubMed Central

    Tejeda-Maldonado, Javier; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan; González-Aguirre, Adrián; Vilatobá-Chapa, Mario; Armengol-Alonso, Alejandra; Escobar-Penagos, Francisco; Torre, Aldo; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan Francisco; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego Luis

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies leading to high mortality rates in the general population; in cirrhotic patients, it is the primary cause of death. The diagnosis is usually delayed in spite of at-risk population screening recommendations, i.e., patients infected with hepatitis B or C virus. Hepatocarcinogenesis hinges on a great number of genetic and molecular abnormalities that lead to tumor angiogenesis and foster their dissemination potential. The diagnosis is mainly based on imaging studies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance, in which lesions present a characteristic classical pattern of early arterial enhancement followed by contrast medium “washout” in late venous phase. On occasion, when imaging studies are not conclusive, biopsy of the lesion must be performed to establish the diagnosis. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging method is the most frequently used worldwide and recommended by the international guidelines of HCC management. Currently available treatments include tumor resection, liver transplant, sorafenib and loco-regional therapies (alcoholization, radiofrequency ablation, chemoembolization). The prognosis of hepatocarcinoma is determined according to the lesion’s stage and in cirrhotic patients, on residual liver function. Curative treatments, such as liver transplant, are sought in patients diagnosed in early stages; patients in more advanced stages, were not greatly benefitted by chemotherapy in terms of survival until the advent of target molecules such as sorafenib. PMID:25848464

  18. Recent advances in multidisciplinary management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa I; Waked, Imam

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing, and it is currently the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Potentially curative treatment options for HCC include resection, transplantation, and percutaneous ablation, whereas palliative treatments include trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE), radioembolization, and systemic treatments. Due to the diversity of available treatment options and patients’ presentations, a multidisciplinary team should decide clinical management of HCC, according to tumor characteristics and stage of liver disease. Potentially curative treatments are suitable for very-early- and early-stage HCC. However, the vast majority of HCC patients are diagnosed in later stages, where the tumor characteristics or progress of liver disease prevent curative interventions. For patients with intermediate-stage HCC, TACE and radioembolization improve survival and are being evaluated in addition to potentially curative therapies or with systemic targeted therapy. There is currently no effective systemic chemotherapy, immunologic, or hormonal therapy for HCC, and sorafenib is the only approved molecular-targeted treatment for advanced HCC. Other targeted agents are under investigation; trials comparing new agents in combination with sorafenib are ongoing. Combinations of systemic targeted therapies with local treatments are being evaluated for further improvements in HCC patient outcomes. This article provides an updated and comprehensive overview of the current standards and trends in the treatment of HCC. PMID:25866604

  19. Chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia: a proposal for a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphological and molecular features

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura D; Heaphy, Christopher M; Daniel, Hubert Darius-J; Naini, Bita V; Lassman, Charles R; Arroyo, May R; Kamel, Ihab R; Cosgrove, David P; Boitnott, John K; Meeker, Alan K; Torbenson, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas exhibit heterogeneous morphologies by routine light microscopy. Although some morphologies represent insignificant variations in growth patterns, others may represent unrecognized subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of these subtypes could lead to separation of hepatocellular carcinomas into discrete groups with unique underlying genetic changes, prognosis, or therapeutic responses. In order to identify potential subtypes, two pathologists independently screened a cohort of 219 unselected hepatocellular carcinoma resection specimens and divided cases into potential subtypes. One of these promising candidate subtypes was further evaluated using histological and molecular techniques. This subtype was characterized by a unique and consistent set of histological features: smooth chromophobic cytoplasm, abrupt focal nuclear anaplasia (small clusters of tumor cells with marked nuclear anaplasia in a background of tumor cells with bland nuclear cytology), and scattered microscopic pseudocysts—we designate this variant as ‘chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia’. Thirteen cases were identified (6% of all hepatocellular carcinomas), including 6 men and 7 women with an average age of 61 years. Six cases occurred in cirrhotic livers. Serum AFP was elevated in 6 out of 10 cases. There were a variety of underlying liver diseases, but cases were enrichment for chronic hepatitis B, P = 0.006. Interestingly, at the molecular level, this variant was strongly associated with the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) phenotype by telomere FISH. ALT is a telomerase-independent mechanism of telomere maintenance and is found in approximately 8% of unselected hepatocellular carcinomas. In contrast, 11/12 (92%) of the cases of chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia were ALT-positive. In summary, we propose that chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia represents a new subtype of

  20. Chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia: a proposal for a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphological and molecular features.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Heaphy, Christopher M; Daniel, Hubert Darius-J; Naini, Bita V; Lassman, Charles R; Arroyo, May R; Kamel, Ihab R; Cosgrove, David P; Boitnott, John K; Meeker, Alan K; Torbenson, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas exhibit heterogeneous morphologies by routine light microscopy. Although some morphologies represent insignificant variations in growth patterns, others may represent unrecognized subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of these subtypes could lead to separation of hepatocellular carcinomas into discrete groups with unique underlying genetic changes, prognosis, or therapeutic responses. In order to identify potential subtypes, two pathologists independently screened a cohort of 219 unselected hepatocellular carcinoma resection specimens and divided cases into potential subtypes. One of these promising candidate subtypes was further evaluated using histological and molecular techniques. This subtype was characterized by a unique and consistent set of histological features: smooth chromophobic cytoplasm, abrupt focal nuclear anaplasia (small clusters of tumor cells with marked nuclear anaplasia in a background of tumor cells with bland nuclear cytology), and scattered microscopic pseudocysts--we designate this variant as 'chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia'. Thirteen cases were identified (6% of all hepatocellular carcinomas), including 6 men and 7 women with an average age of 61 years. Six cases occurred in cirrhotic livers. Serum AFP was elevated in 6 out of 10 cases. There were a variety of underlying liver diseases, but cases were enrichment for chronic hepatitis B, P=0.006. Interestingly, at the molecular level, this variant was strongly associated with the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) phenotype by telomere FISH. ALT is a telomerase-independent mechanism of telomere maintenance and is found in approximately 8% of unselected hepatocellular carcinomas. In contrast, 11/12 (92%) of the cases of chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia were ALT-positive. In summary, we propose that chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia represents a new subtype of

  1. A rare presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Kabbage, Lamia; El Kouhen, Meryem; Taghy, Ahmed; Znati, Kaoutar; Kabbaj, Nawal

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most frequent type of liver malignancy. Most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma are secondary to either viral hepatitis (hepatitis B, C) or alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis due to any other causes is considered as a risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, hepatocellular carcinoma in non cirrhotic livers remains a rare condition. The present case report describes a 59-year-old woman patient admitted to explore right hypochondriac and epigastric pain, with no evidence of pre-existing liver disease and with a good general condition. The computed tomography was very suggestive of a gastro-intestinal stromal tumor. But, at laparotomy, a huge hepatic tumor was discovered. Histopathological study confirmed the presence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs more frequently on a cirrhotic liver. However, it can occur on a non cirrhotic liver and remains and extremely rare case.

  2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Cirrhotic Liver: Evaluation Using Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common tumor in patients worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related death, after lung and stomach cancer. Cirrhosis of the liver is the strongest predisposing factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, with approximately 80% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma developing in a cirrhotic liver. The annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is 2.0% to 6.6% in patients with cirrhosis compared with 0.4% in patients without cirrhosis. The 5-year survival rates of patients undergoing curative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma, including liver transplant, hepatic resection, and percutaneous ablative techniques, range between 40% and 75%. Orthotropic liver transplant offers the prima facie cure for both hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. In hepatocellular carcinoma confined to the liver without macrovascular invasion, patients with a single tumor ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 tumors ≤ 3 cm each had a 5-year survival rate of 75% and a disease-free survival rate of 83%. In the adult population, liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma yields good results for patients whose tumor masses do not exceed the Milan criteria. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma using imaging tests has had a substantial impact on transplant decisions. Radiologists should be aware of this responsibility and exercise the utmost scrutiny before making a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Erroneous diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on imaging tests could deny deserving patients the opportunity of a life-saving liver transplant and result in unnecessary liver transplants for others. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and helical computed tomography are the best imaging techniques currently available for the noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. With technological advances in hardware and software, diffusion-weighted imaging can be readily applied to the liver with resulting improved image

  3. Overexpression of Cullin7 is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma progression and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    An, Jun; Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ruizhi; Hui, Dayang; Jin, Yi

    2017-12-06

    Overexpression of Cullin7 is associated with some types of malignancies. However, the part of Cullin7 in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Cullin7 in pathogenesis and the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, the expression of Cullin7 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and five surgical hepatocellular carcinoma specimens was detected with quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blotting. In addition, the protein expression of Cullin7 was examined in 162 cases of archived hepatocellular carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. We found elevated expression of both mRNA and protein levels of Cullin7 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and Cullin7 protein was significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with paired normal hepatic tissues. The immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that overexpression of Cullin7 occurred in 69.1% of hepatocellular carcinoma samples, which was a significantly higher rate than that in adjacent normal hepatic tissue (P < 0.01). Statistical analysis found that overexpression of Cullin7 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus of the portal vein and advanced clinical stage (P < 0.05). Furthermore, by overexpressing Cullin7 in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, we revealed that Cullin7 could significantly enhance cell proliferation, growth, migration and invasion. Conversely, knocking down Cullin7 expression with short hairpin RNAi in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells inhibited cell proliferation, growth, migration and invasion. Our studies provide evidence that overexpression of Cullin7 plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and may be a valuable marker for hepatocellular carcinoma management.

  4. A qRT-PCR and Gene Functional Enrichment Study Focused on Downregulation of miR-141-3p in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Clinicopathological Significance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Zhen; Ye, Zhi-Hua; Ma, Jie; He, Rong-Quan; Liang, Hai-Wei; Peng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Atlas. In addition, decreased miR-141-3p levels were detected in the multiple tumor nodes group ( P = .004), the metastasis group ( P < .001), and the advanced TNM stage group ( P = .01), compared to the single tumor nodes group, the nonmetastasis group, and the early TNM stage group. Two hundred eighty-two genes were identified from the overlap between the predicted targets and the natural language processing analysis. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses revealed several significant biological functions and pathways related to the pathogenesis of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Downregulation of miR-141-3p might be responsible for the carcinogenesis and aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. MiR-141-3p may act as an antitumor microRNA, which is essential for hepatocellular carcinoma progression through the regulation of various signaling pathways. Thus, interactions with miR-141-3p may provide a novel strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment in the future.

  5. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ran Xu; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2016-05-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant primary liver cancer in many countries and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. The incidence of HCC is higher in men and in those over 40 years old. In the Asia-Pacific region, chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are the main etiological agents; in particular, chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is still the major cause in all Asia-Pacific countries except for Japan. Over the past two decades, the incidence of HCC has remained stable in countries in the region except for Singapore and Hong Kong, where the incidence for both sexes is currently decreasing. Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) is an important cause of HCC in Japan, representing 70% of HCCs. Over the past several decades, the prevalence of CHC has been increasing in many Asia-Pacific countries, including Australia, New Zealand, and India. Despite advancements in treatment, HCC is still an important health problem because of the associated substantial mortality. An effective surveillance program could offer early diagnosis and hence better treatment options. Antiviral treatment for both CHB and CHC is effective in reducing the incidence of HCC.

  6. Impact factors on development of cirrhosis and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Holmes-McNary, M

    2001-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), on the rise in many countries, is of multifactorial etiology. Its etiological associations differ between populations at high and low risk. Africans and Chinese have the highest incidence of HCC, but other affected groups include African Americans, Japanese, and Native Americans. Chronic infections by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are major risk factors worldwide, although mechanisms through which the infections cause liver cancer are yet to be explained. Other documented risk factors have been postulated and include dietary exposure, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, oral infection, and oral contraceptive use. In addition, many naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals to which humans are exposed via accidental contamination of food or water are shown to induce liver cancer in experimental animals. Consequently, assessment of possible human liver cancer risk associated with such exposures is complex. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatments presently, although transplantation is not widely available due to donor shortage. Every effort should be directed toward the prevention of HCC, through the treatment and prevention of hepatitis and oral infections, prevention of chronic hepatitis progressing to cirrhosis, and prevention of the cirrhotic liver from developing HCC through chemopreventive modalities. However, at present, very few such studies exist.

  7. Recent studies on the developing human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gerber, M A

    1986-01-01

    From our knowledge of characteristic phenotypic changes of the preneoplastic lesions during the stepwise evolution of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental models, we are now beginning to define the structural, histochemical, biochemical, antigenic and molecular properties of early HCC and of the putative preneoplastic changes in human liver. Histological, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies suggest that adenomatous nodules of regenerating and hyperplastic hepatocytes are more likely to represent direct precursors of HCC than dysplastic hepatocytes. Histochemical and immunomorphological investigations show appreciable functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of human HCC as previously recognized in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Studies of altered expression of oncogenes in the regenerating liver and HCC are beginning to define the molecular mechanisms in cell growth and malignant transformation. Although integration of Hepadna viral DNA sequences frequently occurs during persistent infection in man and animals, the exact mechanism of viral oncogenesis remains to be elucidated. It is likely that the development of monoclonal antibodies to surface antigens on transformed hepatocytes will be useful for exploring lineage relationships between the cell populations involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Epidemiology and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chonprasertsuk, Soonthorn; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of malignant liver tumor in Thailand. The high incidence rate of HCC reflects from chronic HBV infection in this endemic area. Some patients are asymptomatic at presentation whereas many of them presented at advanced stage of HCC with limited treatment options and grave outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and management allocation for HCC is widely accepted and used in many international guidelines including Thailand. Curative treatment is expected in early stage of HCC while palliative treatment, combination treatment and best supportive care are offered to advanced stage of HCC. The most effective strategy to prevent the development of HCC is prevention of HBV vertical transmission and treatment HBV or HCV infection. The purpose of this article is to update information of HCC in Thailand including epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestation, and treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma in thalassaemia: an update of the Italian Registry.

    PubMed

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Garani, Maria Chiara; Forni, Gian Luca; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cassinerio, Elena; Fidone, Carmelo; Spadola, Vincenzo; Maggio, Aurelio; Restivo Pantalone, Gaetano; Piga, Antonio; Longo, Filomena; Gamberini, Maria Rita; Ricchi, Paolo; Costantini, Silvia; D'Ascola, Domenico; Cianciulli, Paolo; Lai, Maria Eliana; Carta, Maria Paola; Ciancio, Angela; Cavalli, Paola; Putti, Maria Caterina; Barella, Susanna; Amendola, Giovanni; Campisi, Saveria; Capra, Marcello; Caruso, Vincenzo; Colletta, Grazia; Volpato, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassaemia is increased by transfusion-transmitted infections and haemosiderosis. All Italian Thalassaemia Centres use an ad hoc form to report all diagnoses of HCC to the Italian Registry. Since our last report, in 2002, up to December 2012, 62 new cases were identified, 52% of whom were affected by thalassaemia major (TM) and 45% by thalassaemia intermedia (TI). Two had sickle-thalassaemia (ST). The incidence of the tumour is increasing, possibly because of the longer survival of patients and consequent longer exposure to the noxious effects of the hepatotropic viruses and iron. Three patients were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, 36 patients showed evidence of past infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Fifty-four patients had antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), 43 of whom were HCV RNA positive. Only 4 had no evidence of exposure either to HCV or HBV. The mean liver iron concentration was 8 mg/g dry weight. Therapy included chemoembolization, thermoablation with radiofrequency and surgical excision. Three patients underwent liver transplant, 21 received palliative therapy. As of December 2012, 41 patients had died. The average survival time from HCC detection to death was 11·5 months (1·4-107·2 months). Ultrasonography is recommended every 6 months to enable early diagnosis of HCC, which is crucial to decrease mortality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Liquid Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Circulating Tumor-Derived Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang-Qing; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Qu, Zhen; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to latent liver disease, late diagnosis, and nonresponse to systemic treatments. Till now, surgical and/or biopsy specimens are still generally used as a gold standard by the clinicians for clinical decision-making. However, apart from their invasive characteristics, tumor biopsy only mirrors a single spot of the tumor, failing to reflect current cancer dynamics and progression. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new diagnostic strategies with significant effectiveness and reliability to monitor high-risk populations and detect HCC at an early stage. In the past decade, the potent utilities of "liquid biopsy" have attracted intense concern and were developed to evaluate cancer progression in several clinical trials. "Liquid biopsies" represent a series of noninvasive tests that detect cancer byproducts easily accessible in peripheral blood, mainly including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) that are shed into the blood from the tumor sites. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the field of "liquid biopsy" as well as the diagnostic and prognostic significance of CTCs and cfNAs in HCC patients.

  11. Stem cell origins and animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Steer, Clifford J; Sahin, M Behnan; Cressman, Erik N K

    2010-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor that almost always occurs within a preexisting background of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Currently, medical therapy is not effective in treating most HCC, and the only hope of cure is either resection or liver transplantation. A small minority of patients is eligible for these therapies, which entail major morbidity at the very least. In spite of immense scientific advances during the past 3 decades, patient survival has improved very little. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality from HCC, improvements in early diagnosis and development of novel local and systemic therapies for advanced disease are essential, in addition to efforts geared towards primary prevention. Studies with experimental animal models that closely mimic human disease are very valuable in understanding physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. Furthermore, appropriate animal models have the potential to increase our understanding of the effects of image-guided minimally invasive therapies and thereby help to improve such therapies. In this review, we examine the evidence for stem cell origins of such tumors, critically evaluate existing models and reflect on how to develop new models for minimally invasive, image-guided treatment of HCC.

  12. Chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: The present and the future.

    PubMed

    Le Grazie, Marco; Biagini, Maria Rosa; Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Galli, Andrea

    2017-07-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Its relationship to chronic liver diseases, in particular cirrhosis, develops on a background of viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol intake or metabolic steatohepatitis, leads to a high incidence and prevalence of this neoplasia worldwide. Despite the spread of HCC, its treatment it's still a hard challenge, due to high rate of late diagnosis and to lack of therapeutic options for advanced disease. In fact radical surgery and liver transplantation, the most radical therapeutic approaches, are indicated only in case of early diagnosis. Even local therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization, find limited indications, leading to an important problem regarding treatment of advanced disease. In this situation, until terminal HCC occurs, systemic therapy is the only possible approach, with sorafenib as the only standard treatment available. Anyway, the efficacy of this drug is limited and many efforts are necessary to understand who could benefit more with this treatment. Therefore, other molecules for a targeted therapy were evaluated, but only regorafenib showed promising results. Beside molecular target therapy, also cytotoxic drugs, in particular oxaliplatin- and gemcitabine-based regimens, and immune-checkpoint inhibitors were tested with interesting results. The future of the treatment of this neoplasia is linked to our ability to understand its mechanisms of resistance and to find novel therapeutic targets, with the objective to purpose individualized approaches to patients affected by advanced HCC.

  13. Tissue- and Serum-Associated Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ranjit; Lahiri, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases. Biomarker expression in tissue, serum, plasma, or urine can detect tumor in very early stages of its development and monitor the cancer progression and also the effect of therapeutic interventions. Biomarker discoveries are driven by advanced techniques, such as proteomics, transcriptomics, whole genome sequencing, micro- and micro-RNA arrays, and translational clinics. In this review, an overview of the potential of tissue- and serum-associated HCC biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for drug development is presented. In addition, we highlight recently developed micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA biomarkers, and single-nucleotide changes, which may be used independently or as complementary biomarkers. These active investigations going on around the world aimed at conquering HCC might show a bright light in the near future. PMID:27398029

  14. Multidisciplinary perspective of hepatocellular carcinoma: A Pacific Northwest experience

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Matthew M; Yeung, Raymond S; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Bhattacharya, Renuka; Cuevas, Carlos; Harris, William P; Hon, Tony Lim Kiat; Padia, Siddharth A; Park, James O; Riggle, Kevin M; Daoud, Sayed S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most rapidly increasing type of cancer in the United States. HCC is a highly malignant cancer, accounting for at least 14000 deaths in the United States annually, and it ranks third as a cause of cancer mortality in men. One major difficulty is that most patients with HCC are diagnosed when the disease is already at an advanced stage, and the cancer cannot be surgically removed. Furthermore, because almost all patients have cirrhosis, neither chemotherapy nor major resections are well tolerated. Clearly there is need of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of HCC. For example, there is a need for better understanding of the fundamental etiologic mechanisms that are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, which could lead to the development of successful preventive and therapeutic modalities. It is also essential to define the cellular and molecular bases for malignant transformation of hepatocytes. Such knowledge would: (1) greatly facilitate the identification of patients at risk; (2) prompt efforts to decrease risk factors; and (3) improve surveillance and early diagnosis through diagnostic imaging modalities. Possible benefits extend also to the clinical management of this disease. Because there are many factors involved in pathogenesis of HCC, this paper reviews a multidisciplinary perspective of recent advances in basic and clinical understanding of HCC that include: molecular hepatocarcinogenesis, non-invasive diagnostics modalities, diagnostic pathology, surgical modality, transplantation, local therapy and oncological/target therapeutics. PMID:26085907

  15. Chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: The present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Le Grazie, Marco; Biagini, Maria Rosa; Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Its relationship to chronic liver diseases, in particular cirrhosis, develops on a background of viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol intake or metabolic steatohepatitis, leads to a high incidence and prevalence of this neoplasia worldwide. Despite the spread of HCC, its treatment it’s still a hard challenge, due to high rate of late diagnosis and to lack of therapeutic options for advanced disease. In fact radical surgery and liver transplantation, the most radical therapeutic approaches, are indicated only in case of early diagnosis. Even local therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization, find limited indications, leading to an important problem regarding treatment of advanced disease. In this situation, until terminal HCC occurs, systemic therapy is the only possible approach, with sorafenib as the only standard treatment available. Anyway, the efficacy of this drug is limited and many efforts are necessary to understand who could benefit more with this treatment. Therefore, other molecules for a targeted therapy were evaluated, but only regorafenib showed promising results. Beside molecular target therapy, also cytotoxic drugs, in particular oxaliplatin- and gemcitabine-based regimens, and immune-checkpoint inhibitors were tested with interesting results. The future of the treatment of this neoplasia is linked to our ability to understand its mechanisms of resistance and to find novel therapeutic targets, with the objective to purpose individualized approaches to patients affected by advanced HCC. PMID:28824742

  16. Value of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kai; Ma, Kuan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant disease that substantially affects public health worldwide. It is especially prevalent in east Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where the main etiology is the endemic status of chronic hepatitis B. Effective treatments with curative intent for early HCC include liver transplantation, liver resection (LR), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). RFA has become the most widely used local thermal ablation method in recent years because of its technical ease, safety, satisfactory local tumor control, and minimally invasive nature. This technique has also emerged as an important treatment strategy for HCC in recent years. RFA, liver transplantation, and hepatectomy can be complementary to one another in the treatment of HCC, and the outcome benefits have been demonstrated by numerous clinical studies. As a pretransplantation bridge therapy, RFA extends the average waiting time without increasing the risk of dropout or death. In contrast to LR, RFA causes almost no intra-abdominal adhesion, thus producing favorable conditions for subsequent liver transplantation. Many studies have demonstrated mutual interactions between RFA and hepatectomy, effectively expanding the operative indications for patients with HCC and enhancing the efficacy of these approaches. However, treated tumor tissue remains within the body after RFA, and residual tumors or satellite nodules can limit the effectiveness of this treatment. Therefore, future research should focus on this issue. PMID:24876721

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K

    2010-09-01

    Among locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been accepted as the most popular alternative to curative transplantation or resection, and it shows an excellent local tumor control rate and acceptable morbidity. The benefits of RFA have been universally validated by the practice guidelines of international societies of hepatology. The main advantages of RFA include 1) it is minimally invasive with acceptable morbidity, 2) it enables excellent local tumor control, 3) it has promising long-term survival, and 4) it is a multimodal approach. Based on these pros, RFA will play an important role in managing the patient with early HCC (smaller than 3 cm with fewer than four tumors). The main limitations of current RFA technology in hepatic ablation include 1) limitation of ablation volume, 2) technically infeasible in some tumors due to conspicuity and dangerous location, and 3) the heat-sink effect. Many technical approaches have been introduced to overcome those limitations, including a novel guiding modality, use of artificial fluid or air, and combined treatment strategies. RFA will continue to play a role as a representative ablative modality in the management of HCC, even in the era of targeted agents.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyo K.

    2010-01-01

    Among locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been accepted as the most popular alternative to curative transplantation or resection, and it shows an excellent local tumor control rate and acceptable morbidity. The benefits of RFA have been universally validated by the practice guidelines of international societies of hepatology. The main advantages of RFA include 1) it is minimally invasive with acceptable morbidity, 2) it enables excellent local tumor control, 3) it has promising long-term survival, and 4) it is a multimodal approach. Based on these pros, RFA will play an important role in managing the patient with early HCC (smaller than 3 cm with fewer than four tumors). The main limitations of current RFA technology in hepatic ablation include 1) limitation of ablation volume, 2) technically infeasible in some tumors due to conspicuity and dangerous location, and 3) the heat-sink effect. Many technical approaches have been introduced to overcome those limitations, including a novel guiding modality, use of artificial fluid or air, and combined treatment strategies. RFA will continue to play a role as a representative ablative modality in the management of HCC, even in the era of targeted agents. PMID:21103289

  19. Cerebrovascular Accidents Associated with Sorafenib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W.; Isufi, Iris; Peccerillo, Jennifer; Syrigos, Kostas N.

    2011-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral angiogenetic multikinase inhibitor approved in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma. Bleeding and venous thrombotic events have been described with angiogenetic agents but cerebrovascular accidents are rarely reported. We report two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed a cerebrovascular accident while on sorafenib. Neither patient had any risk factors for the cerebrovascular events apart from gender and age in the second patient. Laboratory data were noncontributory. The head CT scan did not reveal acute abnormalities. No hemodynamically significant stenosis was visible in the carotid ultrasound, and the echocardiogram showed normal size of the heart chambers and normal systolic function of the left ventricle. Sorafenib was discontinued in both cases. Physicians should monitor patients receiving sorafenib for neurologic symptoms, and in the absence of other etiology, prompt discontinuation of this drug should be considered. PMID:21687621

  20. Cerebrovascular accidents associated with sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saif, Muhammad W; Isufi, Iris; Peccerillo, Jennifer; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2011-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral angiogenetic multikinase inhibitor approved in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma. Bleeding and venous thrombotic events have been described with angiogenetic agents but cerebrovascular accidents are rarely reported. We report two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed a cerebrovascular accident while on sorafenib. Neither patient had any risk factors for the cerebrovascular events apart from gender and age in the second patient. Laboratory data were noncontributory. The head CT scan did not reveal acute abnormalities. No hemodynamically significant stenosis was visible in the carotid ultrasound, and the echocardiogram showed normal size of the heart chambers and normal systolic function of the left ventricle. Sorafenib was discontinued in both cases. Physicians should monitor patients receiving sorafenib for neurologic symptoms, and in the absence of other etiology, prompt discontinuation of this drug should be considered.

  1. Chlorogenic acid inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuan; Liu, Na; Hou, Ni; Dong, Lei; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Curative treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor. There is an urgent need to develop more effective strategies for the chemoprevention of HCC. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a type of polyphenol present in the diet, especially from coffee, has many biological activities. Patients with viral hepatitis who drank coffee everyday experienced a reduction in the incidence of HCC. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of CGA on HCC. CGA inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and the progression of HepG2 xenograft in vivo. CGA induced the inactivation of ERK1/2 and suppressed the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HepG2 xenograft tissue. These data demonstrate that CGA can prevent the progression of HCC through multiple pathways. CGA appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple sugar intake and hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological and mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Núria

    2014-12-22

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved.

  3. Molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma and impact of therapeutic advances

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Bandoh, Salome; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality and has an increasing incidence worldwide. HCC can be induced by multiple etiologies, is influenced by many risk factors, and has a complex pathogenesis. Furthermore, HCCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, which compounds the difficulties in developing effective therapies against this highly lethal cancer. With advances in cancer biology and molecular and genetic profiling, a number of different mechanisms involved in the development and progression of HCC have been identified. Despite the advances in this area, the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is still not completely understood. This review aims to elaborate our current understanding of the most relevant genetic alterations and molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of HCC, and anticipate the potential impact of future advances on therapeutic drug development. PMID:27239288

  4. CTP synthase forms the cytoophidium in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chun; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Peng, Min; Keppeke, Gerson Dierley; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2017-12-15

    CTP synthase (CTPS) can aggregate into an intracellular macrostructure, the cytoophidium, in various organisms including human cells. Previous studies have shown that assembly of human CTPS cytoophidia may be correlated with the cellular metabolic status, and is able to promote the activity of CTPS. A correlation between the cytoophidium and cancer metabolism has been proposed but not yet been revealed. In the current study we provide clear evidence of the presence of CTPS cytoophidia in various human cancers and some non-cancerous tissues. Moreover, among 203 tissue samples of hepatocellular carcinoma, 56 (28%) samples exhibited many cytoophidia, whereas no cytoophidia were detected in adjacent non-cancerous hepatocytes for all samples. Our findings suggest that the CTPS cytoophidium may participate in the adaptive metabolism of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. An efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on gene expression programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Jiasheng; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Chuanmiao; Xu, Kuihua

    2018-03-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The early diagnosis of HCC is greatly helpful to achieve long-term disease-free survival. However, HCC is usually difficult to be diagnosed at an early stage. The aim of this study was to create the prediction model to diagnose HCC based on gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is an evolutionary algorithm and a domain-independent problem-solving technique. Clinical data show that six serum biomarkers, including gamma-glutamyl transferase, C-reaction protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, carbohydrate antigen 153, and carbohydrate antigen 199, are related to HCC characteristics. In this study, the prediction of HCC was made based on these six biomarkers (195 HCC patients and 215 non-HCC controls) by setting up optimal joint models with GEP. The GEP model discriminated 353 out of 410 subjects, representing a determination coefficient of 86.28% (283/328) and 85.37% (70/82) for training and test sets, respectively. Compared to the results from the support vector machine, the artificial neural network, and the multilayer perceptron, GEP showed a better outcome. The results suggested that GEP modeling was a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, and it could be widely used in HCC auxiliary diagnosis. Graphical abstract The process to establish an efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Pain Palliation by Percutaneous Acetabular Osteoplasty for Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hokotate, Hirofumi; Baba, Yasutaka; Churei, Hisahiko

    2001-09-15

    A 68-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma and known skeletal metastasis developed right hip pain and gait disturbance due to an osteolytic metastasis in the right acetabulum. This was treated initially with chemoembolization and radiation therapy. When these procedures proved unsuccessful percutaneous injection of acrylic bone cement into the acetabulum was undertaken. Immediately after this procedure, he obtained sufficient pain relief and improved walking ability, which continued for 3 months until he died of hepatic insufficiency.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinicopathological profile and challenges of management in a resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Mshana, Stephen E; Rambau, Peter F; Masalu, Nestory; Chalya, Phillipo L; Kalluvya, Samuel E

    2014-08-02

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and its incidence is reported to be increasing in resource-limited countries. There is a paucity of published data regarding hepatocellular carcinoma in Tanzania, and the study area in particular. This study describes the clinicopathological profile of hepatocellular carcinoma in our local setting and highlights the challenging problems in the management of this disease. This was a retrospective study of histopathologically confirmed cases of hepatocellular carcinoma seen at Bugando Medical Center between March 2009 and February 2013. A total of 142 patients (M: F = 2.2: 1) were studied representing 4.6% of all malignancies. The median age of patients was 45 years. Hepatitis B virus infection (66.2%) and heavy alcohol consumption (60.6%) were the most frequently identified risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of patients (88.0%) presented late with advanced stages. HBsAg was positive in 66.2% of the patients and Hepatitis C Virus antibody in 16.9%. Thirteen (9.2%) patients tested positive for HIV infection. Most patients (52.8%) had both right and left lobe involvement. The trabecular pattern (47.9%) was the most frequent histopathological type. None of patients had curative therapy because of the advanced nature of the disease. Coagulopathy (45.7%) was the most common complications. The overall mortality rate was 46.5% and it was significantly associated with comorbidity, HIV positivity, CD4+ count <200 cells/μl, high histological grade, advanced stage of the tumor, presence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis, and associated complications (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospital stay was 14 days. The majority of patients (71.1%) were lost to follow-up at the end of the follow-up period. Hepatocellular carcinoma patients in this region are relatively young at diagnosis and the majority of them present late with an advanced stage and high rate

  8. Local ablative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ablative treatments currently represent the first-line option for the treatment of early stage unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, they are effective as bridging/downstaging therapies before orthotopic liver transplantation. Contraindications based on size, number, and location of nodules are quite variable in literature and strictly dependent on local expertise. Among ablative therapies, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained a pivotal role due to its efficacy, with a reported 5-year survival rate of 40%-70%, and safety. Although survival outcomes are similar to percutaneous ethanol injection, the lower local recurrence rate stands for a wider application of RFA in hepato-oncology. Moreover, RFA seems to be even more cost-effective than liver resection for very early HCC (single nodule ≤ 2 cm) and in the presence of two or three nodules ≤ 3 cm. There is increasing evidence that combining RFA to transarterial chemoembolization may increase the therapeutic benefit in larger HCCs without increasing the major complication rate, but more robust prospective data is still needed to validate these pivotal findings. Among other thermal treatments, microwave ablation (MWA) uses high frequency electromagnetic energy to induce tissue death via coagulation necrosis. In comparison to RFA, MWA has several theoretical advantages such as a broader zone of active heating, higher temperatures within the targeted area in a shorter treatment time and the lack of heat-sink effect. The safety concerns raised on the risks of this procedure, due to the broader and less predictable necrosis areas, have been recently overcome. However, whether MWA ability to generate a larger ablation zone will translate into a survival gain remains unknown. Other treatments, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, laser ablation, and cryoablation, are less investigated but showed promising results in early HCC patients and could be a valuable therapeutic option in

  9. Inhibitory effect of dimeric beta peptide on the recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-Mei; Zhu, Jun; Pan, Luan-Feng; Liu, Yin-Kun

    2008-05-21

    To block the adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix, and prevent tumor metastasis and recurrence, the dimer of the beta peptide (DLYYLMDLSYSMKGGDLYYLMDLSYSMK, beta2) was designed and synthesized and its anti-adhesion and anti-invasion effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells were assessed. Additionally, its influence on the metastasis and recurrence of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma was measured. The anti-adhesion effect of beta2 on the highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM6 cells and fibronectin (FN) was assayed by the MTT assay. The inhibition of invasion of HCCLM6 cells by beta2 was observed using a Transwell (modified Boyden chamber) and matrigel. Using the hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis model and LCI-D20 nude mice, the influence of beta2 on the metastasis and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after early resection was investigated. HCCLM6 cells co-incubated with 100 mumol/L, 50 micromol/L, 20 micromol/L or 10 micromol/L beta2 for 3 h showed an obvious decrease in adhesion to FN. The adhesion inhibition ratios were 11.8%, 21.7%, 29.6% and 48.7%, respectively. Additionally, HCCLM6 cells cultured with 100 mumol/L beta2 had a dramatic decrease in cell invasion. beta2 was also observed to inhibit the incisal edge recurrence and the distant metastasis of nude mice hepatocellular carcinoma after early resection (P < 0.05). The beta2 peptide can specifically block the adhesion and invasion of HCCLM6 cells, and can inhibit HCC recurrence and metastasis of LCI-D20 model posthepatectomy in vivo. Thus, beta2 should be further studied as a new anti-tumor drug.

  10. Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Adjacent to the Alimentary Tract;Proton beam therapy; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located adjacent to the alimentary tract. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven patients (median age, 69 years; range, 43-82 years) who had HCC located within 2 cm of the alimentary tract underwent proton beam therapy. Liver damage according to the Child-Pugh classification was Class A in 35 patients, Class B in 9, and Class C in 3. Treatment protocols of the early 16 patients and the late 31 patients were 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions and 77 GyE in 35 fractions, respectively. Results: During the median follow-upmore » period of 23 months, 24 patients died; the remaining 23 patients were alive until September 2008. The median overall survival was 33.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8-57.0 months). Actuarial overall and local progression-free survival rates at 3 years were 50.0% and 88.1%, respectively. Grade 2 and 3 alimentary tract hemorrhage was observed in 3 (6.4%) and 1 (2.1%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: Our proton beam therapy strategy for HCC located adjacent to the alimentary tract seems to be effective but should be performed with caution.« less

  11. Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-24

    PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

  12. Immune repertoire: A potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingxin; Li, Hongmei; Guan, Yanfang; Huang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The immune repertoire (IR) refers to the sum of B cells and T cells with functional diversity in the circulatory system of one individual at any given time. Immune cells, which reside within microenvironments and are responsible for protecting the human body, include T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These dedicated immune cells have a characteristic structure and function. T and B cells are the main lymphocytes and are responsible for cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. The T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) are composed of multiple peptide chains with antigen specificity. The amino acid composition and sequence order are more diverse in the complementarity-determining regions (including CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of each peptide chain, allowing a vast library of TCRs and BCRs. IR research is becoming increasingly focused on the study of CDR3 diversity. Deep profiling of CDR3s using high-throughput sequencing is a powerful approach for elucidating the composition and distribution of the CDR3s in a given sample, with in-depth information at the sequence level. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. To identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and drug targets for therapeutic interventions, several groups attempted to describe immune repertoire characteristics of the liver in the physiological environment or/and pathological conditions. This paper reviews the recent progress in IR research on human diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, attempting to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinogenesis and the IR, and discusses the possibility of IR as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: target population for surveillance and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Hallouch, Oussama; Chernyak, Victoria; Kamaya, Aya; Sirlin, Claude B

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection. Risk factors for HCC include cirrhosis, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), excess alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, family history of HCC, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Medical societies utilize risk estimates to define target patient populations in which imaging surveillance is recommended (risk above threshold) or in which the benefits of surveillance are uncertain (risk unknown or below threshold). All medical societies currently recommend screening and surveillance in patients with cirrhosis and subsets of patients with chronic HBV; some societies also include patients with stage 3 fibrosis due to HCV as well as additional groups. Thus, target population definitions vary between regions, reflecting cultural, demographic, economic, healthcare priority, and biological differences. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) defines different patient populations for surveillance and for diagnosis and staging. We also discuss general trends pertaining to geographic region, age, gender, ethnicity, impact of surveillance on survival, mortality, and future trends.

