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Sample records for early high-dose immunosuppression

  1. Efficacy of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in two patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis refractory to previous immunosuppressive treatment.

    PubMed

    Tona, Francesco; Bellotto, Fabio; Laveder, Francesco; Meneghin, Alessia; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Marcolongo, Renzo

    2003-01-01

    Although idiopathic acute pericarditis is usually a self-limiting disease, in many patients it may recur over a period of months or years. Even if some evidence seems to suggest the possible role of a deranged immune reactivity in the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, the etiology of the disease is still unknown. Furthermore, while some trial data confirm the usefulness of colchicine, its medical treatment is not yet clearly established. We here report the clinical history of 2 patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis resistant to prednisone, colchicine and other immunosuppressive drugs, who have been successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A

    2003-09-01

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited

  3. Perioperative single high dose ATG-Fresenius S administration as induction immunosuppressive therapy in cadaveric renal transplantation--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Samsel, R; Chmura, A; Włodarczyk, Z; Wyzgał, J; Cieciura, T; Lagiewska, B; Pliszczyński, J; Korczak, G; Lazowski, T; Paczek, L; Wałaszewski, J; Lao, M; Rowiński, W

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal and polyclonal antilymphocyte antibodies have been used successfully in organ transplantation as induction therapy and in the treatment of acute graft rejection. Used for induction the medication is generally given for the first 7-10 days. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of single high dose (9 mg/kg) ATG Fresenius S given perioperatively, before revascularization, to kidney allograft recipients. During last twelve months seventy six, first cadaveric kidney adult recipients were included into the study in two centers (center A-64, center B-12). All patients received triple drug immunosuppression (Neoral, steroids and Cellcept which was replaced by azathioprine after 4 months), and were randomized to receive ATG or not. The follow-up period ranged from 1 month up to 1 year. The preliminary results are very promising, the rejection rate in bolus group was significantly lower than in control. No significant side effects or serious adverse events in both groups were observed.

  4. Immunosuppressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z ... Exchange Programs Knowing Your Immunosuppressive (anti-rejection) Medications Organ and Tissue Donation The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the largest, ...

  5. [Experience with high-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by transplantation of autologous stem hematopoietic cells in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Rossiev, V A; Makarov, S V; Aleksandrova, I Ia; Dolgikh, G T; Lipshina, S R; Stukalova, T A; Trushina, O A; Fedorova, E Iu; Lipina, L N; Sivak, V F; Korenev, P P; Murashov, B F

    2002-01-01

    To assess efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy and subsequent autologous transplantation of stem blood cells (SBC) in patients with multiple sclerosis. The trial enrolled 23 patients (4 men and 19 women) with multiple sclerosis (MS) lasting for 3 to 12 years. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 44 years. The index of the progression was above 1 in all the patients. A remitting, primary-progredient, secondary-progredient course was diagnosed in 3, 3 and 17 patients, respectively. Posttransplantation follow-up was 1 to 1.5 years. The degree of the neurological deficiency (0-6 scores) was estimated by the scale of functional systems damage. Lymphocyte subpopulations were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay according to expression of membrane antigens CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD20, CD25, CD56, CD95 using monoclonal antibodies ICO (Biomedspectr), humoral immunity--by serum levels of IgA, IgM and IgG. SBC mobilization was conducted for 5 days by subcutaneous introduction of neipogen (Roche) in a dose 8.7-10 mcg/kg. Preparation of SBC was made on Haemonetics blood separator on mobilization day 4-5. Cryopreservation was carried out in programmed freezer (Cryomed) with 7% dimethylsulphoxide as a cryoprotector. Pretransplantation conditioning was conducted according to the schemes BEAM + antilymphocytic globulin (protocol N 1) and fludar + melfalan + ALG (protocol N 2). In posttransplantation period most of the patients achieved a fall in intensity of motor and coordination disorders. No recovery of cranial nerve function was observed. The protocols of pretransplantation preparation were compared by efficiency and organic toxicity. Indications to immunosuppressive therapy in MS patients were defined, pathogenetic validation of the immunosuppressive therapy was attempted.

  6. Effects of high-dose fish oil supplementation during early infancy on neurodevelopment and language: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; D'Vaz, Nina; Simmer, Karen; Dunstan, Janet A; Hird, Kathryn; Prescott, Susan L

    2012-10-28

    n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) intake during infancy is important for neurodevelopment; however, previous studies of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been inconclusive possibly due to an insufficient dose and limited methods of assessment. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of direct supplementation with high-dose fish oil (FO) on infant neurodevelopmental outcomes and language. In the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 420 healthy term infants were assigned to receive a DHA-enriched FO supplement (containing at least 250 mg DHA/d and 60 mg EPA/d) or a placebo (olive oil) from birth to 6 months. Assessment occurred at 18 months via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition; BSID-III) and the Child Behavior Checklist. Language assessment occurred at 12 and 18 months via the Macarthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. The FO group had significantly higher erythrocyte DHA (P = 0·03) and plasma phospholipid DHA (P = 0·01) levels at 6 months of age relative to placebo. In a small subset analysis (about 40% of the total population), children in the FO group had significantly higher percentile ranks of both later developing gestures at 12 and 18 months (P = 0·007; P = 0·002, respectively) and the total number of gestures (P = 0·023; P = 0·006, respectively). There was no significant difference between the groups in the standard or composite scores of the BSID-III. The results suggest that improved postnatal n-3 LC-PUFA intake in the first 6 months of life using high-dose infant FO supplementation was not beneficial to global infant neurodevelopment. However, some indication of benefits to early communicative development was observed.