  14. Recent Advances in Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an accepted non-surgical treatment that provides excellent local tumor control and favorable survival benefit. This review summarizes the recent advances in tumor ablation for HCC. Diagnostic imaging and molecular biology of HCC has recently undergone marked improvements. Second-generation ultrasonography (US) contrast agents, new computed tomography (CT) techniques, and liver-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the early detection of smaller and inconspicuous HCC lesions. Various imaging-guidance tools that incorporate imaging-fusion between real-time US and CT/MRI, that are now common for percutaneous tumor ablation, have increased operator confidence in the accurate targeting of technically difficult tumors. In addition to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), various therapeutic modalities including microwave ablation, irreversible electroporation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation have attracted attention as alternative energy sources for effective locoregional treatment of HCC. In addition, combined treatment with RFA and chemoembolization or molecular agents may be able to overcome the limitation of advanced or large tumors. Finally, understanding of the biological mechanisms and advances in therapy associated with tumor ablation will be important for successful tumor control. All these advances in tumor ablation for HCC will result in significant improvement in the prognosis of HCC patients. In this review, we primarily focus on recent advances in molecular tumor biology, diagnosis, imaging-guidance tools, and therapeutic modalities, and refer to the current status and future perspectives for tumor ablation for HCC. PMID:26674766

  15. Circulating predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Hees, Stijn; Michielsen, Peter; Vanwolleghem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients have an almost 100-fold increased risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the fifth most common and third most deadly cancer worldwide. Up to 50% of newly diagnosed HCC cases are attributed to HBV infection. Early detection improves survival and can be achieved through regular screening. Six-monthly abdominal ultrasound, either alone or in combination with alpha-fetoprotein serum levels, has been widely endorsed for this purpose. Both techniques however yield limited diagnostic accuracy, which is not improved when they are combined. Alternative circulating or histological markers to predict or diagnose HCC are therefore urgently needed. Recent advances in systems biology technologies have enabled the identification of several new putative circulating biomarkers. Although results from studies assessing combinations of these biomarkers are promising, evidence for their clinical utility remains low. In addition, most of the studies conducted so far show limitations in design. Attention must be paid for instance to different ethnicities and different etiologies when studying biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma. This review provides an overview on the current understandings and recent progress in the field of diagnostic and predictive circulating biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronically infected HBV patients and discusses the future prospects. PMID:27729734

  16. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    PubMed

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Albillos, Agustín; Krag, Aleksander

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma via a reduction of the inflammatory load from the gut to the liver and inhibition of angiogenesis. Due to their effect on the portal pressure, non-selective beta-blockers are used for prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding. Recently, non-hemodynamic effects of beta-blockers have received increasing attention. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors in the intestinal mucosa and gut lymphatic tissue together with changes in type and virulence of the intestinal microbiota lead to reduced bacterial translocation and a subsequent decrease in the portal load of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This may reduce hepatic inflammation. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors also decrease angiogenesis by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factors. Because gut-derived inflammation and neo-angiogenesis are important in hepatic carcinogenesis, non-selective beta-blockers can potentially reduce the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rodent and in vitro studies support the hypothesis, but clinical verification is needed. Different study designs may be considered. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial is limited due to the necessary large number of patients and long follow-up. Observational studies carry a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic approach may be used if the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma can be extracted from trials on variceal bleeding and if the combined sample size and follow up is sufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Interventional radiological treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Doros, Attila

    2010-07-25

    During the last years, interventional radiological treatment of hepatocellular cancer has changed dramatically. The percutaneous ethanol infiltration is partly replaced by thermoablative methods, mainly by radiofrequency ablation. Cooled-tip electrodes and volumetric therapy planning increased the treatment success. Embolisation beads made vessel occlusion more precise and predictable, while the development of the drug eluting beads led to the most effective way of chemoembolisation. The so called radioembolisation with Yttrium 90 isotopes filled into glass microbeads is slowly gaining acceptance worldwide. Thermoablation and embolisation or chemoembolisation are the main tools for downstaging tumors, or avoiding disease progression in liver transplant recipients on the waiting list. All of these therapeutic options have their well established places in well known and worldwide accepted protocols, such as the algorithm of the Barcelona group (BCLC). In the near future, further results can be expected from the combination of available treatments, including sorafenib medication.

  18. Hook1 inhibits malignancy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Hu, Qida; Lou, Yu; Fu, Qi-Han; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Long-Yun; Wang, Yi; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Hu, Li-Qiang; Liang, Ting-Bo; Bai, Xue-Li

    2017-07-01

    Hook1 is a member of the hook family of coiled-coil proteins, which is recently found to be associated with malignant tumors. However, its biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma is yet unknown. Here, we evaluated the Hook1 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples and matched peritumoral tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Small interfering RNA knockdown and a transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition model were employed to investigate the biological effects of Hook1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results indicated that Hook1 levels were significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in the peritumoral tissues. In addition, Hook1 expression was significantly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy. Hook1 was downregulated after transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, Hook1 knockdown promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition and attenuated the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. In summary, our results indicate that downregulation of Hook1 plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hook1 may be used as a novel marker and therapeutic molecular target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Case-Control Study Examining the Association between Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Use and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Hsien-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors use and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. Methods: Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we conducted a case-control study to identify 4901 subjects aged 20 years and more with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in 2000-2013 as the cases. We randomly selected 19604 subjects aged 20 years and more without hepatocellular carcinoma as the controls. Both cases and controls were matched with sex and age. Ever use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was defined as a subject who had at least a prescription for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors before index date. Never use was defined as a subject who never had a prescription for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors before index date. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors use was estimated by the multivariable logistic regression model. Results: Among subjects with any one of the comorbid conditions associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, the adjusted OR of hepatocellular carcinoma was 0.89 (95% CI 0.75, 1.06) for subjects with ever use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, comparing with never use. Conclusion: The findings indicate that among subjects with any one of the comorbid conditions associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, no significant association can be detected between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors use and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma with ovarian metastasis - an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Silviu Horia; Matei, Emil; Stănescu, CodruŢ Silvian; Lupescu, Ioana Gabriela; Boroş, Mirela; Herlea, Vlad; Luca, Niculina Ioana; DorobanŢu, Bogdan Mihail

    2017-01-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) has been considered a distinct clinical entity vs. hepatocellular carcinoma, with respect to its epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis. We describe the unusual case of a 23-year-old female patient with FLC and ovarian (Krukenberg) and peritoneal metastases, clinically mimicking an ovarian carcinoma. Multiple recurrences occurred despite initial R0 resection and chemotherapy, requiring surgical treatment. The patient survived five years and died from generalized disease. The particularities of our case are discussed by comparison with the other two similar cases and other date from the literature. To our knowledge, the ovarian involvement encountered in our case is the third case published in literature, being explained by the superficial location of the liver tumor.

  1. Complete necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after preoperative portal vein embolization: a case report.

    PubMed

    El Bacha, H; Salihoun, M; Kabbaj, N; Benkabbou, A

    2017-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma has a poor prognosis; few patients can undergo surgical curative treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer guidelines. Progress in surgical techniques has led to operations for more patients outside these guidelines. Our case shows a patient with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma presenting a good outcome after curative treatment. We report the case of an 80-year-old Moroccan man, who was positive for hepatitis c virus, presenting an intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (three lesions between 20 and 60 mm). He presented a complete tumor necrosis after portal vein embolization and achieved 24-month disease-free survival after surgery. Perioperative care in liver surgery and multidisciplinary discussion can help to extend indications for liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma outside European Association for the Study of the Liver/American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommendations and offer a curative approach to selected patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Genomic structures of dysplastic nodule and concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Kyung; Kim, Shinn Young; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Yoon, Jonghwan; Kim, Min Sung; Park, Hyeon-Chun; Jung, Eun Sun; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2018-06-24

    Although high-grade dysplastic nodule (HGDN) is a preneoplastic lesion that precedes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the genomic structures of HGDN in conjunction with HCC remain elusive. The objective of this study was to identify genomic alterations of HGDN and its difference from HCC that may drive HGDN progression to HCC. We analyzed 16 regions of paired HGDN and HCC from 6 patients using whole-exome sequencing to find somatic mutation and copy number alteration (CNA) profiles of HGDN and HCC. The number of mutations, driver mutations, and CNAs of HGDNs were not significantly different from those of HCCs. We identified that the CNA gain of 1q25.3-1q42.13 was predominant in the HCCs compared to that in the HGDNs. Two cases (one nodule-in-nodule case and another case with closely attached HCC and HGDN) showed several overlapped driver mutations (CTNNB1 and CEBPA) and CNAs (losses of CDKN2A, RB1 and TP53) between HGDNs and HCCs, suggesting their roles in the early HCC development. The other 4 cases with spatially separated HCCs and HGDNs showed few overlapped alterations between the paired HCCs and HGDNs. Mutations in ERBB2 and CCND1, and CNAs (gains of CTNNB1, MET and SMO and losses of PTEN, TP53 and SETD2) were identified as 'HCC-predominant', suggesting their roles in the progression of HGDN to HCC. Our data show that HCCs are direct descendants of HGDNs in some cases, but there is no direct evidence of such relationship in spatially separated cases. Genomic features of HGDN identified in this study provide a useful resource for dissecting clues for the genetic diagnosis of HGDN and HCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Local Arterial Therapies in the Management of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mouli, Samdeep K; Goff, Laura W

    2017-10-27

    Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present with intermediate to advanced disease, where curative therapies are no longer an option. These patients with intermediate to advanced disease represent a heterogeneous population with regard to tumor burden, liver function, and performance status. While the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system offers guidelines for the management of these patients, strict adherence to these guidelines may limit treatment options for these patients. Several locoregional therapies exist for these patients, including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting embolization (DEE), and radioembolization. Evidence is also emerging for the role of radiation therapy including most notably stereotactic body radiation therapy and proton therapy, although at the current time, clinical trial participation is encouraged. While cTACE is traditionally recommended for BCLC B disease, both cTACE and radioembolization are increasingly used for patients with intermediate disease, as well as in select patients with BCLC A and C disease. TAE and DEE are limited in their use currently, due to lack of clear survival benefits or clinical advantages over cTACE. While several studies have demonstrated similar OS between cTACE and radioembolization, radioembolization provides a longer time to progression and fewer toxicities compared to cTACE. This is particularly relevant in the setting of advanced BCLC B and early BCLC C disease, where patients may have limited reserve. Radioembolization also has additional roles as an alternative to ablation, inducing liver hypertrophy, treating patients with PVT, and downstaging lesions to transplant. Ongoing studies will further define the role of locoregional treatment potentially in combination with and in light of developments in systemic therapy.

  4. Progress of liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Taiwan is a well-known endemic area of hepatitis B. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has consistently been the first or second highest cause of cancer death over the past 20 years. This review article describes the progress of liver resection for HCC in Taiwan in the past half century. The mortality rate for HCC resection was 15-30% in Taiwan in the 1970s. The rate decreased to 8-12% in the early 1990s, and it declined to <1-3% recently. The development of new operative instruments, and surgical techniques, increased knowledge of liver anatomy and pathophysiology after hepatectomy, and more precise patient selection have contributed to this improvement. The use of intermittent hepatic inflow blood occlusion, a restrictive blood transfusion policy and intraoperative ultrasonography, have also led to substantial improvements in resectability and safety for HCC resection in Taiwan. Advances in non-operative modalities for HCC treatment have also helped to improve long-term outcomes of HCC resection. Technical innovations have allowed the application of complex procedures such as mesohepatectomy, unroofing hepatectomy, major portal vein thrombectomy, hepatic vein reconstruction in resection of the cranial part with preservation of the caudal part of the liver, and inferior vena cava and right atrium tumor thrombectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. In selected patients, including patients with end-stage renal failure, renal graft recipients, patients with portal hypertension, hypersplenic thrombocytopenia and/or associated gastroesophageal varices, octogenarian, ruptured HCC, recurrent HCC and metastatic HCC can also be resected with satisfactory survival benefits. We conclude that the results of liver resection for HCC in Taiwan are improving. The indications for HCC resection continue extending with lower the surgical risks and increasing the long-term survival rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Cirrhotic Patients With Commercial Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Valderrama, Adriana; Kamalakar, Rajesh; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Babajanyan, Svetlana; Lewis, James D

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance rates among commercially insured patients, and evaluate factors associated with compliance with surveillance recommendations. Most HCC occurs in patients with cirrhosis. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines each recommend biannual HCC surveillance for cirrhotic patients to diagnose HCC at an early, curable stage. However, compliance with these guidelines in commercially insured patients is unknown. We used the Truven Health Analytics databases from 2006 to 2010, using January 1, 2006 as the anchor date for evaluating outcomes. The primary outcome was continuous surveillance measure, defined as the proportion of time "up-to-date" with surveillance (PTUDS), with the 6-month interval immediately following each ultrasound categorized as "up-to-date." During a median follow-up of 22.9 (interquartile range, 16.3 to 33.9) months among 8916 cirrhotic patients, the mean PTUDS was 0.34 (SD, 0.29), and the median was 0.31 (interquartile range, 0.03 to 0.52). These values increased only modestly with inclusion of serum alpha-fetoprotein testing, contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imagings, and/or extension of up-to-date time to 12 months. Being diagnosed by a nongastroenterology provider and increasing age were significantly associated with decreased HCC surveillance (P<0.05), whereas a history of a hepatic decompensation event, presence of any component of the metabolic syndrome, and diagnosis of hepatitis B or hepatitis C were significantly associated with increased surveillance (P<0.05). However, even among patients with the most favorable characteristics, surveillance rates remained low. HCC surveillance rates in commercially insured at-risk patients remain poor despite formalized guidelines, highlighting the need to develop interventions to improve surveillance rates.

  6. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a surgical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Brett E; Umman, Veysel; Gilliland, Thomas; Emre, Sukru

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Early detection and timely treatment of HCC is critical for better patient outcomes. Curative therapy consists of surgical hepatic resection or liver transplantation (LTx); however, both are restricted to explicit selective criteria. Liver resection is the gold standard of treatment for noncirrhotic patients but can be done in only a small fraction of cirrhotic patients depending on synthetic dysfunction, degree of portal hypertension, and number and location(s) of tumor(s). Therefore, the best treatment modality in cirrhotic patients with HCC is LTx as it will cure both HCC and the underlying cirrhosis. The limitation to offer transplant to all cirrhotic patients with HCC is the shortage of available donor organs. While these patients are waiting for transplant, their tumors may progress and develop distant metastases and may lead to patients losing their candidacy for LTx. Various ablation therapies can be used to treat HCC, prevent tumor progression, and thus, avoid patients losing the option of LTx. Future directions to improve HCC patient outcomes include advancement in tumor gene analysis and histopathology for better prediction of tumor behavior, improved immunosuppression regimens to reduce tumor recurrence in the posttransplant setting, and efficient use of an expanded donor pool that includes living donor organs. This paper will review the current methods of HCC diagnosis, selection for either hepatic resection or LTx, and will also summarize posttreatment outcomes. We will suggest future directions for the field as we strive to improve outcomes for our HCC patients.

  7. Independent of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Is Increased with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasmari, Allison J; Welch, Amy; Liu, Guodong; Leslie, Doug; McGarrity, Thomas; Riley, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan insurance claims database from 2008-2012. Individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 19-64 years and age and sex-matched controls were included. Multivariate analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors was performed. Hepatitis C (odds ratio [OR] 2.102) was the largest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other independent risk factors were type II diabetes (OR 1.353) and hypertension (OR 1.229). Hyperlipidemia was protective against hepatocellular carcinoma (OR 0.885). The largest risk increase occurred with hypertension with type II diabetes and hepatitis C (OR 4.580), although hypertension and type II diabetes without hepatitis C still incurred additional risk (OR 3.399). Type II diabetes and hyperlipidemia had a similar risk if hepatitis C was present (OR 2.319) or not (OR 2.395). Metformin (OR 0.706) and cholesterol medications (OR 0.645) were protective in diabetics. Insulin (OR 1.640) increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the general type II diabetes population. In the absence of cirrhosis, type II diabetes and hypertension were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hyperlipidemia and medical management of type II diabetes with metformin and cholesterol medication appeared to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, insulin was associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative ultrasound for prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma biological behaviour: Prospective comparison with pathology.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, Roberto; Cigala, Claudia; Barabino, Matteo; Maggioni, Marco; Scifo, Giovanna; Bruno, Savino; Bertolini, Emanuela; Opocher, Enrico; Bulfamante, Gaetano

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative prediction of both microinvasive hepatocellular carcinoma and histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma is pivotal to treatment planning and prognostication. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some intraoperative ultrasound features correlate with both the presence of same histological patterns and differentiation grade of hepatocellular carcinoma on the histological features of the primary resected tumour. All patients with single, small hepatocellular carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection were included in this prospective double-blind study: the intraoperative ultrasound patterns of nodule were registered and compared with similar histological features. A total of 179 patients were enclosed in this study: 97 (54%) patients (34% in HCC ≤2 cm) had a microinvasive hepatocellular carcinoma at ultrasound examination, while 82 (46%) patients (41% in HCC ≤2 cm) at histological evaluation. Statistical analysis showed that diameters ≤2 cm, presence of satellites and microinvasive hepatocellular carcinoma at ultrasound examination were the variables with the strongest association with the histological findings. In the multivariate analysis, the vascular microinfiltration and infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma aspect were independent predictors for grading. In patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, the prevalence of microinvasive hepatocellular carcinoma is high, even in cases of HCC ≤2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasound findings strongly correlated with histopathological criteria in detecting microinvasive patterns and are useful to predict neoplastic differentiation. The knowledge of these features prior to treatment are highly desired (this can be obtained by an intraoperative ultrasound examination), as they could help in providing optimal management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Yasui, Yutaka; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-11-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma and the risk of occupational exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Malaguarnera, Michele; Ardiri, Annalisa; Proiti, Maria; Rigano, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Evelise; Ruggeri, Maria Irene; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Malaguarnera, Mariano; Catania, Vito Emanuele; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Bertino, Emanuele; Mangano, Dario; Bertino, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The main risk factors for HCC are alcoholism, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, aflatoxin, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and hemophilia. Occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. Often the relationship between occupational risk and HCC is unclear and the reports are fragmented and inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the association of infective and non-infective occupational risk exposure and HCC in order to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem. PMID:27168870

  11. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Complicated by Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Akizue, Naoki; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Inoue, Masanori; Wakamatsu, Toru; Saito, Tomoko; Kusakabe, Yuko; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Tawada, Akinobu; Maru, Yugo; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Tetsuhiro

    2017-11-15

    Although Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is known to be accompanied by malignancies, cases with hepatobiliary cancer are extremely rare. A 62-year-old man with palpable purpura rapidly extending to both lower legs was admitted to our hospital. He was undergoing follow-up for cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). He had renal dysfunction with hematuria and proteinuria and abdominal pain. Based on the clinical presentation and skin biopsy findings, he was diagnosed with HSP. The administration of steroids resulted in the rapid improvement of the patient's symptoms and he was discharged 12 days after admission.

  12. [Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinomas: recent results and future development].

    PubMed

    Marijon, H; Faivre, S; Raymond, E

    2009-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the 5th most common cancers around the world with a limited number of systemic therapeutic options. Cytotoxic agents, hormonotherapy and immunotherapy have failed to demonstrate benefit compared to best supportive care in patients with advanced HCC. The recent development of targeted therapies provided hope for the treatment of advanced HCC. We reviewed phases II-III trials presented in 2007 and 2008. Results are promising with a clinical benefit reported with molecular therapies targeting EGF/EGFR and VEGF/VEGFR pathways.

  13. Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Naz; Akhtar, Tasleem; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect.

  14. Novel Investigations of Flavonoids as Chemopreventive Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chen-Yi; Lee, Ching-Chang; Tsai, Chi-chang; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Chen, I-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Kai; Liu, Mei-Yu; Hsieh, An-Tie; Su, Kuan-Jen; Wu, Hau-Ming; Huang, Shih-Chung; Wang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Chien-Yao; Huang, Shu-Fang; Yeh, Yen-Cheng; Ben, Ren-Jy; Chien, Shang-Tao; Hsu, Chin-Wen; Kuo, Wu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    We would like to highlight the application of natural products to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We will focus on the natural products known as flavonoids, which target this disease at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. In spite of the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in treating HCC, patients with HCC still face poor prognosis because of the nature of multidrug resistance and toxicity derived from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Flavonoids can be found in many vegetables, fruits, and herbal medicines that exert their different anticancer effects via different intracellular signaling pathways and serve as antioxidants. In this review, we will discuss seven common flavonoids that exert different biological effects against HCC via different pathways. PMID:26858957

  15. Bone metastases as initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Monteserin, Luzdivina; Mesa, Alicia; Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Soledad; Gadanon-Garcia, Arantza; Rodriguez, Manuel; Varela, María

    2017-10-18

    Extra-hepatic spread is present in 5% to 15% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of diagnosis. The most frequent sites are lung and regional lymph nodes. Here, we report 3 cases of unsuspected HCC with symptoms due to bone lesions as initial presentation. Morphological characteristics and immunohistochemistry from the examined bone were the key data for diagnosis. None of the patients had an already known chronic liver disease. Differential diagnoses with HCC upon ectopic liver disease or hepatoid adenocarcinoma were shown. Therapy with the orally active multikinase inhibitor sorafenib plus symptomatic treatment was indicated.

  16. Loss of tumor suppressor miR-126 contributes to the development of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis through the upregulation of ADAM9.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Le-Yang; Ou, Huo-Hui; Liu, Xin-Cheng; Chen, Zhan-Jun; Li, Xiang-Hong; Huang, Yu; Yang, Ding-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common histological type of primary liver cancer, which represents the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. MiR-126 was reported to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, compared with its levels in noncancerous tissues. However, baseline miR-126 expression levels in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients who did not undergo pre-operational treatment remains unknown since hepatitis B virus infection and pre-operational transcatheter arterial chemoembolization were shown to upregulate miR-126 expression. Here, we demonstrated that miR-126 is generally downregulated in a homogeneous population of pre-operational treatment-naïve hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (84.0%, 84/100), and its expression is significantly associated with pre-operational alpha-fetoprotein levels ( p < 0.05), microvascular invasion ( p < 0.05), tumor metastasis ( p < 0.05), as well as early recurrence (12 months after surgery; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the results of our study revealed that miR-126 is negatively correlated with ADAM9 expression in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Overexpression of miR-126 was shown to attenuate ADAM9 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which subsequently inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro. In addition, Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that ADAM9 levels, tumor number, microvascular invasion, and tumor metastasis rate represent independent prognostic factors for shorter recurrence-free survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the loss of tumor suppressor miR-126 in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma cells contributes to the development of metastases through the upregulated expression of its target gene, ADAM9. MiR-126-ADAM9 pathway-based therapeutic targeting may represent a novel approach for the inhibition of hepatitis B virus

  17. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Combined Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma: Experience of a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Ying-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Chun-Han; Kuo, Fang-Ying; Eng, Hock-Liew; Yong, Chee-Chien; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Lin, Ting-Lung; Li, Wei-Feng; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Chao-Long

    2017-02-28

    BACKGROUND Because the outcome of liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma is often poor, cholangiocarcinoma is a contraindication for liver transplantation in most centers. Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma is a rare type of primary hepatic malignancy containing features of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Diagnosing combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma pre-operatively is difficult. Because of sparse research presentations worldwide, we report our experience with living donor liver transplantation for combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 710 patients underwent living donor liver transplantation at our institution from April 2006 to June 2014; 377 of them received transplantation because of hepatocellular carcinoma with University of California San Francisco (UCSF) staging criteria fulfilled pre-operatively. Eleven patients (2.92%) were diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma confirmed pathologically from explant livers; we reviewed these cases retrospectively. Long-term survival was compared between patients diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS The mean age of the patients in our series was 60.2 years, and the median follow-up period was 23.9 months. Four patients were diagnosed with a recurrence during the follow-up period, including one intra-hepatic and three extra-hepatic recurrences. Four patients died due to tumor recurrence. Except for patients with advanced-stage cancer, disease-free survival of patients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma compared with that of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was 80% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 46.7% versus 92.5% in 3 years (p<0.001), and overall survival was 90% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 61.7% versus 95.1% in 3 years (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS

  18. Gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas do not overexpress the same ribosomal protein messenger RNAs as colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Mori, M; Puder, M; Jessup, M J; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1993-09-01

    The levels of a number of ribosomal protein mRNAs are reported to be increased in human colon cancer. We have assessed whether selected ribosomal protein mRNAs are overexpressed in other gastrointestinal malignancies, namely gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas. Subtracted complementary DNA libraries were generated from paired samples of human (a) colorectal carcinoma minus adjacent normal colonic mucosa and (b) hepatocellular carcinoma minus adjacent normal liver. Screening of approximately 3% of these library clones determined that ribosomal protein mRNAs encoding L18 and L37 (not previously reported) and P0 and S6 were overexpressed in one or the other library. Their complementary DNA inserts were then used as probes to evaluate their expression in a larger number of paired tumor/normal surgical samples of human colonic, gastric, and hepatocellular carcinomas, by Northern hybridization. The mRNA signal was greater in the colonic carcinoma than in paired adjacent normal colonic mucosa in 38 of 42 cases for P0 [tumor/normal (T/N) ratio = 3.0 +/- 0.3, mean +/- SE, P < 0.001] (G. F. Barnard, R. J. Staniunas, S. Bao, K. Mafune, J. L. Gollan, G. D. Steele, Jr., and L. B. Chen, Cancer Res., 52: 3067-3072, 1992), in 25 of 28 cases for L18 (T/N ratio = 3.7 +/- 0.5, P < 0.001), in 27 of 28 cases for L37 (T/N ratio = 5.3 +/- 0.4, P < 0.001), and in 24 of 28 cases for S6 (T/N ratio = 3.1 +/- 0.5, P < 0.01). The level of mRNA overexpression of L18 and S6 did not correlate with the Dukes' stage of disease. In hepatocellular carcinoma samples, using the same four ribosomal protein complementary DNA probes, only P0 mRNA was significantly increased (T/N ratio = 2.8 +/- 0.4, n = 6, P = 0.047). In gastric carcinoma samples, none of these mRNAs was increased (mean T/N ratios = 0.9-1.2, n = 6). Therefore, gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas do not overexpress the same ribosomal protein mRNAs as do colonic carcinoma.

  19. Sorafenib induced thyroiditis in two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Leni; Eskens, Ferry A L M; Visser, Theo J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Peeters, Robin P

    2011-02-01

    Sorafenib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor licensed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. Thyroid function test abnormalities have been reported for different tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but only limited data on thyroid function test abnormalities related to sorafenib are available, demonstrating the occurrence of hypothyroidism in patients treated with sorafenib. We describe two patients who developed temporary hyperthyroidism during the course of sorafenib treatment, which was followed by overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Thyroid ultrasonography showed an atrophic thyroid gland in patient 1 , and signs of thyroiditis in patient 2 . Detailed reassessment of thyroid volumes on routinely performed computerized tomography scans showed a gradual decrease in thyroid volume during sorafenib treatment in one patient, suggesting progressive thyroid destruction. This case report describes in detail and for the first time two cases of sorafenib-induced thyroiditis. We assume that this sorafenib-induced destructive thyroiditis is an important cause of sorafenib-induced hypothyroidism.

  20. Silibinin (Milk Thistle) potentiates ethanol-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma progression in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Eheim, Ashley L; Foureau, David M; Walling, Tracy L; Schrum, Laura W; McKillop, Iain H

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health burden with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Silibinin, an antioxidant derived from the Milk Thistle plant (Silybum marianum), is reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects in vitro and in vivo by suppressing oxidative stress and proliferation. Using a DEN-initiated mouse model of HCC, this study examined the effects of dietary silibinin supplementation alone, or in combination with chronic ethanol consumption on HCC progression. Our data demonstrate silibinin exerted marginal hepatoprotective effects in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis but, when co-administered with ethanol, exacerbated the promotional effects of ethanol in HCC bearing mice, but only in males. PMID:22863537

  1. Resected Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease on Azathioprine

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Valérie; Fortinsky, Kyle Joshua; Spiegle, Gillian; Hilzenrat, Nir; Szilagyi, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma rarely occurs in patients without underlying cirrhosis or liver disease. While inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to certain forms of liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma is exceedingly rare in these patients. We report the twelfth case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with Crohn's disease. The patient is a 61-year-old with longstanding Crohn's disease who was treated with azathioprine and was found to have elevated liver enzymes and a new 3-cm liver mass on ultrasound. A complete workup for underlying liver disease was unremarkable and liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent a hepatic resection, and there is no evidence of recurrence at the 11-month follow-up. The resection specimen showed no evidence of cancer despite the initial biopsy revealing hepatocellular carcinoma. This case represents the third biopsy-proven complete spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although large studies have failed to show a definite link between azathioprine and hepatocellular carcinoma, the relationship remains concerning given the multiple case reports suggesting a possible association. Clinicians should exercise a high degree of suspicion in patients with Crohn's disease who present with elevated liver enzymes, especially those on azathioprine therapy. PMID:27403102

  2. MiR-590-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth by targeting TEAD1.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin; Gong, Liansheng

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNA signature is altered in different disease states including cancer, and some microRNAs act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. MiR-590-3p has been shown to be involved in human cancer progression. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In this study, miR-590-3p level was measured, and clinicopathological features were determined in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. The function of miR-590-3p was examined in vitro and in vivo. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated downregulation of miR-590-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and its downregulation was associated with a poor overall survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Ectopic expression of miR-590-3p promoted growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, whereas its depletion inhibited cell growth. Transcriptional enhancer activator domain 1 was identified as a validated miR-590-3p target. Upregulation of transcriptional enhancer activator domain 1 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and inversely correlated with miR-590-3p. Our results indicate a tumor suppressor role of miR-590-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma through targeting transcriptional enhancer activator domain 1 and suggest its use in the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

  3. [Expression and clinical significance of KIAA1199 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gu, C J; Ni, Q C; Ni, K; Zhang, S; Qian, H X

    2018-05-29

    Objective: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of KIAA1199 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: A total of 136 cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and paired adjacent tissues were collected. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the expression of KIAA1199 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and paired adjacent tissues. The relationship between KIAA1199 and clinicopathological parameter of primary hepatocellular carcinoma was analyzed. Results: The positive rate of KIAA1199 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma was 82.3% (112/136), which was higher than that in paired para-cancerous tissues (14.7%, 20/136). High expression of KIAA1199 was significantly correlated with age, cirrhosis history, tumor size, tumor number, degree of differentiation, TNM staging and microvenous invasion (MVI) ( P <0.05), but without gender, drinking alcohol hobby, hepatitis history, family genetic history, tumor location ( P >0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that high KIAA1199 expression was associated with poor survival ( P <0.01). In addition, Cox proportional hazards model showed that the expression of KIAA1199 was related to age, cirrhosis history, tumor size, tumor number, degree of differentiation, TNM staging and MVI ( P <0.05). Conclusion: The expression of KIAA1199 is up-regulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma, which is significantly correlated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis, high expression of KIAA1199 increased the risk of death in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Proteomic Studies of Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Secretomes

    PubMed Central

    Srisomsap, Chantragan; Sawangareetrakul, Phannee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Bhudhisawasdi, Vaharabhongsa; Wongkham, Sopit; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur with relatively high incidence in Thailand. The secretome, proteins secreted from cancer cells, are potentially useful as biomarkers of the diseases. Proteomic analysis was performed on the secreted proteins of cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA-1) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-S102, HepG2, SK-Hep-1, and Alexander) cell lines. The secretomes of the five cancer cell lines were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with LC/MS/MS. Sixty-eight proteins were found to be expressed only in HuCCA-1. Examples include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (lipocalin 2), laminin 5 beta 3, cathepsin D precursor, desmoplakin, annexin IV variant, and annexin A5. Immunoblotting was used to confirm the presence of lipocalin 2 in conditioned media and cell lysate of 5 cell lines. The results showed that lipocalin 2 was a secreted protein which is expressed only in the conditioned media of the cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Study of lipocalin 2 expression in different types of cancer and normal tissues from cholangiocarcinoma patients showed that lipocalin 2 was expressed only in the cancer tissues. We suggest that lipocalin 2 may be a potential biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20069059

  5. High-resolution characterization of a hepatocellular carcinoma genome.

    PubMed

    Totoki, Yasushi; Tatsuno, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shogo; Arai, Yasuhito; Hosoda, Fumie; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Sonoda, Kohtaro; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Shirakihara, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Wang, Linghua; Ojima, Hidenori; Shimada, Kazuaki; Kosuge, Tomoo; Okusaka, Takuji; Kato, Kazuto; Kusuda, Jun; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most common virus-associated cancers, is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. By massively parallel sequencing of a primary hepatitis C virus-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (36× coverage) and matched lymphocytes (>28× coverage) from the same individual, we identified more than 11,000 somatic substitutions of the tumor genome that showed predominance of T>C/A>G transition and a decrease of the T>C substitution on the transcribed strand, suggesting preferential DNA repair. Gene annotation enrichment analysis of 63 validated non-synonymous substitutions revealed enrichment of phosphoproteins. We further validated 22 chromosomal rearrangements, generating four fusion transcripts that had altered transcriptional regulation (BCORL1-ELF4) or promoter activity. Whole-exome sequencing at a higher sequence depth (>76× coverage) revealed a TSC1 nonsense substitution in a subpopulation of the tumor cells. This first high-resolution characterization of a virus-associated cancer genome identified previously uncharacterized mutation patterns, intra-chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes, as well as genetic heterogeneity within the tumor.

  6. Suppression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibition of Overexpressed Ornithine Aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Ehud; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Lee, Hyunbeom; Lichtenstein, Yoav; Shalev, Zvi; Smith, Yoav; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ziv, Ehud; Kalman, Rony; Le, Hoang V; Lu, Hejun; Silverman, Richard B; Ilan, Yaron

    2015-08-13

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. DNA microarray analysis identified the ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) gene as a prominent gene overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from Psammomys obesus. In vitro studies demonstrated inactivation of OAT by gabaculine (1), a neurotoxic natural product, which suppressed in vitro proliferation of two HCC cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) secretion, a biomarker for HCC, was suppressed by gabaculine in both cell lines, but not significantly. Because of the active site similarity between GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) and OAT, a library of 24 GABA-AT inhibitors was screened to identify a more selective inhibitor of OAT. (1S,3S)-3-Amino-4-(hexafluoropropan-2-ylidene)cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (2) was found to be an inactivator of OAT that only weakly inhibits GABA-AT, l-aspartate aminotransferase, and l-alanine aminotransferase. In vitro administration of 2 significantly suppressed AFP secretion in both Hep3B and HepG2 HCC cells; in vivo, 2 significantly suppressed AFP serum levels and tumor growth in HCC-harboring mice, even at 0.1 mg/kg. Overexpression of the OAT gene in HCC and the ability to block the growth of HCC by OAT inhibitors support the role of OAT as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit HCC growth. This is the first demonstration of suppression of HCC by an OAT inactivator.

  7. Controversies in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: multidetector CT (MDCT)

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Paul M; Szklaruk, Janio

    2005-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant tumor worldwide and represents the most common primary hepatic neoplasm. Staging criteria are important for appreciation of timely work up of these neoplasms in contradiction with surgical colleagues. This article demonstrates the appearance of HCC on multiphasic, multidetector CT (MDCT) and relates these findings to current staging criteria. The variable appearance on different planes of contrast is critical to appreciate in staging this neoplasm. The hypervascular nature of the primary tumor makes MDCT and three-phase imaging a critical feature in the detection and characterization of this tumor. This is especially critical in the patients who are candidates for surgical resection. Additionally, MDCT has allowed arterial phase imaging to define the vascular supply of the tumor. An accurate representation of the size and number of lesions is critical in not only the initial staging but also the follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma. The post-treatment features including the appearance post-surgically and after radiofrequency ablation can be well appreciated on MDCT. PMID:16361147

  8. Diphenyl difluoroketone: a potent chemotherapy candidate for human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yingjian; Yin, Dalong; Hou, Limin; Zheng, Tongsen; Wang, Jiabei; Meng, Xianzhi; Lu, Zhaoyang; Song, Xuan; Pan, Shangha; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2011-01-01

    Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, was recently reported to inhibit proliferation of various cancer cells significantly. Here we try to determine the effect and mechanism of EF24 on hepatocellular carcinoma. 2 µM EF24 was found to inhibit the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, SK-HEP-1 and Huh 7 cell lines. However, even 8 µM EF24 treatment did not affect the proliferation of normal liver LO2 cells. Accordingly, 20 mg/kg/d EF24 inhibited the growth of the tumor xenografts conspicuously while causing no apparent change in liver, spleen or body weight. In addition, significant apoptosis and G(2)/M phase cell cycle arrest were found using flow cytometry. Besides, caspases and PARP activation and features typical of apoptosis including fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin were also observed. Furthermore, the mechanism was targeted at the reduction of nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB) pathway and the NF-κB-regulated gene products Bcl-2, COX-2, Cyclin B1. Our study has offered a strategy that EF24 being a therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Diphenyl Difluoroketone: A Potent Chemotherapy Candidate for Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Limin; Zheng, Tongsen; Wang, Jiabei; Meng, Xianzhi; Lu, Zhaoyang; Song, Xuan; Pan, Shangha; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2011-01-01

    Diphenyl difluoroketone (EF24), a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, was recently reported to inhibit proliferation of various cancer cells significantly. Here we try to determine the effect and mechanism of EF24 on hepatocellular carcinoma. 2 µM EF24 was found to inhibit the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, SK-HEP-1 and Huh 7 cell lines. However, even 8 µM EF24 treatment did not affect the proliferation of normal liver LO2 cells. Accordingly, 20 mg/kg/d EF24 inhibited the growth of the tumor xenografts conspicuously while causing no apparent change in liver, spleen or body weight. In addition, significant apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest were found using flow cytometry. Besides, caspases and PARP activation and features typical of apoptosis including fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin were also observed. Furthermore, the mechanism was targeted at the reduction of nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB) pathway and the NF-κB–regulated gene products Bcl-2, COX-2, Cyclin B1. Our study has offered a strategy that EF24 being a therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:21901145

  10. Evaluating hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for tumour samples using within-sample relative expression orderings of genes.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lu; Guo, You; Song, Xuekun; Guan, Qingzhou; Zheng, Weicheng; Zhang, Jiahui; Huang, Haiyan; Zou, Yi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2017-11-01

    Concerns are raised about the representativeness of cell lines for tumours due to the culture environment and misidentification. Liver is a major metastatic destination of many cancers, which might further confuse the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand how well they can represent hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCC-specific gene pairs with highly stable relative expression orderings in more than 99% of hepatocellular carcinoma but with reversed relative expression orderings in at least 99% of one of the six types of cancer, colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma, were identified. With the simple majority rule, the HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma could exactly discriminate primary hepatocellular carcinoma samples from both primary colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma samples. Especially, they correctly classified more than 90% of liver metastatic samples from colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma to their original tumours. Finally, using these HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with six cancer types, we identified eight of 24 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (Huh-7, Huh-1, HepG2, Hep3B, JHH-5, JHH-7, C3A and Alexander cells) that are highly representative of hepatocellular carcinoma. Evaluated with a REOs-based prognostic signature for hepatocellular carcinoma, all these eight cell lines showed the same metastatic properties of the high-risk metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Caution should be taken for using hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Our results should be helpful to select proper hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for biological experiments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The changing epidemiology and aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma from 1969 through 2013 in Alaska Native people.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Marc; Bruce, Michael G; Bulkow, Lisa; Snowball, Mary; McMahon, Brian J

    2016-12-01

    Alaska Native people have an increased rate of hepatocellular carcinoma compared to the United States population. Viral hepatitis is a risk factor for malignancy and the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaska. With the introduction of hepatitis B immunization in 1982, as well as the emergence of hepatitis C virus in this population, the epidemiology and aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaska have changed. Using the Alaska Native Tumor Registry, all cases of viral and non-viral hepatocellular carcinoma occurring from 1969 through 2013 were identified and reviewed. Incidence rates per 100 000 population were calculated for hepatocellular carcinoma overall and by aetiological category. One hundred and fifty-two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were identified in 148 Alaska Native persons. Overall tumour rate was 3.82 per 100 000 and did not change significantly over the study period. Hepatitis B-associated cases decreased significantly over the study period (P = 0.048) and were eliminated in persons under the age of 20. Hepatitis C-associated cases increased significantly (P < 0.001). Undetermined hepatocellular carcinoma rates also decreased (P = 0.034). Overall hepatocellular carcinoma rates in Alaska Native people remained stable over the study period, but the epidemiology and aetiology are changing. Two decades after routine hepatitis B immunization, the hepatocellular carcinoma age distribution has shifted to cases presenting later in life. This is consistent with an ageing hepatitis B-infected population with no new infected young persons' coming into the population, as well as the emergence of hepatitis C in adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dysregulated Expression of MITF in Subsets of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nooron, Nattakarn; Ohba, Koji; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Shibahara, Shigeki; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma represents the second most common primary liver tumor after hepatocellular carcinoma. Mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid derived from Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng, has been used as folk medicine in Thailand, where the liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma is common. The expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is maintained at immunohistochemically undetectable levels in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. To explore the regulation of MITF expression in the liver, we immunohistochemically analyzed the MITF expression using hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma specimens of the human liver cancer tissue array. MITF immunoreactivity was detected in subsets of hepatocellular carcinoma (6 out of 38 specimens; 16%) and cholangiocarcinoma (2/7 specimens; 29%). Moreover, immunoreactivity for glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1), a transcription factor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, was detected in 55% of hepatocellular carcinoma (21/38 specimens) and 86% of cholangiocarcinoma (6/7 specimens). Importantly, MITF was detectable only in the GLI1-positive hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and MITF immunoreactivity is associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Subsequently, the effect of mahanine was analyzed in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma and HuCCT1 and KKU-100 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Mahanine (25 µM) showed the potent cytotoxicity in these hepatic cancer cell lines, which was associated with increased expression levels of MITF, as judged by Western blot analysis. MITF is over-expressed in subsets of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and detectable MITF immunoreactivity is associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. MITF expression levels may be determined in hepatic cancer cells by the balance between the Hedgehog signaling and the cellular stress.

  13. Metformin confers risk reduction for developing hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kun-Ming; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Wang, Yu-Chao; Wu, Tsung-Han; Lee, Chen-Fang; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence following liver resection remains a great concern. The study aims to examine the chemopreventive effect of metformin in patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma from a population-based study. All patients registered as having hepatocellular carcinoma between January 1995 and December 2011 in a nationwide database were retrospectively analysed. Outcomes related to liver resection and the presence of diabetes mellitus were assessed. Prognosis in terms of the use of metformin was further explored, in which only patients in the long-term follow-up starting at 2 years were included for analysis. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly poorer outcome than patients without diabetes mellitus. Among diabetes mellitus patients, metformin users had significantly better survival curves in both recurrence-free survival (P<.0001) and overall survival (P<.0001) after liver resection. The hazard ratio of metformin use in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with diabetes mellitus was 0.65 (P<.05, 95% CI=0.60-0.72) for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and 0.79 (P<.05, 95% CI=0.72-0.88) for overall survival after liver resection. The risk reduction in hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver resection was significantly associated with a dose/duration dependent of accumulated metformin usage. Diabetes mellitus has an adverse effect on patients with hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of treatment modality. The use of metformin significantly reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and improves the overall outcome of patients after liver resection if patients survives the initial 2 years. Nonetheless, a prospective controlled study is recommended for validating the metformin use on preventing postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [A single metastasis in the carpal bones as the first clinical manifestation of a hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Corrales Pinzón, R; Alonso Sánchez, J M; de la Mano González, S; El Karzazi Tarazona, K

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Spreading outside the liver usually takes place in advanced stages of the disease, and bone is the third most common site of metastases. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in which the first clinical manifestation was a single metastasis to the carpal bones. The interest of this case lies in the way this hepatocellular carcinoma manifested as well as in the unusual site of the metastasis. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined early dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT and conventional whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT provide one-stop imaging for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Quan-Shi; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Tian, Ying; Li, Hong-Sheng; Ji, Yun-Hai; Lv, Liang

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that conventional (18)F-FDG PET/CT (whole-body static (18)F-FDG PET/CT, WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT) has a low detection rate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We prospectively assessed the role of early dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT (ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT) and WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT in detecting HCC, and we quantified the added value of ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT to WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Twenty-two patients with 37 HCC tumors (HCCs) who underwent both a liver ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT (performed simultaneously with a 5.5 MBq/kg (18)F-FDG bolus injection and continued for 240 s) and a WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled in the study. The WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT and ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were positive in 56.7% (21/37) and 78.4% (29/37) HCCs, respectively (P<0.05). ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT in conjunction with WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT (one-stop (18)F-FDG PET/CT) improved the positive detection rates of WB and ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT alone from 56.7% and 78.4% to 91.9% (34/37) (P<0.001 and P>0.05, respectively). One-stop (18)F-FDG PET/CT appears to be useful to improve WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT for HCC detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of gynecomastia in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Yi; Jeng, Long-Bin; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chao, Chih-Hao; Lin, Wan-Yu; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively investigate the prevalence of gynecomastia as false-positive 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the 127 male HCC patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, the 18FDG uptakes at the bilateral breasts in 9 patients with gynecomastia were recorded as standard uptake value (SUVmax) and the visual interpretation in both early and delayed images. The mean early SUVmax was 1.58/1.57 (right/left breast) in nine gynecomastia patients. The three patients with early visual score of 3 had higher early SUVmaxs. Gynecomastia is a possible cause of false-positive uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma using a glypican-3-binding peptide based probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Han, Zhihao; Zhang, Wancun; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a heparin sulfate proteoglycan linked to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI) and is expressed by 75% of all hepatocellular carcinomas but undetectable in healthy liver tissue or liver with focal lesions. What's more, GPC3 has been gradually applied in clinical applications as a specific indicator for the early detection and prognosis of HCC. As GPC3 can also regulate many pathways in HCC pathogenesis including Wnt, Hh and Yap signaling, it has been shown that GPC3 knockdown can inhibit HCC growth, reinforcing the important roles of GPC3 in HCC development. For HCC early detection, we designed a peptide targeting GPC3 that allows to establish a fluorescent dyes-labeled probe. Firstly, according to the structure of the GPC3 antibody GC33 and the positive peptide reported in the literature, we generated a peptide consisting of twelve amino acids named 12P that may bind to GPC3 with tight binding ability and specificity. In vitro testing, we utilized FCM and laser confocal microscopy to verify its specificity of targeting to the high expression cells of GPC3. What's more, we linked 12P with a near infrared dye to verify its in vivo targeting ability. All results indicated that 12P possessed potent binding capacity which could be used as a targeting module in GPC3 detection probe.

  18. Single-domain monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to license human monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates and co-develop, evaluate, and/or commercialize large-scale antibody production and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft mouse models.

  19. Nonlinear tumor evolution from dysplastic nodules to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joung, Je-Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Bae, Joon Seol; Nam, Jae-Yong; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Lee, Hae-Ock; Son, Dae-Soon; Park, Cheol-Keun; Park, Woong-Yang

    2017-01-10

    Dysplastic nodules are premalignant neoplastic nodules found in explanted livers with cirrhosis. Genetic signatures of premalignant dysplastic nodules (DNs) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may provide an insight in the molecular evolution of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. We analyzed four patients with multifocal nodular lesions and cirrhotic background by whole-exome sequencing (WES). The genomic profiles of somatic single nucleotide variations (SNV) and copy number variations (CNV) in DNs were compared to those of HCCs. The number and variant allele frequency of somatic SNVs of DNs and HCCs in each patient was identical along the progression of pathological grade. The somatic SNVs in DNs showed little conservation in HCC. Additionally, CNVs showed no conservation. Phylogenetic analysis based on SNVs and copy number profiles indicated a nonlinear segregation pattern, implying independent development of DNs and HCC in each patient. Thus, somatic mutations in DNs may be developed separately from other malignant nodules in the same liver, suggesting a nonlinear model for hepatocarcinogenesis from DNs to HCC.

  20. Osthole inhibits the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Kun; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Guo-Qiang; Tan, Guang; Gong, Peng; Luo, Hai-Feng; Li, Hui-Min; Du, Jian; Ning, Zhen; Xin, Yi; Wang, Zhong-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer, and the majority of patients with HCC are deprived of effective curative methods. Osthole is a Chinese herbal medicine which has been reported to possess various pharmacological functions, including hepatocellular protection. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of osthole using HCC cell lines. We found that osthole inhibited HCC cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, triggered DNA damage and suppressed migration in HCC cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that osthole not only contributed to cell cycle G2/M phase arrest via downregulation of Cdc2 and cyclin B1 levels, but also induced DNA damage via an increase in ERCC1 expression. In addition, osthole inhibited the migration of HCC cell lines by significantly downregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Finally, we demonstrated that osthole inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via increasing the expression of epithelial biomarkers E-cadherin and β-catenin, and significantly decreasing mesenchymal N-cadherin and vimentin protein expression. These results suggest that osthole may have potential chemotherapeutic activity against HCC.

  1. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.

  2. [Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and consequent lessons for its management in Northeastern Hungary].

    PubMed

    Papp, Renáta; Papp, Mária; Tornai, István; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2016-11-01

    The increasing incidence and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma places huge burden on healthcare. After reviewing literature on epidemiological trends, risk factors, diagnosis and management options for hepatocellular carcinoma, the authors investigated results of treatment and survival data of patients in Northeastern Hungary. In a retrospective study, the authors analyzed medical records of 187 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (etiology, presence of cirrhosis, stage of the tumor, treatment and disease outcome). Seventy-one patients (38%) had known cirrhosis at the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, while in 52 patients (28%) the presence of cirrhosis was established at the time of the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifteen patients (8%) had no cirrhosis and in 49 patients (26%) no data were available regarding cirrhosis. Etiological factors were alcohol consumption (52%), viral hepatitis (41%) and metabolic syndrome (44%). In cases of metabolic syndrome, hepatocellular carcinoma frequently occurred without cirrhosis. In 83% of the cases, the tumor was discovered in an advanced stage. Median survival time was significantly associated with tumor stage (Barcelona A stage vs. B/C vs. D: 829 vs. 387 vs. 137 days, respectively p<0.001) but not with disease etiology (virus 282 days, metabolic syndrome 335 days and alcohol 423 days, p = 0.65). High mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma was mainly attributed to the delayed diagnosis of the disease. Screening of patients with cirrhosis could only result in a partial improvement since in a great proportion cirrhosis was diagnosed simultaneously with the tumor. Screening of diabetic and obese patients by ultrasonography should be considered. Management of baseline liver disease is of importance in the care of hepatocellular carcinoma. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(45), 1793-1801.

  3. [Bioinformatics on vascular invasion markers in hepatocellular carcinoma via Big-Data analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Qiu, X Q

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma and their prognostic value via GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database. Methods: Datasets of hepatocellular carcinoma were downloaded from GEO (GSE67140) and TCGA. MicroRNA in SNU423, SNU449, HepG2, Hep3B, SNU398 cell lines which had low or high invasion capabilities were investigated and verified, in 81 patients with and 91 without vascular invasion hepatocellular carcinoma. The prognostic value of these microRNAs were studied via TCGA database,obtained from 362 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, through Kaplan-Meier and Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Target genes were analyzed by GO and KEGG. Results: Expressions of hsa-mir-1180, hsa-mir-149, hsa-mir-744 and hsa-mir-940 were all up regulated in high invasion capable cell lines (SNU423, SNU449) and vascular invasion patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (logFC>1, P <0.05). Results from the Survival analysis showed that hsa-mir-1180 ( HR =1.623, 95 % CI : 1.114-2.365, P =0.012), hsa-mir-149 ( HR =2.400, 95 % CI : 1.639-3.514) and hsa-mir-940 ( HR =1.704, 95 %CI : 1.188-2.443, P =0.004) were independent risk factors on the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ( P <0.05). The mechanism might be related to factors as immune response, focal adhesion and adherence junction signaling pathways. Conclusion: With TCGA and GEO data mining, we found that hsa-mir-1180, hsa-mir-149, hsa-mir-744 and hsa-mir-940 were all highly related to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, that enabled it to be used to further study the biomarkers related to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Synergistic effect of oral corticosteroids use on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk populations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2018-06-01

    Little evidence is available on the relationship between oral corticosteroids use and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate whether oral corticosteroids use correlates with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk populations in Taiwan. Using representative claims database established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program with a population coverage rate of 99.6%, we identified 102,182 subjects aged 20-84 years with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in 2000-2011 as the cases and 102,182 randomly selected subjects aged 20-84 years without hepatocellular carcinoma as the matched controls. In subjects with any one of comorbidities including alcohol-related disease, chronic liver disease, and diabetes mellitus, the adjusted OR of hepatocellular carcinoma was 29.9 (95% CI 28.7, 31.1) for subjects with never use of oral corticosteroids, and the adjusted OR would increase to 33.7 (95% CI 32.3, 35.3) for those with ever use of oral corticosteroids. The adjusted OR of hepatocellular carcinoma was 1.03 for subjects with increasing cumulative duration of oral corticosteroids use for every one year (95% CI 1.01, 1.06), with a duration-dependent effect. The largest OR occurred in subjects with ever use of oral corticosteroids and concurrently comorbid with alcohol-related disease, chronic liver disease, and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 122.7, 95% CI 108.5, 138.8). There is a synergistic effect between oral corticosteroids use and the traditional risk factors on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. People with risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma should receive regular ultrasound surveillance, particularly when they currently use oral corticosteroids. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. Trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, Guillermo D; Malvicini, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world and is the main cause of death in cirrhotic patients. Unfortunately, the incidence of HCC has grown significantly in the last decade. Curative treatments such as surgery, liver transplantation or percutaneous ablation can only be applied in less than 30% of cases. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first line therapy for advanced HCC. Regorafenib is the standard of care for second-line patients. However, novel and more specific potent therapeutic approaches for advanced HCC are still needed. The liver constitutes a unique immunological microenvironment, although anti-tumor immunity seems to be feasible with the use of checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab. Efficacy may be further increased by combining checkpoint inhibitors or by applying loco-regional treatments. The success of immune checkpoint blockade has renewed interest in immunotherapy in HCC.

  6. Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect. PMID:28573132

  7. Staging systems of hepatocellular carcinoma: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Marcello; Orlando, Emanuele; Cammà, Calogero; Cabibbo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem with a high incidence and mortality all over the world. Natural history of HCC is severe and extremely variable, and prognostic factors influencing outcomes are incompletely defined. Over time, many staging and scoring systems have been proposed for the classification and prognosis of patients with HCC. Currently, the non-ideal predictive performance of existing prognostic systems is secondary to their inherent limitations, as well as to a non-universal reproducibility and transportability of the results in different populations. New serological and histological markers are still under evaluation with promising results, but they require further evaluation and external validation. The aim of this review is to highlight the main tools for assessing the prognosis of HCC and the main concerns, pitfalls and warnings regarding its staging systems currently in use. PMID:24764652

  8. The Roles of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yide; Zhang, Yafei; Ge, Lilin

    2018-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family is involved in multiple cellular functions and plays an important role in various pathological and physiological processes. In many chronic diseases, for example cancer, PTP is a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the last two decades, dozens of PTP inhibitors which specifically target individual PTP molecules were developed as therapeutic agents. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and is the second most lethal cancer worldwide due to a lack of effective therapies. Recent studies have unveiled both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions of PTP in HCC. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involvement of PTP in HCC and further discuss the possibility of targeting PTP in HCC. PMID:29558404

  9. Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Maryam; Carloni, Vinicio

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive–regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the study of the involved molecular mechanisms can open a new insight to define more effective treatment strategies. A variety of alterations have been reported in HCC patients, particularly the cancer-associated microenvironment components including immune cells, fibroblast cells, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can support the neoplastic cells to proliferate, growth and invade. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights the principal challenges that are relevant to controlling this milieu. PMID:28216578

  10. MRI Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related to Biologic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several recent studies reveal a large number of MRI features related to the prognosis of HCC. In this review, we discuss various MRI features of HCC and their implications for the diagnosis and prognosis as imaging biomarkers. As a whole, the favorable MRI findings of HCC are small size, encapsulation, intralesional fat, high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and smooth margins or hyperintensity on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Unfavorable findings include large size, multifocality, low ADC value, non-smooth margins or hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images. MRI findings are potential imaging biomarkers in patients with HCC. PMID:25995679

  11. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dalla Palma, L; Pozzi-Mucelli, R S

    1992-02-01

    The evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based upon ultrasonography (US) which has proved to have a high sensitivity and is also extremely useful in guiding the percutaneous needle biopsy. The main role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to supplement US in evaluating the extent of HCC. The Authors discuss the different techniques of examinations of the liver both for CT and MRI as far as the modalities of contrast enhancement, site of injection, and type of contrast agents are concerned. The differences between low field and high field magnets are also discussed. The main CT and MRI findings are illustrated, depending upon the technique of examination. Finally the role of these techniques is discussed. Based upon personal experience and the data in CT literature, and if performed with updated technology and intraarterial injection (lipiodol), CT is the method of choice in order to supplement US in the evaluation of HCC.

  12. Clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma: Back to the basics for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sakhuja, Puja; Mishra, Pramod K; Rajesh, R; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Gondal, Ranjana; Singh, Meeta

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer world-wide with a higher incidence in Asia. Clear cell variant of HCC (CCHCC) has a frequency ranging from 0.4% to 37%. The presence of 90-100% clear cells is rare. In the present case, a 35-year-old female patient presented with fever and a large abdominal mass in the right hypochondrium. Histology of the tumor revealed >95% clear cells and after taking multiple sections from different areas of tumor only few scattered cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm were found. Immunohistochemistry with Hep Par 1, Glypican 3 and polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen were negative as were all other markers for metastatic clear cell tumors. Histological diagnosis was based on routine H and E sections showing a histological pattern of architecture with thickened trabeculae. We describe a rare case of CCHCC with >95% clear cells and no immunoreactivity in tumor cells in a non-cirrhotic liver.

  13. Low dose irradiation facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma genesis involving HULC.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ge, Chang; Feng, Guoxing; Xiao, Huiwen; Dong, Jiali; Zhu, Changchun; Jiang, Mian; Cui, Ming; Fan, Saijun

    2018-03-24

    Irradiation exposure positive correlates with tumor formation, such as breast cancer and lung cancer. However, whether low dose irradiation induces hepatocarcinogenesis and the underlying mechanism remain poorly defined. In the present study, we reported that low dose irradiation facilitated the proliferation of hepatocyte through up-regulating HULC in vitro and in vivo. Low dose irradiation exposure elevated HULC expression level in hepatocyte. Deletion of heightened HULC erased the cells growth accelerated following low dose irradiation exposure. CDKN1, the neighbor gene of HULC, was down-regulated by overexpression of HULC following low dose irradiation exposure via complementary base pairing, resulting in promoting cell cycle process. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of low dose irradiation-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through HULC/CDKN1 signaling, and shed light on the potential risk of low dose irradiation for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in pre-clinical settings. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bridging locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Jason T; Devera, Michael B; Marsh, J Wallis; Fontes, Paulo; Amesur, Nikhil B; Holloway, Shane E; Nalesnik, Michael; Geller, David A; Steel, Jennifer L; Gamblin, T Clark

    2008-11-01

    The impact of locoregional therapy prior to liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma utilizing either transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), yttrium-90 ((90)Y), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or resection prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is largely unknown. We sought to examine locoregional therapies and their effect on survival compared with transplantation alone. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. 123 patients were included. Patients were analyzed in two groups. Group I consisted of 50 patients that received therapy (20 TACE; 16 (90)Y; 13 RFA, 3 resections). Group II consisted of 73 patients transplanted without therapy. Median list time was 28 days (range 2-260 days ) in group I, and 24 days (range 1-380 days) in group II. Median time from therapy to OLT was 3.8 months (range 9 days to 68 months). Twelve patients (24%) were successfully downstaged (8 TACE, 2 (90)Y, 2 RFA/resection). Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were 81%, 74%, and 74%, respectively. Survival was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.53). The 12 patients downstaged did not have a significant difference in survival as compared with the patients who received therapy but did not respond or the patients who were transplanted without therapy (P = 0.76). Our report addresses locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma as a bridge to transplant. There was no statistical difference in overall survival between patients treated and those not treated prior to transplant. We provide further evidence that locoregional therapy is a safe tool for patients on the transplant list, does not impact survival, and can downstage selected patients to allow life-saving liver transplantation.

  15. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roomi, M Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  16. Safety validation of decision trees for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Qiang; Liu, Zhe; Lv, Wen-Ping; Luo, Ying; Yang, Guang-Yun; Li, Chong-Hui; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Liu, Yang; Xu, Ke-Sen; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-08-21

    To evaluate a different decision tree for safe liver resection and verify its efficiency. A total of 2457 patients underwent hepatic resection between January 2004 and December 2010 at the Chinese PLA General Hospital, and 634 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were eligible for the final analyses. Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was identified by the association of prothrombin time < 50% and serum bilirubin > 50 μmol/L (the "50-50" criteria), which were assessed at day 5 postoperatively or later. The Swiss-Clavien decision tree, Tokyo University-Makuuchi decision tree, and Chinese consensus decision tree were adopted to divide patients into two groups based on those decision trees in sequence, and the PHLF rates were recorded. The overall mortality and PHLF rate were 0.16% and 3.0%. A total of 19 patients experienced PHLF. The numbers of patients to whom the Swiss-Clavien, Tokyo University-Makuuchi, and Chinese consensus decision trees were applied were 581, 573, and 622, and the PHLF rates were 2.75%, 2.62%, and 2.73%, respectively. Significantly more cases satisfied the Chinese consensus decision tree than the Swiss-Clavien decision tree and Tokyo University-Makuuchi decision tree (P < 0.01,P < 0.01); nevertheless, the latter two shared no difference (P = 0.147). The PHLF rate exhibited no significant difference with respect to the three decision trees. The Chinese consensus decision tree expands the indications for hepatic resection for HCC patients and does not increase the PHLF rate compared to the Swiss-Clavien and Tokyo University-Makuuchi decision trees. It would be a safe and effective algorithm for hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. An atypical age-specific pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma in Peru: a threat for Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Stéphane; Pineau, Pascal; Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma in urban born blacks: frequency and relation to hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, M C; Kassianides, C; Hodkinson, J; Coppin, A; Paterson, A C

    1986-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is far less common in urban born than in rural born southern African blacks, who also have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. A case-control study was carried out to determine the relative frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma and its relation to hepatitis B virus infection in urban born blacks. Three hundred and ninety two black patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and matched controls seen at two city hospitals were classified by questioning as urban born or rural born. The ratio of rural born to urban born blacks among the controls was 1.1:1.0 (207/185), whereas in the patients with cancer the ratio was 4.8:1.0 (324/68) (p less than 0.0001). Analysis of the prevalence of hepatitis B markers in 62 urban born and matched rural born blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma showed no differences in the frequency of current or past hepatitis B virus infection. It is concluded that urban born blacks are less likely than rural born blacks to develop hepatocellular carcinoma, but when they do the tumour is equally likely to be related to infection with hepatitis B virus. The findings lend further support to an important role for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:3024771

  19. Decreased Expression of EHD2 Promotes Tumor Metastasis and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Ni, Wenkai; Qu, Lishuai; Cui, Xiaopeng; Lin, Zhipeng; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Huiling; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-09-01

    Metastasis remains the most common cause of lethal outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Understanding molecular mechanisms that regulate metastasis process is crucial for improving treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we examined whether Eps15 homology domain-containing 2 (EHD2) played a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and explored the possible mechanism. EHD2 and E-cadherin expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing assay and trans-well assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was analyzed by immunofluorescence, and the vital markers were detected by Western blotting. The correlation of EHD2 and E-cadherin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. EHD2 expression, along with the epithelial marker E-cadherin, was markedly reduced in tumor tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, EHD2 was positively correlated with E-cadherin, histological grade, tumor metastasis, and microvascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with decreased EHD2 expression had shorter overall survival times than those with higher EHD2 expression. Knockdown of EHD2 induced an increase in cell invasion and changes characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, while overexpression of EHD2 inhibited these processes. Molecular data indicated that EHD2 inhibited migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma probably by interacting with E-cadherin and it might be an independent, significant risk factor for survival after curative resection.

  20. Expression of Fra-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Qiang; Ge, Yong-Sheng; Shu, Qing-Hua; Ma, Hua-Xing

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the clinical significance and prognostic value of Fra-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative resection. Fra-1 expression was investigated using a combination of techniques: immunohistochemistry for 66 samples of hepatocellular carcinoma and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays for 19 matched hepatocellular carcinoma specimens. Fra-1 was present in 38 of 66 (57.6%) tumor tissues, with intense staining in the nuclei. There was also positive staining in 14 of 66 (21.2%) adjacent peritumoral tissues, with weak staining in the cytoplasm. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays confirmed higher expression of Fra-1 messenger RNA and Fra-1 protein in tumor tissues than adjacent non-tumor tissues for 19 hepatocellular carcinoma samples (p < 0.001). Positive expression of Fra-1 was significantly related to vascular invasion and serum alpha-fetoprotein. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis found that overexpressed Fra-1 was correlated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis identified Fra-1 as an independent prognostic factor. Fra-1 may be involved in the progress of hepatocellular carcinoma and could be a promising molecular candidate in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Antiangiogenic activity of vitexicarpine in experimentally induced hepatocellular carcinoma: Impact on vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Shimaa M; Abdel-Rahman, Noha; Eladl, Entsar I; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2017-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays important roles in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. The antiangiogenic mechanisms of vitexicarpine are not fully defined. Therefore, we conducted the following study to evaluate the antiangiogenic mechanism and antitumor activity of vitexicarpine in vivo model of hepatocellular carcinoma through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by thioacetamide. Hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed by measuring serum alpha-fetoprotein and investigating liver sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Hepatocellular carcinoma rats were injected with vitexicarpine (150 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein and expression of hepatic phospho-Ser473-AKT (p-AKT) and phospho-Tyr419-Src (p-Src) were determined. The apoptotic pathway was evaluated by assessment of protein expression of caspase-3. Vitexicarpine increased rats' survival time and decreased serum alpha-fetoprotein as well as it ameliorated fibrosis and massive hepatic tissue breakdown. It attenuated hepatocellular carcinoma-induced protein and gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, p-AKT, p-Src, and caspase-3. In conclusion, this study suggests that vitexicarpine possesses both antiangiogenic and antitumor activities through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor, p-AKT/AKT, and p-Src with subsequent inhibition of apoptotic pathway.

  2. On-treatment decrease of NKG2D correlates to early emergence of clinically evident hepatocellular carcinoma after interferon-free therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Sung; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Taniki, Nobuhito; Ojiro, Keisuke; Amiya, Takeru; Makita, Yuko; Murata, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shiba, Shunsuke; Miyake, Rei; Katayama, Tadashi; Ugamura, Aya; Ikura, Akihiko; Takeda, Karin; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i.e., during the 6-month surveillance period following treatment.) recurrence or occurrence of clinically evident HCC. We also analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, both before treatment and at end of treatment (EOT), of 24 of the patients who received IFN-free DAAs, and 16 who received IFN-combined protease inhibitor. We found early emergence of clinically evident HCC after IFN-free DAAs in 12 (12%) patients. Higher pre-treatment NKG2D expression, higher FIB-4 score, previous HCC history and failure to achieve sustained viral response were significant factors correlating to early HCC emergence. After IFN-free DAAs, a rapid decrease of NKG2D at EOT correlated with early HCC emergence in the IFN-free DAA-treated patients, but not in patients treated with the IFN-combined regimen. The decrease of NKG2D until EOT was predictive of early HCC emergence at a cut-off of -52% (AUC = 0.92). On-treatment decrease of NKG2D may be a useful predictor of early emerging HCC in patients treated with IFN-free DAAs.

  3. Placenta growth factor not vascular endothelial growth factor A or C can predict the early recurrence after radical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lee, Hsinyu; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Shun, Chia-Tung; Chang, Chi-Lun; Lai, Yeun-Tyng; Lee, Po-Huang

    2007-06-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PlGF in tumor tissue and clinical outcomes in HCC patients. Tumor PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C mRNA were analyzed. Results demonstrated that patients with PlGF expression levels higher than median tended to have early recurrence compared to patients with PlGF expression lower than median (P=.031). In patients with AJCC stage II-III disease, this difference was even more significant (P=.002). In contrast, VEGF-A and VEGF-C could not predict early recurrence-free survival. Since PlGF expression correlated with early recurrence of HCC, PlGF may be an important prognostic indicator in HCC.

  4. Post-recurrence survival in hepatocellular carcinoma after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Del Prete, Valentina; Antonino, Matteo; Crucinio, Nicola; Neve, Viviana; Di Leo, Alfredo; Carr, Brian I; Barone, Michele

    2014-11-01

    Overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is influenced by both recurrence and successive treatments. We investigated post-recurrence survival after radiofrequency ablation. Data on 103 early/intermediate patients initially treated with radiofrequency ablation and followed for a median of 78 months (range 68-82) were retrospectively analysed. If intrahepatic disease recurrence occurred within or contiguous to the previously treated area it was defined as local, otherwise as distant; recurrence classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C was defined by neoplastic portal vein thrombosis or metastases. A total of 103 patients were included (82.5% male; median age 70 years, range 39-86). During follow-up, 64 recurrences were observed. Median overall survival was 62 months (95% confidence interval: 54-78) and survival rates were 97%, 65% and 52% at 1, 4 and 5 years, respectively. Median post-recurrence survival was 22 months (95% confidence interval: 16-35). Child-Pugh score, performance status, sum of tumour diameters at recurrence and recurrence patterns were independent predictors of post-recurrence survival. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation, clinical and tumour parameters assessed at relapse, in particular the type of recurrence pattern, influence post-recurrence survival. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From diagnosis to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: An epidemic problem for both developed and developing world

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Damaskos, Christos; Valsami, Serena; Davakis, Spyridon; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Athanasiou, Antonios; Moris, Demetrios; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Kykalos, Stylianos; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Garmpi, Anna; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver malignancy and the third cause of cancer-related death in the Western Countries. The well-established causes of HCC are chronic liver infections such as hepatitis B virus or chronic hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, consumption of aflatoxins and tobacco smocking. Clinical presentation varies widely; patients can be asymptomatic while symptomatology extends from right upper abdominal quadrant paint and weight loss to obstructive jaundice and lethargy. Imaging is the first key and one of the most important aspects at all stages of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with HCC. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System remains the most widely classification system used for HCC management guidelines. Up until now, HCC remains a challenge to early diagnose, and treat effectively; treating management is focused on hepatic resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, ablative therapies, chemoembolization and systemic therapies with cytotocix drugs, and targeted agents. This review article describes the current evidence on epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28839428

  6. From diagnosis to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: An epidemic problem for both developed and developing world.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Damaskos, Christos; Valsami, Serena; Davakis, Spyridon; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Athanasiou, Antonios; Moris, Demetrios; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Kykalos, Stylianos; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Garmpi, Anna; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2017-08-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver malignancy and the third cause of cancer-related death in the Western Countries. The well-established causes of HCC are chronic liver infections such as hepatitis B virus or chronic hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, consumption of aflatoxins and tobacco smocking. Clinical presentation varies widely; patients can be asymptomatic while symptomatology extends from right upper abdominal quadrant paint and weight loss to obstructive jaundice and lethargy. Imaging is the first key and one of the most important aspects at all stages of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with HCC. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System remains the most widely classification system used for HCC management guidelines. Up until now, HCC remains a challenge to early diagnose, and treat effectively; treating management is focused on hepatic resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, ablative therapies, chemoembolization and systemic therapies with cytotocix drugs, and targeted agents. This review article describes the current evidence on epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. Liquid biopsy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: Circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Okajima, Wataru; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Ohashi, Takuma; Imamura, Taisuke; Kiuchi, Jun; Nishibeppu, Keiji; Arita, Tomohiro; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Morimura, Ryo; Ikoma, Hisashi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with its high incidence and mortality rate, is one of the most common malignant tumors. Despite recent development of a diagnostic and treatment method, the prognosis of HCC remains poor. Therefore, to provide optimal treatment for each patient with HCC, more precise and effective biomarkers are urgently needed which could facilitate a more detailed individualized decision-making during HCC treatment, including the following; risk assessment, early cancer detection, prediction of treatment or prognostic outcome. In the blood of cancer patients, accumulating evidence about circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids has suggested their potent clinical utilities as novel biomarker. This concept, so-called “liquid biopsy” is widely known as an alternative approach to cancer tissue biopsy. This method might facilitate a more sensitive diagnosis and better decision-making by obtaining genetic and epigenetic aberrations that are closely associated with cancer initiation and progression. In this article, we review recent developments based on the available literature on both circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids in cancer patients, especially focusing on Hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28883691

  8. Liquid biopsy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: Circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Wataru; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Ohashi, Takuma; Imamura, Taisuke; Kiuchi, Jun; Nishibeppu, Keiji; Arita, Tomohiro; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Morimura, Ryo; Ikoma, Hisashi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-08-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with its high incidence and mortality rate, is one of the most common malignant tumors. Despite recent development of a diagnostic and treatment method, the prognosis of HCC remains poor. Therefore, to provide optimal treatment for each patient with HCC, more precise and effective biomarkers are urgently needed which could facilitate a more detailed individualized decision-making during HCC treatment, including the following; risk assessment, early cancer detection, prediction of treatment or prognostic outcome. In the blood of cancer patients, accumulating evidence about circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids has suggested their potent clinical utilities as novel biomarker. This concept, so-called "liquid biopsy" is widely known as an alternative approach to cancer tissue biopsy. This method might facilitate a more sensitive diagnosis and better decision-making by obtaining genetic and epigenetic aberrations that are closely associated with cancer initiation and progression. In this article, we review recent developments based on the available literature on both circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids in cancer patients, especially focusing on Hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Critical reappraisal of risk factors for occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Savino; Savojardo, Daniela; Almasio, Piero L; Mondelli, Mario U

    2011-01-01

    More than one and half of current cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in the US, Europe, and Japan are attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is also the primary cause of death in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, with annual incidences of 0.5%–5% in Europe and 4%–10% in Asia. Screening is based on serum alpha-fetoprotein determination and liver ultrasound scan, but the sensitivity of the former is far less than optimal, and screening intervals are still poorly defined for the latter. Risk factors related to the host or environment, or both, appear to be more relevant than viral factors, such as HCV genotype, in determining disease progression to cirrhosis and cancer, and include age, male gender, severity of liver disease at presentation, coinfection with hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus, and alcohol abuse. Early liver transplantation in selected cases can be curative, but most patients are not eligible for liver grafting and are treated with locoregional ablative therapies, after which recurrence is common. Recently, orally available inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor have shown a significant, albeit modest, increment of survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, thus paving the way for modern molecular approaches to treatment of this highly malignant tumor. PMID:24367218

  10. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA linc-ITGB1 suppresses migration, invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating ZEB1.