  7. Early-life exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter causes pulmonary immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Jordy; You, Dahui; Thevenot, Paul; Lee, Greg I.; Shrestha, Bishwas; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2-inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific Ig compared to HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was two-fold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared to HDM-mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during early life induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and Tregs, resulting in suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific-antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848

  8. Perioperative Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Keloids: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciT

    Jiang, Ping, E-mail: ping.jiang@uksh.de; Baumann, René; Dunst, Juergen

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of therapy-resistant keloids and report first results, with emphasis on feasibility and early treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2014, 24 patients with 32 recurrent keloids were treated with immediate perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3 patients had been previously treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and presented with recurrences in the pretreated areas. Two or more different treatment modalities had been tried in all patients and had failed to achieve remission. After (re-)excision of the keloids, a single brachytherapy tube was placed subcutaneously before closing the wound. The target volumemore » covered the scar in total length. Brachytherapy was given in 3 fractions with a single dose of 6 Gy in 5 mm tissue depth. The first fraction was given within 6 hours after surgery, the other 2 fractions on the first postoperative day. Thus, a total dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions was administered within 36 hours after the resection. Results: The treatment was feasible in all patients. No procedure-related complications (eg, secondary infections) occurred. Nineteen patients had keloid-related symptoms before treatment like pain and pruritus; disappearance of symptoms was noticed in all patients after treatment. After a median follow-up of 29.4 months (range, 7.9-72.4 months), 2 keloid recurrences and 2 mildly hypertrophied scars were observed. The local control rate was 94%. Pigmentary abnormalities were detected in 3 patients, and an additional 6 patients had a mild delay in the wound-healing process. Conclusions: The early results of this study prove the feasibility and the efficacy of brachytherapy for the prevention of keloids. The results also suggest that brachytherapy may be advantageous in the management of high-risk keloids or as salvage treatment for failure after external beam therapy.« less

  9. Early High-Dose Erythropoietin Therapy After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Alain; Deye, Nicolas; Vivien, Benoît; Richard, Olivier; Pichon, Nicolas; Bourg, Angèle; Huet, Loïc; Buleon, Clément; Frey, Jérôme; Asfar, Pierre; Legriel, Stéphane; Narcisse, Sophie; Mathonnet, Armelle; Cravoisy, Aurélie; Dequin, Pierre-François; Wiel, Eric; Razazi, Keyvan; Daubin, Cédric; Kimmoun, Antoine; Lamhaut, Lionel; Marx, Jean-Sébastien; de la Garanderie, Didier Payen; Ecollan, Patrick; Combes, Alain; Spaulding, Christian; Barat, Florence; Ben Boutieb, Myriam; Coste, Joël; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Pène, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Carli, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    Preliminary data suggested a clinical benefit in treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with a high dose of erythropoietin (Epo) analogs. The authors aimed to evaluate the efficacy of epoetin alfa treatment on the outcome of OHCA patients in a phase 3 trial. The authors performed a multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Patients still comatose after a witnessed OHCA of presumed cardiac origin were eligible. In the intervention group, patients received 5 intravenous injections spaced 12 h apart during the first 48 h (40,000 units each, resulting in a maximal dose of 200,000 total units), started as soon as possible after resuscitation. In the control group, patients received standard care without Epo. The main endpoint was the proportion of patients in each group reaching level 1 on the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (survival with no or minor neurological sequelae) at day 60. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality rate, distribution of patients in CPC levels at different time points, and side effects. In total, 476 patients were included in the primary analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. At day 60, 32.4% of patients (76 of 234) in the intervention group reached a CPC 1 level, as compared with 32.1% of patients (78 of 242) in the control group (odds ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.48). The mortality rate and proportion of patients in each CPC level did not differ at any time points. Serious adverse events were more frequent in Epo-treated patients as compared with controls (22.6% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.03), particularly thrombotic complications (12.4% vs. 5.8%; p = 0.01). In patients resuscitated from an OHCA of presumed cardiac cause, early administration of erythropoietin plus standard therapy did not confer a benefit, and was associated with a higher complication rate. (High Dose of Erythropoietin Analogue After Cardiac Arrest [Epo-ACR-02]; NCT00999583). Copyright

  10. High dose ursodeoxycholic acid increases risk of adverse outcomes in patients with early stage primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mohamad H.; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Gossard, Andrea A.; Kowdley, Kris V.; Luketic, Velimir A. C.; Harrison, M. Edwyn; McCashland, Timothy; Befeler, Alex S.; Harnois, Denise; Jorgensen, Roberta; Petz, Jan; Keach, Jill; DeCook, Alisha C.; Enders, Felicity; Lindor, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in a dose of 28–30 mg/kg/day increases the likelihood of clinical deterioration of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. Aim Our aim was to compare the risk of adverse clinical endpoints in patients with varying disease status. Methods We reviewed records from patients previously enrolled in a study evaluating the effects of high-dose (28–30 mg/kg/day) UDCA in PSC. Patients were grouped according to treatment (UDCA vs. placebo) and baseline disease status (histologic stage of PSC, total serum bilirubin). Development of clinical endpoints including death, liver transplantation, cirrhosis, esophageal varices and cholangiocarcinoma was sought. Results One hundred fifty patients were included of which 49 patients developed endpoints. There was an increased development of endpoints amongst patients using UDCA vs. placebo (14 vs. 4, p = 0.0151) with early histologic disease (stage 1–2, n = 88) but not with late stage (stage 3–4, n = 62) disease (17 vs. 14, p = 0.2031). Occurrence of clinical endpoints was also higher in patients receiving UDCA vs. placebo (16 vs. 2, p = 0.0008) with normal bilirubin levels (total bilirubin ≤ 1.0 mg/dl) but not in patients with elevated bilirubin levels (15 vs. 16, p = 0.6018). Among patients not reaching endpoints 31.68% had normalization of their alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to 14.29% in patients who reached endpoints (p = 0.073). Conclusion The increased risk of adverse events with UDCA treatment as compared to placebo is only apparent in patients with early histologic stage disease or normal total bilirubin. PMID:21957881

  11. Dilatation and curettage is more accurate than endometrial aspiration biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Methods We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. Results Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. Conclusion To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal. PMID:27670255

  12. Dilatation and curettage is more accurate than endometrial aspiration biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Mi La; Yun, Bo Seong; Jung, Yong Wook; Shim, Jeong Yun

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal.