    PubMed

    Yu, W-W; Wang, K; Liao, G-J

    2017-11-01

    This research focuses on the influence of linc-ITGB1 on the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and further explores its underlying mechanism. A total of 70 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were chosen for our study. RT-qPCR was used for detecting the expression level of linc-ITGB1 in their cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression level of linc-ITGB1 was also detected in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, whether linc-ITGB1 could affect the migrated and invaded ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. We further explored the potential mechanism by RT-qPCR and Western blot assay. Linc-ITGB1 expression level in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues was remarkably higher than that in adjacent tissues. Moreover, migrated and invaded ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was inhibited through knockdown of linc-ITGB1. Further study revealed that silenced linc-ITGB1 inhibited the expression of ZEB1 and then suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was important during the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the inhibition of cell invasion by silenced linc-ITGB1 could be rescued through overexpression of ZEB1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. The results indicate that linc-ITGB1, a novel oncogene in tumorigenesis, could promote the metastasis and EMT via ZEB1, which may offer a possible therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs) as novel potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jiahui; Wang, Jin; Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-mei

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising throughout the world. Accurate, noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of HCC are urgently needed to reduce worldwide morbidity and mortality related to HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 17- to 25-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in HCC, have shown great promise as tissue-based markers for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, they are stably expressed in serum and urine, and these circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs) are emerging as novel noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection and prognosis of HCC. This article summarizes the latest findings on the role of circulating miRNAs as potential minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HCC. PMID:23259781

  12. Natural history of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Parisi, Pietro; Peralta, Marco; Antonucci, Michela; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Cammà, Calogero; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito

    2012-09-27

    To investigate the clinical course of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) identified at any stage and to identify factors associated with mortality. From January 1999 to December 2010, 320 out of 825 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HCC and not appropriate for curative or palliative treatments were followed and managed with supportive therapy. Cirrhosis was diagnosed by histological or clinical features and liver function was evaluated according to Child-Pugh score. The diagnosis of HCC was performed by Ultra-Sound guided biopsy or by multiphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography or gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Data were collected for each patient including all clinical, laboratory and imaging variables necessary for the outcome prediction staging systems considered. HCC staging was performed according Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores. Follow-up time was defined as the number of months from the diagnosis of HCC to death. Prognostic baseline variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox analysis to identify the independent predictors of survival. Seventy-five per cent of patients had hepatitis C. Ascites was present in 169 patients (53%), while hepatic encephalopathy was present in 49 patients (15%). The Child-Pugh score was class A in 105 patients (33%), class B in 142 patients (44%), and class C in 73 patients (23%). One hundred patients (31%) had macroscopic vascular invasion and/or extra-hepatic spread of the tumor. A single lesion > 10 cm was observed in 34 patients (11%), while multinodular HCC was present in 189 patients (59%). Thirty nine patients (12%) were BCLC early (A) stage, 55 (17%) were BCLC intermediate (B) stage, 124 (39%) were BCLC advanced (C) stage, and 102 (32%) were end-stage BCLC (D). At the time of this analysis (July 2011), 28 (9%) patients were still alive. Six (2%) patients who were lost during follow-up were censored at the last visit. The overall

  13. GPX2 overexpression indicates poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Kan, Xue-Feng; Ma, Charlie; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Tian-Tian; Zou, Zhen-Wei; Li, Yong; Cao, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Yao, Jing; Li, Pin-Dong

    2017-06-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 2 has important role of tumor progression in lots of carcinomas, yet little is known about the prognosis of glutathione peroxidase 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Glutathione peroxidase 2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. The association between glutathione peroxidase 2 expression with clinicopathological/prognostic value was examined. Glutathione peroxidase 2 overexpression was correlated with alpha-fetoprotein level, larger tumor, BCLC stage, and tumor recurrence. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that glutathione peroxidase 2 was an independent predictor for overall survival and time to recurrence. glutathione peroxidase 2 overexpression was correlated with poor prognosis in patient subgroups stratified by tumor size, differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis, and BCLC stage. Moreover, stratified analysis showed that tumor-node-metastasis stage-I patients with high glutathione peroxidase 2 expression had poor prognosis than those with low glutathione peroxidase 2 expression. Additionally, combination of glutathione peroxidase 2 and serum alpha-fetoprotein was correlated with prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. In conclusion, glutathione peroxidase 2 overexpression contributes to poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients and helps to identify the high-risk hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  14. Synergistic growth inhibition by sorafenib and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Anran; Zhao, Yong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Jian; Gao, Jianfei; Fang, Dianchun; Rao, Zhiguo

    2012-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, especially for patients

  15. Changing incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying; Lin, Li-Yih

    2015-12-01

    This study examined and compared the incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan, 30 years after a universal hepatitis B virus immunization program was launched. Data for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in 2003-2011 were collected from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated to analyze and compare the changes in incidence rates and trends. More specific analyses were performed on four age groups separated by sex. A total of 82,856 patients were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in 2003-2011 in Taiwan, yielding an age-standardized incidence rate of 32.97 per 100,000 person-years. Hepatocellular carcinoma was predominantly diagnosed in middle-aged adults (50.1%) and elderly people (49.1%), in contrast to the low incidences in children (0.04%) and adolescents and young adults (0.8%). Striking variations in trends were found for children (annual percent change: -16.6%, 2003-2010) and adolescents and young adults (annual percent change: -7.9%, 2003-2011). The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children decreased to zero in 2011; only a slight decline in trends occurred for the middle-aged group (annual percent change: -2%, 2003-2011), and a slight upward trend was observed for elderly people (1.3%), specifically in women (1.7%). In Taiwan, hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma was nearly eradicated in children in 2011. The findings on age-specific incidence patterns and trends of hepatocellular carcinoma suggest that different control strategies for treating this devastating disease in the future be made according to age. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the Clinical Utility of Glypican 3 as a Serum Marker for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaobo; Gao, Yingtang; Zhai, Daokuan; Liu, Jiao; Cai, Junjun; Wang, Yajie; Jing, Li; Du, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    Glypican-3 has been reported to be one of the most promising serum markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to assess the clinical utility of serum glypican 3 for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. We recruited consecutive patients on a large scale, 283 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 445 with chronic hepatic diseases, and 162 normal controls, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum glypican 3 for hepatocellular carcinoma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we further analyzed the relationship between the serum levels of α-fetoprotein and glypican-3 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The results indicated that serum glypican 3 was elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (0 ng/mL, range = 0-14.0 ng/mL, P = .033) and liver cirrhosis (0 ng/mL, range = 0-12.5 ng/mL, P = .001) compared to the levels in normal control (0 ng/mL, range = 0-4.3 ng/mL), but there was no difference between hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis (P = .097). The area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics curve for hepatocellular carcinoma versus all controls was 0.519, with a sensitivity of 39.9%, a specificity of 60.6%, and an optimal cutoff value of 0.002 ng/mL. The positive and negative predictive values were 32.0% and 68.3%, respectively. No significant correlation in serum levels was observed between glypican 3 and α-fetoprotein (P > .05). The diagnostic sensitivity for hepatocellular carcinoma increased to 72.8% (206 of the 283) when glypican 3 was combined with α-fetoprotein. Glypican 3 was not a promising serum maker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma alone, but it could be complementary to α-fetoprotein and elevate the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Ya; Han, Guo-Qing; Liang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Li-Li; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Kun

    2015-09-28

    To evaluate the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). BALB/c nude mice were randomized into four groups 24 h before subcutaneous injection of hepatocarcinoma BEL7402 cells suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the right flank. The control group (n = 10) was fed a standard diet while treatment groups (n = 10 each) were fed a standard daily diet supplemented with different concentrations of UDCA (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg per day) for 21 d. Tumor growth was measured once each week, and tumor volume (V) was calculated with the following equation: V = (L × W(2)) × 0.52, where L is the length and W is the width of the xenograft. After 21 d, mice were killed under ether anesthesia, and tumors were excised and weighed. Apoptosis was evaluated through detection of DNA fragmentation with gel electrophoresis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL2, APAF1, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3. UDCA suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. The mean tumor volumes were the following: control, 1090 ± 89 mm(3); 30 mg/kg per day, 612 ± 46 mm(3); 50 mg/kg per day, 563 ± 38 mm(3); and 70 mg/kg per day, 221 ± 26 mm(3). Decreased tumor volumes reached statistical significance relative to control xenografts (30 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 50 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 70 mg/kg per day, P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of UDCA led to increased DNA fragmentation observed on gel electrophoresis and in the TUNEL assay (control, 1.6% ± 0.3%; 30 mg/kg per day, 2.9% ± 0.5%; 50 mg/kg per day, 3.15% ± 0.7%, and 70 mg/kg per day, 4.86% ± 0.9%). Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of BAX, APAF1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins, which induce apoptosis, but decreased expression of BCL2 protein, which

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Ya; Han, Guo-Qing; Liang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Li-Li; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were randomized into four groups 24 h before subcutaneous injection of hepatocarcinoma BEL7402 cells suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the right flank. The control group (n = 10) was fed a standard diet while treatment groups (n = 10 each) were fed a standard daily diet supplemented with different concentrations of UDCA (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg per day) for 21 d. Tumor growth was measured once each week, and tumor volume (V) was calculated with the following equation: V = (L × W2) × 0.52, where L is the length and W is the width of the xenograft. After 21 d, mice were killed under ether anesthesia, and tumors were excised and weighed. Apoptosis was evaluated through detection of DNA fragmentation with gel electrophoresis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL2, APAF1, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: UDCA suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. The mean tumor volumes were the following: control, 1090 ± 89 mm3; 30 mg/kg per day, 612 ± 46 mm3; 50 mg/kg per day, 563 ± 38 mm3; and 70 mg/kg per day, 221 ± 26 mm3. Decreased tumor volumes reached statistical significance relative to control xenografts (30 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 50 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 70 mg/kg per day, P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of UDCA led to increased DNA fragmentation observed on gel electrophoresis and in the TUNEL assay (control, 1.6% ± 0.3%; 30 mg/kg per day, 2.9% ± 0.5%; 50 mg/kg per day, 3.15% ± 0.7%, and 70 mg/kg per day, 4.86% ± 0.9%). Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of BAX, APAF1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins, which induce apoptosis, but decreased expression of BCL2

  19. Prognostic Impact of Indocyanine Green Plasma Disappearance Rate in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Radiofrequency Ablation: A Prognostic Nomogram Study

    PubMed Central

    Azumi, Motoi; Suda, Takeshi; Terai, Shuji; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2017-01-01

    Objective Radiofrequency ablation has been used widely for the local ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly in its early stages. The study aim was to identify significant prognostic factors and develop a predictive nomogram for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have undergone radiofrequency ablation. We also developed the formula to predict the probability of 3- and 5-year overall survival based on clinical variables. Methods We retrospectively studied 96 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had undergone radiofrequency ablation as a first-line treatment. Independent and significant factors affecting the overall survival were selected using a Cox proportional hazards model, and a prognostic nomogram was developed based on these factors. The predictive accuracy of the nomogram was determined by Harrell's concordance index and compared with the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score and Japan Integrated Staging score. Results A multivariate analysis revealed that age, indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, and log(des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin) level were independent and significant factors influencing the overall survival. The nomogram was based on these three factors. The mean concordance index of the nomogram was 0.74±0.08, which was significantly better than that of conventional staging systems using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (0.54±0.03) and Japan Integrated Staging score (0.59±0.07). Conclusion This study suggested that the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate and age at radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) are good predictors of the prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after radiofrequency ablation. We successfully developed a nomogram using obtainable variables before treatment. PMID:28458303

  20. Prognostic Impact of Indocyanine Green Plasma Disappearance Rate in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Radiofrequency Ablation: A Prognostic Nomogram Study.

    PubMed

    Azumi, Motoi; Suda, Takeshi; Terai, Shuji; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2017-01-01

    Objective Radiofrequency ablation has been used widely for the local ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly in its early stages. The study aim was to identify significant prognostic factors and develop a predictive nomogram for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have undergone radiofrequency ablation. We also developed the formula to predict the probability of 3- and 5-year overall survival based on clinical variables. Methods We retrospectively studied 96 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had undergone radiofrequency ablation as a first-line treatment. Independent and significant factors affecting the overall survival were selected using a Cox proportional hazards model, and a prognostic nomogram was developed based on these factors. The predictive accuracy of the nomogram was determined by Harrell's concordance index and compared with the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score and Japan Integrated Staging score. Results A multivariate analysis revealed that age, indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, and log (des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin) level were independent and significant factors influencing the overall survival. The nomogram was based on these three factors. The mean concordance index of the nomogram was 0.74±0.08, which was significantly better than that of conventional staging systems using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (0.54±0.03) and Japan Integrated Staging score (0.59±0.07). Conclusion This study suggested that the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate and age at radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) are good predictors of the prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after radiofrequency ablation. We successfully developed a nomogram using obtainable variables before treatment.

  1. Bacoside A downregulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Geetha, Arumugam; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2010-03-01

    Cancer metastasis is a complex multi-step process, responsible for a majority of cancer-related deaths by affecting the critical organs and causing complications in therapies. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a multi-factorial disease and is the third most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in tumor invasion and metastases and their elevated expression has been associated with poor prognosis. Our recent studies showed a strong anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective effects of bacoside A (BA) against carcinogen. Nevertheless the effect of BA on the activities and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 during hepatocellular carcinoma is not yet recognized. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the same. Results of gelatin zymography study showed that BA co-treatment significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which is increased during hepatocellular carcinoma. Further immunoblot analysis showed decreased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rats co-treated with BA compared to DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results reveal that BA exerts its anti-metastatic effect against DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the activities and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Anticancer effects of deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianfeng; Xiang, Yanjie; Lin, Shengming; Xin, Dongwei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Weng, Lingling; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Minguang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in the world whose chemoprevention became increasingly important in HCC treatment. Although the anticancer effects of asparagus constituents have been investigated in several cancers, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma have not been fully studied. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on the hepatocellular carcinoma cells using the in vitro and in vivo experimental model. Our data showed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might act as an effective inhibitor on cell growth in vitro and in vivo and exert potent selective cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. Further study showed that it could potently induce cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in the more sensitive Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Moreover, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide potentiated the effects of mitomycin both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might exert its activity through an apoptosis-associated pathway by modulating the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. In conclusion, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide exhibited significant anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cells and could sensitize the tumoricidal effects of mitomycin, indicating that it is a potential therapeutic agent (or chemosensitizer) for liver cancer therapy.

  3. The correlation between NK cell and liver function in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei Hong; Zeng, Xiao Hui; Min, Lu

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to detect the expression of natural killer (NK) cell receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) in the peripheral blood of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and to discuss the correlation between NK cell cytotoxicity and liver function. The number of NK cells and the expression of NK cell receptor NKG2D in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, and healthy controls. When compared with patients in the healthy and the chronic hepatitis B groups, the primary hepatocellular carcinoma group showed significant decreases in all parameters, including the cytotoxicity of NK cells on K562 cells, expression rate of NKG2D in NK cells, number of NKG2D(+) NK cells, expression level of NKG2D, and number of NK cells (p<0.05). The activity of NK cells showed a positive correlation, whereas the Child-Pugh scores in the primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the hepatitis B cirrhosis groups showed a negative correlation with all parameters detected above. The decrease of NK cell activity in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma is closely related to their lower expression of NKG2D. Liver function affects the expression of NKG2D and the activity of NK cells.

  4. Sequential development of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver angiosarcoma in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Sarcognato, Samantha; Pelletti, Guido; Fassan, Matteo; Murer, Bruno; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-11-01

    Strong experimental and clinical evidences have definitely linked occupational vinyl chloride exposure to development of angiosarcoma of the liver. In contrast, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer having included vinyl chloride among the causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, the association between vinyl chloride exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma remains debated. This issue is relevant, because occupational exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride may still occur. We report a unique case of sequential occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma of the liver, in a vinyl chloride-exposed worker without cirrhosis and any known risk factor for chronic liver disease. Both the hepatocellular carcinoma and the surrounding normal liver showed micronucleus formation, which reflects genotoxic effect of vinyl chloride. Angiosarcoma showed a KRAS G12D point mutation, which is considered to be characteristic of vinyl chloride-induced angiosarcoma. This case supports the pathogenic role of vinyl chloride in both hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. FXR induces SOCS3 and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Peng; Huang, Gang; Chen, Shan; Lyu, Xilin; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Yijun; Wang, Shuguang; He, Fengtian

    2015-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is regarded as a vital repressor in the liver carcinogenesis mainly by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity. Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), highly expressed in liver, has an important role in protecting against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is unclear whether the tumor suppressive activity of FXR involves the regulation of SOCS3. In the present study, we found that activation of FXR by its specific agonist GW4064 in HCC cells inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, elevated p21 expression and repressed STAT3 activity. The above anti-tumor effects of FXR were dramatically alleviated by knockdown of SOCS3 with siRNA. Reporter assay revealed that FXR activation enhanced the transcriptional activity of SOCS3 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay displayed that FXR directly bound to IR9 DNA motif within SOCS3 promoter region. The in vivo study in nude mice showed that treatment with FXR ligand GW4064 could decelerate the growth of HCC xenografts, up-regulate SOCS3 and p21 expression and inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in the xenografts. These results suggest that induction of SOCS3 may be a novel mechanism by which FXR exerts its anti-HCC effects, and the FXR-SOCS3 signaling may serve as a new potential target for the prevention/treatment of HCC. PMID:26416445

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level. PMID:26955390

  7. Interventional Oncology in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Progress Through Innovation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lin; Chapiro, Julius; Stringam, Jeremiah; Geschwind, Jean-François

    The clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma has evolved greatly in the last decade mostly through recent technical innovations. In particular, the application of cutting-edge image guidance has led to minimally invasive solutions for complex clinical problems and rapid advances in the field of interventional oncology. Many image-guided therapies, such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, have meanwhile been fully integrated into interdisciplinary clinical practice, whereas others are currently being investigated. This review summarizes and evaluates the most relevant completed and ongoing clinical trials, provides a synopsis of recent innovations in the field of intraprocedural imaging and tumor response assessment, and offers an outlook on new technologies, such as radiopaque embolic materials. In addition, combination therapies consisting of locoregional therapies and systemic molecular targeted agents (e.g., sorafenib) remain of major interest to the field and are also discussed. Finally, we address the many substantial advances in immune response pathways that have been related to the systemic effects of locoregional therapies. Knowledge of these new developments is crucial as they continue to shape the future of cancer treatment, further establishing interventional oncology along with surgical, medical, and radiation oncology as the fourth pillar of cancer care.

  8. Definition of tumor-associated antigens in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stenner-Liewen, F; Luo, G; Sahin, U; Tureci, O; Koslovski, M; Kautz, I; Liewen, H; Pfreundschuh, M

    2000-03-01

    With an estimated annual incidence of about one million cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide. Of all malignant diseases, it is the major cause of death in some regions of Africa and Asia. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for HCC are not well defined, and therapeutic means, especially in inoperable HCCs, are still unsatisfactory and await improvement. In the quest for tumor antigens exploitable for gene therapy, we studied immune responses in the context of HCC. A cDNA library derived from a human HCC sample was screened using the SEREX approach. Nineteen distinct antigens reactive with autologous IgG were identified. Sequence analysis revealed three of the cDNA clones to code for hitherto unknown proteins and 16 known genes products. Proteins as diverse in function as LDH, albumin, and kinectin were found. Furthermore, proteins involved in the transcription/translation machinery had elicited an immune response in the autologous host. A panel of allogenic sera including sera from patients with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, HCC, and other tumor entities, as well as sera from normal individuals, was used for frequency analysis of antibody responses. Whereas allogenic sera of HCC patients detected most antigens at a high percentage, control sera were rarely antibody-positive. The nature of the major fraction of antigens described here are linked to liver. Thus, our findings demonstrate not only the complexity of the humoral immune response against HCC, but may also offer new insight into mechanisms underlying transformation of the liver cell.

  9. A survey on herbal management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie; Nazmy, Maiiada Hasan; Mahmoud, Ahmed Wahid; Fawzy, Michael Atef; Youssof, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this review we outline the different mechanisms mediating hepatocarcinogenesis. We also discuss possible targets of bioactive herbal agents at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and highlight their role at each individual stage. We gathered information on the most common herbal prescriptions and extracts thought to be useful in prevention or sensitization for chemotherapy in management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The value of this topic may seem questionable compared to the promise offered for HCC management by chemotherapy and radiation. However, we would recommend the use of herbal preparations not as alternatives to common chemo /and or radiotherapy, but rather for prevention among at-risk individuals, given that drug/herb interactions are still in need of extensive clarification. The bioactive constituents of various herbs seem to be promising targets for isolation, cancer activity screening and clinical evaluation. Finally, herbal preparations may offer a cost effective protective alternative to individuals known to have a high risk for HCC and possibly other cancers, through maintaining cell integrity, reversing oxidative stress and modulating different molecular pathways in preventing carcinogenesis. PMID:21866249

  10. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  11. [Detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mu, Hong; Lin, Kaixuan; Zhao, Hong; Li, Cong; Sun, Yulin; Cai, Jianqiang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2014-04-01

    To explore the detection efficiency of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunomagnetic negative enrichment by nanometer magnetic beads and label-free capture with Captor(TM) system were used to isolate and enrich CTCs from peripheral blood of HCC patients, and epithelial and HCC markers were applied to identify CTCs by immunofluorescence staining. CTCs were detected in 50 HCC patients before and after hepatectomy to test the method for isolation, enrichment and identification. The dynamic changes of pre- and post-operative CTCs' numbers were compared. The clinical data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software. Negative enrichment methods by nanometer magnetic beads and label-free capture using Captor(TM) system were both suitable for CTCs isolation and enrichment in HCC patients. The positive detection rate of CTCs in HCC patients via negative enrichment was 96.0% (48/50), the preoperative median number of CTCs was 16 per 7.5 ml blood, and the postoperative median number was 17 per 7.5 ml blood. Both negative enrichment and Captor(TM) system are suitable for isolation and enrichment of CTCs in HCC patients. There is a significant difference in the numbers of CTCs before and after operation, and dynamic detection of CTCs will provide helpful prognostic information for HCC patients in clinics.

  12. Role of nonresolving inflammation in hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le-Xing; Ling, Yan; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a leading cause of cancer-related death, making the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms an urgent priority. Inflammation is an adaptive response to infection and tissue injury under strict regulations. When the host regulatory machine runs out of control, nonresolving inflammation occurs. Nonresolving inflammation is a recognized hallmark of cancer that substantially contributes to the development and progression of HCC. The HCC-associated inflammation can be initiated and propagated by extrinsic pathways through activation of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) derived from gut microflora or damage-associated molecule patterns (DAMPs) released from dying liver cells. The inflammation can also be orchestrated by the tumor itself through secreting factors that recruit inflammatory cells to the tumor favoring the buildup of a microenvironment. Accumulating datas from human and mouse models showed that inflammation promotes HCC development by promoting proliferative and survival signaling, inducing angiogenesis, evading immune surveillance, supporting cancer stem cells, activating invasion and metastasis as well as inducing genomic instability. Targeting inflammation may represent a promising avenue for the HCC treatment. Some inhibitors targeting inflammatory pathways have been developed and under different stages of clinical trials, and one (sorafenib) have been approved by FDA. However, as most of the data were obtained from animal models, and there is a big difference between human HCC and mouse HCC models, it is challenging on successful translation from bench to bedside.

  13. Vitamin K and hepatocellular carcinoma: The basic and clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jinghe, Xia; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Iwata

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K (VK), which was originally identified as a cofactor involved in the production of functional coagulation factors in the liver, has been shown to be involved in various aspects of physiological and pathological events, including bone metabolism, cardiovascular diseases and tumor biology. The mechanisms and roles of VK are gradually becoming clear. Several novel enzymes involved in the VK cycle were identified and have been shown to be linked to tumorigenesis. The VKs have been shown to suppress liver cancer cell growth through multiple signaling pathways via the transcription factors and protein kinases. A VK2 analog was applied to the chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after curative therapy and was shown to have beneficial effects, both in the suppression of HCC recurrence and in patient survival. Although a large scale randomized control study failed to demonstrate the suppression of HCC recurrence, a meta-analysis suggested a beneficial effect on the long-term survival of HCC patients. However, the beneficial effects of VK administration alone were not sufficient to prevent or treat HCC in clinical settings. Thus its combination with other anti-cancer reagents and the development of more potent novel VK derivatives are the focus of ongoing research which seeks to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects against HCC. PMID:26380822

  14. Vitamin K and hepatocellular carcinoma: The basic and clinic.

    PubMed

    Jinghe, Xia; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Iwata

    2015-09-16

    Vitamin K (VK), which was originally identified as a cofactor involved in the production of functional coagulation factors in the liver, has been shown to be involved in various aspects of physiological and pathological events, including bone metabolism, cardiovascular diseases and tumor biology. The mechanisms and roles of VK are gradually becoming clear. Several novel enzymes involved in the VK cycle were identified and have been shown to be linked to tumorigenesis. The VKs have been shown to suppress liver cancer cell growth through multiple signaling pathways via the transcription factors and protein kinases. A VK2 analog was applied to the chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after curative therapy and was shown to have beneficial effects, both in the suppression of HCC recurrence and in patient survival. Although a large scale randomized control study failed to demonstrate the suppression of HCC recurrence, a meta-analysis suggested a beneficial effect on the long-term survival of HCC patients. However, the beneficial effects of VK administration alone were not sufficient to prevent or treat HCC in clinical settings. Thus its combination with other anti-cancer reagents and the development of more potent novel VK derivatives are the focus of ongoing research which seeks to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects against HCC.

  15. Computed tomography predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma tumour necrosis after chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Mary K; Dorn, David P; Zarzour, Jessica; Smith, J Kevin; Redden, David T; Saddekni, Souheil; Aal, Ahmed Kamel Abdel; Gray, Stephen H; Eckhoff, Devin E; DuBay, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiographical features associated with a favourable response to trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are poorly defined for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods From 2008 to 2012, all first TACE interventions for HCC performed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients with a pre-TACE and a post-TACE computed tomography (CT) scan were included in the analyses (n = 115). HCC tumour response to TACE was quantified via the the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria. Univariate and multivariable analyses were constructed. Results The index HCC tumours experienced a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis in 59/115 (51%) of patients after the first TACE intervention. On univariate analysis, smaller tumour size, peripheral tumour location and arterial enhancement were associated with a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis, whereas, only smaller tumour size [odds ratio (OR) 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48, 0.81] and peripheral location (OR 6.91; 95% CI 1.75, 27.29) were significant on multivariable analysis. There was a trend towards improved survival in the patients that experienced a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis (P = 0.08). Conclusions Peripherally located smaller HCC tumours are most likely to experience a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis after TACE. Surprisingly, arterial-phase enhancement and portal venous-phase washout were not significantly predictive of TACE-induced tumour necrosis. The TACE response was not statistically associated with improved survival. PMID:23980917

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma in biliary atresia: King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Hadžić, Nedim; Quaglia, Alberto; Portmann, Bernard; Paramalingam, Saravanakumar; Heaton, Nigel D; Rela, Mohamed; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Davenport, Mark

    2011-10-01

    To establish risks for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in children with biliary atresia (BA), the most common chronic liver disease of childhood. In our tertiary referral center database we have identified children with BA who had development of or have been incidentally found to have HCC. Their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and histologic features were analyzed. Between 1990 and 2008, 387 infants were diagnosed with BA at our center. Of these, three (0.8 %) who underwent operation at a median age of 68 (range 66 to 71) days had development of a histologically proven HCC detected at a median age of 2.1 (range 1.8 to 4.9) years. Another two, referred later, were diagnosed with HCC on their liver explants at ages 1.1 and 17.75 years, respectively. Overall, two had elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein. All five children underwent successful liver transplantation at a median age of 2.1 years (range 1.1 to 17.75) and remain well after a median of 2.5 (range 2 to 5.7) years. HCC develops in a small percentage of children with BA. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and ultrasound screening are helpful but not absolute markers of the malignant change. In the absence of the extrahepatic involvement, liver transplantation represents an effective treatment. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquid Biopsy and its Potential for Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Ao; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We summarized the recent findings of liquid biopsy in cancer field and discussed its potential utility in hepatocellular carcinoma. Literature published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Direct electronic databases was searched and reviewed. Liquid biopsy specially referred to the detection of nucleic acids (circulating cell-free DNA, cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients. Compared to conventional single-site sampling or biopsy method, liquid biopsy had the advantages such as non-invasiveness, dynamic monitoring, and the most important of all, overcoming the limit of spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The genomic information of cancer could be profiled by genotyping cfDNA/CTC and subsequently applied to make molecular classification, targeted therapy guidance, and unveil drug resistance mechanisms. The serial sampling feature of liquid biopsy made it possible to monitor treatment response in a real-time manner and predict tumor metastasis/recurrence in advance. Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive, dynamic, and informative sampling method with important clinical translational significance in cancer research and practice. Much work needs to be done before it is used in the management of HCC.

  18. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Memeo, Riccardo; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Giampieri, Riccardo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Del Prete, Michela; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80-90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease.

  19. Changes in arginase isoenzymes pattern in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowska, Alicja; Krawczyk, Marek; Baranczyk-Kuzma, Anna

    2008-12-12

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors worldwide affecting preferentially patients with liver cirrhosis. The studies were performed on tissues obtained during surgery from 50 patients with HCC, 40 with liver cirrhosis and 40 control livers. It was found that arginase activity in HCC was nearly 5- and 15-fold lower than in cirrhotic and normal livers, respectively. Isoenzymes AI (so-called liver-type arginase) and AII (extrahepatic arginase) were identified by Western blotting in all studied tissues, however the amount of AI, as well as the expression of AI-mRNA were lower in HCC, in comparison with normal liver, andmore » those of AII were significantly higher. Since HCC is arginine-dependent, and arginine is essential for cells growth, the decrease of AI may preserve this amino acid within tumor cells. Concurrently, the rise of AII can increase the level of polyamines, compounds crucial for cells proliferation. Thus, both arginase isoenzymes seem to participate in liver cancerogenesis.« less

  20. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2010-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.

  1. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Riad, Sandra; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death). Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death). PMID:25685789

  2. Genome-wide identification of RNA editing in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Gong, Zhoulin; Zheng, Hancheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Hardwick, James; Dai, Hongyue; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Ronghua

    2015-02-01

    We did whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing on nine pairs of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and matched adjacent tissues to identify RNA editing events. We identified mean 26,982 editing sites with mean 89.5% canonical A→G edits in each sample using an improved bioinformatics pipeline. The editing rate was significantly higher in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. Comparing the difference between tumor and normal tissues of each patient, we found 7 non-synonymous tissue specific editing events including 4 tumor-specific edits and 3 normal-specific edits in the coding region, as well as 292 edits varying in editing degree. The significant expression changes of 150 genes associated with RNA editing were found in tumors, with 3 of the 4 most significant genes being cancer related. Our results show that editing might be related to higher gene expression. These findings indicate that RNA editing modification may play an important role in the development of HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of personalized dysregulated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Xiumei; Zhu, Shengjie; Sui, Lihong

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy, and ranks the fifth most prevalent malignant tumors worldwide. In general, HCC are detected until the disease is at an advanced stage and may miss the best chance for treatment. Thus, elucidating the molecular mechanisms is critical to clinical diagnosis and treatment for HCC. The purpose of this study was to identify dysregulated pathways of great potential functional relevance in the progression of HCC. Microarray data of 72 pairs of tumor and matched non-tumor surrounding tissues of HCC were transformed to gene expression data. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) between patients and normal controls were identified using Linear Models for Microarray Analysis. Personalized dysregulated pathways were identified using individualized pathway aberrance score module. 169 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were obtained with |logFC|≥1.5 and P≤0.01. 749 dysregulated pathways were obtained with P≤0.01 in pathway statistics, and there were 93 DEG overlapped in the dysregulated pathways. After performing normal distribution analysis, 302 pathways with the aberrance probability≥0.5 were identified. By ranking pathway with aberrance probability, the top 20 pathways were obtained. Only three DEGs (TUBA1C, TPR, CDC20) were involved in the top 20 pathways. These personalized dysregulated pathways and overlapped genes may give new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms in the progression of HCC. Particular attention can be focused on them for further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Western and Eastern surgeons' points of view.

    PubMed

    Vibert, E; Ishizawa, T

    2012-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Developed on a pathological liver in 90% of cases, theoretically liver transplantation (LT) is its best treatment because it cures both malignancy and cause of malignancy, the underlying pathological liver. Cadaveric donors are the main source of liver in Western countries as France and living donors are the rules in Eastern countries as Japan. Because organ shortage could impact choices in HCC treatments, it was interesting to compare a Western and Eastern surgeon's points of view about treatment of HCC to assess if the source of organs has modified therapeutic strategies. Hence, aim of this work was to compare points of view of two hepatobiliary and transplant surgeons specialized in the treatment of HCC in France and Japan concerning five keys points that are decisive to choose one of the two curative treatments in HCC on pathological liver: liver resection or LT. These questions included the definition of an oncological treatment of HCC, the assessment of liver function, the treatment of HCC recurrences, the incidence of pathological information on therapeutic strategy and potential future therapeutics strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Zebrafish as a disease model for studying human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Ho, Yi-Jung; Yang, Yi-Ju; Liao, Heng-An; Ciou, Shih-Ci; Lin, Liang-In; Ou, Da-Liang

    2015-11-14

    Liver cancer is one of the world's most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary hepatic cancer, accounts for 90%-95% of liver cancer cases. The pathogenesis of HCC consists of a stepwise process of liver damage that extends over decades, due to hepatitis, fatty liver, fibrosis, and cirrhosis before developing fully into HCC. Multiple risk factors are highly correlated with HCC, including infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses, alcohol abuse, aflatoxin exposure, and metabolic diseases. Over the last decade, genetic alterations, which include the regulation of multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and the activation of tumorigenesis-related pathways, have also been identified as important factors in HCC. Recently, zebrafish have become an important living vertebrate model organism, especially for translational medical research. In studies focusing on the biology of cancer, carcinogen induced tumors in zebrafish were found to have many similarities to human tumors. Several zebrafish models have therefore been developed to provide insight into the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the related drug discovery and toxicology, and to enable the evaluation of novel small-molecule inhibitors. This review will focus on illustrative examples involving the application of zebrafish models to the study of human liver disease and HCC, through transgenesis, genome editing technology, xenografts, drug discovery, and drug-induced toxic liver injury.

  6. Zebrafish as a disease model for studying human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Ho, Yi-Jung; Yang, Yi-Ju; Liao, Heng-An; Ciou, Shih-Ci; Lin, Liang-In; Ou, Da-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of the world’s most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary hepatic cancer, accounts for 90%-95% of liver cancer cases. The pathogenesis of HCC consists of a stepwise process of liver damage that extends over decades, due to hepatitis, fatty liver, fibrosis, and cirrhosis before developing fully into HCC. Multiple risk factors are highly correlated with HCC, including infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses, alcohol abuse, aflatoxin exposure, and metabolic diseases. Over the last decade, genetic alterations, which include the regulation of multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and the activation of tumorigenesis-related pathways, have also been identified as important factors in HCC. Recently, zebrafish have become an important living vertebrate model organism, especially for translational medical research. In studies focusing on the biology of cancer, carcinogen induced tumors in zebrafish were found to have many similarities to human tumors. Several zebrafish models have therefore been developed to provide insight into the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the related drug discovery and toxicology, and to enable the evaluation of novel small-molecule inhibitors. This review will focus on illustrative examples involving the application of zebrafish models to the study of human liver disease and HCC, through transgenesis, genome editing technology, xenografts, drug discovery, and drug-induced toxic liver injury. PMID:26576090

  7. Asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted delivery of doxorubicin nanoparticles for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pranatharthiharan, Sandhya; Patel, Mitesh D; Malshe, Vinod C; Pujari, Vaishali; Gorakshakar, Ajit; Madkaikar, Manisha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Devarajan, Padma V

    2017-11-01

    We report asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Polyethylene sebacate (PES)-Gantrez® AN 119 Dox NPs of average size 220 nm with PDI < 0.62 and ∼20% Dox loading were prepared by modified nanoprecipitation. ASGPR ligands, pullulan (Pul), arabinogalactan (AGn), and the combination (Pul-AGn), were anchored by adsorption. Ligand anchoring enabled high liver uptake with a remarkable hepatocyte:nonparenchymal cell ratio of 85:15. Furthermore, Pul-AGn NPs exhibited an additive effect implying incredibly high hepatocyte accumulation. Galactose-mediated competitive inhibition confirmed ASGPR-mediated uptake of ligand-anchored NPs in HepG2 cell lines. Subacute toxicity in rats confirmed the safety of the NP groups. However, histopathological evaluation suggested mild renal toxicity of AGn. Pul NPs revealed sustained reduction in tumor volume in PLC/PRF/5 liver tumor-bearing Nod/Scid mice up to 46 days. Extensive tumor necrosis, reduced collagen content, reduction in the HCC biomarker serum α-fetoprotein (p < 0.05), a mitotic index of 1.135 (day 46), and tumor treated/tumor control (T/C) values of <0.42 signified superior efficacy of Pul NPs. Furthermore, weight gain in the NP groups, and no histopathological alterations indicated that they were well tolerated by the mice. The high efficacy coupled with greater safety portrayed Pul Dox NPs as a promising nanocarrier for improved therapy of HCC.

  8. Promoter methylation assay of SASH1 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu; Wei, He; Liren, Li

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the expression of SASH1 and its methylation level in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression levels of SASH1 were examined with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in tissues and cells, and methylation analysis was performed with MassArray. The expression levels of SASH1 were strongly reduced in liver cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative methylation analysis by MassArray revealed different CpG sites in SASH1 promoter shared similar methylation pattern between liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues and the CpG sites of significant difference in methylation level were found as follows: CpG_3, CpG_17, CpG_21.22, CpG_25, CpG_26.27, CpG_28, CpG_34.35.36 and CpG_51.52. Moreover, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of Hep-G2 cell line caused significant elevation of SASH1 mRNA. Based on these data, we propose that increase of DNA methylation degree in the promoter region of SASH1 gene, particularly CpG_26.27 sites, possibly repressed SASH1 expression in liver cancer.

  9. Review of hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, etiology, and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Yezaz Ahmed; Mian, Idrees; Rowe, Julie H.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the epidemic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has spread beyond the Eastern Asian predominance and has been increasing in Northern hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and Western Europe. It occurs more commonly in males in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Among all cancers, HCC is one of the fastest growing causes of death in the US and poses a significant economic burden on healthcare. Chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus and alcohol accounts for the majority of HCC cases. Incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been on the risem and it has also been associated with the development of HCC. Its pathogenesis varies based on the underlying etiological factor although majority of cases develop in the setting of background cirrhosis. Carcinogenesis of HCC includes angiogenesis, chronic inflammation, and tumor macroenvironment and microenvironment. There is a significant role of both intrinsic genetic risk factors and extrinsic influences such as alcohol or viral infections that lead to the development of HCC. Understanding its etiopathogenesis helps select appropriate diagnostic tests and treatments. PMID:28694740

  10. Review of hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, etiology, and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ghouri, Yezaz Ahmed; Mian, Idrees; Rowe, Julie H

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the epidemic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has spread beyond the Eastern Asian predominance and has been increasing in Northern hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and Western Europe. It occurs more commonly in males in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Among all cancers, HCC is one of the fastest growing causes of death in the US and poses a significant economic burden on healthcare. Chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus and alcohol accounts for the majority of HCC cases. Incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been on the risem and it has also been associated with the development of HCC. Its pathogenesis varies based on the underlying etiological factor although majority of cases develop in the setting of background cirrhosis. Carcinogenesis of HCC includes angiogenesis, chronic inflammation, and tumor macroenvironment and microenvironment. There is a significant role of both intrinsic genetic risk factors and extrinsic influences such as alcohol or viral infections that lead to the development of HCC. Understanding its etiopathogenesis helps select appropriate diagnostic tests and treatments.