  13. Baseline immunosuppression is associated with histological findings in early protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Moreso, Francesc; Serón, Daniel; Carrera, Marta; Gil-Vernet, Salvador; Cruzado, Josep M; Hueso, Miguel; Fulladosa, Xavier; Ramos, Rosa; Ibernon, Meritxell; Castelao, Alberto M; Grinyó, Josep M

    2004-10-15

    Protocol biopsies performed in stable renal allografts show different degrees of acute and chronic lesions that have been related with graft outcome. However, the utility of protocol biopsies to manage baseline immunosuppression has not been well characterized. We performed a case-control study to compare histological lesions observed in protocol biopsies in 49 patients treated with tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone to 49 patients treated with cyclosporine Neoral (CsA), MMF, and prednisone. Histological lesions were graded according to 1997 Banff criteria. The analysis was done according to an intention-to-treat basis. Patients treated with TAC displayed in the protocol biopsy a lower acute score (0.61+/-1.01 vs. 1.26+/-1.45; P=0.0115) and a similar chronic score (1.57+/-1.97 vs. 1.51+/-1.59; P=NS). Transplant glomerulopathy was also lower in TAC treated patients (0.02+/-0.14 vs. 0.20+/-0.41; P=0.0037). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of acute inflammation was associated with tacrolimus treatment (relative risk [RR]: 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.84; P=0.0211) and the time of biopsy (RR per month: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97; P=0.0394). The presence of chronic lesions was only associated with serum creatinine at the time of biopsy (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P=0.0439). The incidence of inflammatory lesions and transplant glomerulopathy is lower in patients treated with TAC than in patients treated with CsA. These data suggest that baseline immunosuppression could influence the severity of histological lesions in stable grafts.

  14. Early discharge after high-dose melphalan and peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion in patients with hematological and non-hematological disease.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Antonella; Giglio, Fabio; Mazza, Rita; Sarina, Barbara; Todisco, Elisabetta; Bramanti, Stefania; Castagna, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse our experience of early discharge 2 days after high-dose melphalan (HDM) (Day-1) followed by peripheral blood stem cell re-infusion (Day-0) and re-admission on Day +5 in patients with hematological diseases or solid tumors. From 2000 to November 2005, seven patients received tandem Melphalan 200 mg/m(2) HDM with peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSC-T), 130 a single HDM, for a total of 144 procedures. In 123 of them, patients were discharged on Day +1 for re-admission on Day +5 or earlier in the event of complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not used. Patients were hospitalised in positive-pressure reverse isolation room during the neutropenic period. Of the 123 procedures eligible for our mixed inpatient-outpatient management regimen, six (5%) required early re-admission for complications. Full engraftment was achieved in all cases. Median time to neutrophil count >0.5 x 10(9)/microL and >1 x 10(9)/microL were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Median time to platelet recovery (>20 x 10(9)/microL) was 13 days. Severe extra-hematological toxicities occurred in 78 (63%) patients: all had oral mucositis and five had associated diarrhoea. During hospitalisation, 94/123 (76%) experienced febrile neutropenia, 20/94 (21%) had documented infection and 74/94 (79%) were considered fever of unknown origin. Median fever duration was 1 day (range 0-11). Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 6 days (range 3-26). Median time to discharge (from Day 0) was 16 days (range 11-57). There was no mortality by on Day +100. Our experience of early discharge after HDM and PBSC-T with re-admission on Day +5 is safe and feasible with acceptable frequency of hematological and extra-hematological toxicities. The regimen allows reduced hospital stay and hence cost savings.

  15. Association between early administration of high-dose erythropoietin in preterm infants and brain MRI abnormality at term-equivalent age.

    PubMed

    Leuchter, Russia Ha-Vinh; Gui, Laura; Poncet, Antoine; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lodygensky, Gregory Anton; Martin, Ernst; Koller, Brigitte; Darqué, Alexandra; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Hüppi, Petra Susan

    2014-08-27

    Premature infants are at risk of developing encephalopathy of prematurity, which is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental delay. Erythropoietin was shown to be neuroprotective in experimental and retrospective clinical studies. To determine if there is an association between early high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin treatment in preterm infants and biomarkers of encephalopathy of prematurity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age. A total of 495 infants were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Switzerland between 2005 and 2012. In a nonrandomized subset of 165 infants (n=77 erythropoietin; n=88 placebo), brain abnormalities were evaluated on MRI acquired at term-equivalent age. Participants were randomly assigned to receive recombinant human erythropoietin (3000 IU/kg; n=256) or placebo (n=239) intravenously before 3 hours, at 12 to 18 hours, and at 36 to 42 hours after birth. The primary outcome of the trial, neurodevelopment at 24 months, has not yet been assessed. The secondary outcome, white matter disease of the preterm infant, was semiquantitatively assessed from MRI at term-equivalent age based on an established scoring method. The resulting white matter injury and gray matter injury scores were categorized as normal or abnormal according to thresholds established in the literature by correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome. At term-equivalent age, compared with untreated controls, fewer infants treated with recombinant human erythropoietin had abnormal scores for white matter injury (22% [17/77] vs 36% [32/88]; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96), white matter signal intensity (3% [2/77] vs 11% [10/88]; adjusted RR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.90), periventricular white matter loss (18% [14/77] vs 33% [29/88]; adjusted RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92), and gray matter injury (7% [5/77] vs 19% [17/88]; adjusted RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89). In an analysis of secondary

  16. High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome

    SciT

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Fang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS)more » were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.« less

  17. The effect of a single early high-dose vitamin D supplement on fracture union in patients with hypovitaminosis D: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Haines, N; Kempton, L B; Seymour, R B; Bosse, M J; Churchill, C; Hand, K; Hsu, J R; Keil, D; Kellam, J; Rozario, N; Sims, S; Karunakar, M A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single early high-dose vitamin D supplement on fracture union in patients with hypovitaminosis D and a long bone fracture. Between July 2011 and August 2013, 113 adults with a long bone fracture were enrolled in a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Their serum vitamin D levels were measured and a total of 100 patients were found to be vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/ml) or insufficient (< 30 ng/mL). These were then randomised to receive a single dose of vitamin D 3 orally (100 000 IU) within two weeks of injury (treatment group, n = 50) or a placebo (control group, n = 50). We recorded patient demographics, fracture location and treatment, vitamin D level, time to fracture union and complications, including vitamin D toxicity. Outcomes included union, nonunion or complication requiring an early, unplanned secondary procedure. Patients without an outcome at 15 months and no scheduled follow-up were considered lost to follow-up. The t -test and cross tabulations verified the adequacy of randomisation. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out. In all, 100 (89%) patients had hypovitaminosis D. Both treatment and control groups had similar demographics and injury characteristics. The initial median vitamin D levels were 16 ng/mL (interquartile range 5 to 28) in both groups (p = 0.885). A total of 14 patients were lost to follow-up (seven from each group), two had fixation failure (one in each group) and one control group patient developed an infection. Overall, the nonunion rate was 4% (two per group). No patient showed signs of clinical toxicity from their supplement. Despite finding a high level of hypovitaminosis D, the rate of union was high and independent of supplementation with vitamin D 3 . Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1520-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciT

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, versionmore » 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.« less

  19. Cosmetic Analysis Following Breast-Conserving Surgery and Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciT

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate cosmetic outcomes in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients had stage Tis-T2 tumors of ≤3 cm that were excised with negative margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. Both the patients and the treating radiation oncologist qualitatively rated cosmesis as excellent, good, fair, or poor over time and ascribed a causemore » for changes in cosmesis. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated quantitatively by percentage of breast retraction assessment (pBRA). Patients also reported their satisfaction with treatment over time. Results: Median follow-up was 55 months. The rates of excellent-to-good cosmesis reported by patients and the treating radiation oncologist were 92% and 97% pretreatment, 91% and 97% at 3 to 4 months' follow-up, 87% and 94% at 2 years, and 92% and 94% at 3 years, respectively. Breast infection and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of a fair-to-poor cosmetic outcome at 3 years. Compared to pretreatment pBRA (7.35), there was no significant change in pBRA over time. The volume receiving more than 150 Gy (V150) was the only significant predictor of pBRA. The majority of patients (86.6%) were completely satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Patients and the treating physician reported a high rate of excellent-to-good cosmetic outcomes at all follow-up time points. Acute breast infection and chemotherapy were associated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy does not significantly change breast size as measured by pBRA.« less

  20. A dosimetric analysis of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as an alternative to adjuvant high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in early endometrial cancer patients

    SciT

    Aydogan, Bulent; Mundt, Arno J.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) as an alternative to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the treatment of the vagina in postoperative early endometrial cancer patients after surgery. Methods and Materials: Planning computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients previously treated with HDR were used in this study. In all cases, a dose of 700 cGy/fraction was prescribed at a distance of 0.5 cm from the cylinder surface. The same CT scans were then used in IMRT planning. In this paradigm, the vaginal cylinder represents a component of a hypothetical immobilization system that would be indexed tomore » the linac treatment table. Results: Our study showed that IMRT provided relatively lower rectal doses than HDR when treatment was prescribed at a distance of 0.5 cm away from the cylinder surface. Maximum rectal doses were lower with IMRT compared with HDR (average: 89.0% vs. 142.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). Moreover, the mean rectal dose was lower in IMRT plans compared with HDR plans with treatment prescribed either to the surface (average: 14.8% vs. 21.4%, respectively, p < 0.05) or to 0.5 cm (average: 19.6% vs. 33.5%, respectively, p < 0.05). IMRT plans had planning target volume (PTV) coverage comparable with HDR (average PTV minimum for treatment prescribed to 0.5 cm: 93.9% vs. 92.1%, p = 0.71, respectively) with less inhomogeneity (average PTV maximum: 110.8% vs. 381.6%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our dosimetric analysis suggests that when used in conjunction with a suitable immobilization system, IMRT may provide an alternative to HDR brachytherapy in women with early endometrial cancer after hysterectomy. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the clinical merit of the IMRT in these patients.« less

  1. High-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy for early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring: dosimetric analysis and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong; Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-12-01

    To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV50]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV40). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median mean doses to the PTV50 and PTV40 were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV50 and 0.9% of the PTV40 received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Legionnaire's Disease and Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    PubMed

    Htwe, Tin Han; Khardori, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    Immunosuppressive agents predispose patients to legionnaire's disease. Patients receiving tumor necrosis factor antagonists are generally not severely immunocompromised by the underlying disease. In patients with malignancy receiving immunosuppressive therapies, it is difficult to balance the underlying disease versus the therapy used. Transplant recipients are often on multiple drugs, including immunosuppressants. It seems that immunosuppressive drugs add to the risk for legionella infection. The index of suspicion should be high for legionella infection early during a compatible clinical syndrome. The control of Legionella species and prevention of transmission should be the foremost goal in protecting susceptible populations from Legionnaire's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunosuppressive effects of lead

    Franson, J. Christian; Feierabend, J.Scott; Russell, A.Brooke

    1986-01-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of lead were reported as early as 1966, when it was noted that lead increased the sensitivity of rats to bacterial endotoxins (Selye et al. 1966). Since then a substantial body of literature has demonstrated adverse effects of lead on the immune system in a variety of laboratory animals, but very little has been done in this area with avian species. Such immunosuppressive effects could be of significance to waterfowl populations, considering the potential for lead ingestion by waterfowl and subsequent exposure of these birds to disease agents.

  4. [Pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients].

    PubMed

    Solyanik, O; Gaass, T; Hellbach, K; Dinkel, J

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infections are a common complication in immunosuppressed patients with a frequently fatal prognosis despite modern prophylactic therapy. An early and correct diagnosis is important for initiation of the appropriate therapy. Chest radiography is the preferred initial imaging examination but is not accurate enough for the detection of pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. Pneumonia is caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens in immunocompromised patients. In addition to imaging, the clinical history and epidemiology also play an important role in the diagnostics. Using epidemiological and anamnestic information, computed tomography (CT) shows a significantly better sensitivity and specificity particularly for the diagnosis of atypical forms of pneumonia. Due to the exact imaging of the different infiltration patterns CT provides an increased sensitivity with respect to the etiological classification of pulmonary infections. This article reviews in particular the radiological findings of commonly occurring pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  5. High Dose Cyclophosphamide without Stem Cell Rescue in 207 Patients with Aplastic anemia and other Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Petri, Michelle; Drachman, Daniel B.; Kerr, Doug; Hammond, Edward R.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Loeb, David M.; Anhalt, Grant; Wigley, Fredrick; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose cyclophosphamide has long been used an anticancer agent, a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and as potent immunosuppressive agent in autoimmune diseases including aplastic anemia. High-dose cyclophosphamide is highly toxic to lymphocytes but spares hematopoietic stem cells because of their abundant levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, the major mechanism of cyclophosphamide inactivation. High dose cyclophosphamide therapy induces durable remissions in most patients with acquired aplastic anemia. Moreover, high-dose cyclophosphamide without hematopoietic stem cell rescue has shown activity in a variety of other severe autoimmune diseases. Here we review the history of cyclophosphamide as is applies to aplastic anemia (AA) and other autoimmune diseases. Included here are the historical data from early patients treated for AA as well as an observational retrospective study in a single tertiary care hospital. This latter component was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose cyclophosphamide therapy without stem cell rescue in patients with refractory autoimmune diseases. We analyzed fully the 140 patients with severe, progressive autoimmune diseases treated. All patients discussed here received cyclophosphamide, 50 mg/kg per day for 4 consecutive days. Response, relapse and overall survival were measured. Response was defined as a decrease in disease activity in conjunction with a decrease or elimination of immune modulating drugs. Relapse was defined as worsening disease activity and/or a requirement of an increase in dose of, or administration of new, immunosuppressive medications. Hematologic recovery occurred in all patients. The overall response rate of the was 95%, and 44% of those patients remain progression-free with a median follow up time of 36 (range 1–120) months for the 140 patients analyzed together. The overall actuarial and event free survival across all diseases at 60 months is 90.7% and 20