  11. Molecular imaging and therapy targeting copper metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmann, Jason; Peng, Fangyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Significant efforts have been devoted to identify new biomarkers for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of HCC. Copper is a nutritional metal required for the function of numerous enzymatic molecules in the metabolic pathways of human cells. Emerging evidence suggests that copper plays a role in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Increased accumulation of copper ions was detected in tissue samples of HCC and many other cancers in humans. Altered copper metabolism is a new biomarker for molecular cancer imaging with position emission tomography (PET) using radioactive copper as a tracer. It has been reported that extrahepatic mouse hepatoma or HCC xenografts can be localized with PET using copper-64 chloride as a tracer, suggesting that copper metabolism is a new biomarker for the detection of HCC metastasis in areas of low physiological copper uptake. In addition to copper modulation therapy with copper chelators, short-interference RNA specific for human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) may be used to suppress growth of HCC by blocking increased copper uptake mediated by hCtr1. Furthermore, altered copper metabolism is a promising target for radionuclide therapy of HCC using therapeutic copper radionuclides. Copper metabolism has potential as a new theranostic biomarker for molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of HCC. PMID:26755872

  12. Prognostic significance of XRCC4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Jin-Guang; Wang, Chao; Wei, Zhong-Hong; Ma, Yun; Wu, Xue-Min; Luo, Chun-Ying; Xia, Qiang; Long, Xi-Dai

    2017-01-01

    Background Our previous investigations have shown that the variants of X-ray repair complementing 4 (XRCC4) may be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatocarcinoma) tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the possible prognostic significance of XRCC4 expression for hepatocarcinoma patients and possible value for the selection of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment. Materials and Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective analysis (including 421 hepatocarcinoma cases) to analyze the effects of XRCC4 on hepatocarcinoma prognosis and TACE. The levels of XRCC4 expression were tested using immunohistochemistry. The sensitivity of cancer cells to anti-cancer drug doxorubicin was evaluated using the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results XRCC4 expression was significantly correlated with pathological features including tumor stage, liver cirrhosis, and micro-vessel density. XRCC4 expression was an independent prognostic factor of hepatocarcinoma, and TACE treatments had no effects on prognosis of hepatocarcinoma patients with high XRCC4 expression. More intriguingly, TACE improved the prognosis of hepatocarcinoma patients with low XRCC4 expression. Functionally, XRCC4 overexpression increased while XRCC4 knockdown reduced the IC50 of cancer cells to doxorubicin. Conclusions These results suggest that XRCC4 may be an independent prognostic factor for hepatocarcinoma patients, and that decreasing XRCC4 expression may be beneficial for post-operative adjuvant TACE treatment in hepatocarcinoma. PMID:29152133

  13. Long Noncoding RNAs as a Key Player in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Chauhan, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignancy in the liver and has emerged as one of the main cancers in the world with a high mortality rate. However, the molecular mechanisms of HCC are still poorly understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently come to the forefront as functional non–protein-coding RNAs that are involved in a variety of cellular processes ranging from maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomes to gene expression regulation in a spatiotemporal manner. Many recent studies have reported the involvement of lncRNAs in HCC which has led to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms operating in HCC. Long noncoding RNAs have been shown to regulate development and progression of HCC, and thus, lncRNAs have both diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. In this review, we present an overview of the lncRNAs involved in different stages of HCC and their potential in clinical applications which have been studied so far. PMID:29147078

  14. Guide for diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Attwa, Magdy Hamed; El-Etreby, Shahira Aly

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is ranked as the 5th common type of cancer worldwide and is considered as the 3rd common reason for cancer-related deaths. HCC often occurs on top of a cirrhotic liver. The prognosis is determined by several factors; tumour extension, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration, histologic subtype of the tumour, degree of liver dysfunction, and the patient’s performance status. HCC prognosis is strongly correlated with diagnostic delay. To date, no ideal screening modality has been developed. Analysis of recent studies showed that AFP assessment lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity for effective surveillance and diagnosis. Many tumour markers have been tested in clinical trials without progressing to routine use in clinical practice. Thus, surveillance is still based on ultrasound (US) examination every 6 mo. Imaging studies for diagnosis of HCC can fall into one of two main categories: routine non-invasive studies such as US, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, and more specialized invasive techniques including CT during hepatic arteriography and CT arterial portography in addition to the conventional hepatic angiography. This article provides an overview and spotlight on the different diagnostic modalities and treatment options of HCC. PMID:26140083

  15. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence-based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shintaro; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2008-02-07

    Surgeons may be severely criticized from the perspective of evidence-based medicine because the majority of surgical publications appear not to be convincing. In the top nine surgical journals in 1996, half of the 175 publications refer to pilot studies lacking a control group, 18% to animal experiments, and only 5% to randomized controlled trials (RCT). There are five levels of clinical evidence: level 1 (randomized controlled trial), level 2 (prospective concurrent cohort study), level 3 (retrospective historical cohort study), level 4 (pre-post study), and level 5 (case report). Recently, a Japanese evidence-based guideline for the surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was made by a committee (Chairman, Professor Makuuchi and five members). We searched the literature using the Medline Dialog System with four keywords: HCC, surgery, English papers, in the last 20 years. A total of 915 publications were identified systematically reviewed. At the first selection (in which surgery-dominant papers were selected), 478 papers survived. In the second selection (clearly concluded papers), 181 papers survived. In the final selection (clinically significant papers), 100 papers survived. The evidence level of the 100 surviving papers is shown here: level-1 papers (13%), level-2 papers (11%), level-3 papers (52%), and level-4 papers (24%); therefore, there were 24% prospective papers and 76% retrospective papers. Here, we present a part of the guideline on the five main surgical issues: indication to operation, operative procedure, peri-operative care, prognostic factor, and post-operative adjuvant therapy.

  16. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Evidence-based outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Shintaro; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2008-01-01

    Surgeons may be severely criticized from the perspective of evidence-based medicine because the majority of surgical publications appear not to be convincing. In the top nine surgical journals in 1996, half of the 175 publications refer to pilot studies lacking a control group, 18% to animal experiments, and only 5% to randomized controlled trials (RCT). There are five levels of clinical evidence: level 1 (randomized controlled trial), level 2 (prospective concurrent cohort study), level 3 (retrospective historical cohort study), level 4 (pre-post study), and level 5 (case report). Recently, a Japanese evidence-based guideline for the surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was made by a committee (Chairman, Professor Makuuchi and five members). We searched the literature using the Medline Dialog System with four keywords: HCC, surgery, English papers, in the last 20 years. A total of 915 publications were identified systematically reviewed. At the first selection (in which surgery-dominant papers were selected), 478 papers survived. In the second selection (clearly concluded papers), 181 papers survived. In the final selection (clinically significant papers), 100 papers survived. The evidence level of the 100 surviving papers is shown here: level-1 papers (13%), level-2 papers (11%), level-3 papers (52%), and level-4 papers (24%); therefore, there were 24% prospective papers and 76% retrospective papers. Here, we present a part of the guideline on the five main surgical issues: indication to operation, operative procedure, peri-operative care, prognostic factor, and post-operative adjuvant therapy. PMID:18205256

  17. Downregulation of FOXP2 promoter human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xia; Zhou, Huiling; Zhang, Tingting; Xu, Pan; Zhang, Shusen; Huang, Wei; Yang, Linlin; Gu, Xingxing; Ni, Runzhou; Zhang, Tianyi

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health concern with a high morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. However, the mechanism underlying hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) has been implicated in various human cancer types. However, the role of FOXP2 in HCC remains unknown. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of FOXP2 protein in HCC and adjacent normal tissues in 50 patients. Wound healing and transwell assays were used to determine the cell invasion ability. We showed that the level of FOXP2 was significantly reduced in HCC compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissue. There was statistical significance between the expression of FOXP2 and vein invasion (P = 0.017), number of tumor nodes (P = 0.028), and AFP (P = 0.033). Low expression of FOXP2 correlated with poor survival. Moreover, wound healing and transwell assays showed that FOXP2 could decrease cell invasion and affect the expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. Our results suggested that FOXP2 expression was downregulated in HCC tumor tissues, and reduced FOXP2 expression was associated with poor overall survival. In addition, downregulation of FOXP2 significantly enhanced cell invasiveness. These findings uncover that FOXP2 might be a new prognostic factor and be closely correlated with HCC cell invasion.

  18. Adrenalectomy for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma - a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Ciurea, Silviu; Brasoveanu, Vlad; Hrehoret, Doina; Gangone, Eliza; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, Vlad; Croitoru, Adina

    2007-05-01

    Adrenal metastases (AM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rarely seen in clinical practice. The treatment is not standardized, the indications and efficacy of different therapeutic approaches being still controversial. Between January 1995 and December 2005, 174 patients underwent liver resection for HCC in our center. AM were detected in four patients (2.3%): three of them had HCC and synchronous AM, and the remaining one developed AM 10 months after liver resection. All the patients with AM were treated by adrenalectomy (simultaneously with liver resection in synchronous metastases), followed by systemic chemotherapy. Non-resectable multifocal liver recurrences occurred in two patients, one of them having also a contralateral adrenal metastasis; these two patients are presently alive 26 and 43 months after adrenalectomy, respectively. Another patient died by liver recurrence 27 months postoperatively. The fourth patient is disease-free at 17 months after the initial operation. Adrenalectomy for AM from HCC should be performed whenever the primary tumor is well therapeutically controlled and the patient has a good performance status. Adrenalectomy offers the chance of more than 2 years survival in many patients. However, once AM are detected, the prognosis remains poor.

  19. Inverse relationship between cirrhosis and massive tumours in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarpel, Umut; Ayo, Diego; Lobach, Iryna; Xu, Ruliang; Newman, Elliot

    2012-11-01

    A subset of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present with massive tumours. It is unknown why certain patients develop these massive tumours, and whether this presentation is specific to the underlying viral aetiology or patient demographics such as gender, race and age. All patients with HCC at Bellevue Hospital Center, New York from 1998 to 2012 were identified and relevant demographic and clinical information was collected. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) images were reviewed and the maximal tumour diameter on axial sections was recorded. Cirrhosis was defined histologically or by radiographical criteria. The two cohorts of massive and non-massive HCC were compared. A total of 361 patients with HCC were identified, of which 58 were categorized as having a massive HCC using a 13 cm size cut-off. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of massive HCC with age <40 years; hepatitis B or Asian ethnicity; and a lack of cirrhosis or platelet count >100. Massive HCC represents a tumour subtype that is associated with young, chronic hepatitis B carriers with non-cirrhotic livers. The clinical implications of this finding are that patients with massive HCC are typically excellent resection candidates barring the presence of gross vascular invasion or distant metastases. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  20. Novel drugs in clinical development for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Waidmann, Oliver; Trojan, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the only systemic drug approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Within recent years, several investigational agents mainly targeting angiogenesis failed in late-phase clinical development either due to toxicity or lack of benefit. This review covers recent clinical data on systemic agents and ongoing trials in patients with advanced HCC. In unselected patients with advanced HCC, disappointing results have been reported from several large trials. However, in two subgroups encouraging results have been achieved. Treatment with the MET inhibitor tivantinib resulted in a substantial survival benefit in the subgroup of MET overexpressing tumors in a randomized Phase II trial. Furthermore, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody ramucirumab resulted in improved overall survival in patients with baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥ 400 ng/ml in a Phase III trial. These two agents, and several others, will be further developed in HCC. Moreover, immunotherapeutics such as checkpoint inhibitors, programmed death receptor-1 blocking antibodies and oncolytic viruses are under investigation in advanced HCC.

  1. Initial clinical outcomes of proton beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong Il; Yoo, Gyu Sang; Cho, Sungkoo; Jung, Sang Hoon; Han, Youngyih; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Boram; Kang, Wonseok; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Paik, Yong-Han; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Park, Hee Chul

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the initial outcomes of proton beam therapy (PBT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of tumor response and safety. HCC patients who were not indicated for standard curative local modalities and who were treated with PBT at Samsung Medical Center from January 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Tumor response was evaluated using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). A total of 101 HCC patients treated with PBT were included. Patients were treated with an equivalent dose of 62-92 GyE 10 . Liver function status was not significantly affected after PBT. Greater than 80% of patients had Child-Pugh class A and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 1 up to 3-months after PBT. Of 78 patients followed for three months after PBT, infield complete and partial responses were achieved in 54 (69.2%) and 14 (17.9%) patients, respectively. PBT treatment of HCC patients showed a favorable infield complete response rate of 69.2% with acceptable acute toxicity. An additional follow-up study of these patients will be conducted.

  2. Initial clinical outcomes of proton beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeong Il; Yoo, Gyu Sang; Cho, Sungkoo; Jung, Sang Hoon; Han, Youngyih; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Boram; Kang, Wonseok; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Paik, Yong-Han; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Park, Hee Chul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the initial outcomes of proton beam therapy (PBT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of tumor response and safety. Materials and Methods HCC patients who were not indicated for standard curative local modalities and who were treated with PBT at Samsung Medical Center from January 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Tumor response was evaluated using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Results A total of 101 HCC patients treated with PBT were included. Patients were treated with an equivalent dose of 62–92 GyE10. Liver function status was not significantly affected after PBT. Greater than 80% of patients had Child-Pugh class A and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 1 up to 3-months after PBT. Of 78 patients followed for three months after PBT, infield complete and partial responses were achieved in 54 (69.2%) and 14 (17.9%) patients, respectively. Conclusion PBT treatment of HCC patients showed a favorable infield complete response rate of 69.2% with acceptable acute toxicity. An additional follow-up study of these patients will be conducted. PMID:29580046

  3. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Emdad, Luni; Su, Zao-zhong; Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Mills, Alan Scott; Waxman, Samuel; Fisher, Robert A.; Llovet, Josep M.; Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive vascular cancer characterized by diverse etiology, activation of multiple signal transduction pathways, and various gene mutations. Here, we have determined a specific role for astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG1) in HCC pathogenesis. Expression of AEG1 was extremely low in human hepatocytes, but its levels were significantly increased in human HCC. Stable overexpression of AEG1 converted nontumorigenic human HCC cells into highly aggressive vascular tumors, and inhibition of AEG1 abrogated tumorigenesis by aggressive HCC cells in a xenograft model of nude mice. In human HCC, AEG1 overexpression was associated with elevated copy numbers. Microarray analysis revealed that AEG1 modulated the expression of genes associated with invasion, metastasis, chemoresistance, angiogenesis, and senescence. AEG1 also was found to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling via ERK42/44 activation and upregulated lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T cell factor 1 (LEF1/TCF1), the ultimate executor of the Wnt pathway, important for HCC progression. Inhibition studies further demonstrated that activation of Wnt signaling played a key role in mediating AEG1 function. AEG1 also activated the NF-κB pathway, which may play a role in the chronic inflammatory changes preceding HCC development. These data indicate that AEG1 plays a central role in regulating diverse aspects of HCC pathogenesis. Targeted inhibition of AEG1 might lead to the shutdown of key elemental characteristics of HCC and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC. PMID:19221438

  4. Novel implications in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Schotten, Clemens; Theysohn, Jens M.; Wetter, Axel; Müller, Stefan; Radünz, Sonia; Schulze, Maren; Canbay, Ali; Dechêne, Alexander; Gerken, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death, associated with a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis in the majority of cases. Physicians at care are frequently confronted with patients who are ineligible for curative treatment such as liver resection, transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. Besides established palliative locoregional therapies, such as ablation or chemoembolization, new treatment options, such as microwave ablation, drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization or selective internal radiation therapy, are emerging; however, data from randomized controlled trials are still lacking. In order to achieve optimal tumor control, patients should receive tailored treatment concepts, considering their tumor burden, liver function and performance status, instead of strictly assigning patients to treatment modalities following algorithms that may be partly very restrictive. Palliative locoregional pretreatment might facilitate downstaging to ensure later curative resection or transplantation. In addition, the combined utilization of different locoregional treatment options or systemic co-treatment has been the subject of several trials. In cases where local tumor control cannot be achieved, or in the scenario of extrahepatic spread, sorafenib remains the only approved systemic therapy option. Alternative targeted therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown encouraging preliminary results, while data from phase III studies are pending. PMID:28042235

  5. Noninvasive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han-Yu; Chen, Jie; Xia, Chun-Chao; Cao, Li-Kun; Duan, Ting; Song, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes. While based on conclusive enhancement patterns comprising arterial phase hyperenhancement and portal venous and/or delayed phase wash-out, contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the diagnostic tools for HCC without requirements for histopathologic confirmation. Functional MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography, show promise in providing further important information regarding tumor biological behaviors. In addition, evaluation of tumor imaging characteristics, including nodule size, margin, number, vascular invasion, and growth patterns, allows preoperative prediction of tumor microvascular invasion and patient prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the comprehensive noninvasive imaging evaluation of HCC. We also provide the basic key concepts of HCC development and an overview of the current practice guidelines. PMID:29904242

  6. Factors associated with tumor size of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, G. A.; Buulolo, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determining the association of age and laboratory parameters with tumor size of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study was at Adam Malik Hospital Medan from June- December 2016. 100 HCC patients were enrolled; those with excluding liver metastatic. Baseline characteristics of gender, age, obtaining etiology of HCC. Liver function tests, viral marker, and INR were done. Based on tumor size from abdomen CT, patients were three groups: tumor size below 3 cm, 3-5 cm, and above 5 cm size. Patients were also divided based on Child-Pugh class. Correlation of age and laboratory results with tumor size of HCC patients were analyzed. Age have negative correlation with tumor size in HCC patients (r=-0.297, p=0.032) while AFP have positive correlation with tumor size (r0.446, p=<0.001). Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT have negative correlation but non-significant (r=-0.045, -0.078, - 0.126 respectively). Albumin and INR have positive correlation but non-significant (r=0.021, 0.112 respectively). Our study suggests that older age correlates with smaller tumor size, while AFP level has a significant correlation with tumor size in HCC patients. AFP level may be a useful marker for determining the prognosis of HCC patients.

  7. A Surgical Perspective on Targeted Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faltermeier, Claire; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Zarrinpar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, is difficult to treat and highly lethal. Since HCC is predominantly diagnosed in patients with cirrhosis, treatment planning must consider both the severity of liver disease and tumor burden. To minimize the impact to the patient while treating the tumor, techniques have been developed to target HCC. Anatomical targeting by surgical resection or locoregional therapies is generally reserved for patients with preserved liver function and minimal to moderate tumor burden. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and small tumors are optimal candidates for liver transplantation, which offers the best chance of long-term survival. Yet, only 20%–30% of patients have disease amenable to anatomical targeting. For the majority of patients with advanced HCC, chemotherapy is used to target the tumor biology. Despite these treatment options, the five-year survival of patients in the United States with HCC is only 16%. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of current approaches to target HCC. We also discuss emerging diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, novel therapeutic targets identified by recent genomic profiling studies, and potential applications of immunotherapy in the treatment of HCC. PMID:28943622

  8. Apatinib is effective for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yinlong; Sun, Lin; Hou, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yongqiang; Chen, Ping; Cui, Yunlong; Zhu, Xiaolin; Song, Tianqiang; Li, Qiang; Li, Huikai; Zhang, Ti; Qin, Lunxiu

    2017-12-01

    As treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are currently limited, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral apatinib, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, on patients with advanced HCC. Twenty-two patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were enrolled for evaluation. Apatinib was administered at 500 mg/day or 250 mg/day continuously. Clinical endpoints were time to disease progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and safety. The median TTP of treated patients was 10.4 months (95% CI 3.4 -17.5). At the last follow-up, 50% patients had survived longer than 11.4 months from the first dose. Complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) rates were 0%, 40.9%, 40.9%, and 18.2%, respectively. The most common apatinib-related adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) (81.8%) and diarrhea (77.3%). Hypertension (27.3%) and HFSR (13.6%) were the most frequent grade 3/4 adverse events. In summary, results of this small study indicate that apatinib is well tolerated and extremely effective for the treatment of advanced HCC. It is therefore imperative to design and carry out well-controlled clinical trials to confirm its efficacy.

  9. Advances and Future Directions in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gosalia, Ashil J.; Martin, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Liver transplant is considered the gold standard for curative therapy for HCC when patients are not candidates for surgical resection or ablation. Because a subset of patients with HCC have a survival rate with liver transplantation that is comparable to that of cirrhotic patients without tumors, the organ allocation system allows for increased priority for transplant in potential recipients within the Milan criteria. With the recent change in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease exception point allocation, patients with HCC will now need to wait at least 6 months before being awarded extra points. This extension leads to increased time on the transplant waiting list and underscores the importance of locoregional therapy to contain the tumor burden. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in therapy for HCC in the past few decades, namely due to advances in interventional radiology, radiotherapy, and expanded surgical and transplant criteria. Recent advances in immunotherapy also provide promising options for patients who are not candidates for other therapies. This article highlights the major therapeutic options for HCC, including surgical resection, liver transplant, thermal and nonthermal ablation, chemoembolization, radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, as well as discusses the evidence supporting these approaches. PMID:28867968

  10. Linc-POU3F3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yichun; Li, Yannan; Wang, Dan; Meng, Qingdong

    2018-06-12

    Linc-POU3F3 showed an up-regulated tendency and functioned as tumor promoter in glioma, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer. There was no report about the expression pattern and clinical value of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the purpose of our study is to explore the clinical significance and biological role of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results suggested that levels of linc-POU3F3 were dramatically increased in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines compared with paired normal hepatic tissues and normal hepatic cell line, respectively. Levels of linc-POU3F3 were positively correlated with clinical stage, tumor size, vascular invasion and metastasis. Moreover, high-expression of linc-POU3F3 was an independent prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that linc-POU3F3 expression significantly promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, linc-POU3F3 expression was negatively correlated with POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and negatively regulated POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In conclusion, our study supports the first evidence that linc-POU3F3 plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma, and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The spatial organization of intra-tumour heterogeneity and evolutionary trajectories of metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weiwei; Lim, Tony Kiat-Hon; Zhang, Tong; Phang, Su-Ting; Tiang, Zenia; Guan, Peiyong; Ng, Ming-Hwee; Lim, Jia Qi; Yao, Fei; Li, Zheng; Ng, Poh Yong; Yan, Jie; Goh, Brian K.; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Choo, Su-Pin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Soon, Wendy Wei-Jia; Sung, Ken Wing-Kin; Foo, Roger Sik-Yin; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the poorest survival rates among cancers. Using multi-regional sampling of nine resected HCC with different aetiologies, here we construct phylogenetic relationships of these sectors, showing diverse levels of genetic sharing, spanning early to late diversification. Unlike the variegated pattern found in colorectal cancers, a large proportion of HCC display a clear isolation-by-distance pattern where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. Two resected intra-hepatic metastases showed genetic divergence occurring before and after primary tumour diversification, respectively. Metastatic tumours had much higher variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. The presence of co-existing mutations offers the possibility of drug repositioning for HCC treatment. Taken together, these insights into intra-tumour heterogeneity allow for a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary trajectories of HCC and suggest novel avenues for personalized therapy. PMID:28240289

  12. Elevated alpha-fetoprotein: differential diagnosis - hepatocellular carcinoma and other disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz; Gish, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising. Curative surgical options are available; outcomes are acceptable with early diagnosis. Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are HCC risk markers. A high or increasing serum biomarker level can be predictive of the eventual development of HCC, large tumor size, advanced stage, extrahepatic metastases, portal vein thrombosis, and postoperative HCC recurrence. Based on FDA guidelines for HCC risk assessment, clinicians can consider using either the combination of AFP-L3 with DCP, or the combination of AFP-L3 with AFP and DCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The search for biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma and the impact on patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Black, Alyson P; Mehta, Anand S

    2018-05-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer, but the 3rd leading cause of cancer death globally with approximately 700,000 fatalities annually. The severity of this cancer arises from its difficulty to detect and treat. The major etiologies of HCC are liver fibrosis or cirrhosis from chronic viral infections, as well as metabolic conditions. Since most cases arise from prior pathologies, biomarker surveillance in high-risk individuals is an essential approach for early detection and improved patient outcome. While many molecular biomarkers have been associated with HCC, there are few that have made clinical impact for this disease. Here we review some major approaches used for HCC biomarker discovery-proteomics and glycomics-and describe new methodologies being tested for biomarker development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Silibinin (Milk Thistle) potentiates ethanol-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma progression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Eheim, Ashley L; Foureau, David M; Walling, Tracy L; Schrum, Laura W; McKillop, Iain H

    2012-12-29

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health burden with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Silibinin, an antioxidant derived from the Milk Thistle plant (Silybum marianum), is reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects in vitro and in vivo by suppressing oxidative stress and proliferation. Using a DEN-initiated mouse model of HCC, this study examined the effects of dietary silibinin supplementation alone, or in combination with chronic ethanol consumption on HCC progression. Our data demonstrate silibinin exerted marginal hepatoprotective effects in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis but, when co-administered with ethanol, exacerbated the promotional effects of ethanol in HCC bearing mice, but only in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The spatial organization of intra-tumour heterogeneity and evolutionary trajectories of metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Weiwei; Lim, Tony Kiat-Hon; Zhang, Tong; Phang, Su-Ting; Tiang, Zenia; Guan, Peiyong; Ng, Ming-Hwee; Lim, Jia Qi; Yao, Fei; Li, Zheng; Ng, Poh Yong; Yan, Jie; Goh, Brian K.; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Choo, Su-Pin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Soon, Wendy Wei-Jia; Sung, Ken Wing-Kin; Foo, Roger Sik-Yin; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the poorest survival rates among cancers. Using multi-regional sampling of nine resected HCC with different aetiologies, here we construct phylogenetic relationships of these sectors, showing diverse levels of genetic sharing, spanning early to late diversification. Unlike the variegated pattern found in colorectal cancers, a large proportion of HCC display a clear isolation-by-distance pattern where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. Two resected intra-hepatic metastases showed genetic divergence occurring before and after primary tumour diversification, respectively. Metastatic tumours had much higher variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. The presence of co-existing mutations offers the possibility of drug repositioning for HCC treatment. Taken together, these insights into intra-tumour heterogeneity allow for a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary trajectories of HCC and suggest novel avenues for personalized therapy.

  16. Management of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: Focus on portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; Turon, Fanny; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Villanueva, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising worldwide being currently the fifth most common cancer and third cause of cancer-related mortality. Early detection of HCC through surveillance programs have enabled the identification of small nodules with higher frequency, and nowadays account for 10%-15% of patients diagnosed in the West and almost 30% in Japan. Patients with small HCC can be candidates for potential curative treatments: liver transplantation, surgical resection and percutaneous ablation, depending on the presence of portal hypertension and co-morbidities. This review will analyze recent advancements in the clinical management of these individuals, focusing on issues related to the role of portal hypertension, the debate between resection and ablative therapies and the future impact of molecular technologies. PMID:23482437

  17. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiang; Wu, Liguo; Liu, Zhou; Zou, Haibo; Li, Ning; Chen, Heping; Liu, Jinheng; Li, Tao; Zhang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU) ablation on human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and apoptotic proteins (bcl-2 and p-53). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at stage B were treated with HIFU ablation. Levels of bcl-2 and p53 protein and the apoptosis rate were evaluated both in the pre-treatment and post-treatment tissue specimens using immunochemistry and TUNEL methods, respectively. After HIFU ablation, p53 protein levels were significantly increased around the coagulation necrosis area, whereas, the level of bcl-2 was significantly decreased. More apoptosis cells were found post ablation compared with those in the pretreatment tissues. Additionally, no significant correlation was found between p53/bcl-2 levels and apoptotic index. HIFU ablation may exert promote the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the effect has a closely association with the change of p53 and bcl-2 expression.

  18. Multifunctional Effects of a Small-Molecule STAT3 Inhibitor on NASH and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Hwa; Yoo, Wonbeak; Stevenson, Heather L; Deshpande, Dipti; Shen, Hong; Gagea, Mihai; Yoo, Suk-Young; Wang, Jing; Eckols, T Kris; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Tweardy, David J; Beretta, Laura

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in the United States, and liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming an important risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have underlying liver cirrhosis and compromised liver function, which limit treatment options. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat hepatocellular carcinoma in the context of NASH and cirrhosis are urgently needed. Experimental Design: Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors. STAT3 signaling plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma survival, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We identified C188-9, a novel small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor using computer-aided rational drug design. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of C188-9 for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and prevention. Results: C188-9 showed antitumor activity in vitro in three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. In mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Pten (Hep Pten - mice), C188-9 treatment blocked hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth, reduced tumor development, and reduced liver steatosis, inflammation, and bile ductular reactions, resulting in improvement of the pathological lesions of NASH. Remarkably, C188-9 also greatly reduced liver injury in these mice as measured by serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels. Analysis of gene expression showed that C188-9 treatment of Hep Pten - mice resulted in inhibition of signaling pathways downstream of STAT3, STAT1, TREM-1, and Toll-like receptors. In contrast, C188-9 treatment increased liver specification and differentiation gene pathways. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C188-9 should be evaluated further for the treatment and/or prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5537-46. ©2017 AACR

  19. Mitochondrial fission promotes cell migration by Ca2+ /CaMKII/ERK/FAK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiacheng; Cao, Haiyan; Zhan, Lei; Yin, Chun; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ping; Li, Jibin; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Bingrong; Huang, Qichao; Xing, Jinliang

    2018-07-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics of fission and fusion plays critical roles in a diverse range of important cellular functions, and its deregulation has been increasingly implicated in human diseases. Previous studies have shown that increased mitochondrial fission significantly promoted the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, how they influence the migration of tumour cells remained largely unknown. In the present study, we further investigated the effect of mitochondrial fission on the migration and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored. Our data showed that dynamin-1-like protein expression was strongly increased in distant metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma when compared to primary hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 showed an opposite trend. Moreover, the expression of dynamin-1-like protein and mitofusin 1 was significantly associated with the disease-free survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. In addition, our data further showed that mitochondrial fission significantly promoted the reprogramming of focal-adhesion dynamics and lamellipodia formation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells mainly by activating typical Ca 2+ /CaMKII/ERK/FAK pathway. Importantly, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly decreased calcium signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and had a potential treatment effect for hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration, which provides strong evidence for this process as a drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An Atypical Age-Specific Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Peru: A Threat for Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Background In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Results Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. Conclusions The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population. PMID:23840771

  1. Preclinical evaluation of transcriptional targeting strategy for human hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sia, Kian Chuan; Huynh, Hung; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Ooi, London Lucien Peng Jin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Hui, Kam Man; Lam, Paula Yeng Po

    2013-08-01

    Gene regulation of many key cell-cycle players in S-, G(2) phase, and mitosis results from transcriptional repression in their respective promoter regions during the G(0) and G(1) phases of cell cycle. Within these promoter regions are phylogenetically conserved sequences known as the cell-cycle-dependent element (CDE) and cell-cycle genes homology regions (CHR) sites. Thus, we hypothesize that transcriptional regulation of cell-cycle regulation via the CDE/CHR region together with liver-specific apolipoprotein E (apoE)-hAAT promoter could bring about a selective transgene expression in proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show that the newly generated vector AH-6CC-L2C could mediate hepatocyte-targeted luciferase gene expression in tumor cells and freshly isolated short-term hepatocellular carcinoma cultures from patient biopsy. In contrast, normal murine and human hepatocytes infected with AH-6CC-L2C expressed minimal or low luciferase activities. In the presence of prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), AH-6CC-L2C effectively suppressed the growth of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenograft mouse model via the expression of yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) that converts 5-FC to anticancer metabolite 5-fluoruracil. More importantly, we show that combination treatment of AH-6CC-L2C with an EZH2 inhibitor, DZNep, that targets EpCAM-positive hepatocellular carcinoma, can bring about a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with a single treatment of virus or inhibitor. Our study showed that targeting proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the transcriptional control of therapeutic gene could represent a feasible approach against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. The overexpression and prognostic role of DCAF13 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianzhong; Hou, Pengjiao; Chen, Jiemin; Wang, Penghui; Wang, Wenqin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Changzheng; He, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 13 (DCAF13) is a protein coding gene located on chromosome 8q22.3, which is a hotspot amplified in various cancers. DCAF13 has been reported to be frequently amplified in breast cancer patients. However, the genetic alteration and potential role of DCAF13 in other cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that DCAF13 was amplified in 14.7% of the cases and its expression was upregulated (p < 0.001) in hepatocellular carcinoma samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. Increased expression of DCAF13 was also noticed in 40 paired hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumor tissues both at messenger RNA and protein levels (p = 0.0002 and 0.0016, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between augmented DCAF13 levels and poorer tumor grade (p = 0.005), and we also found that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with increased DCAF13 expression in their tumors had significantly poorer survival compared with those with decreased DCAF13 expression (median survival time: 45.73 and 70.53 months, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that DCAF13 was an independent prognostic predictor of survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes analysis indicated the potential role of DCAF13 as a crucial cell cycle regulator. Collectively, our findings revealed that the overexpression of DCAF13 in hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly associated with poor survival and may participate in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  3. Haemodynamic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver parenchyma under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Fumie; Murata, Satoru; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Miki, Izumi; Kawamoto, Chiaki; Uchida, Eiji; Kumita, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    To investigate haemodynamic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver under hepatic artery occlusion. Thirty-eight HCC nodules in 25 patients were included. Computed tomography (CT) during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) with and without balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery was performed. CT attenuation and enhancement volume of HCC and liver with and without balloon occlusion were measured on CTHA. Influence of balloon position (segmental or subsegmental branch) was evaluated based on differences in HCC-to-liver attenuation ratio (H/L ratio) and enhancement volume of HCC and liver. In the segmental group (n = 20), H/L ratio and enhancement volume of HCC and liver were significantly lower with balloon occlusion than without balloon occlusion. However, in the subsegmental group (n = 18), H/L ratio was significantly higher and liver enhancement volume was significantly lower with balloon occlusion; HCC enhancement volume was similar with and without balloon occlusion. Rate of change in H/L ratio and enhancement volume of HCC and liver were lower in the segmental group than in the subsegmental group. There were significantly more perfusion defects in HCC in the segmental group. Hepatic artery occlusion causes haemodynamic changes in HCC and liver, especially with segmental occlusion. • Hepatic artery occlusion causes haemodynamic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver. • Segmental occlusion decreased rate of change in hepatocellular carcinoma-to-liver attenuation ratio. • Subsegmental occlusion increased rate of change in hepatocellular carcinoma-to-liver attenuation ratio. • Hepatic artery occlusion decreased enhancement volume of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver. • Hepatic artery occlusion causes perfusion defects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. The Safety and Efficacy of Irreversible Electroporation for Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianying; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Zhong-Hai; Yang, Yi; Fang, Gang; Li, Rong-Rong; Xu, Ke-Cheng; Niu, Lizhi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of irreversible electroporation ablation for unresectable large liver cancer. Fourteen patients were enrolled: 8 with large hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 5.1-11.5 cm) and 6 with medium hepatocellular carcinoma (tumor diameter: 3.0-4.1 cm). All patients received percutaneous irreversible electroporation ablation. Ablation time and the incidence of complications were assessed by a t test. Post-irreversible electroporation and regular contrast-enhanced computerized tomography scans were performed to investigate the effect of tumor size (large vs medium) on irreversible electroporation treatment efficacy; 4-table data were assessed using a Fisher exact test. The 14 patients completed irreversible electroporation ablation successfully. In the large hepatocellular carcinoma group, no major complications occurred in the perioperative period. Minor complications comprised bloating, hypokalemia, edema, low white blood cells, and blood clotting abnormalities. All complications were mild and improved after symptomatic treatment. The frequency of minor complications was not significantly different ( P > .05) compared with the medium hepatocellular carcinoma group. The average follow-up time was 2.8 ± 2.1 months and complete ablation was achieved in 25% (2/8; residual = 75%). For the patients with medium hepatocellular carcinoma, the mean follow-up time was 4.3 ± 3.2 months; the rate of complete ablation was 66.6% (4/6; residual rate = 33.3%). The complete ablation rate was not statistically different between the 2 groups ( P > .05). Irreversible electroporation ablation for unresectable large hepatocellular carcinoma is safe, with no major complications. Short-term efficacy is relatively good; however, long-term efficacy remains to be explored.

  5. An Ecological Study of the Association between Air Pollution and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in Texas.

    PubMed

    Cicalese, Luca; Raun, Loren; Shirafkan, Ali; Campos, Laura; Zorzi, Daria; Montalbano, Mauro; Rhoads, Colin; Gazis, Valia; Ensor, Katherine; Rastellini, Cristiana

    2017-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related death in both the United States and the world at large. Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises 90% of these primary liver cancers and has numerous known etiologies. Evaluation of these identified etiologies and other traditional risk factors cannot explain the high incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas. Texas is home to the second largest petrochemical industry and agricultural industry in the nation; industrial activity and exposure to pathogenic chemicals have never been assessed as potential links to the state's increased incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma. The association between the county-level concentrations of 4 air pollutants known to be linked to liver cancer, vinyl chloride, arsenic, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene, and hepatocellular carcinoma rates was evaluated using nonparametric generalized additive logistic regression and gamma regression models. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence rates for 2000-2013 were evaluated in comparison to 1996 and 1999 pollution concentrations and hepatocellular carcinoma rates for the subset of 2006-2013 were evaluated in comparison to 2002 and 2005 pollution concentrations, respectively. The analysis indicates that the relationship between the incidence of liver cancer and air pollution and risk factors is nonlinear. There is a consistent significant positive association between the incidence of liver cancer and hepatitis C prevalence rates (gamma all years, p < 0.05) and vinyl chloride concentrations (logistic 2002 and 2005, p < 0.0001; gamma 2002 and 2005, p < 0.05). This study suggests that vinyl chloride is a significant contributor to the incidence of liver cancer in Texas. The relationship is notably nonlinear. Further, the study supports the association between incidence of liver cancer and prevalence of hepatitis B.

  6. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. How to cite this article Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83. PMID:29201732

  7. Major liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in the morbidly obese: A proposed strategy to improve outcome

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Omar; Skolkin, Mark D; Toombs, Barry D; Fischer, John H; Ozaki, Claire F; Wood, R Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity strongly predicts morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. However, obesity's impact on outcome after major liver resection is unknown. Case presentation We describe the management of a large hepatocellular carcinoma in a morbidly obese patient (body mass index >50 kg/m2). Additionally, we propose a strategy for reducing postoperative complications and improving outcome after major liver resection. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of major liver resection in a morbidly obese patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The approach we used could make this operation nearly as safe in obese patients as it is in their normal-weight counterparts. PMID:18783621

  8. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism: A Complication of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Koichi, E-mail: matsumk2@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Nojiri, Junichi; Takase, Yukinori

    2007-06-15

    We report a case of cerebral lipiodol embolism following transcatheter chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma. A 70-year-old woman with a large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma underwent TACE. Her level of consciousness deteriorated after the procedure, and magnetic resonance imaging and non-contrast computed tomography revealed a cerebral lipiodol embolism. Despite intensive care, the patient died 2 weeks later. The complication might have been due to systemic-pulmonary shunts caused by previous surgeries and/or direct invasion of the recurrent tumor.

  9. [A case of synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated by S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Oka, Tomo; Onoda, Yuji; Ohashi, Ryuichiro; Izumi, Sadanobu; Suzuka, Ichio; Shiota, Kunihiko

    2009-05-01

    Combination chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin(S-1/CDDP)has become the standard treatment for gastric cancer, but the effect for hepatocellular carcinoma has not become clear. We experienced a case with advanced gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma at the same time. We used S-1/CDDP as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the case and performed surgical resection of the gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. From histological examination of the resected specimen, we may be able to prove that the S-1/CDDP chemotherapy for the hepatocellular carcinoma was also effective. A 57-year-old man visited our hospital with epigastralgia. Further examinations revealed a type-3 advanced gastric cancer with bulky N2 and hepatocellular carcinoma at segment 5. The gastric cancer was thought to be too advanced for initial surgery, so we performed S-1/CDDP chemotherapy(S-1 100 mg/body/day, CDDP 20 mg/body twice/week for 2 weeks)as preoperative therapy. After remarkable shrinkage of the gastric cancer was obtained, we performed distal gastrectomy, D2+a lymph node excision, liver S5 segmentectomy and cholecystectomy. The histological examination showed remarkable denaturation and necrosis as grade 2 effectiveness in over two-thirds of the hepatocellular carcinoma area and grade 1b in gastric cancer according to the Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma. This result suggests that S-1/CDDP chemotherapy might therefore be effective as systemic therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, further clinical trials are required.