  6. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Early, High-Dose Parenteral Amino Acid Intake in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Jennings, Alishia; Przystac, Lynn; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty; Stephens, Bonnie E; Bliss, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Administration of high-dose parenteral amino acids (AAs) to premature infants within hours of delivery is currently recommended. This study compared the effect of lower and higher AA administration starting close to birth on short-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-24 months corrected gestational age (CGA). Infants <1250 g birth weight (n = 168) were randomly assigned in a blinded fashion to receive parenteral nutrition providing 1-2 g/kg/d AA and advancing daily by 0.5 g/kg/d to a goal of 4 g/kg/d (standard AA) or 3-4 g/kg/d and advancing to 4 g/kg/d by day 1. The primary outcome was neurodevelopmental outcomes measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18-24 months CGA. Secondary outcomes were growth parameters at 36 weeks CGA among infants surviving to hospital discharge, serum bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, AA profiles in the first week of life, and incidence of major morbidities and mortality. No differences in neurodevelopmental outcome were detected between the high and low AA groups. Infants in the high AA group had significantly lower mean weight, length, and head circumference percentiles than those in the standard AA group at 36 weeks CGA and at hospital discharge. These differences did not persist after controlling for birth growth parameters, except for head circumference. Infants in the high AA group had higher mean serum urea nitrogen than the standard group on each day throughout the first week. Current recommendations for high-dose AA starting at birth are not associated with improved growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  7. Early effects comparison of X-rays delivered at high-dose-rate pulses by a plasma focus device and at low dose rate on human tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Virelli, A; Zironi, I; Pasi, F; Ceccolini, E; Nano, R; Facoetti, A; Gavoçi, E; Fiore, M R; Rocchi, F; Mostacci, D; Cucchi, G; Castellani, G; Sumini, M; Orecchia, R

    2015-09-01

    A comparative study has been performed on the effects of high-dose-rate (DR) X-ray beams produced by a plasma focus device (PFMA-3), to exploit its potential medical applications (e.g. radiotherapy), and low-DR X-ray beams produced by a conventional source (XRT). Experiments have been performed at 0.5 and 2 Gy doses on a human glioblastoma cell line (T98G). Cell proliferation rate and potassium outward currents (IK) have been investigated by time lapse imaging and patch clamp recordings. The results showed that PFMA-3 irradiation has a greater capability to reduce the proliferation rate activity with respect to XRT, while it does not affect IK of T98G cells at any of the dose levels tested. XRT irradiation significantly reduces the mean IK amplitude of T98G cells only at 0.5 Gy. This work confirms that the DR, and therefore the source of radiation, is crucial for the planning and optimisation of radiotherapy applications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Directions for use of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors against generalized myasthenia gravis: therapeutic strategies that can lead to early improvements and veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    The advent of effective immune treatment has meant that myasthenia gravis (MG) is most often not lethal. However, many MG patients still find it difficult to maintain daily activities due to chronic residual fatigability and long-term side effects of medication, since full remission without immune treatment is not common. Our analysis demonstrated that disease severity, dose of oral corticosteroids, and depressive state are the major independent factors negatively associated with self-reported QOL (MG-QOL15-J score). It is noteworthy that oral corticosteroid, the first-line agent for MG, is negatively associated with patients' QOL. When the analysis took into account MGFA postintervention status and dose of oral prednisolne (PSL), the MG-QOL15-J score of MM status patients taking ≤ 5 mg PSL per day is identically low (i.e., just as good QOL) as that seen in CSR and is a target of treatment. In order to veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids and to achieve early MM or better status with PSL ≤ 5 mg/day, we advocate the early aggressive treatment strategy that can achieve early improvement by performing an aggressive therapy using combined treatment with plasmapheresis and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and then maintain an improved clinical status using low-dose oral corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine microemulsion and tacrolimus). The early stages of MG are susceptible to treatment with calcineurin inhibitors. When using cyclosporine microemulsion for MG, blood concentrations 2 h after administration (C2) correlate with clinical improvement and immediately before administration (C0) with side effects (increased serum creatinine and/or hypertension). Monitoring of C2 and C0 levels is useful to estimate efficacy and safety of the drug.

  9. Evaluation of the response of concurrent high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy in management of early stage carcinoma cervix.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, H S; Walke, Rahul V; Hirapara, Pushpendra H; Jakhar, Shankar Lal; Bardia, M R

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate local disease control and early complications of concomitant brachytherapy with external beam-radiotherapy in early stage carcinoma cervix. Fifty patients of early stage carcinoma cervix (FIGO-IB/IIA) were randomly divided into study group concomitant external beam irradiation (EBRT) and HDR-ICBT (intra-cavitary brachytherapy, xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 5.2 Gy*5 Fr) and the control group EBRT followed by HDR-ICBT (xrt = 50 Gy/25 Fr, HDR 7.5 Gy*3 Fr). Acute reactions and local disease response were compared between treatment and at 6-month follow up. Median overall treatment times were 38 and 61 days in the study and the control groups, respectively. Acute skin reactions and diarrhea were more in the study but manageable. At the completion of the study, there were 80 and 68 % complete responses, 16 and 20 % partial responses, 0 and 8 % stable diseases in the study group and the control group, respectively. Response was better in the study group but statistically insignificant. Larger number of patients and longer follow up are required to arrive at concrete conclusion.

  10. Good outcome of brain stem progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an immunosuppressed renal transplant patient: Importance of early detection and rapid immune reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Roland; Gölitz, Philipp; Jacobi, Johannes; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A; Lee, De-Hyung

    2017-04-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic and often fatal disease of the CNS which may occur under immunosuppression in transplant patients. Brain stem PML is associated with a particularly bad prognosis. Here, we present a case of a renal transplant patient treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus who developed brain stem PML with limb ataxia, dysarthria and dysphagia. Diagnosis was established by typical MRI features and detection of JCV-DNA in the CSF. Immune reconstitution after stopping MMF and tacrolimus led to a complete and sustained remission of symptoms with improvement of the brain stem lesion over a follow-up over 20months. In summary, early detection of PML and consequent treatment may improve neurological outcomes even in brain stem disease with a notorious bad prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Low- Versus High-dose Valganciclovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Disease in High-risk Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Asipenko, Natalya; Fleming, James; Lor, Kevin; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa; Mohammed, Anisa; Rogers, Christin; Tichy, Eric M; Weng, Renee; Lee, Ruth-Ann

    2015-07-01

    Despite proven efficacy of prolonged cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis using valganciclovir 900 mg/day, some centers use 450 mg/day due to reported success and cost savings. This multicenter, retrospective study compared the efficacy and safety of 6 months of low-dose versus high-dose valganciclovir prophylaxis in high-risk, donor-positive/recipient-negative, renal transplant recipients (RTR). Two hundred thirty-seven high-risk RTR (low-dose group = valganciclovir 450 mg/day [n = 130]; high-dose group = valganciclovir 900 mg/day [n = s7]) were evaluated for 1-year CMV disease prevalence. Breakthrough CMV, resistant CMV, biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, opportunistic infections (OI), new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), premature valganciclovir discontinuation, renal function and myelosuppression were also assessed. Patient demographics and transplant characteristics were comparable. Induction and maintenance immunosuppression were similar, except for more early steroid withdrawal in the high-dose group. Similar proportions of patients developed CMV disease (14.6% vs 24.3%; P = 0.068); however, controlling CMV risk factor differences through multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly lower CMV disease in the low-dose group (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 0.432, 95% confidence interval, 0.211-0.887). Breakthrough and resistant CMV occurred at similar frequencies. There was no difference in renal function or rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, opportunistic infections, or new-onset diabetes after transplantation. The high-dose group had significantly lower mean white blood cell counts at months 5 and 6; however, premature valganciclovir discontinuation rates were similar. Low-dose and high-dose valganciclovir regimens provide similar efficacy in preventing CMV disease in high-risk RTR, with a reduced incidence of leukopenia associated with the low-dose regimen and no difference in resistant CMV. Low-dose valganciclovir

  12. Immunosuppression in Early Postnatal Days Induces Persistent and Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance to Asthma in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995

  13. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger

    2016-11-10

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis ( p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT ( p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year ( p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  14. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Ngobili, Terrika A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  15. External beam boost versus interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost in the adjuvant radiotherapy following breast-conserving therapy in early-stage breast cancer: a dosimetric comparison

    PubMed Central

    Melchert, Corinna; Kovács, György

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to compare the dosimetric data of local tumor's bed dose escalation (boost) with photon beams (external beam radiation therapy – EBRT) versus high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) after breast-conserving treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer. Material and methods We analyzed the treatment planning data of 136 irradiated patients, treated between 2006 and 2013, who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation (WBI; 50.4 Gy) and boost (HDR-BT: 10 Gy in one fraction [n = 36]; EBRT: 10 Gy in five fractions [n = 100]). Organs at risk (OAR; heart, ipsilateral lung, skin, most exposed rib segment) were delineated. Dosimetric parameters were calculated with the aid of dose-volume histograms (DVH). A non-parametric test was performed to compare the two different boost forms. Results There was no difference for left-sided cancers regarding the maximum dose to the heart (HDR-BT 29.8% vs. EBRT 29.95%, p = 0.34). The maximum doses to the other OAR were significantly lower for HDR-BT (Dmax lung 47.12% vs. 87.7%, p < 0.01; rib 61.17% vs. 98.5%, p < 0.01; skin 57.1% vs. 94.75%, p < 0.01; in the case of right-sided breast irradiation, dose of the heart 6.00% vs. 16.75%, p < 0.01). Conclusions Compared to EBRT, local dose escalation with HDR-BT presented a significant dose reduction to the investigated OAR. Only left-sided irradiation showed no difference regarding the maximum dose to the heart. Reducing irradiation exposure to OAR could result in a reduction of long-term side effects. Therefore, from a dosimetric point of view, an interstitial boost complementary to WBI via EBRT seems to be more advantageous in the adjuvant radiotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:27648082

  16. A prospective phase II trial of response adapted whole brain radiotherapy after high dose methotrexate based chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma-analysis of acute toxicity profile and early clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Narayan; Biswas, Ahitagni; Gogia, Ajay; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Garg, Ajay; Nehra, Ashima; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Bhasker, Suman; Singh, Manmohan; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chawla, Rohan; Joshi, Garima; Kumar, Lalit; Chander, Subhash

    2018-04-09

    The treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises high dose methotrexate (HDMTX) based chemotherapy followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the major drawback of which is long term neurotoxicity. We intended to assess the feasibility of response adapted WBRT in PCNSL in the Indian setting. We screened 32 patients and enrolled 22 eligible patients with PCNSL from 2015 to 2017 in a prospective phase II trial. The patients underwent five 2-weekly cycles of induction chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, vincristine, procarbazine. Patients with complete response(CR) to induction chemotherapy were given reduced dose WBRT 23.4 Gy/13 fractions/2.5 weeks while those with partial response (PR), stable or progressive disease (SD or PD) were given standard dose WBRT 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Thereafter two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine were given. The primary endpoints of the study were assessment of response rate (RR) and progression free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints of the study were assessment of overall survival (OS), toxicity profile of treatment and serial changes in quality of life and neuropsychological parameters. Out of 19 patients who completed HDMTX based chemotherapy, 10 (52.63%) patients achieved CR, 8 (42.11%) patients had PR and 1 patient had PD. After a median follow-up period of 11.25 months, the estimated median OS was 19 months. The actuarial rates of PFS and OS were respectively 94.1 and 68.2% at 1 year and 50.2 and 48.5% at 2 years. Three patients in reduced dose WBRT arm had recurrence and two of them died of progressive disease, whereas there was no recurrence or disease related death in standard dose WBRT arm. On univariate analysis of PFS, age ≤ 50 years and use of standard dose WBRT (45 Gy) led to significantly improved outcome (p value 0.03 and 0.02 respectively). In patients with PCNSL, reduced dose WBRT after CR to HDMTX based chemotherapy may lead to suboptimal clinical outcome due