  10. Transformation of primary human hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Mauro; Rastellini, Cristiana; Wang, Xiaofu; Corsello, Tiziana; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Vento, Renza; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Currently, there is limited knowledge of neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes in HCC. In clinical practice, the high rate of HCC local recurrence suggests the presence of different hepatocyte populations within the liver and particularly in the tumor proximity. The present study investigated primary human hepatocyte cultures obtained from liver specimens of patients affected by cirrhosis and HCC, their proliferation and transformation. Liver samples were obtained from seven HCC cirrhotic patients and from three patients with normal liver (NL). Immediately after surgery, cell outgrowth and primary cultures were obtained from the HCC lesion, the cirrhotic tissue proximal (CP, 1-3 cm) and distal (CD, >5 cm) to the margin of the neoplastic lesion, or from NL. Cells were kept in culture for 16 weeks. Morphologic analyses were performed and proliferation rate of the different cell populations compared over time. Glypican-3, Heppar1, Arginase1 and CD-44 positivity were tested. The degree of invasiveness of cells acquiring neoplastic characteristics was studied with a transwell migration assay. We observed that HCC cells maintained their morphology and unmodified neoplastic characteristics when cultured. Cells isolated from CP, showed a progressive morphologic transformation in HCC-like cells accompanied by modification of markers expression with signs of invasiveness. Absence of HCC contamination in the CP isolates was confirmed. In CD samples some of these characteristics were present and at significantly lower levels. With the present study, we are the first to have identified and describe the existence of human hepatocytes near the cancerous lesion that can transform in HCC in vitro.

  11. Multicentric occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Hirokazu; Nomoto, Minoru; Suda, Takeshi; Kamimura, Kenya; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Tamura, Yasushi; Yano, Masahiko; Takamura, Masaaki; Igarashi, Masato; Wakai, Toshifumi; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasunobu; Ohkoshi, Shogo; Kurosaki, Isao; Shirai, Yoshio; Okada, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To reveal the manner of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) focusing on multicentric occurrence (MO) of HCC. METHODS: We compared clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without MO of HCC arising from NASH background. The clinical features were implicated with reference to the literature available. RESULTS: MO of HCC was identified with histological proof in 4 out of 12 patients with NASH-related HCC (2 males and 2 females). One patient had synchronous MO; an advanced HCC, two well-differentiated HCCs and a dysplastic nodule, followed by the development of metachronous MO of HCC. The other three patients had multiple advanced HCCs accompanied by a well-differentiated HCC or a dysplastic nodule. Of these three patients, one had synchronous MO, one had metachronous MO and the other had both synchronous and metachronous MO. There were no obvious differences between the patients with or without MO in terms of liver function tests, tumor markers and anatomical extent of HCC. On the other hand, all four patients with MO of HCC were older than 70 years old and had the comorbidities of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and cirrhosis. Although these conditions were not limited to MO of HCC, all the conditions were met in only one of eight patients without MO of HCC. Thus, concurrence of these conditions may be a predisposing situation to synchronous MO of HCC. In particular, old age, T2DM and cirrhosis were suggested to be prerequisite for MO because these factors were depicted in common among two other cases with MO of HCC under NASH in the literature. CONCLUSION: The putative predisposing factors and necessary preconditions for synchronous MO of HCC in NASH were suggested in this study. Further investigations are required to clarify the accurate prevalence and predictors of MO to establish better strategies for treatment and prevention leading to the prognostic

  12. Silymarin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic, comprehensive, and critical review.

    PubMed

    Mastron, Jeanetta K; Siveen, Kodappully S; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-06-01

    The blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), a flowering plant native to Mediterranean Europe, has been consumed and extensively used as a cure for various chronic liver ailments over several centuries. Milk thistle extract, known as silymarin, is a complex mixture of seven major flavonolignans and one flavonoid. The phytoconstituents of silymarin owe their therapeutic and hepatoprotective effects to their strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primary liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), occurs in a milieu of oxidative stress and inflammation. The etiology of HCC includes chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, cirrhosis, and exposure to dietary and environmental hepatocarcinogens. Current therapeutic options for HCC, including surgical resection and liver transplantation, have limited benefits and are essentially ineffective. Chemoprevention, using phytochemicals with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, represents a fascinating strategy, which has been a subject of intense investigation in the recent years. In this review, we explore the potential role of silymarin as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for HCC. The review systematically evaluates the preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo studies investigating the effects of silymarin and its constituents on HCC. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the anti-liver-cancer effects of silymarin have been presented. The current status of clinical studies evaluating the potential of role of silymarin in liver cancer, especially that caused by hepatitis C virus, has also been examined. Potential challenges and future directions of research involved in the 'bench-to-bedside' transition of silymarin phytoconstituents for the chemoprevention and treatment of HCC have also been discussed.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Shan, Lu Juan; Liu, Yue Jian; Chen, Dan; Xiao, Xiao Guang; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and its cytoprotective effect on normal hepatocytes has been shown. This study aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of UDCA on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and the underlying molecular events in vitro. HCC cells were treated by UDCA at different doses and periods of time to assess cell morphology, viability, apoptosis and gene expression using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) stain, transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunocytochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. UDCA treatment reduced cell viability but induced HCC cell apoptosis in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. UDCA arrested HepG2 cells at phase S of the cell cycle. At the gene levels, UDCA downregulated Bcl-2 and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) protein expressions, but upregulated Bax and Livin proteins in HCC cells. At the highest concentration, UDCA inhibited Livin mRNA expression but increased Smac and caspase-3 mRNA expressions as well as the activity of caspase-3 in HCC cells. The induction of HCC cell apoptosis by UDCA was dose-dependent and time-dependent and was mediated by the regulation of Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, the expressions of Smac and Livin, and caspase-3 expression and activity. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Sorafenib prescribed by gastroenterologists and hepatologists for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, David E.; Mehta, Rajni; D’Addeo, Kathryn; Valderrama, Adriana; Taddei, Tamar H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sorafenib is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved first-line therapy shown to have survival benefit for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with advanced HCC are often but not exclusively transferred from non-oncologists to oncologists to initiate systemic therapy. The objective of this study was to assess whether sorafenib prescribing by non-oncologists has any impact on utilization, adverse effects, cost or outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from patients prescribed sorafenib for HCC within Veterans Health Administration hospitals with 100% chart abstraction to confirm HCC diagnosis, identify prescribing provider specialty (oncology versus gastroenterology/hepatology), and obtain data required for cancer staging by the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system. The primary outcome was overall survival from the time of sorafenib prescription. A total of 4903 patients who prescribed sorafenib for HCC were identified, for whom 340 patients (6.9%) were prescribed drug by a non-oncologist (Onc). BCLC Stage, age, Child–Turcotte–Pugh score, and comorbidity indices were similar between patients prescribed sorafenib by oncologists and non-oncologists. Oncologists more often discontinued sorafenib due to progression, whereas non-oncologists were more likely to continue sorafenib until death resulting in greater pill utilization and cost. Overall survival in both unadjusted and multivariable models showed no significant impact of prescriber type on survival (222 vs 217 days, P = .96), confirmed with propensity-matched subcohorts. Similar survival outcomes were observed for patients with HCC prescribed sorafenib by non-oncologists and oncologists, suggesting that non-oncologists with expertise in the management of HCC can safely and effectively administer sorafenib. PMID:29369224

  15. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Right Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho

    This study evaluated the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the right lumbar artery. Eleven patients with HCC supplied by the right lumbar artery were treated with chemoembolization. The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 6.7 {+-} 3.7 (mean {+-} SD) chemoembolization sessions, and the hepatic arterial branches were noted as being attenuated. The right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) was also embolized in 10 patients. The interval between initial chemoembolization and chemoembolization of the lumbar artery supply was 53.2 {+-} 26.9 months. Mean tumor diameter was 3.1 {+-} 2.4 cm and was located at themore » surface of S7 and S6. The feeding-branch arose proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal ramus and muscular branches (n = 8) or from the muscular branches (n = 3) of the right first (n = 10) or second lumbar artery (n = 1). The anterior spinal artery originated from the tumor-feeding lumbar artery in one patient. All feeders were selected, and embolization was performed after injection of iodized oil and anticancer drugs (n = 10) or gelatin sponge alone in a patient with anterior spinal artery branching (n = 1). Eight patients died from tumor progression 10.1 {+-} 4.6 months later, and two patients survived 2 and 26 months, respectively. The remaining patient died of bone metastases after 32 months despite liver transplantation 10 months after chemoembolization. The right lumbar artery supplies HCC located in the bare area of the liver, especially in patients who undergo repeated chemoembolization, including chemoembolization by way of the right IPA. Chemoembolization by way of the right lumbar artery may be safe when the feeder is well selected.« less

  16. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by a Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Myun, E-mail: seoul49@naver.com; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Woo, Sungmin, E-mail: j-crew7@hotmail.com

    PurposeTo describe the radiologic findings and imaging response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the lumbar artery.MethodsBetween April 2004 and December 2012, we encountered HCC supplied by a lumbar artery in 21 patients. Two investigators retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological findings of HCC supplied by the lumbar artery using computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms.ResultsPatients had received 1–27 sessions of previous chemoembolization procedures (mean 7.7 sessions, median 4 sessions). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. The locations of HCC supplied by lumbar artery were the bare area (n = 14, 67 %) and segment VI (n = 7, 33 %). Tumor-feeding arteries arose from themore » main lumbar artery (n = 7), proximal anterior division (n = 4), and distal anterior division (n = 14). In 20 patients, selective chemoembolization through the tumor-feeding arteries of the lumbar artery was achieved. In 1 patient, nonselective embolization at the main lumbar artery was performed. There was no complication such as skin necrosis or paralysis. On the first follow-up enhanced CT scan, target tumors fed by the lumbar artery showed complete response (n = 6), partial response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 8), but overall tumor response was partial response (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 20).ConclusionWhen HCC is located in the inferior tip or bare area of the liver, a lumbar artery may supply the tumor. Although selective chemoembolization via the tumor-feeding vessel of the lumbar artery can be achieved in most cases, overall tumor response is commonly unfavorable.« less

  17. Multiscale systems pharmacological analysis of everolimus action in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ande, Anusha; Chaar, Maher; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem

    2018-05-03

    Dysregulation of mTOR pathway is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A translational quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP), pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic (PD) model dissecting the circuitry of this pathway was developed to predict HCC patients' response to everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. The time course of key signaling proteins in the mTOR pathway, HCC cells viability, tumor volume (TV) and everolimus plasma and tumor concentrations in xenograft mice, clinical PK of everolimus and progression free survival (PFS) in placebo and everolimus-treated patients were extracted from literature. A comprehensive and multiscale QSP/PK/PD model was developed, qualified, and translated to clinical settings. Model fittings and simulations were performed using Monolix software. The S6-kinase protein was identified as critical in the mTOR signaling pathway for describing everolimus lack of efficacy in HCC patients. The net growth rate constant (kg) of HCC cells was estimated at 0.02 h -1 (2.88%RSE). The partition coefficient of everolimus into the tumor (kp) was determined at 0.06 (12.98%RSE). The kg in patients was calculated from the doubling time of TV in naturally progressing HCC patients, and was determined at 0.004 day -1 . Model-predicted and observed PFS were in good agreement for placebo and everolimus-treated patients. In conclusion, a multiscale QSP/PK/PD model elucidating everolimus lack of efficacy in HCC patients was successfully developed and predicted PFS reasonably well compared to observed clinical findings. This model may provide insights into clinical response to everolimus-based therapy and serve as a valuable tool for the clinical translation of efficacy for novel mTOR inhibitors.

  18. High dose vitamin K3 infusion in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv K; Kumar, Manoj; Garg, Sanjay; Hissar, Syed; Pandey, Chandana; Sharma, Barjesh C

    2006-09-01

    The survival of patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis is dismal. Current therapeutic options have limited efficacy. Vitamin K has been shown to have antitumor effect on HCC cells both in cell lines and patients with advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of high dose vitamin K3 in the treatment of advanced HCC with portal vein thrombosis. Forty-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC (Stage C according to BCLC staging system) with portal vein thrombosis were randomized into two groups: (i) high dose vitamin K3 (n = 23); and (ii) placebo (n = 19). The vitamin K3 was administered by i.v. infusion of 50 mg/day with daily increase of dose by 50 mg for 6 days, followed by 20 mg i.m. twice daily for 2 weeks. Of the 23 patients treated with vitamin K, one (4.3%) achieved complete response and three (13%) partial response, for a total of four (17.4%) objective responders overall. The overall mean survival was 8.9 +/- 8.8 months (median: 6; range 1-37 months) in the vitamin K group and 6.8 +/- 5.3 months (median: 5; range 1.5-21 months) in the placebo group (P = 0.552). The mean duration of survival was longer in patients in the vitamin K group who achieved objective response (22.5 +/- 12.2; median: 21; range 11-37 months) as compared to patients not achieving objective response (6.1 +/- 4.6; median: 5; range 1-16 months) (P = 0.0.002). Portal vein thrombosis resolved with complete patency in one (4.35%) patient. Treatment with high dose vitamin K produces objective response in 17% patients with improved survival in patients achieving objective response; however, it does not affect the overall survival.

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: This was a matched-pair study. From January 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with 42 lesions of unresectable recurrent HCC were treated with SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 37 Gy (range, 25 to 48 Gy) in 4-5 fractions over 4-5 consecutive working days. Another 138 patients in the historical control group given other or no treatments were selected for matched analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months formore » all patients and 20 months for those alive. The 1- and 2-year in-field failure-free rates were 87.6% and 75.1%, respectively. Out-field intrahepatic recurrence was the main cause of failure. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.0%, and median time to progression was 8.0 months. In the multivariable analysis of all 174 patients, SBRT (yes vs. no), tumor size ({<=}4 cm vs. >4 cm), recurrent stage (stage IIIB/IV vs. I) and Child-Pugh classification (A vs. B/C) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Matched-pair analysis revealed that patients undergoing SBRT had better OS (2-year OS of 72.6% vs. 42.1%, respectively, p = 0.013). Acute toxicities were mild and tolerable. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and efficacious modality and appears to be well-tolerated at the dose fractionation we have used, and its use correlates with improved survival in this cohort of patients with recurrent unresectable HCC. Out-field recurrence is the major cause of failure. Further studies of combinations of SBRT and systemic therapies may be reasonable.« less

  20. Potential role of leptin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S‐N; Yeh, Y‐T; Yang, S‐F; Chai, C‐Y; Lee, K‐T

    2006-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association may result from the aberrant expression of adipokines. Aim To explore the potential biological effect and prognostic value of leptin, one of the adipokines, in HCC. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of leptin in 68 patients with HCC. The expression of Ki‐67 and microvessel density (MVD) of tumorous lesions in HCC were also analysed. The result of leptin expression was further correlated with Ki‐67 expression, intratumour MVD, clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival and the postoperative use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Results High leptin expression was seen in 60.3% of patients with HCC and was significantly correlated with intratumour MVD (high v low; 59.2 (standard deviation 3.2) v 44.2 (19.5), p = 0.004), but not with Ki‐67 expression. No marked correlation was seen between leptin expression and clinicopathological characteristics. However, using a multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model, leptin expression was a predictor for improved overall survival of patients with HCC (odds ratio 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.87; p = 0.033). In addition, the Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that high leptin expression was associated with a better survival in patients with HCC, treated postoperatively with MPA (p = 0.008, log rank test). Conclusion High leptin expression was associated with an increased intratumour MVD and thus may be associated with HCC development. In addition, high leptin expression was a predictor for improved survival of patients with HCC, treated postoperatively with MPA. PMID:16565221

  1. Potential involvement of leptin in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Jie; Yuan, Shu-Lan; Lu, Qing; Lu, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Wen-Dong

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of leptin in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to elucidate the etiology, carcinogenesis and progress of HCC. Expressions of Ob gene product, leptin and its receptor, Ob-R were investigated in 36 cases of HCC specimens and corresponding adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues with immunohistochemical staining. The effect of leptin on proliferation of Chang liver cell line and liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 was studied with cell proliferation assay (MTT). Leptin expression was detected in 36 cases of adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (36/36, 100%) with moderate (++) to strong (+++) intensity; and in 72.22%(26/36) of HCC with weaker (+) intensity (P<0.05). Thirty of 36 (83.33%) cases of adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues were positive for Ob-R, with moderate (++) to strong (+++) intensity. In HCC, 11/36 (30.56%) cases were positive, with weak (+) intensity (P<0.05). In cell proliferation assay, leptin inhibited the proliferation of Chang liver cells. The cell survival rate was 10-13% lower than that of the untreated cells (P>0.05). Leptin had little effect on the proliferation of liver cancer cells (P>0.05). High level expression and decreased or absent expression of leptin and its receptor in adjacent non-tumorous liver cells and HCC cells, inhibitory effect of leptin on the proliferation of normal Chang liver cells and no effect of leptin on proliferation of liver cancer cells, may provide new insights into the carcinogenesis and progression of human HCC. It could be assumed that leptin acting as an inhibitor and/or promoter, is involved in the process of carcinogenesis and progress of human HCC. Copyright 2004 The WJG Press ISSN

  2. Sorafenib and triptolide as combination therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsaied, Osama A; Sangwan, Veena; Banerjee, Sulagna; Krosch, Tara C; Chugh, Rohit; Saluja, Ashok; Vickers, Selwyn M; Jensen, Eric H

    2014-08-01

    Sorafenib is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, exhibits antineoplastic properties in multiple tumor cell types. In this study, we examined the effects of these agents and their combination on HCC in vitro and in vivo models. HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5 cells were treated with triptolide (50 nM), sorafenib (1.25 or 2.5 μM), or a combination of both. Cell viability assay (CCK-8), caspase 3&7 activation, and nuclear factor κB assays were performed. For in vivo studies, 40 mice were implanted with subcutaneous HuH7 tumors and divided into four treatment groups (n = 10); saline control, sorafenib 10 mg/kg PO daily (S), Minnelide (a prodrug of triptolide) 0.21 mg/kg intraperitoneally7 daily (M), and combination of both (C). Tumor volumes were assessed weekly. The combination of triptolide and sorafenib was superior to either drug alone in inducing apoptosis and decreasing viability, whereas triptolide alone was sufficient to decrease nuclear factor κB activity. After 2 weeks of treatment, tumor growth inhibition rates were S = 59%, M = 84%, and C = 93%, whereas tumor volumes in control animals increased by 9-fold. When crossed over to combination treatment, control mice tumor growth volumes plateaued over the following 4 weeks. The combination of sorafenib and triptolide is superior to single drug treatment in increasing cell death and apoptosis in vitro. Combining sorafenib with Minnelide inhibited tumor growth with greater efficacy than single-agent treatments. Importantly, in vivo combination treatment allowed for using a lesser dose of sorafenib (10 mg/kg), which is less than 10% of currently prescribed dose for HCC patients. Therefore, combination treatment could have translational potential in the management of HCC. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SEN virus infection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, S; Umemura, T; Scudamore, C H; Kojiro, M; Alter, H J; Tabor, E

    2005-07-01

    Although most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with either the hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV, HCV), about 10-20% of HCCs occur in patients with chronic hepatitis that is aetiologically undefined. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the transfusion-transmitted SEN virus (SEN-V) in patients with HCC, including those patients who do not otherwise appear to be infected with HBV or HCV. Fragments of SEN-V subtypes D and H were amplified separately by PCR from the sera of 50 patients with HCC (31 from Canada and 19 from Japan) as well as from HCC and adjacent nontumourous liver tissues from eight of the Canadian patients. SEN-V DNA was found in the serum of 10 of 31 (32%) Canadian patients and eight of 19 (42%) Japanese patients [overall, 18 of 50 (36%) HCC patients]. SEN-V DNA was detected in the serum of 10 of 23 (43%) HCC patients with antibody to HCV (anti-HCV), six of 11 (55%) with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and two of 16 (12%) without detectable anti-HCV or HBsAg. Twenty-three HCC patients in this study had 'silent HBV,' characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in the absence of HBsAg; eight of these (35%) also had SEN-V infections. SEN-V DNA was detected in HCC patients most typically in those with coexistent HBV or HCV infection. SEN-V was found in only one of seven HCC patients without HBV (without HBsAg or HBV DNA) or HCV and thus does not appear to be an important cause of 'cryptogenic' HCC.

  4. Arteriopathy after transarterial chemo-lipiodolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Y; Figi, A; Horikawa, M; Jahangiri Noudeh, Y; Tomozawa, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kaufman, J A; Farsad, K

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of and the risk factors for arteriopathy in hepatic arteries after transarterial chemo-lipiodolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and the subsequent treatment strategy changes due to arteriopathy. A total of 365 arteries in 167 patients (126 men and 41 women; mean age, 60.4±15.0 [SD] years [range: 18-87 years]) were evaluated for the development of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization with epirubicin- or doxorubicin-Lipiodol ® emulsion. The development of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization was assessed on arteriograms performed during subsequent transarterial treatments. The treatment strategy changes due to arteriopathy, including change in the chemo-lipiodolization method and the application of alternative therapies was also investigated. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for arteriopathy and subsequent treatment strategy change. One hundred two (27.9%) arteriopathies were detected in 62/167 (37.1%) patients (45 men, 17 women) with a mean age of 63.3±7.1 [SD] years (age range, 50-86 years). The incidence of arteriopathy was highly patient dependent, demonstrating significant correlation in a fully-adjusted multivariate regression model (P<0.0001). Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis with adjustment for the patient effect showed a statistically significant association of super-selective chemo-lipiodolization (P=0.003) with the incidence of arteriopathy. Thirty of the 102 arteriopathies (29.4%) caused a change in treatment strategy. No factors were found to be significantly associated with the treatment strategy change. The incidence of arteriopathy after chemo-lipiodolization is 27.9%. Among them, 29.4% result in a change in treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors for microinvasion of small hepatocellular carcinoma ≤ 2 cm.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Tsuijita, Eiji; Takeishi, Kazuki; Fujiwara, Megumu; Kira, Shinsuke; Mori, Masaki; Aishima, Shinichi; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Ishida, Terutoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤ 2 cm in diameter is considered to have a low potential for malignancy. A retrospective review was undertaken of 149 patients with primary solitary HCC ≤ 2 cm who underwent initial hepatic resection between 1994 and 2010. The independent predictors of the microinvasion (MI) such as portal venous, hepatic vein, or bile duct infiltration and/or intrahepatic metastasis were identified by multivariate analysis. Prognosis of patients with HCC ≤ 2 cm accompanied by MI was compared to that of patients with HCC ≤ 2 cm without MI. Forty-three patients with HCC ≤ 2 cm had MI in patients (28.9%). Three independent predictors of the MI were revealed: invasive gross type (simple nodular type with extranodular growth or confluent multinodular type), des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) >100 mAU/ml, and poorly differentiated. Disease-free survival rates of patients with HCC ≤ 2 cm with MI (3 year 44%) were significantly worse than those for HCC ≤ 2 cm without MI (3 year 72%). This disadvantage of disease-free survival rate of patients with HCC ≤ 2 cm with MI could be dissolved by hepatic resection with a wide tumor margin of ≥ 5 mm (P = 0.04). Even in cases of HCC ≤ 2 cm, patients who are suspected of having invasive gross type tumors in preoperative imaging diagnosis or who have a high DCP level (>100 mAU/ml) are at risk for MI. Therefore, in such patients, hepatic resection with a wide tumor margin should be recommended.

  6. Factors predicting outcomes of microwave ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Giorlando, Francesca; Piacentino, Filippo; Fontana, Federico; Novario, Raffaele; Angileri, Salvatore Alessio; Duka, Ejona; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing effectiveness of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (<3 cm). Between December 2007 and August 2015, 49 patients with 65 previously histological typed HCC were treated in a total of 61 sessions. Tumours were subdivided into central (>3 cm from the capsule) (n = 22) and peripheral (<3 cm from the capsule) (n = 43). Imaging follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, then annually. Mean follow-up period was 18 months (range 1-55). Location of the lesion, age, sex, and underlying disease of the patients was analyzed and related with efficacy. Technical success was obtained in all cases. Residual disease was registered in 21 lesions (32.3 %): 13 were peripheral and 8 were central. Twelve of them were retreated with percutaneous MWA. Local recurrence was recorded in 8 lesions (12.3 %): 5 were retreated with MWA. No significant difference in terms of effectiveness was observed in lesions located in a central position and those situated in the peripheral position. Age, sex, and underlying disease not influenced results. Only one major complication was observed. The rate of minor complications was 24.5 %. Mortality at 30 days was 0 %. Our results encourage the role of MWA in the treatment of small HCC. More numerous series and randomized studies are necessary to state the role of MWA and to select cases in which MWA may be more effective and safer than RFA.

  7. Progress in surgical and nonsurgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Ender Gunes; Oymaci, Erkan; Karatay, Emrah; Coker, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous malignancy, frequently occurs in the setting of a chronically diseased organ, with multiple confounding factors making its management challenging. HCC represents one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality globally with a rising trend of incidence in some of the developed countries, which indicates the need for better surgical and nonsurgical management strategies. PubMed database was searched for relevant articles in English on the issue of HCC management. Surgical resection represents a potentially curative option for appropriate candidates with tumors detected at earlier stages and with well-preserved liver function. The long-term outcome of surgery is impaired by a high rate of recurrence. Surgical approaches are being challenged by local ablative therapies such as radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation in selected patients. Liver transplantation offers potential cure for HCC and also correction of underlying liver disease, and minimizes the risk of recurrence, but is reserved for patients within a set of criteria proposed for a prudent allocation in the shortage of donor organs. Transcatheter locoregional therapies have become the palliative standard allowing local control for intermediate stage patients with noninvasive multinodular or large HCC who are beyond the potentially curative options. The significant survival benefit with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib for advanced HCC has shifted the direction of research regarding systemic treatment toward molecular therapies targeting the disregulated pathways of hepatocarcinogenesis. Potential benefit is suggested from simultaneous or sequential multimodal therapies, and optimal combinations are being investigated. Despite the striking progress in preclinical studies of HCC immunotherapy and gene therapy, extensive clinical trials are required to achieve successful clinical applications of these innovative approaches. Treatment

  8. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma: An Eastern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hyung Joon; Suh, Sang Jun; Um, Soon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, especially in Eastern areas. With advancements in diagnosis and treatment modalities for HCC, the survival and prognosis of HCC patients are improving. However, treatment patterns are not uniform between areas despite efforts to promote a common protocol. Although many hepatologists in Asian countries may adopt the principles of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, they are also independently making an effort to expand the indications of each treatment and to combine therapies for better outcomes. Several expanded criteria for liver transplantation in HCC have been developed in Asian countries. Living donor liver transplantation is much more commonly performed in these countries than deceased donor liver transplantation, and it may be preceded by other treatments such as the down-staging of tumors. Local ablation therapies are often combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the outcome is comparable to that of surgical resection. The indications of TACE are expanding, and there are new types of transarterial therapies. Although data on drug-eluting beads, TACE, and radioembolization in Asian countries are still relatively sparse compared with Western countries, these methods are gradually gaining popularity because of better tolerability and the possibility of improved response rates. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiotherapy are not included in Western guidelines, but are currently being used actively in several Asian countries. For more advanced HCCs, appropriate combinations of TACE, radiotherapy, and sorafenib can be considered, and emerging data indicate improved outcomes of combination therapies compared with single therapies. To include these paradigm shifts into newer treatment guidelines, more studies may be needed, but they are certainly in progress. PMID:25852267

  9. Diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palma, L D

    1998-08-01

    Diagnostic imaging has many important roles in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In diagnosis, lipiodol CT (LCT) has been shown to be the most sensitive imaging modality (90-97%) for all sizes of lesions; all other modalities have high sensitivities for lesions 1-3 cm but low sensitivities for lesions < 1 cm (ultrasound 33-37%, conventional CT 20-42% and digital subtraction angiography 40-55%). All imaging modalities understage HCC. Once again LCT is the most accurate method of evaluating the extent of tumour, but even this method does not identify all satellite nodules. Ultrasound has been proposed as a screening method, but this cannot be justified on the basis of its results or cost benefit analysis. Both CT and dynamic MRI play useful roles in evaluating the efficacy and follow-up of patients undergoing chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). Although surgery remains the best treatment of HCC, it is unsuitable in most of the cases which would be better treated with interventional therapy. This article presents a review of the literature regarding the use of TACE, PEI or a combination of both procedures in the treatment of HCC. A multicentric study has shown that patients with monofocal lesions less than 5 cm in diameter are better treated with PEI, which is therefore a good alternative to the surgical treatment; patients with multifocal lesions (maximum of three lesions) show a better survival with TACE. Combined treatment with TACE and PEI proves to be effective in patients with large HCC.

  10. Circulating CD147 predicts mortality in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aimei; Rode, Anthony; Nicoll, Amanda; Maczurek, Annette E; Lim, Lucy; Lim, Seok; Angus, Peter; Kronborg, Ian; Arachchi, Niranjan; Gorelik, Alexandra; Liew, Danny; Warner, Fiona J; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; McLennan, Susan V; Shackel, Nicholas A

    2016-02-01

    The glycoprotein CD147 has a role in tumor progression, is readily detectable in the circulation, and is abundantly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Advanced HCC patients are a heterogeneous group with some individuals having dismal survival. The aim of this study was to examine circulating soluble CD147 levels as a prognostic marker in HCC patients. CD147 was measured in 277 patients (110 HCC, 115 chronic liver disease, and 52 non-liver disease). Clinical data included etiology, tumor progression, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and treatment response. Patients with HCC were stratified into two groups based upon the 75th percentile of CD147 levels (24 ng/mL). CD147 in HCC correlated inversely with poor survival (P = 0.031). Increased CD147 predicted poor survival in BCLC stages C and D (P = 0.045), and CD147 levels >24 ng/mL predicted a significantly diminished 90-day and 180-day survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-63.2; P = 0.0045 and HR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12.6; P = 0.028, respectively). In BCLC stage C, CD147 predicted prognosis; levels >24 ng/mL were associated with a median survival of 1.5 months compared with 6.5 months with CD147 levels ≤24 ng/mL (P = 0.03). CD147 also identified patients with a poor prognosis independent from treatment frequency, modality, and tumor size. Circulating CD147 is an independent marker of survival in advanced HCC. CD147 requires further evaluation as a potential new prognostic measure in HCC to identify patients with advanced disease who have a poor prognosis. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. BLZF1 expression is of prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Run-Yue, E-mail: ry_huang@hotmail.com; Su, Shu-Guang; Wu, Dan-Chun

    2015-11-20

    BLZF1, a member of b-ZIP family, has been implicated in epigenetic regulation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Its expression and clinical significance in human cancers remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that BLZF1 expression was reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, compared to the paracarcinoma tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. Results of immunohistochemistry revealed that BLZF1 was presented in both nuclear and cytoplasm. Decreased expression of nuclear and cytosolic BLZF1 in HCC was depicted in 68.2% and 79.2% of the 634 cases. Nuclear BLZF1 expression was significantly associated with tumor multiplicity (P = 0.048) and tumor capsule (P = 0.028), while cytosolicmore » BLZF1 expression was correlated with serum AFP level (P = 0.017), tumor differentiation (P = 0.001) and tumor capsule (P = 0.003). Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated both nuclear and cytosolic BLZF1 expression was associated with poor overall survival. Low nuclear BLZF1 also indicated unfavorable disease-free survival and high tendency of tumor recurrence. Furthermore, multiple Cox regression analysis revealed nuclear BLZF1 as an independent factor for overall survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.827, 95% confident interval (95%CI): 0.697–0.980, P = 0.029). The prognostic value of BLZF1 was further confirmed by stratified analyses. Collectively, our data suggest BLZF1 is a novel unfavorable biomarker for prognosis of patients with HCC. - Highlights: • BLZF1 expression was much lower in HCC tissues. • Low BLZF1 expression was associated with poor outcomes in a cohort of 634 HCC patients. • Multiple Cox regression analysis indicated nuclear BLZF1 as an independent predictor for overall survival.« less

  12. Multimodal treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: an eastern European experience.

    PubMed

    Dima, Simona Olimpia; Iacob, Speranţa; Botea, Florin; Matei, Emil; Dorobanfu, Bogdan; Vasile, Serban; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Croitoru, Adina; Dumitrascu, Traian; Stroescu, Cezar; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of a multimodal treatment approach of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a tertiary hepatobiliary specialty center. A total of 294 consecutive patients treated for HCC were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred sixteen patients (73.4%) were men and 78 (26.6%) were women. Liver resection (LR) was performed in 201 patients (68.4%), liver transplantation (LT) in 19 patients (6.5%), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in 74 patients (25.1%), and 56 (19%) patients received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 15.7 mo (range 0.1-90.3). Five-year overall survival and recurrence rates were 28% and 26.8%, respectively. Serum AFP > 43.8ng/ml (p = 0.005), BCLC C/D (p = 0.006) and JIS 3/4/5 classifications (p = 0.02) were independent negative prognostic factors for overall survival, while JIS 3/4/5 (p = 0.01) and BCLC C/D (p = 0.01) classifications, tumors larger than 6.5cm (p = 0.001) and RFA (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for recurrence. The current treatment of HCC should be multimodal, and therapeutic modalities and their combinations should be tailored to each patient. LT represents the best therapeutic option for patients with HCC in the setting of cirrhosis. Resection remains a good option in cirrhotic patients, while RFA is a safe and effective procedure for small tumors.

  13. Tumour seeding after percutaneous cryoablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Wang, Hong; Qu, Jian-Hui; Lu, Yin-Ying; Bai, Wen-Lin; Dong, Zheng; Gao, Xu-Dong; Rong, Guang-Hua; Zeng, Zhen; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the rate and risk factors for tumour seeding in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Over an 8-year period, 1436 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with 2423 tumour nodules underwent 3015 image-guided percutaneous cryoablation sessions [1215 guided by ultrasonography and 221 by spiral computed tomography (CT)]. Follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 3 mo. The detailed clinical data were recorded to analyse the risk factors for seeding. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 18 (range 1-90) mo. Seeding was detected in 11 patients (0.76%) at 1-24 (median 6.0) mo after cryoablation. Seeding occurred along the needle tract in 10 patients and at a distant location in 1 patient. Seeded tumours usually showed similar imaging and histopathological features to the primary HCCs. Univariate analyses identified subcapsular tumour location and direct subcapsular needle insertion as risk factors for seeding. Multivariate analysis showed that only direct subcapsular needle insertion was an independent risk factor for seeding (P = 0.017; odds ratio 2.57; 95%CI: 1.47-3.65). Seeding after cryoablation occurred earlier in patients with poorly differentiated HCC than those with well or moderately differentiated HCC [1.33 ± 0.577 mo vs 11.12 ± 6.896 mo; P = 0.042; 95%CI: (-19.115)-(-0.468)]. CONCLUSION: The risk of seeding after cryoablation for HCC is small. Direct puncture of subcapsular tumours should be avoided to minimise seeding. PMID:23236233

  14. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma achieves better outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Che; Chen, Chao-Long

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital mainly relies on live donor LT (LDLT). Owing to taking the risk of LD, we are obligated to adopt strict selection criteria for HCC patients and optimize the pre-transplant conditions to ensure a high disease-free survival similar to those without HCC, even better than deceased donor LT (DDLT). Better outcomes are attributed to excellent surgical results and optimal patient selection. The hospital mortality of primary and salvage LDLT are lower than 2% in our center. Although Taiwan Health Insurance Policy extended the Milan to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria in 2006, selection criteria will not be consolidated to take into account only by the morphologic size/number of tumors but also by their biology. The criteria are divided into modifiable image morphology, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with standard uptake value (SUV) and unmodifiable unfavorable pathology such as HCC combined with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), sarcomatoid type, and poor differentiation. Downstaging therapy is necessary for HCC patients beyond criteria to fit all modifiable standards. The upper limit of downstaging treatment seems to be extended by more effective drug eluting transarterial chemoembolization in cases without absolute contraindications. In contrast, the pitfall of unmodifiable tumor pathology should be excluded by the findings of pretransplant core biopsy/resection if possible. More recently, achieving complete tumor necrosis in explanted liver could almost predict no recurrence after transplant. Necrotizing therapy is advised if possible before transplant even the tumor status within criteria to minimize the possibility of tumor recurrence. LDLT with low surgical mortality in experienced centers provides the opportunities of optimizing the pre-transplant tumor conditions and timing of transplant to achieve better

  15. Transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Chiang, Jen-Huey; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Pui-Ching; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2010-09-01

    Renal dysfunction is often present in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Acute renal failure (ARF) may occur after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) owing to radiocontrast agent. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of ARF and prognostic predictors in HCC patients with preexisting renal insufficiency undergoing TACE. A total of 566 HCC patients undergoing TACE were enrolled. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m. In a mean follow-up duration of 18+/-16 months, 231 (40.8%) patients undergoing TACE died. Renal insufficiency that was present in 134 (23.7%) patients at baseline, independently predicted a poor prognosis in the Cox proportional hazards model [risk ratio (RR): 1.47, P=0.012]. Of them, 13 (10%) and 6 (5%) patients had transient and prolonged ARF after TACE, respectively. Post-TACE gastrointestinal bleeding [odds ratio (OR): 16.54, P=0.001] and higher Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) scores (> or =2; OR: 4.22, P=0.02) were independent risk factors for ARF in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the Cox model, prolonged ARF (RR: 3.28, P<0.001) and higher CLIP scores (> or =2; RR: 2.13, P<0.001) were independent poor prognostic predictors for HCC patients with renal insufficiency receiving TACE. Gastrointestinal bleeding and higher CLIP scores are associated with the development of ARF in patients with HCC and renal insufficiency undergoing TACE. Higher CLIP scores and renal insufficiency, either preexisting before TACE or as a complication of TACE, are poor prognostic predictors in HCC patients receiving TACE.