  17. Prolonged immunosuppression preserves nonsensitization status after kidney transplant failure.

    PubMed

    Casey, Michael J; Wen, Xuerong; Kayler, Liise K; Aiyer, Ravi; Scornik, Juan C; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf

    2014-08-15

    When kidney transplants fail, transplant medications are discontinued to reduce immunosuppression-related risks. However, retransplant candidates are at risk for allosensitization which prolonging immunosuppression may minimize. We hypothesized that for these patients, a prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal after graft failure preserves nonsensitization status (PRA 0%) better than early immunosuppression withdrawal. We retrospectively examined subjects transplanted at a single center between July 1, 1999 and December 1, 2009 with a non-death-related graft loss. Subjects were stratified by timing of immunosuppression withdrawal after graft loss: early (≤3 months) or prolonged (>3 months). Retransplant candidates were eligible for the main study where the primary outcome was nonsensitization at retransplant evaluation. Non-retransplant candidates were included in the safety analysis only. We found 102 subjects with non-death-related graft loss of which 49 were eligible for the main study. Nonsensitization rates at retransplant evaluation were 30% and 66% for the early and prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal groups, respectively (P=0.01). After adjusting for cofactors such as blood transfusion and allograft nephrectomy, prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal remained significantly associated with nonsensitization (adjusted odds ratio=5.78, 95% CI [1.37-24.44]). No adverse safety signals were seen in the prolonged immunosuppression withdrawal group compared to the early immunosuppression withdrawal group. These results suggest that prolonged immunosuppression may be a safe strategy to minimize sensitization in retransplant candidates and provide the basis for larger or prospective studies for further verification.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Baumann, G; Zenke, G; Wenger, R; Hiestand, P; Quesniaux, V; Andersen, E; Schreier, M H

    1992-04-01

    The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA, Sandimmun, SIM) is currently being evaluated in a variety of autoimmune disorders with some remarkable successes. Despite the wide empiric application of CsA, the precise mechanism of action of this drug remains elusive. To identify the molecular mode of action of CsA in the process of T cell activation, we have compared the biological profile of cyclophilin-binding cyclosporin analogues (CBCA), which lack immunosuppressive properties, with CsA. We have found that CsA binding to its intracellular receptor (cyclophilin) is required but not sufficient for immunosuppression. Moreover, inhibition of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin does not seem to be relevant for the inhibitory effects of CsA. In analogy to the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin, a specific structure at the 'effector' domain of the CsA molecule different from the immunophilin 'binding' domain determines the biological activity. Overall, a significant understanding of the structure-activity relationship of CsA has emerged. This will have a major impact on the identification of the precise mechanism of action of CsA and its side effects in the process of immunosuppression.

  19. Induction immunosuppressive therapies in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Martin, Spencer T; Roberts, Keri L; Grafals, Monica

    2011-02-01

    Induction immunosuppressive therapies for patients undergoing renal transplantation are reviewed. The goal of induction therapy is to prevent acute rejection during the early posttransplantation period by providing a high degree of immunosuppression at the time of transplantation. Induction therapy is often considered essential to optimize outcomes, particularly in patients at high risk for poor short-term outcomes. All of the induction immunosuppressive agents currently used are biological agents and are either monoclonal (muromonab-CD3, daclizumab, basiliximab, alemtuzumab) or polyclonal (antithymocyte globulin [equine] or antithymocyte globulin [rabbit]) antibodies. Although antithymocyte globulin (rabbit) is not labeled for induction therapy, it is used for this purpose more than any other agent. Basiliximab is not considered as potent an immunosuppressive agent but has a much more favorable adverse-effect profile compared with antithymocyte globulin (rabbit) and is most commonly used in patients at low risk for acute rejection. Rituximab is being studied for use as induction therapy but to date has not demonstrated any significant benefits over placebo. While head-to-head data are available comparing most induction agents, the final decision on the most appropriate induction therapy for a transplant recipient is highly dependent on preexisting medical conditions, donor characteristics, and the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen to be used. No standard induction immunosuppressive regimen exists for patients undergoing renal transplantation. Antithymocyte globulin (rabbit) is the most commonly used agent, whereas basiliximab appears safer. The choice of regimen depends on the preferences of clinicians and institutions.

  20. Neutropenia during High Dose Intravenous Oxacillin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Mary Jean; Hicks, Jeanne E.; Andriole, Vincent T.

    1976-01-01

    Five patients who developed neutropenia following intravenous administration of high dose oxacillin for serious Staphylococcus aureus infection are described. Neutropenia was reversible with cessation of intravenous oxacillin therapy. Two patients were continued on oral oxacillin without untoward effects. PMID:997595

  1. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  2. High-Dose Vitamin C (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    High-dose vitamin C, with and without conventional cancer therapies, appeared promising in early studies and was well tolerated. However, these studies have several limitations due to lack of rigor in trial design. Get detailed information about high-dose vitamin C in cancer in this clinician summary.

  3. Combating immunosuppression in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Eleanor A; Graner, Michael W; Sampson, John H

    2012-01-01

    Despite maximal therapy, malignant gliomas have a very poor prognosis. Patients with glioma express significant immune defects, including CD4 lymphopenia, increased fractions of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood and shifts in cytokine profiles from Th1 to Th2. Recent studies have focused on ways to combat immunosuppression in patients with glioma as well as in animal models for glioma. We concentrate on two specific ways to combat immunosuppression: inhibition of TGF-β signaling and modulation of regulatory T cells. TGF-β signaling can be interrupted by antisense oligonucleotide technology, TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitors, soluble TGF-β receptors and antibodies against TGF-β. Regulatory T cells have been targeted with antibodies against T-cell markers, such as CD25, CTLA-4 and GITR. In addition, vaccination against Foxp3 has been explored. The results of these studies have been encouraging; combating immunosuppression may be one key to improving prognosis in malignant glioma. PMID:18518768

  4. Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... research. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine indicated that the high-dose vaccine ... TTY: 888-232-6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov ...