  16. Adjuvant heparanase inhibitor PI-88 therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Jen; Chang, Juliana; Lee, Po-Huang; Lin, Deng-Yn; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Jeng, Long-Bin; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Mok, King-Tong; Lee, Wei-Chen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yang, Sheng-Shun; Yang, Mei-Due; Yu, Ming-Chin; Hu, Rey-Heng; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Kuan-Lang; Chang, Stanley Shi-Chung; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that administering heparanase inhibitor PI-88 at 160 mg/d is safe and promising in reducing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence for up to 3 year following curative resection. METHODS: A total of 143 patients (83.1% of the 172 participants in the phase II study) participated in the follow-up study. Of these patients, 50 had received no treatment, 48 had received 160 mg/d PI-88, and 45 had received 250 mg/d PI-88 during the phase II trial. Safety parameters and the following efficacy endpoints were investigated: (1) time to recurrence; (2) disease-free survival; and (3) overall survival. RESULTS: PI-88 at 160 mg/d delayed the onset and frequency of HCC recurrence, and provided a clinically significant survival advantage for up to 3 years after treatment compared with those of the control group: (1) the recurrence-free rate increased from 50% to 63%, and (2) time to recurrence at the 36th percentile was postponed by 78%. The efficacy of administering PI-88 at 250 mg/d was confounded by a high dropout rate (11 out of 54 patients). Additionally, subgroup analyses of patients with (1) multiple tumors or a single tumor ≥ 2 cm; and (2) hepatitis B or C revealed that administering PI-88 at 160 mg/d conferred the most significant survival advantage (56.8% improvement in disease-free survival, P = 0.045) for patients with both risk factors for recurrence. CONCLUSION: Administering PI-88 at 160 mg/d is a safe and well-tolerated dosage that may confer significant clinical benefits for patients with HCC. PMID:25170226

  17. Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Which Staging Systems Best Predict Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Huitzil-Melendez, Fidel-David; Capanu, Marinela; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Duffy, Austin; Gansukh, Bolorsukh; Saltz, Leonard L.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of cancer staging systems is to accurately predict patient prognosis. The outcome of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on both the cancer stage and the extent of liver dysfunction. Many staging systems that include both aspects have been developed. It remains unknown, however, which of these systems is optimal for predicting patient survival. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced HCC treated over a 5-year period at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were identified from an electronic medical record database. Patients with sufficient data for utilization in all staging systems were included. TNM sixth edition, Okuda, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI), Japan Integrated Staging (JIS), and Groupe d'Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire (GETCH) systems were ranked on the basis of their accuracy at predicting survival by using concordance index (c-index). Other independent prognostic variables were also identified. Results Overall, 187 eligible patients were identified and were staged by using the seven staging systems. CLIP, CUPI, and GETCH were the three top-ranking staging systems. BCLC and TNM sixth edition lacked any meaningful prognostic discrimination. Performance status, AST, abdominal pain, and esophageal varices improved the discriminatory ability of CLIP. Conclusion In our selected patient population, CLIP, CUPI, and GETCH were the most informative staging systems in predicting survival in patients with advanced HCC. Prospective validation is required to determine if they can be accurately used to stratify patients in clinical trials and to direct the appropriate need for systemic therapy versus best supportive care. BCLC and TNM sixth edition were not helpful in predicting survival outcome, and their use is not supported by our data. PMID:20458042

  18. Function of oval cells in hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2004-09-01

    To study oval cells' pathological characteristics and relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); to observe the form and structural characteristics of oval cells; to explore the expression characteristics of C-kit, PCNA mRNA and c-myc gene during the occurrence and development of HCC and the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on C-kit and PCNA expression. One hundred and twenty-five SD rats fed on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to construct HCC models were divided into control group, cancer-inducing group and UTI intervention group. In each group, rat liver samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 respectively to study pathological distribution characteristics of oval cells in the process of carcinogenesis under optical microscope. Oval cells were separated by the methods of improved density gradient centrifugation and their structural characteristics were observed under optical microscope and electronic microscope respectively; the oval cells expressing C-kit and PCNA in the collected samples were observed by the methods of immunohistochemistry and image analysis and the expression of c-myc mRNA was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Oval cells proliferated firstly in the portal area then gradually migrated into hepatic parenchyma in the inducing group and intervention group. The oval cells distributed inside and outside the carcinoma nodes. The oval cells presented the characteristics of undifferentiated cells: a high ratio of nucleolus and cellular plasm and obvious nucleoli, rare organelle in plasm. Only a few mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and some villus-like apophysis on surface of cells could be seen. Cells stained with C-kit and PCNA antibody were mainly oval cells distributed in the portal area. The expression of c-myc mRNA increased with the progression of HCC. However, in the intervention group, UTI could retard its increase. Oval cells work throughout

  19. Function of oval cells in hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study oval cells pathological characteristics and relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); to observe the form and structural characteristics of oval cells; to explore the expression characteristics of C-kit, PCNA mRNA and c-myc gene during the occurrence and development of HCC and the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on C-kit and PCNA expression. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five SD rats fed on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to construct HCC models were divided into control group, cancer-inducing group and UTI intervention group. In each group, rat liver samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 respectively to study pathological distribution characteristics of oval cells in the process of carcinogenesis under optical microscope. Oval cells were separated by the methods of improved density gradient centrifugation and their structural characteristics were observed under optical microscope and electronic microscope respectively; the oval cells expressing C-kit and PCNA in the collected samples were observed by the methods of immunohistochemistry and image analysis and the expression of c-myc mRNA was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Oval cells proliferated firstly in the portal area then gradually migrated into hepatic parenchyma in the inducing group and intervention group. The oval cells distributed inside and outside the carcinoma nodes. The oval cells presented the characteristics of undifferentiated cells: a high ratio of nucleolus and cellular plasm and obvious nucleoli, rare organelle in plasm. Only a few mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and some villus-like apophysis on surface of cells could be seen. Cells stained with C-kit and PCNA antibody were mainly oval cells distributed in the portal area. The expression of c-myc mRNA increased with the progression of HCC. However, in the intervention group, UTI could retard its increase

  20. Detection of the inferred interaction network in hepatocellular carcinoma from EHCO (Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Lai, Jin-Mei; Liu, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Huei-Hun; Lin, Chih-Yun; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Su, Li-Jen; Lee, Sheng-An; Chen, Chang-Han; Lee, Gen-Cher; Lee, DT; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yeh, Chang-Wei; Chang, Chao-Hui; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Huang, Chi-Ying F

    2007-01-01

    Background The significant advances in microarray and proteomics analyses have resulted in an exponential increase in potential new targets and have promised to shed light on the identification of disease markers and cellular pathways. We aim to collect and decipher the HCC-related genes at the systems level. Results Here, we build an integrative platform, the Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online, dubbed EHCO , to systematically collect, organize and compare the pileup of unsorted HCC-related studies by using natural language processing and softbots. Among the eight gene set collections, ranging across PubMed, SAGE, microarray, and proteomics data, there are 2,906 genes in total; however, more than 77% genes are only included once, suggesting that tremendous efforts need to be exerted to characterize the relationship between HCC and these genes. Of these HCC inventories, protein binding represents the largest proportion (~25%) from Gene Ontology analysis. In fact, many differentially expressed gene sets in EHCO could form interaction networks (e.g. HBV-associated HCC network) by using available human protein-protein interaction datasets. To further highlight the potential new targets in the inferred network from EHCO, we combine comparative genomics and interactomics approaches to analyze 120 evolutionary conserved and overexpressed genes in HCC. 47 out of 120 queries can form a highly interactive network with 18 queries serving as hubs. Conclusion This architectural map may represent the first step toward the attempt to decipher the hepatocarcinogenesis at the systems level. Targeting hubs and/or disruption of the network formation might reveal novel strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:17326819

  1. The Predictors of Microscopic Vessel Invasion Differ Between Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a Treatment History.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Ito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Aramaki, Takeshi; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2018-06-05

    Previous studies have shown that microscopic vessel invasion (MVI) occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a treatment history due to its poorer malignant behavior in comparison with primary HCC. The aim of the present study was to determine the predictors of MVI and overall survival in HCC patients with a treatment history. This retrospective study included 580 patients who underwent hepatectomy and whose preoperative imaging showed no evidence of macroscopic vessel invasion. The patients were classified into two groups: primary HCC (n = 425) and HCC with a treatment history (n = 155). MVI was defined as the presence of either microscopic portal vein invasion or venous invasion, which was invisible on preoperative imaging. MVI was identified in 34 (21.9%) patients with a treatment history. A multivariate analysis showed that a high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (odds ratio [OR] 5.16, P = 0.002) and a large tumor diameter (OR 2.57, P = 0.030) were the significant predictor of MVI in HCC with a treatment history. Moreover, the presence of MVI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.27, P = 0.001) and tumor diameter >27 mm (HR 2.04, P = 0.006) remained significant predictors of the overall survival in HCC with a treatment history. The tumor diameter cutoff value for predicting MVI (27 mm) in HCC with a treatment history was smaller than in primary HCC (37 mm). The presence of MVI was a significant predictor in the HCC patients with a treatment history. The tumor diameter is an important factor that can be used to predict the presence of MVI, especially in HCC with a treatment history.

  2. FABP4 suppresses proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and predicts a poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Qian; Zhang, Xiu-Ping; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Er-Bin; Li, Jing-Jing; Jiang, Ya-Bo; Gao, Yu-Zhen; Yuan, Yan-Mei; Lan, Shi-Qian; Xie, Dong; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2018-05-07

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) is abundant in macrophage and adipocyte. It is known to be involved in lipid metabolism. The role of FABP4 has been reported in various cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and prostatic cancer. However, its role remains unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our study, we investigated the expression of FABP4 at both mRNA and protein levels, and by examining 175 cases of patients with cancer of the liver tissue microarray, the significance between the expression of FABP4 and clinical characteristics had been discussed. We found that FABP4 was lowly expressed in HCC tissues compared to the corresponding tissue adjacent, and the expression of FABP4 was significantly associated with the tumor size, PVTT, recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the expression of FABP4, Alb, AFP, HBsAg, and PVTT were independent risk factors for overall survival, and the expression of FABP4, AFP, GGT, tumor size, and encapsulation were independent risk factors for HCC recurrence. In addition, we revealed that FABP4 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of FABP4 led to inhibit tumor growth and decreased tumor volume in vivo. These phenotypes were associated with altered expression of Snail and p-STAT3. Our studies thus suggest that FABP4 could be a potential target for HCC chemotherapy. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Radioimmunotherapy of human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Saiful Alam, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 131-labelled antiferritin polyclonal antibody for the treatment of established hepatocellular carcinoma (HC-04) in athymic nude mice were evaluated. 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody localised specifically to a subcutaneous tumour with a mean of 8.1% of the infused dose per gram of tumour at 24 h after infusion when the experiment was started 15 days after inoculation and with a mean of about 6.5% of the infused dose per gram of tumour when the experiment was started 30 days after tumour transplantation. The concentrations of 131I-antiferritin antibody in tumour delivered a mean of 1994 cGy to tumour following infusion of 500 microCi of radiolabelled antiferritin antibody in the early group and a mean of 1600 cGy in the late group. Treatment with 500 microCi led to regression of the tumour in 55% of animals in the early group and 44% in the late group. In contrast, unlabelled antiferritin and 131I-labelled IgG failed to exert any significant effect on tumour growth. The transplanted tumours in the early groups of animals had relatively higher concentration of ferritin than those in the late group. There was accelerated inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged survival in animals in the early group compared with those in the late group. PMID:2021533

  4. Interstitial Fluid Flow Increases Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion through CXCR4/CXCL12 and MEK/ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer (~80%), and it is one of the few cancer types with rising incidence in the United States. This highly invasive cancer is very difficult to detect until its later stages, resulting in limited treatment options and low survival rates. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the mechanisms associated with the effects of biomechanical forces such as interstitial fluid flow (IFF) on hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. We hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through chemokine-mediated autologous chemotaxis. Utilizing a 3D in vitro invasion assay, we demonstrated that interstitial fluid flow promoted invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that autologous chemotaxis influences this interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines via the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) signaling axis. We also demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling affects interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion; however, this pathway was separate from CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of interstitial fluid flow in hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. Uncovering the mechanisms that control hepatocellular carcinoma invasion will aid in enhancing current liver cancer therapies and provide better treatment options for patients. PMID:26560447

  5. The clinical significance and biological function of lncRNA RGMB-AS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nan; Li, Yannan; Qian, Ruikun; Li, Yichun

    2018-02-01

    LncRNA RGMB-AS1 has been suggested to play significant roles in lung cancer progression. However, it remains unknown whether lncRNA RGMB-AS1 is involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. In our results, lncRNA RGMB-AS1 was low-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines, and associated with clinical stage, tumor size and metastasis. Survival analysis indicated that lncRNA RGMB-AS1 high was an independent favorable prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Gain-of-function studies showed up-regulated lncRNA RGMB-AS1 expression suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted cells apoptosis. There was a positively association between lncRNA RGMB-AS1 and RGMB in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and up-regulated lncRNA RGMB-AS1 expression increased RGMB mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In conclusion, lncRNA RGMB-AS1 serves an anti-oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Significance of detecting circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its clinical value: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue-ru; Wang, Long; Song, Rui-mei; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-shun

    2014-01-01

    Circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells may be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the relationship between circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatoma patient survival after different managements and survival periods. Peripheral vein blood (5 ml) samples were obtained from 113 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and from 33 control subjects (9 with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B, 14 with chronic hepatitis B, 10 healthy individuals) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. To detect circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was amplified from total RNA extracted from whole blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in 59 blood samples from the hepatocellular carcinoma patients (59/113, 52.2%). In contrast, there were no clinical control subjects whose samples showed detectable alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA. The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in blood seemed to be correlated with the stage (by TNM classification) of hepatocellular carcinoma, serum alpha-fetoprotein value, and the presence of intrahepatic metastasis, portal vein thrombosis, tumor diameter and/or distant metastasis. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in the blood of 25 patients showing distant metastasis at extrahepatic organs (100%), in contrast to 32 of 88 cases without metastasis (36.4%). All the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were followed. Seventeen patients with resection of a T 2 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a survival of 3.2 years after surgical management, 38 cases with resection of a T3 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a 1.3-year survival, and only 37 cases with T4 stage disease after different treatments except surgery survived for 0.6 years (P <0.01). The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in peripheral blood may be an indicator of circulating

  7. [Primary study on fluro [ 19F] berberine derivative for human hepatocellular carcinoma targetting in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Wu, Xiaoai; Cai, Huawei; Liang, Meng; Fan, Chengzhong

    2017-04-01

    [ 18 F]HX-01, a Fluorine-18 labeled berberine derivative, is a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging agent, while [ 19 F]HX-01 is a nonradioactive reference substance with different energy state and has the same physical and chemical properties. In order to collect data for further study of [ 18 F]HX-01 PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo , this study compared the uptake of [ 19 F]HX-01 by human hepatocellular carcinoma and normal hepatocytes in vitro . The target compound, [ 19 F]HX-01, was synthesized in one step using berberrubine and 3-fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. Cellular uptake and localization of [ 19 F]HX-01 were performed by a fluorescence microscope in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 and human normal hepatocyte HL-7702. Cellular proliferation inhibition and cell cytotoxicity assay of the [ 19 F]HX-01 were conducted using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on HepG2, SMMC-7721 and HL-7702 cells. Fluorescent microscopy showed that the combining ability of [ 19 F]HX-01 to the carcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 was higher than that to the normal HL-7702. Cellular proliferation inhibition assay demonstrated that [ 19 F]HX-01 leaded to a dose-dependent inhibition on SMMC-7721, HepG2, and HL-7702 proliferation. Cell cytotoxicity assay presented that the cytotoxicity of [ 19 F]HX-01 to SMMC-7721 and HepG2 was obviously higher than that to HL-7702. This in vitro study showed that [ 19 F]HX-01 had a higher selectivity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721, HepG2) but has less toxicity to normal hepatocytes (HL-7702). This could set up the idea that the radioactive reference substance [ 18 F]HX-01 may be worthy of further development as a potential molecular probe targeting human hepatocellular carcinoma using PET.

  8. Overexpression of Rabl3 and Cullin7 is associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    An, Jun; Liu, Zhiyong; Liang, Qiong; Pan, Yuhang; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Ruizhi; Jin, Yi

    2017-09-01

    The expression of Rabl3 and Cullin7 is relevant to the carcinogenesis of certain cancers. However, the relationship of this expression with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. To study the protein expression of Rabl3 and Cullin7 and to evaluate their role in hepatocarcinogenesis, in 162 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Rabl3 and Cullin7 in both the cancer tissues and the normal hepatic tissues around the hepatocellular carcinoma. The results demonstrated that the rates of positive Rabl3 and Cullin7 expression were 80.2% and 69.1%, respectively, in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. However, the rates of positive Rabl3 and Cullin7 expression were 31.5% and 29.0%, respectively, in adjacent normal hepatic tissues. Rabl3 and Cullin7 were expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent normal hepatic tissues (P<.01). The rates of positive Rabl3 and Cullin7 expression were higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma tissues of patients with lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombi in the portal vein and an advanced clinical stage (P<.05). A positive correlation between the expression of Rabl3 and the expression of Cullin7 (r=0.27, P<.001) was also observed in our hepatocellular carcinoma cohort. Moreover, patients with positive expression for both Rabl3 and Cullin7 had a remarkably shorter survival time compared with patients with negative expression for both proteins (P<.05). Therefore, the expression of the Rabl3 and Cullin7 proteins may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and could be used as a prognostic indicator in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High immunosuppressive burden in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: Can effector functions be restored?

    PubMed

    Lugade, Amit A; Kalathil, Suresh; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and exhausted effector T cells highlight an important immune dysfunction in advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. These cells significantly hamper the efficacy immunotherapies and facilitate HCC progression. We have recently demonstrated that the multipronged depletion of immunosuppressive cells potentially restores effector T-cell function in HCC.

  10. Berberine-loaded Janus nanocarriers for magnetic field-enhanced therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Wang, Ying-Shuai; Chang, Zhi-Min; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Meng-Meng; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Mingqiang; Shao, Dan; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2017-03-01

    Berberine, an bioactive isoquinolin alkaloid from traditional Chinese herbs, is considered to be a promising agent based on its remarkable activity against hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the clinical application of this nature compound had been hampered owing to its properties such as poor aqueous solubility, low gastrointestinal absorption, and reduced bioavailability. Therefore, we developed Janus magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 -mSiO 2 NPs) consisting of a Fe 3 O 4 head for magnetic targeting and a mesoporous SiO 2 body for berberine delivery. A pH-sensitive group was introduced on the surface of mesoporous silica for berberine loading to develop a tumor microenvironment-responsive nanocarrier, which exhibited uniform morphology, good superparamagnetic properties, high drug-loading amounts, superior endocytic ability, and low cytotoxicity. Berberine-loaded Fe 3 O 4 -mSiO 2 NPs exerted extraordinarily high specificity for hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which was due to the pH-responsive berberine release, as well as higher endocytosis capacity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells rather than normal liver cells. More importantly, an external magnetic field could significantly improve antitumor activity of Ber-loaded Fe 3 O 4 -mSiO 2 NPs through enhancing berberine internalization. Taken together, our results suggest that Janus nanocarriers driven by the magnetic field may provide an effective and safe way to facilitate clinical use of berberine against hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results : Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion : The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone.

  12. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results: Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion: The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone. PMID:27471568

  13. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Mei, Zhechuan; Jin, Chengbing; Ran, Lifeng; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Lian; She, Chaokun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to preliminarily investigate the efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism. Nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism (5 male and 4 female; median age, 56 years; range, 51-66 years) were treated with ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound. Complications were recorded. Laboratory examination and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate the efficacy. After high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment, mean spleen ablation ± SD of 28.76% ± 6.1% was discovered; meanwhile, the white blood cell count, platelet count, and liver function of the patients were substantially improved during the follow-up period. In addition, symptoms such as epistaxis and gingival bleeding were ameliorated or even eliminated, and the quality of life was improved. Follow-up imaging showed a nonperfused volume in the spleen and an absence of a tumor blood supply at the treated lesions in the liver. For the first time to our knowledge, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation was used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism. High-intensity focused ultrasound may be an effective and safe alternative for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism, but further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with autoimmune liver diseases: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Meza-Junco, Judith; Montaño-Loza, Aldo J; Martínez-Benitez, Braulio; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported as a rare complication of autoimmune liver diseases. We describe herein two patients with this neoplasia associated with autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, and we also review the literature. The first case corresponds to a 49-year-old woman presented for evaluation of right upper abdominal pain. She had been diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis 4 years before. Alpha-fetoprotein was markedly elevated and an abdominal MRI showed a 10 cm x 9.0 cm mass. She received transarterial chemoembolization, and currently the disease has progressed to the lungs and bones, and she is on supportive care. The second case corresponds to a 68-year-old woman presented for evaluation of a liver mass found in a screening ultrasound. She had been diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis 5 years previously. At admission alpha-fetoprotein was 1000 ng/mL and an abdominal MRI revealed a 4 cm x 3 cm liver tumor. She was treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation getting complete response, and currently she has no evidence of neoplastic disease. These two patients constitute the only cases of hepatocellular carcinoma associated to autoimmune liver diseases that have been attended in our Institute. These cases highlight that hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, although rare, can occur in the absence of coexistent viral hepatitis, or excessive alcohol consumption. The utility of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune liver diseases is still not defined.

  15. Pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Naito, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-11-06

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is extremely rare and is often detected incidentally by symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction. Breast and lung cancer are the most common primary metastasizing to pituitary gland. Metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland is extremely rare, with only 10 cases having been previously reported. We present here the first case of pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia after having previously been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on low levels of pituitary hormones, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism caused by metastasis of the hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin-labeling was effective in the differential diagnosis of the intrasellar tumor. The patient died despite hormone replacement therapy because of hypovolemic shock. Metastasis to the pituitary gland causes various non-specific symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose. The present case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging in identifying these metastases. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pituitary metastasis in patients with malignant tumors who demonstrate hypopituitarism.

  16. Targeting Phosphatidylinositide3-Kinase/Akt pathway by BKM120 for radiosensitization in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Lin; Gao, Ming; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Tumor control of hepatocellular carcinoma by radiotherapy remains unsatisfactory. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a critical role in inhibiting cancer cell death. Elevated PI3K/Akt activity is associated with increased cellular resistance to irradiation. Our aim was to determine whether the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity by a PI3K inhibitor, BKM120, contributes to the increased sensitivity of liver cancer cells to irradiation. The hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Huh7 and BNL) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism between BKM120 and irradiation. Balb/c mice bearing ectopic BNL xenografts were treated with BKM120 and/or radiotherapy to assess the in vivo response. BKM120 increased cell killing by radiation, increased the expression of apoptotic markers, and suppressed the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. BKM120 pretreatment inhibited radiation-induced Akt phosphorylation and enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect and radiation-induced tumor cell apoptosis in ectopic xenografts. Inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation by rapamycin enhanced the radiosensitivity of BKM120-treated hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The synergism between BKM120 and irradiation likely inhibits the activation of Akt by radiation, leading to increased cell apoptosis and suppression of DNA-double-strand breaks repair in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These data suggest that the BKM120/radiation combination may be a strategy worthy of clinical trials. PMID:25004403

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma in two captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tatiane Furtado; de Paula Martins Pereira, Marianna; Pessanha, Angela Tinoco; Tinoco, Herlandes Penha; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2018-04-01

    Two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 2 female captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) are described. HCC was diagnosed in both, with pulmonary metastasis in one of them. Neoplastic cells were positive for hepatocyte-specific antigen (HSA) by immunohistochemistry, confirming the diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Differences in health-related quality of life between European and Asian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chie, Wei-Chu; Blazeby, Jane M; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chiu, Herng-Chia; Poon, Ronnie T; Mikoshiba, Naoko; Al-Kadhim, Gillian; Heaton, Nigel; Calara, Jozer; Collins, Peter; Caddick, Katharine; Costantini, Anna; Vilgrain, Valerie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possible effects of clinical and cultural characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma from Asian and European countries completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-HCC18. Comparisons were made using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with method of false discovery to correct multiple comparisons. Multiway analysis of variance and model selection were used to assess the effects of clinical characteristics and geographic areas. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma completed questionnaires. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, Asian patients still had significantly better HRQoL scores in emotional functioning, insomnia, (QLQ-C30) and in sexual interest (QLQ-HCC18). We also found an interaction in physical functioning (QLQ-C30) and fatigue (QLQ-HCC18) between geographic region and marital status, married European had worse HRQoL scores than Asian singles. Both clinical characteristics and geographic areas affected the HRQoL in with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cultural differences and clinical differences in the pattern of disease due to active surveillance of Asian countries may explain the results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Silencing the Girdin gene enhances radio-sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma via suppression of glycolytic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Sun, Yifan; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yuxing; Shi, Yong; Fan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jianda; Bao, Ying; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Ke; Cao, Peiguo

    2017-08-15

    Radiotherapy has been used increasingly to treat primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinically, the main cause of radiotherapy failure is cellular radioresistance, conferred via glycolytic metabolism. Our previous study demonstrated that Girdin is upregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, whether Girdin underlies the radio-sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence CCDC88A (encoding Girdin), and real-time PCR was performed to determine CCDC88A mRNA expression. Then, cell proliferation, colony formation, flow cytometric, scratch, and transwell assays were to examine the influence of Girdin silencing on cellular radiosensitivity. Glycolysis assays were conducted to exam cell glycolysis process. Western blotting was performed to explore the signaling pathway downstream of Girdin. Finally, animal experiments were performed to demonstrate the effect of CCDC88A silencing on the radiosensitivity of hepatoma in vivo. shRNA-induced Girdin silencing suppressed glycolysis and enhanced the radio-sensitivity of hepatic cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7. Furthermore, silencing of Girdin inhibited the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway, which is a central regulator of glycolysis. Girdin can regulate glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway, which decreases the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiotherapy.

  20. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-04-04

    Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend  = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.

  1. Nanoparticle-DNA-polymer composites for hepatocellular carcinoma cell labeling, sensing, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Lee, Siu-Fung; Wong, Chi-Hin; Chak, Chun-Pong; Lai, Josie M Y; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Sham, Kathy W Y; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2013-12-15

    This paper describes comparative studies and protocols in (1) self-assembling of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (NP), circular plasmid DNA, and branched polyethylenimine (PEI) composites; (2) magnetofection; (3) gene delivery, (4) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (5) cytotoxicity of the composites toward hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied From the Short Gastric Artery: Treatment With Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Ung Bae, E-mail: junwb73@pnuyh.co.kr; Lee, Jun Woo, E-mail: jwlee@pusan.ac.kr; Baik, Seung Kug, E-mail: skbaik9@gmail.com

    2012-12-15

    We report a case of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that was supplied by the short gastric artery. A 67-year-old woman with two nodular HCCs underwent repeated TACE. One of the nodules was supplied by the short gastric artery.

  3. Repeated courses of transarterial embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles: 'long life elixir' in a cirrhotic patient with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Laura; Shusang, Vibhakorn; Senzolo, Marco; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Goode, Antony; Yu, Dominic; Patch, David W; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2007-04-01

    Chemoembolization improves survival in selected cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, but prolonged survival is unusual. In this study, a 70-year-old cirrhotic patient, who had a histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma of 5 cm diameter, embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles alone, without chemotherapeutic agent, has resulted in continued survival, of 5 years to date, with virtual elimination of residual hypervascularity following 10 sessions of embolization, and with continued patency of the injected branch of the hepatic artery. Provided liver function is maintained, embolization alone appears a feasible long term and effective therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Sorafenib induced alteration of protein glycosylation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianhua; Liu, Riqiang; Zhang, Shu; Guo, Kun; Zhang, Qinle; Li, Wei; Liu, Yinkun

    2017-01-01

    Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor and is effective in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unknown whether sorafenib induces the alteration of protein glycosylation. The present study treated HCC MHCC97L and MHCC97H cells with a 50% inhibitory concentration of sorafenib. Following this treatment, alteration of protein glycosylation was detected using a lectin microarray. Compared with the controls, the binding capacity of glycoproteins extracted from sorafenib-treated HCC cells to the lectins Bauhinia purpurea lectin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Euonymus europaeus lectin, Helix aspersa lectin, Helix pomatia lectin, Jacalin, Maclura pomifera lectin and Vicia villosa lectin were enhanced; while, the binding capacities to the lectins Caragana arborescens lectin, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin, Limulus polyphemus lectin, Maackia amurensis lecin I, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, Ricinus communis agglutinin 60, Sambucus nigra lectin and Solanum tuberosum lectin were reduced (spot intensity median/background intensity median ≥2, P<0.05). This difference in glycoprotein binding capacity indicates that cells treated with sorafenib could increase α-1,3GalNAc/Gal, β-1,3 Gal, GalNAcα-Ser/Thr(Tn) and α-GalNAc structures and decrease GlcNAc, sialic acid, tetra-antennary complex-type N-glycan and β-1,4Gal structures. These results were additionally confirmed by lectin blotting. Expression levels of signaling molecules including erythroblastosis 26–1 (Ets-1), extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) and phosphorylated-ERK were measured by western blotting. There was a reduction in the expression of Ets-1 and ERK phosphorylation in sorafenib or 1,4-Diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis (2-aminophenylthio) butadiene treated cells suggesting that sorafenib may reduce the expression levels of Ets-1 by blocking the Ras/Raf/mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, it was clear that sorafenib could inhibit the

  5. Efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Sung Wook; Jeong, Jin Sook; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kim, Young Hoon; Roh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Young Min; Han, Sang Young

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver. METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d. RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22807613

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy and planning.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-06-28

    To review all of epidemiological and etiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examined the prevention of this disease in Asia. We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosen articles that published previously, from PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. The key words used in this research were as follows: HCC in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. We selected those papers published before 2014 that we considered to be most important and appropriate. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. More than 70% of all new cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of all those chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main cause of HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and vertical transmission is common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan are exception because of high prevalence of HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of this cancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, But Middle Eastern countries are characterized as moderate prevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia and some part of Middle Eastern countries are known as low prevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCV the other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC in Asian countries. Currently available HCC therapies, chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due to usually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates after surgical resection, and usually end with treatment failure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficult strategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCC by treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection, the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy and planning

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review all of epidemiological and etiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examined the prevention of this disease in Asia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosen articles that published previously, from PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. The key words used in this research were as follows: HCC in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. We selected those papers published before 2014 that we considered to be most important and appropriate. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: More than 70% of all new cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of all those chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main cause of HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and vertical transmission is common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan are exception because of high prevalence of HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of this cancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, But Middle Eastern countries are characterized as moderate prevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia and some part of Middle Eastern countries are known as low prevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCV the other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC in Asian countries. Currently available HCC therapies, chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due to usually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates after surgical resection, and usually end with treatment failure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficult strategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCC by treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection, the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin

  8. Transport and Metabolism of Radiolabeled Choline in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yu; Salem, Nicolas; Corn, David J.; Erowku, Bernadette; Tian, Haibin; Wang, Fangjing; Lee, Zhenghong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Altered choline (Cho) metabolism in cancerous cells can be used as a basis for molecular imaging with PET using radiolabeled Cho. In this study, the metabolism of tracer Cho was investigated in a woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (WCH17) and in freshly-derived rat hepatocytes. The transporter responsible for [11C]-Cho uptake in HCC was also characterized in WCH17 cells. The study helped to define the specific mechanisms responsible for radio-Cho uptake seen on the PET images of primary liver cancer such as HCC. Methods Cells were pulsed with [14C]-Cho for 5 min and chased for varying durations in cold media to simulate the rapid circulation and clearance of [11C]-Cho. Radioactive metabolites were extracted and analyzed by radio-HPLC and radio-TLC. The Cho transporter (ChoT) was characterized in WCH17 cells. Results WCH17 cells showed higher 14C uptake than rat primary hepatocytes. [14C]-Phosphocholine (PC) was the major metabolite in WCH17. In contrast, the intracellular Cho in primary hepatocytes was found to be oxidized to betaine (partially released into media) and to a less degree, phosphorylated to PC. [14C]-Cho uptake by WCH17 cells was found to have both facilitative transport and non-facilitative diffusion components. The facilitative transport was characterized by Na+ dependence and low affinity (Km = 28.59 ± 6.75 μM) with partial energy dependence. In contrast, ChoT in primary hepatocytes is Na+ independent and low affinity. Conclusions Our data suggest that transport and phosphorylation of Cho are responsible for the tracer accumulation during [11C]-Cho PET imaging of HCC. WCH17 cells incorporate [14C]-Cho preferentially into PC. Conversion of [14C]-PC into phosphatidylcholine occurred slowly in vitro. Basal oxidation and phosphorylation activities in surrounding hepatic tissue contribute to the background seen in [11C]-Cho PET images. PMID:20698576

  9. Shikonin suppresses the migratory ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Po-Li; Tu, Chao-Chiang; Chen, Ching-Hsein; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Wu, Chun-Te; Su, Hou-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2013-08-28

    Shikonin is a traditional Oriental medical herb extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Many studies have shown that shikonin possesses anticancer ability against many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, tumor metastasis has been become an important clinical obstacle. However, the effect of shikonin on metastasis by HCC is unknown. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of shikonin on HCC cells was determined by an MTT assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. The migratory ability of HCC cells was detected by a transwell migration assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) expression levels were determined by Western blotting, and the activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by gelatin zymography. We found that IC50 values of HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells to shikonin treatment were around 2 μM. Exposure to a low dose of shikonin (0-0.4 μM) did not influence the survival of HCC cells. Interestingly, exposure to a low dose of shikonin inhibited the migratory ability on HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells. To further dissect the mechanism, we found that treatment with a low dose of shikonin reduced the activities and expression levels of MMP-2 and -9, which were correlated with the decreased cell migratory ability of HCC cells. In addition, we found a decrease of vimnetin expression, but no influence on the expression levels of N-cadherin, TWIST, or GRP78. In mechanism dissecting, we found that shikonin treatment may suppress the phosphorylation of AKT and then reduce the NF-κB (NF = nuclear factor) levels, but has no influence on the levels of c-Fos and c-Jun. Furthermore, we also found that shikonin may also reduce the phosphorylation of IκB. We concluded that a low dose of shikonin can suppress the migratory ability of HCC cells through downregulation of expression levels of vimentin and MMP-2 and -9. Our findings suggest that shikonin may be a new compound to prevent the migration of

  10. Aggressive intrahepatic therapies for synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Huang, P; Zhou, Z; Li, W; Xu, J; Xu, K; Wang, J; Zhang, H

    2018-06-01

    Prognosis of synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with pulmonary metastasis (PM) was poor, while aggressive intrahepatic therapies remained controversial. This study aimed to investigate the significance of aggressive intrahepatic therapies for synchronous PM-HCC. Synchronous PM-HCC patients were retrospectively enrolled from Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University during January 2000 and December 2015. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to investigate the prognostic factors. Patients were grouped according to different HCC treatment modalities including liver resection (LR), ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), systemic therapy (ST, systemic chemotherapy or sorafenib) and supportive care (SC). Case control studies were achieved using propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to further investigate the significance of LR, ablation and TACE. Eighty-one patients were enrolled, and the median overall survival (OS) was 4.5 months. Serum alpha fetal protein (AFP) ≥ 400 ng/ml, multiple HCC lesions and no intrahepatic therapies (LR/Ablation/TACE) were inferior independent prognostic factors. Patients were divided into LR group (n = 9), Ablation/TACE group (n = 24) and ST/SC group (n = 48). After PSM analysis, survival outcome was superior in LR group compared to Ablation/TACE group (19.6 vs. 6.9 months) (p = 0.023) or ST/SC group (19.6 vs. 2.8 months) (p = 0.034), while no significant difference was found between -Ablation/TACE and ST/SC group (5.1 vs. 3.2 months) (p = 0.338). Prognosis of synchronous PM-HCC patients was poor. Serum AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml, multiple HCC lesions and no aggressive intrahepatic therapies were inferior prognostic factors. LR might provide survival benefits in well-selected patients, while the significance of ablation or TACE remained to be further investigated.

  11. Improved method increases sensitivity for circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Ying; Qian, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xia; Sun, Bin; Ma, Jun-Yong; Chen, Lei; Yin, Zheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To improve an asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-based enrichment method for detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy subjects, patients with HCC or various other cancers, and patients with hepatic lesions or hepatitis. CTCs were enriched from whole blood by extracting CD45-expressing leukocytes with monoclonal antibody coated-beads following density gradient centrifugation. The remaining cells were cytocentrifuged on polylysine-coated slides. Isolated cells were treated by triple immunofluorescence staining with CD45 antibody and a combination of antibodies against ASGPR and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), used as liver-specific markers, and costained with DAPI. The cell slide was imaged and stained tumor cells that met preset criteria were counted. Recovery, sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods were determined and compared by spiking experiments with various types of cultured human tumor cell lines. Expression of ASGPR and CPS1 in cultured tumor cells and tumor tissue specimens was analyzed by flow cytometry and triple immunofluorescence staining, respectively. RESULTS: CD45 depletion of leukocytes resulted in a significantly greater recovery of multiple amounts of spiked HCC cells than the ASGPR+ selection (Ps < 0.05). The expression rates of either ASGPR or CPS1 were different in various liver cancer cell lines, ranging between 18% and 99% for ASGPR and between 9% and 98% for CPS1. In both human HCC tissues and liver cancer cell lines, there were a few HCC cells that did not stain positive for ASGPR or CPS1. The mixture of monoclonal antibodies against ASGPR and CPS1 identified more HCC cells than either antibody alone. However, these antibodies did not detect any tumor cells in blood samples spiked with the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the human renal cancer cell line A498. ASGPR+ or/and CPS1+ CTCs were detected in 29

  12. Multidisciplinary Approach in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Level II Hospital: The First Decade of Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcon.

    PubMed

    Loinaz Segurola, C; LIedó Navarro, J L; Burgos, R de la Cruz; Martín Ríos, D; Ochando Cerdán, F; Alonso López, S; Martel Villagrán, J; Gutiérrez Garcia, M L; Fernandez Cebrián, J M; Fernández Rodríguez, C

    2015-06-01

    Mean survival in hepatocellular carcinoma remains low. Many efforts have been done during the last years through screening, diagnosis and treatment to improve the results. The aim of this work is to present the experience of our hospital multidisciplinary group during the first decade of this century. The patients with hepatocellullar carcinoma presented at the multidisciplinary meeting from 1999 to 2009 were prospectively studied. According to the tumor and functional status they were treated through the current available guidelines by transplant, partial hepatectomy, local/regional procedures, systemic or symptomatic treatment. One hundred and forty two patients were studied. Median tumor size was 3 cm. A single tumor was diagnosed in 64.8% of the patients. Eighteen patients had liver resection (6 transplantation and 12 with partial resection), 53 tumors were not treated due to advanced stage or liver dysfunction, and in the remaining patients radiofrequency, ethanol or embolization treatments were used, single or combined. a multidisciplinary approach of hepatocellular carcinoma in a second level hospital with trained professionals permits a diagnosis in early tumoral and functional stages in the majority of patients, and a variety of possible treatments with adequate survival outcomes.

  13. Role of microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Marwa; Louka, Manal Louis; Khairy, Eman; Ali-Labib, Randa; Zakaria Zaky, Doaa; Montasser, Iman F

    2017-05-01

    There is an obvious need to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma using novel non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate both relative quantification of microRNA-7 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and quantitative analysis of selenoprotein P using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients, chronic liver disease patients, as well as normal healthy subjects in order to establish a new diagnostic biomarker with a valid non-invasive technique. In addition, this study aimed to investigate whether changes in selenium supply affect microRNA-7 expression and selenoprotein P levels in human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed a highly significant decrease in serum microRNA-7 relative quantification values and selenoprotein P levels in malignant group in comparison with benign and control groups. The best cutoff for serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P to discriminate hepatocellular carcinoma group from benign and control groups was 0.06 and 4.30 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study showed that changes in selenium supply to HepG2 cell line can alter the microRNA-7 profile and are paralleled by changes in the concentration of its target protein (selenoprotein P). Hence, serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P appear to be potential non-invasive diagnostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the results suggest that selenium could be used as an anticancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by affecting both microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P.

  14. Do occupational exposures to vinyl chloride cause hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis?

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marcello

    2017-05-01

    Controversy exists about the association between occupational exposures to vinyl chloride and hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Two large multicentre mortality cohort studies, one American and another European, reported higher mortality for primary cancer of liver and biliary tract. However, the American study was not able to rule out misclassification, because based on death certificates and under the heading primary liver cancers, some angiosarcomas, the typical neoplasia associated with vinyl chloride, may have been included. The American study does not report on cirrhosis mortality. The European study also reports higher mortality of primary liver cancer, but contrary to the American study in a further analysis based on 10 verified cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, an exposure-response trend with duration of employment and with cumulative exposure to vinyl chloride was detected. A smaller cohort belonging to this multicentre cohort confirmed these results. Meta-analyses based on the two large cohorts concluded for a small excess of primary liver cancer, although misclassification could not be ruled out. Excess risk of cirrhosis was reported in the European cohort, in a subcohort and in a cross-sectional study. However, a meta-analysis did not confirm this excess. Several critical appraisals of the literature reached antithetical conclusions about hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and occupational exposures to vinyl chloride. For both hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis, a study suggests an additive and multiplicative effect of vinyl chloride exposure with viral hepatitis and alcohol consumption respectively. Pathology reports seem to indicate a possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma but not of cirrhosis after high exposures to vinyl chloride. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Downstaging therapy followed by liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young; Stahl, Christopher C; Makramalla, Abouelmagd; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Ristagno, Ross L; Dhar, Vikrom K; Schoech, Michael R; Chadalavada, Seetharam; Latif, Tahir; Kharofa, Jordan; Bari, Khurram; Shah, Shimul A

    2017-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan criteria, but these criteria preclude many patients from transplant candidacy. Recent studies have demonstrated that downstaging therapy can reduce tumor burden to meet conventional criteria. The present study reports a single-center experience with tumor downstaging and its effects on post-orthotopic liver transplantation outcomes. All patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were evaluated by our multidisciplinary liver services team from 2012 to 2016 were identified (N = 214). Orthotopic liver transplantation candidates presenting outside of Milan criteria at initial radiographic diagnosis and/or an initial alpha-fetoprotein >400 ng/mL were categorized as at high risk for tumor recurrence and post-transplant mortality. Of the 214 patients newly diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, 73 (34.1%) eventually underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The majority of patients who did not undergo orthotopic liver transplantation were deceased or lost to follow-up (47.5%), with 14 of 141 (9.9%) currently listed for transplantation. Among transplanted patients, 21 of 73 (28.8%) were considered high-risk candidates. All 21 patients were downstaged to within Milan criteria with an alpha-fetoprotein <400 ng/mL before orthotopic liver transplantation, through locoregional therapies. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher but acceptable between downstaged high-risk and traditional candidates (9.5% vs 1.9%; P > .05) at a median follow-up period of 17 months. Downstaged high-risk candidates had a similar overall survival compared with those transplanted within Milan criteria (log-rank P > .05). In highly selected cases, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of traditional criteria for orthotopic liver transplantation may undergo downstaging therapy in a multidisciplinary fashion with excellent post-transplant outcomes. These data support an

  16. Plasma Level of Interleukin-35 as an Independent Prognostic Indicator in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangting; Wang, Xinhua; Song, Yucui; Chen, Lingling

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major type of liver cancer with poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic significance of plasma interleukin-35 level in hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 153 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 153 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at admission. Plasma interleukin-35 level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Distribution of T cell subset and expression of Fas/FasL protein were detected by flow cytometry. The patients were followed up for 2 years. Poor prognosis was defined as death of hepatocellular carcinoma. The plasma levels of interleukin-35 were significantly higher in the patients than the controls (25.1 ± 13.1, 9.3 ± 6.3 pg/mL, P < 0.001). After adjusted for multiple confounding factors, the multivariate logistic regression analyses reported that high level of interleukin-35 (≥25.0 pg/mL) was associated with the poor prognosis in the patients (OR 6.63, 95 % CI 3.27-13.47). Compared with the patients with low level of interleukin-35 (<25.0 pg/mL), the patients with high level of interleukin-35 showed higher frequencies of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ and CD3+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) and also showed higher apoptosis levels of CD8+ T cells (P < 0.001). Circulating interleukin-35 concentration might be an independent prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma. Such prognostic significance could be partly involved in the activation of regulatory T cell and the apoptosis of CD8+ T cell.

  17. Multimodality Therapy and Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A 14-Year Prospective Analysis of Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Sharma, Amit; Lee, David D; Behnke, Martha; Bornstein, Karen; Stravitz, R Todd; Sydnor, Malcolm; Fulcher, Ann; Cotterell, Adrian; Posner, Marc P; Fisher, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. A standardized approach of multimodality therapy with intent-to-treat by transplantation for all patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was instituted at our transplant center in 1997. Data were prospectively collected to evaluate the impact of multimodality therapy on post-transplant patient survival, tumor recurrence and patient survival without transplantation. Methods All patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were eligible for multimodality therapy. Multimodality therapy consisted of hepatic resection, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial chemoinfusion, yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization and sorafenib. Results 715 patients underwent multimodality therapy. 231 patients were included in the intent-to-treat with transplantation arm and 484 patients were treated with multimodality therapy or palliative therapy due to contraindications for transplantation. A 60.2% transplantation rate was achieved in the intent-to-treat with transplantation arm. Post-transplant survivals at 1- and 5-years were 97.1% and 72.5% respectively. Tumor recurrence rates at 1-, 3- and 5-years were 2.4%, 6.2% and 11.6% respectively. Patients with contraindications to transplant had increased 1- and 5-year survival from diagnosis with multimodality therapy compared to those not treated (73.1% and 46.5% vs. 15.5% and 4.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusions Using multimodality therapy prior to liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma achieved low recurrence rates and post-transplant survival equivalent to patients with primary liver disease without hepatocellular carcinoma. Multimodality therapy may help identify patients with less active tumor biology and result in improved disease-free survival and organ utilization. PMID:24503764

  18. INFLUENCE OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA ETIOLOGY IN THE SURVIVAL AFTER RESECTION.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Felipe de Lucena Moreira; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirolla; Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Araujo, Raphael Leonardo Cunha de; Jeismann, Vagner Birk; Herman, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and its incidence is increasing around the world in the last decades, making it the third cause of death by cancer in the world. Hepatic resection is one of the most effective treatments for HCC with five-year survival rates from 50-70%, especially for patients with a single nodule and preserved liver function. Some studies have shown a worse prognosis for HCC patients whose etiology is viral. That brings us to the question about the existence of a difference between the various causes of HCC and its prognosis. To compare the prognosis (overall and disease-free survival at five years) of patients undergoing hepatectomy for the treatment of HCC with respect to various causes of liver disease. Was performed a review of medical records of patients undergoing hepatectomy between 2000 and 2014 for the treatment of HCC. They were divided into groups according to the cause of liver disease, followed by overall and disease-free survival analysis for comparison. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes of the groups of patients divided according to the etiology of HCC. Overall and disease-free survival at five years of the patients in this sample were 49.9% and 40.7%, respectively. From the data of this sample, was verified that there was no prognostic differences among the groups of HCC patients of the various etiologies. O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) é o mais frequente tipo de câncer primário do fígado e a sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, tornando-o hoje a terceira causa de morte por câncer no mundo. A ressecção hepática é um dos tratamentos mais eficazes para ele com taxas de sobrevida em cinco anos de 50-70%, especialmente para pacientes com nódulo único e função hepática preservada. Alguns estudos mostraram pior prognóstico para os pacientes com CHC cuja causa é a infecção por vírus B ou C. Isso leva à questão sobre a

  19. Synergistic effects of family history of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus infection on risk for incident hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit; Liu, Jessica; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Li-Yu; Iloeje, Uchenna H; You, San-Lin; Brenner, David; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of family history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on hepatitis B progression or risk of HCC. We examined how family HCC history and presence or stage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affect risk for HCC. We performed a population-based cohort study of 22,472 participants from 7 townships in Taiwan who underwent evaluation for liver disease from 1991 through 1992. Those who received a first diagnosis of HCC from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2008, were identified from the Taiwanese cancer registry. There were 374 cases of incident HCC over 362,268 person-years of follow-up evaluation. The cumulative risk of HCC in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients without a family history of HCC was 0.62%, in those with a family history of HCC the cumulative risk was 0.65%, in HBsAg-seropositive patients without a family history of HCC the cumulative risk was 7.5%, and in HBsAg-seropositive patients with a family history of HCC the cumulative risk was 15.8% (P < .001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for HBsAg-seropositive individuals with family history, compared with HBsAg-seronegative individuals without a family history of HCC, was 32.33 (95% confidence interval, 20.8-50.3; P < .001). The relative excess risk owing to interaction was 19, the attributable proportion was 0.59, and the synergy index value was 2.54. These findings indicate synergy between family HCC history and HBsAg serostatus. The synergy between these factors remained significant in stratification analyses by HBeAg serostatus and serum level of HBV DNA. Family history of HCC multiplies the risk of HCC at each stage of HBV infection. Patients with a family history of HCC require more intensive management of HBV infection and surveillance for liver cancer. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography in assessing the treatment response to transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, Zeno; Mocan, Tudor; Radu, Pompilia; Anton, Ofelia; Bolog, Nicolae

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have known continuous development of therapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately the disease it still not diagnosed until it is already at an intermediate or even an advanced disease. In these circumstances transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is considered an effective treatment for HCC. The most important independent prognostic factor of both disease free survival and overall survival is the presence of complete necrosis. Therefore, treatment outcomes are dictated by the proper use of radiological imaging. Current guidelines recommend contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) as the standard imaging technique for evaluating the therapeutic response in patients with HCC after TACE. One of the most important disadvantage of CECT is the overestimation of tumor response. As an attempt to overcome this limitation contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has gained particular attention as an imaging modality in HCC patients after TACE. Of all available imaging modalities, CEUS performs better in the early and very early assessment of TACE especially after lipiodol TACE. As any other imaging techniques CEUS has disadvantages especially in hypovascular tumors or in cases of tumor multiplicity. Not far from now the current limitations of CEUS will be overcome by the new CEUS techniques that are already tested in clinical practice such as dynamic CEUS with quantification, three-dimensional CEUS or fusion techniques.

  1. [The Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2017-06-25

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be one of the important causes of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD-related HCCs (NAFLD-HCCs) have the following clinical features: high body mass index, deranged lipid profiles, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Among them, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and high Fe contents in the liver are risk factors of developing HCC in patients with NAFLD. Inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, insulin like growth factor-I, and lipotoxicity are intermingled and may cross react with each other to develop HCC. Because there is no guideline for early detection of HCC in patients with NAFLD, NAFLD-HCCs tend to be greater in size and in advanced stages when detected compared with hepatitis virus-related HCCs. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a surveillance program for the early detection of HCC. Treatment of NAFLD-HCCs is not different from other causes-related HCCs. However, patients with NAFLD-HCCs have cardiovascular disease and other metabolic problems, which may complicate treatment.

  2. Lessons Learned From a Case of Gastric Cancer After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Chong-Cheng; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Guo, Dong-Jiao; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, de novo malignancies have become an important cause of death after transplantation. According to the accumulation of cases with liver transplantation, the incidence of de novo gastric cancer is anticipated to increase among liver transplant recipients in the near future, especially in some East Asian countries where both liver diseases requiring liver transplantation and gastric cancer are major burdens. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the relationship between de novo gastric cancer and liver transplantation. Herein, we report a case of stage IIIc gastric cancer after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma, who was successfully treated by radical distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy but died 15 months later due to tumor progression. Furthermore, we extract some lessons to learn from the case and review the literatures. The incidence of de novo gastric cancer following liver transplantations is increasing and higher than the general population. Doctors should be vigilant in early detection and control the risk factors causing de novo gastric cancer after liver transplantation. Curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is still the mainstay of treatment for such patients. Preoperative assessments, strict postoperative monitoring, and managements are mandatory. Limited chemotherapy could be given to the patients with high risk of recurrence. Close surveillance, early detection, and treatment of posttransplant cancers are extremely important and essential to improve the survival. PMID:26886605

  3. Analysis of Serum Haptoglobin Fucosylation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cirrhosis of Different Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have developed herein a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze the etiology-related alterations in fucosylation degree of serum haptoglobin in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The three most common etiologies, including infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and heavy alcohol consumption (ALC), were investigated. Only 10 μL of serum was used in this assay in which haptoglobin was immunoprecipitated using a monoclonal antibody. The N-glycans of haptoglobin were released with PNGase F, desialylated, and permethylated prior to MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis. In total, N-glycan profiles derived from 104 individual patient samples were quantified (14 healthy controls, 40 cirrhosis, and 50 HCCs). A unique pattern of bifucosylated tetra-antennary glycan, with both core and antennary fucosylation, was identified in HCC patients. Quantitative analysis indicated that the increased fucosylation degree was highly associated with HBV- and ALC-related HCC patients compared to that of the corresponding cirrhosis patients. Notably, the bifucosylation degree was distinctly increased in HCC patients versus that in cirrhosis of all etiologies. The elevated bifucosylation degree of haptoglobin can discriminate early stage HCC patients from cirrhosis in each etiologic category, which may be used to provide a potential marker for early detection and to predict HCC in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24807840

  4. X-ray scatter imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in a mouse model using nanoparticle contrast agents

    DOE PAGES

    Rand, Danielle; Derdak, Zoltan; Carlson, Rolf; ...

    2015-10-29

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide and is almost uniformly fatal. Current methods of detection include ultrasound examination and imaging by CT scan or MRI; however, these techniques are problematic in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and the detection of early tumors (<1 cm diameter) has proven elusive. Better, more specific, and more sensitive detection methods are therefore urgently needed. Here we discuss the application of a newly developed x-ray imaging technique called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) for the early detection of HCC. SFHI uses x-rays scattered by an object to form anmore » image and is more sensitive than conventional absorption-based x-radiography. We show that tissues labeled in vivo with gold nanoparticle contrast agents can be detected using SFHI. We also demonstrate that directed targeting and SFHI of HCC tumors in a mouse model is possible through the use of HCC-specific antibodies. As a result, the enhanced sensitivity of SFHI relative to currently available techniques enables the x-ray imaging of tumors that are just a few millimeters in diameter and substantially reduces the amount of nanoparticle contrast agent required for intravenous injection relative to absorption-based x-ray imaging.« less

  5. X-ray Scatter Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Mouse Model Using Nanoparticle Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Danielle; Derdak, Zoltan; Carlson, Rolf; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide and is almost uniformly fatal. Current methods of detection include ultrasound examination and imaging by CT scan or MRI; however, these techniques are problematic in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and the detection of early tumors (<1 cm diameter) has proven elusive. Better, more specific, and more sensitive detection methods are therefore urgently needed. Here we discuss the application of a newly developed x-ray imaging technique called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) for the early detection of HCC. SFHI uses x-rays scattered by an object to form an image and is more sensitive than conventional absorption-based x-radiography. We show that tissues labeled in vivo with gold nanoparticle contrast agents can be detected using SFHI. We also demonstrate that directed targeting and SFHI of HCC tumors in a mouse model is possible through the use of HCC-specific antibodies. The enhanced sensitivity of SFHI relative to currently available techniques enables the x-ray imaging of tumors that are just a few millimeters in diameter and substantially reduces the amount of nanoparticle contrast agent required for intravenous injection relative to absorption-based x-ray imaging.

  6. Longterm prognosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma-cholangiocarcinoma following liver transplantation and resection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Park, Gil-Chun; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Wan-Jun; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-03-01

    Combined hepatocellular carcinoma-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is a rare disease. We investigated the clinicopathological features of cHCC-CC and compared the longterm outcomes following liver transplantation (LT) and hepatic resection (HR). We identified 32 LT patients with cHCC-CC through an institutional database search. The HR control group (n = 100) was selected through propensity score-matching. The incidence of cHCC-CC among all adult LT patients was 1.0%. Mean patient age was 53.4 ± 6.7 years, and 26 patients were male. Thirty patients had hepatitis B virus infection. All patients of cHCC-CC were diagnosed incidentally in the explanted livers. Mean tumor diameter was 2.5 ± 1.3 cm, and 28 patients had single tumors. Tumor stage was stage I in 23 and II in 9. Concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was detected in 12 patients with stage I in 5 and II in 7. Mean tumor diameter was 1.9 ± 1.2 cm, and 5 had single tumors. Tumor recurrence and survival rates were 15.6% and 84.4% at 1 year and 32.2% and 65.8% at 5 years, respectively. Patients with very early stage cHCC-CC (1 or 2 tumors ≤ 2.0 cm) showed 13.3% tumor recurrence and 93.3% patient survival rates at 5 years, which were significantly improved than those with advanced tumors (P = 0.002). Tumor recurrence and survival rates did not differ significantly between the LT and HR control groups (P = 0.22 and P = 0.91, respectively); however, postrecurrence patient survival did (P = 0.016). In conclusion, cHCC-CC is rarely diagnosed following LT, and one-third of such patients have concurrent HCC. The longterm posttransplant prognosis was similar following LT and HR. Very early cHCC-CC resulted in favorable posttransplant prognosis, thus this selection condition can be prudently considered for LT indication. Liver Transplantation 23 330-341 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum miR-132/212 cluster in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ju, Linlin; Chen, Lin; Cai, Weihua; Yang, Jialin

    2018-01-01

    Background It has been reported that both of the miR-132/212 (micro-RNA) cluster members, miR-132 and miR-212, are downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, the expression pattern and clinical utility of serum miR-132/212 in hepatocellular carcinoma are still unknown. Methods In this study, serum concentrations of miR-132 and miR-212 were measured in 80 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 51 controls with chronic liver diseases and 42 healthy volunteers by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results In hepatocellular carcinoma patients, serum concentrations of miR-132 and miR-212 were significantly reduced and strongly correlated (r = 0.603, p < 0.001). Receiver operator characteristic analyses showed that serum miR-132 and miR-212 might have a potential role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the combination of serum miR-132, miR-212 and alpha-fetoprotein improved the diagnostic efficiency for hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in sensitivity and negative predictive value. Serum miR-132 was associated with tumour differentiation degree ( p = 0.021) and tumour-node-metastasis stage ( p = 0.002); serum miR-212 correlated with tumour size ( p = 0.023) and tumour-node-metastasis stage ( p = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated poorer overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with lower serum concentrations of miR-132 ( p < 0.001) and miR-212 ( p = 0.005). Conclusions Our results suggest that both components of the miR-132/212 cluster have potential roles as non-invasive serum biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Endothelial precursor cells promote angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi-Tai; Yuan, Xian-Wen; Zhu, Hai-Tao; Deng, Zheng-Ming; Yu, De-Cai; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2012-09-21

    To investigate the role of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The bone marrow of HCC mice was reconstructed by transplanting green fluorescent protein (GFP) + bone marrow cells. The concentration of circulating EPCs was determined by colony-forming assays and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Serum and tissue levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and colony-stimulating factor (CSF) were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The distribution of EPCs in tumor and tumor-free tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The incorporation of EPCs into hepatic vessels was examined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The proportion of EPCs in vessels was then calculated. The HCC model was successful established. The flow cytometry analysis showed the mean percentage of CD133CD34 and CD133VEGFR2 double positive cells in HCC mice was 0.45% ± 0.16% and 0.20% ± 0.09% respectively. These values are much higher than in the sham-operation group (0.11% ± 0.13%, 0.05% ± 0.11%, n = 9) at 14 d after modeling. At 21 d, the mean percentage of circulating CD133CD34 and CD133VEGFR2 cells is 0.23% ± 0.19%, 0.25% ± 0.15% in HCC model vs 0.05% ± 0.04%, 0.12% ± 0.11% in control. Compared to the transient increase observed in controls, the higher level of circulating EPCs were induced by HCC. In addition, the level of serum VEGF and CSF increased gradually in HCC, reaching its peak 14 d after modeling, then slowly decreased. Consecutive sections stained for the CD133 and CD34 antigens showed that the CD133+ and CD34+ VEGFR2 cells were mostly recruited to HCC tissue and concentrated in tumor microvessels. Under fluorescence microscopy, the bone-marrow (BM)-derived cells labeled with GFP were concentrated in the same area. The relative levels of CD133 and CD34 gene expression were elevated in tumors, around 5.0 and 3.8 times that

  9. Metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid features and Hep Par 1 antibody positive mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Affleck, Authur; Lyman, William B; Jacobs, W Carl; Livasy, Chad A; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2018-05-09

    The hepatocyte paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) has a high positive predictive value for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. 1 We report a case of metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid histology and strong positive staining for Hep Par 1 mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. To our knowledge, primary breast carcinoma staining Hep Par 1 positive has not been reported in the setting of hepatic metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. SGK2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression and mediates GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in HCC cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Zhang, Guangdong; Lv, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Ying, Cui; Yang, Suocheng; Kong, Xin; Yu, Yanzhang

    2017-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. The serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) family of serine/threonine kinases consists of three isoforms, SGK1, SGK2, and SGK3. This family of kinases is highly homologous to the AKT kinase family, sharing similar upstream activators and downstream targets. Few studies have investigated the role of SGK2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we report that SGK2 expression levels were upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and human hepatoma cell lines compared to the adjacent normal liver tissues and a normal hepatocyte line, respectively. We found that downregulated SGK2 inhibits cell migration and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (SMMC-7721 and Huh-7).We also found that downregulated SGK2 suppressed the expression level of unphosphorylated (activated) glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta. In addition, SGK2 downregulation decreased the dephosphorylation (activation) of β-catenin by preventing its proteasomal degradation in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. These findings suggest that SGK2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression and mediates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  11. Long non-coding RNA CASC2 regulates cell biological behaviour through the MAPK signalling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yuanyuan; Han, Nana; He, Xiaoqin; Yu, Jiajun; Zhang, Meixia; Zhou, Yujie; Liang, Huiling; Deng, Junjian; Zheng, Yongfa; Ge, Wei; Long, Zhixiong; Xu, Ximing

    2017-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs have previously been demonstrated to play important roles in regulating human diseases, especially cancer. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma have not been extensively studied. The long non-coding RNA CASC2 (cancer susceptibility candidate 2) has been characterised as a tumour suppressor in endometrial cancer and gliomas. However, the role and function of CASC2 in hepatocellular carcinoma remain unknown. In this study, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we confirmed that CASC2 expression was downregulated in 50 hepatocellular carcinoma cases (62%) and in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines compared with the paired adjacent tissues and normal liver cells. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that overexpressed CASC2 decreased hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as promoted apoptosis via inactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that CASC2 could be a useful tumour suppressor factor and a promising therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. [Echo-guided radiofrequency percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis using a cooled needle].

    PubMed

    Marone, G; Francica, G; D'Angelo, V; Iodice, G; Pastore, P; Altamura, G; Cusati, B; Siani, A

    1998-06-01

    Radiofrequency hyperthermia using the newly-developed "cooled-tip" needle is one of the latest US-guided percutaneous treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in cirrhosis. The continuous cooling of the needle tip allows tissue heating and necrosis far from the electrode without tissue charring, which was the major drawback of the old monopolar technique. Herein we report our preliminary results on feasibility and effectiveness of the thermoablation of mono- or paucifocal hepatocellular carcinoma with the cooled-tip needle. November, 1996, to January, 1998, we treated thirteen cirrhotic patients (mean age 69.5 yrs, 10 men, 12 HCV-positive; 11 in Child's Class A and 2 in Class B) with 19 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules (mean diameter: 27 mm; range: 10-41 mm; 6 with diameter > 3 cm). None of the patients had portal thrombosis and/or extrahepatic spread. We used a radiofrequency generator (100 W power) connected to an 18 G perfusion electrode needle with an exposed tip of 2-3 cm. The circuit is closed through a dispersive electrode positioned under the patient's thighs. A peristaltic pump infuses a chilled (2-5 degrees C) saline solution to guarantee the continuous cooling of the needle tip. The needle was placed into target lesions under US guidance. The interventional procedure was carried out under general anesthesia using Propofol without intubation. Dynamic CT (more recently with the helical technique) was carried out 15-20 days after thermoablation to assess treatment efficacy. In all, 31 thermal injuries (at 1000-1200 mA for 10-15 minutes) were caused in 21 sessions in the 19 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules (mean: 1.5 lesions per nodule and 1.6 sessions per patient). Complete necrosis as assessed at dynamic CT (no enhancement during the arteriographic phase) was achieved in 16 of 19 nodules (84%). No side-effects occurred. During the follow-up (median: 11 months) no death occurred and five patients had recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma appearing either

  13. Chitosan nanoparticles from marine squid protect liver cells against N-diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-09-01

    Rationale of this study was framed to investigate the protective effect and anti-cancer property of nanoparticles based on chitosan isolated from squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, on hepatic cells in N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. The results conferred that the chitosan nanoparticle supplementation had a protective effect on liver cells by reducing the levels of marker enzymes and bilirubin and thus increasing the albumin levels. The level of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol significantly increased in both post- and pre-treatment with chitosan nanoparticles. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced and lipid peroxidation products were diminished while treating nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma with chitosan nanoparticles. Supplementation of chitosan nanoparticles had potent anti-hyperlipidemic property that was evidenced by monitoring the serum lipid levels and its components. Animals pre-treated with chitosan nanoparticles along with nitrosodiethylamine showed a significant reduction in the total cholesterol and triglycerides levels with increase in the levels of phospholipids and free fatty acids. Chitosan nanoparticles treated rats showed significant increment in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduction in low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol when compared with levels in nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Nitrosodiethylamine-induced carcinoma changes on circulation and hepatic antioxidant defense mechanism were regulated by chitosan nanoparticles, concluding that the chitosan nanoparticles have a potent protective effect on liver cells which might be due to its robust antioxidant and anti-lipidemic property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF ORTHOTOPIC HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AND DRUG-INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN MICE WITH SPLEEN-DEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haoxuan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Baoguo; Xiang, Ting; Zhang, Shijun

    2017-01-01

    Spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) played pivotal roles on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was performed to establish and evaluate HCC model in mice with SDS in TCM. A total of 90 C57BL/6 mice were randomized in six groups (n=15 for each group): A, Control group; B, SDS group; C, orthotopic HCC (OHCC) group; D, OHCC based on SDS (SDS-OHCC) group; E, Drug-induced HCC (DHCC) group; F, DHCC based on SDS (SDS-DHCC) group. The SDS model were established by subcutaneous injection of reserpine, followed by the OHCC or DHCC model establishment. The SDS scores, tumor formation rate and survival time were recorded and calculated, as well as the histochemical stain was performed. The SDS scores of mice in Group B, D, F were 17.57±4.86 (P<0.05 vs. Group A), 18.13±4.53 (P<0.05 vs. Group A and C) and 23.32±4.94 (P<0.05 vs. Group A and E) respectively. The tumor formation rate of mice in Group C, D, E and F were 73.33%, 100%, 60% and 80% respectively. The survival time of mice in Group C, D, E and F were 26.42±5.27, 17.33±4.76 (P<0.05 vs. Group C), 35.77±6.12 and 22.61±5.05 (P<0.05 vs. Group E) respectively. The SDS-oriented HCC mice models were simple and easily-operated models for further studies on SDS oriented tumor. Meanwhile, SDS was a pivotal factor for low outcome of hepatic tumor. Abbreviations: HCC, Hepatocellular carcinoma; OHCC, Orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma; DHCC, Drug-induced hepatocellular carcinoma; SDS, Spleen-deficiency syndrome; TCM, Traditional Chinese Medicine; SPF, Specific pathogen-free; DEN, Diethylnitrosamine; CCl4, Carbon tetrachloride; HE, Hematoxylin-eosin; IACUC, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

  15. Conditional survival analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Del Prete, Valentina; Antonino, Matteo; Neve, Viviana; Amoruso, Annabianca; Crucinio, Nicola; Di Leo, Alfredo; Barone, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Survival estimates are commonly reported as survival from the first observation, but future survival probability changes based on the survival time already accumulated after therapy, otherwise known as conditional survival (CS). The aim of the study was to describe CS according to different prognostic variables in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Data on 125 very early/early HCC patients treated with RFA between 1999 and 2007 were analyzed. Actuarial survival estimates were computed by means of Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. The 5-year CS was calculated with stratification by several predictors for patients who had already survived up to 5 years from diagnosis. Median overall survival (OS) was 72 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 58-86). Age, Child-Pugh (CP), α-fetoprotein (AFP), Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score and type of recurrence (early vs late) were significant predictors of OS. The 5-year CS rates of the entire study cohort assessed at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years from the treatment were 49%, 48%, 30% and 34%, respectively. Subgroup analysis confirmed age and CP as significant predictors of CS at all time points, while the CS of subgroups stratified by AFP and CLIP did not differ significantly from the 3rd year after RFA onward, as more advanced patients had probably escaped early recurrence. CS analysis showed that the impact of different variables influencing OS is not linear over time after RFA. Information derived from the study can improve the current management of HCC patients. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Dual-Selective and Dual-Enhanced SERS Nanoprobes Strategy for Circulating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Detection.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuanfeng; Wang, Chongwen; Xiao, Rui; Sun, Zhiwei

    2018-05-11

    The detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from a blood sample can be a very powerful noninvasive approach for the early detection and therapy of liver cancer. However, the extreme rarity of tumor cells in blood containing billions of other cells makes the capture and identification of CTCs with sufficient sensitivity and specificity a real challenge. Here, a magnetically assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor for HCC CTC detection is reported for the first time. The biosensor consists of two basic elements: anti-ASGPR antibody-Fe 3 O 4 @Ag magnetic nanoparticles and anti-GPC3 antibody-Au@Ag@DTNB nanorods. According to the dual-selectivity of the anti-ASGPR and anti-GPC3 antibodies and the dual-enhancement SERS signal of the MNPs silver shell and the Au@Ag NRs SERS tags, a limit of detection of 1 cell mL -1 for HCC CTC in human peripheral blood samples with a linear relationship from 1 to 100 cells mL -1 can be obtained. The system shows good performance in real serum, which suggests it may be a promising tool for HCC clinical diagnosis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. RITA inhibits growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihe; Chen, Guofu; Wang, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunbo

    2013-01-01

    RBP-J-interacting and tubulin-associated (RITA) is a novel RBP-J-interacting protein that downregulates Notch-mediated transcription. The current study focuses on the antitumor effect of RITA in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and aims to explore its molecular mechanism. Thirty paired HCC and adjacent non-tumoral liver samples were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RITA overexpression was induced by transfection of a pcDNA3.1-Flag-RITA plasmid into HepG2 cells. RITA knockdown was achieved by siRNA transfection. mRNA and protein expression of target genes were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay and flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that adjacent nontumoral liver samples exhibited increased RITA expression compared to HCC tissues (p < 0.05); RITA levels were associated with tumor differentiation status. Overexpression of RITA suppressed cell proliferation and promoted early apoptosis, while its silencing promoted cell growth dramatically (p < 0.05). RITA overexpression upregulated p53 and reduced cyclin E levels, whereas silencing of RITA had the opposite effect on p53 and cyclin E expression. Our in vitro results represent the first evidence that RITA might suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in HCCs, and may be a potent antitumoral agent for HCC treatment that deserves further exploration.

  18. Predictive biomarkers of sorafenib efficacy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Are we getting there?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its efficacy is modest with low response rates and short response duration. Predictive biomarkers for sorafenib efficacy are necessary. However, efforts to determine biomarkers for sorafenib have led only to potential candidates rather than clinically useful predictors. Studies based on patient cohorts identified the potential of blood levels of angiopoietin-2, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and transforming growth factor-β1 for predicting sorafenib efficacy. Alpha-fetoprotein response, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment-related side effects may serve as early surrogate markers. Novel approaches based on super-responders or experimental mouse models may provide new directions in biomarker research. These studies identified tumor amplification of FGF3/FGF4 or VEGFA and tumor expression of phospho-Mapk14 and phospho-Atf2 as possible predictive markers that await validation. A group effort that considers various prognostic factors and proper collection of tumor tissues before treatment is imperative for the success of future biomarker research in advanced HCC. PMID:26420960

  19. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; ...

    2015-01-05

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. Here in this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images ofmore » Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. Lastly, as x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.« less

  20. Microfilament regulatory protein MENA increases activity of RhoA and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yan-Li; Qin, Wenxin; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-09-10

    Mammalian enabled (MENA), usually known as a direct regulator of microfilament polymerization and bundling, promotes metastasis in various cancers. Here we focus on the role of MENA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the relevant mechanism from the view of RhoA activity regulation. By HCC tissue microarray analysis, we found that MENA expression was positively associated with satellite lesions (P<0.01) and vascular invasion (P<0.01). Cases with membrane reinforcement of MENA staining in HCC tissues had significantly higher rates of early recurrence in the intermediate MENA expression group. Knockdown of MENA significantly suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as their intrahepatic and distant metastasis in vivo. Knockdown of MENA also decreased filopodia and stress fibers in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, a decrease of RhoA activity was detected by a pull-down assay in SMMC-7721-shMENA cells. The ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, suppressed migration of both MENA knockdown SMMC-7721 cells and control cells, but diminished their difference. Thus, our findings suggest that MENA promotes HCC cell motility by activating RhoA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Highly Sensitive X-ray Imaging Modality for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Detection in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities. PMID:25559398

  2. A microRNA-based prediction model for lymph node metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xiang, Zuo-Lin; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Fan, Jia; Tang, Zhao-You; Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-19

    We developed an efficient microRNA (miRNA) model that could predict the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first evaluated a training cohort of 192 HCC patients after hepatectomy and found five LNM associated predictive factors: vascular invasion, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, miR-145, miR-31, and miR-92a. The five statistically independent factors were used to develop a predictive model. The predictive value of the miRNA-based model was confirmed in a validation cohort of 209 consecutive HCC patients. The prediction model was scored for LNM risk from 0 to 8. The cutoff value 4 was used to distinguish high-risk and low-risk groups. The model sensitivity and specificity was 69.6 and 80.2%, respectively, during 5 years in the validation cohort. And the area under the curve (AUC) for the miRNA-based prognostic model was 0.860. The 5-year positive and negative predictive values of the model in the validation cohort were 30.3 and 95.5%, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that the LNM hazard ratio of the high-risk versus low-risk groups was 11.751 (95% CI, 5.110-27.021; P < 0.001) in the validation cohort. In conclusion, the miRNA-based model is reliable and accurate for the early prediction of LNM in patients with HCC.

  3. Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets

    DOE PAGES

    Schulze, Kornelius; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Letouzé, Eric; ...

    2015-03-30

    Our genomic analyses promise to improve tumor characterization to optimize personalized treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exome sequencing analysis of 243 liver tumors identified mutational signatures associated with specific risk factors, mainly combined alcohol and tobacco consumption and exposure to aflatoxin B1. We identified 161 putative driver genes associated with 11 recurrently altered pathways. Associations of mutations defined 3 groups of genes related to risk factors and centered on CTNNB1 (alcohol), TP53 (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and AXIN1. These analyses according to tumor stage progression identified TERT promoter mutation as an early event, whereasFGF3, FGF4, FGF19 or CCND1more » amplification and TP53 and CDKN2A alterations appeared at more advanced stages in aggressive tumors. In 28% of the tumors, we identified genetic alterations potentially targetable by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drugs. Finally, we identified risk factor–specific mutational signatures and defined the extensive landscape of altered genes and pathways in HCC, which will be useful to design clinical trials for targeted therapy.« less

  4. Update Treatment for HBV Infection and Persistent Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Prospect for an HBV Cure.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Joseph; Hann, Hie-Won; Coben, Robert; Conn, Mitchell; DiMarino, Anthony J

    2018-04-20

    Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, its genome, sequence, epidemiology, and hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated. Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still responsible for the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the sixth-most common cancer in the world and the second-most common cancer death. The ultimate goal of treating HBV infection is the prevention of HCC. Fortunately, anti-HBV treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), which began with lamivudine in 1998, has resulted in remarkable improvements in the survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B and a reduced incidence of HCC. These results were documented with lamivudine, entecavir, and tenofovir. Nonetheless, as the duration of antiviral treatment increases, the risk for HCC still remains despite undetectable HBV DNA in serum, as reported by different investigators with observation up to 4⁻5 years. In our own experience, we are witnessing the development of HCC in patients who have received antiviral treatment. Some have enjoyed negative serum HBV DNA for over 12 years before developing HCC. Current treatment with NAs can effectively suppress the replication of the virus but cannot eradicate the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that is within the nucleus of hepatocytes. There still remains a great need for a cure for HBV. Fortunately, several compounds have been identified that have the potential to eradicate HBV, and there are ongoing clinical trials in progress in their early stages.

  5. Autoantibodies against glucose-regulated protein 78 as serological diagnostic biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, QING; REN, PENGFEI; LI, YANG; PENG, BO; DAI, LIPING; LEI, NINGJING; YAO, WU; ZHAO, GANG; LI, LINGGEN; ZHANG, JIANYING

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of cancer with a very poor prognosis. Although α-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most effective marker available to detect HCC, the sensitivity and specificity are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for the development of more sensitive and specific methods that can supplement AFP in the early detection of this cancer. In this study, autoantibody responses to glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis (LC) and chronic hepatitis (CH), as well as from normal human individuals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue array slides was also preformed to analyze protein expression profiles of GRP78 in HCC and control tissues. The prevalence of autoantibodies against GRP78 was 35.5% (27/76) in HCC, which was significantly higher than that in LC, CH and normal human sera (NHS; P<0.01). The average titer of autoantibodies against GRP78 in HCC sera was higher compared to that in LC, CH and NHS(P<0.01). When both autoantibodies against GRP78 and AFP were used simultaneously as diagnostic markers, sensitivity reached 71.4%. Our data indicate that anti-GRP78 autoantibodies may be potential diagnostic markers for HCC, especially in conjunction with AFP. PMID:22692946

  6. GPX4 and GPX7 Over-Expression in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, E.; Capone, F.; Accardo, M.; Sorice, A.; Costantini, M.; Colonna, G.; Castello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and is still one of the most fatal cancers. Hence, it needs to identify always new putative markers to improve its diagnosis and prognosis. The selenium is an essential trace mineral implicated as a key factor in the early stage of cancer and exerts its biological function through the selenoproteins. In the last years our group has been studying the involvement of some selenoproteins in HCC. However, no many data are reported in literature about the correlation between HCC and the glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), both selenium and non selenium-containing GPXs. In this paper we have evaluated the GPX4 and GPX7 expression in some paraffin-embedded tissues from liver biopsy of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and HCC by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR analysis. Our results evidenc