  5. High-dose neutron detector project update

    SciT

    Menlove, Howard Olsen; Henzlova, Daniela

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increased efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtainmore » a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.« less

  6. Feasibility and early outcome of high-dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy as monotherapy in two fractions within 1 day for high-/very high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Shingo; Yamasaki, Ichiro; Tamura, Kenji; Shimamoto, Tsutomu; Inoue, Keiji; Kariya, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kana; Yamagami, Takuji; Shuin, Taro

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy as a monotherapy in two fractions within 1 day for localized prostate cancer, including high-/very high-risk cases. Among the 68 patients treated with HDR monotherapy between July 2011 and December 2014, 65 had a minimal follow-up of 12 months without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and were enrolled in the present study [42/65 (64.6%) exhibited high-/very high-risk diseases]. HDR monotherapy was performed in two fractions with a minimal interval of 6 h and the prescribed dose was 13.5 Gy (×2). Adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4; http://ctep.cancer.gov/protocolDevelopment/electronic_applications/ctc.htm#ctc_40), and biochemical failure was assessed by the Phoenix definition. The median follow-up time was 30.1 months. The majority of patients had Grade 0-1 acute AEs. Four patients (6.2%) exhibited urinary retention, requiring a Foley catheter. Grade 3 acute AEs occurred at a frequency of 3.1% and hematuria at 1.5%. The majority of patients also exhibited Grade 0-1 chronic AEs. Grade 3 chronic AEs occurred at a frequency of 1.5% and urethral stricture at 1.5%, for which endoscopic treatment was indicated. Acute and chronic gastrointestinal AEs were uncommon, and no Grade 3 or above AEs developed. Biochemical failure occurred in 4 patients who all exhibited high-/very high-risk diseases. Kaplan-Meier estimated that 3 year biochemical failure-free survival was 91.6% overall and 88.0% in high-/very high-risk cases. The present two-fraction 1 day HDR monotherapy is feasible with minimal AEs and achieved acceptable biochemical control of localized prostate cancer, including high-/very high-risk cases, although long-term follow-up is required.

  7. Immunosuppressive therapy in polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Currie, S.; Walton, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs were given to seven patients with polymyositis. The in-vitro activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes had previously been studied in five of these patients with findings suggestive of disturbed immunological processes. Some improvement occurred in five cases, but only in two was the improvement marked and sustained. In this small series of cases, the response to treatment was best in a patient with polymyositis who showed no evidence of involvement of tissues or organs other than muscle and in a second case with subacute polymyositis occurring in association with an unidentified connective tissue disorder. The response was less satisfactory in two patients with dermatomyositis, in two with polymyositis associated with systemic sclerosis, and in one in whom the muscle disorder complicated rheumatoid arthritis. At present such treatment is usually given only in cases which are resistant to, or intolerant of, steroids. The relative values of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy are discussed; a combination of the two in moderate doses may eventually prove to be the best initial treatment for the disorder. PMID:5096559

  8. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciT

    Kaplan, D.R.

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2more » production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.« less

  9. Cancer immunotherapy by immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Richmond T; Prehn, Liisa M

    2010-12-15

    We have previously suggested that the stimulatory effect of a weak immune reaction on tumor growth may be necessary for the growth of incipient tumors. In the present paper, we enlarge upon and extend that idea by collecting evidence in the literature bearing upon the new hypothesis that a growing cancer, whether in man or mouse, is throughout its lifespan, probably growing and progressing because of continued immune stimulation by a weak immune reaction. We also suggest that prolonged immunosuppression might interfere with progression and thus be an aid to therapy. While most of the considerable evidence that supports the hypothesis comes from observations of experimental mouse tumors, there is suggestive evidence that human tumors may behave in much the same way, and as far as we can ascertain, there is no present evidence that necessarily refutes the hypothesis.

  10. Cancer immunotherapy by immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the stimulatory effect of a weak immune reaction on tumor growth may be necessary for the growth of incipient tumors. In the present paper, we enlarge upon and extend that idea by collecting evidence in the literature bearing upon this new hypothesis that a growing cancer, whether in man or mouse, is throughout its lifespan, probably growing and progressing because of continued immune stimulation by a weak immune reaction. We also suggest that prolonged immunosuppression might interfere with progression and thus be an aid to therapy. While most of the considerable evidence that supports the hypothesis comes from observations of experimental mouse tumors, there is suggestive evidence that human tumors may behave in much the same way, and as far as we can ascertain, there is no present evidence that necessarily refutes the hypothesis. PMID:21159199

  11. Neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2017-11-01

    A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS. But biotin's ability to boost cGMP synthesis in the brain may have broader neuroprotective potential. In many types of neurons and neural cells, cGMP exerts neurotrophic-mimetic effects - entailing activation of the PI3K-Akt and Ras-ERK pathways - that promote neuron survival and plasticity. Hippocampal long term potentiation requires nitric oxide synthesis, which in turn promotes an activating phosphorylation of CREB via a pathway involving cGMP and protein kinase G (PKG). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta suppresses this mechanism by inhibiting sGC activity; agents which exert a countervailing effect by boosting cGMP levels tend to restore effective long-term potentiation in rodent models of AD. Moreover, NO/cGMP suppresses amyloid beta production within the brain by inhibiting expression of amyloid precursor protein and BACE1. In conjunction with cGMP's ability to oppose neuron apoptosis, these effects suggest that high-dose biotin might have potential for the prevention and management of AD. cGMP also promotes neurogenesis, and may lessen stroke risk by impeding atherogenesis and hypertrophic remodeling in the cerebral vasculature. The neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin likely could be boosted by concurrent administration of brain

  12. Clinical impact of occult hepatitis B virus infection in immunosuppressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Martini, Salvatore; Filippini, Pietro; Sagnelli, Caterina; Coppola, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), is characterized by low level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in circulating blood and/or liver tissue. In clinical practice the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-/anti-HBs-negative subjects is considered indicative of OBI. OBI is mostly observed in the window period of acute HBV infection in blood donors and in recipients of blood and blood products, in hepatitis C virus chronic carriers, in patients under pharmacological immunosuppression, and in those with immunodepression due to HIV infection or cancer. Reactivation of OBI mostly occurs in anti-HIV-positive subjects, in patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy in onco-hematological settings, in patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in those treated with anti-CD20 or anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, or anti-tumor necrosis factors antibody for rheumatological diseases, or chemotherapy for solid tumors. Under these conditions the mortality rate for hepatic failure or progression of the underlying disease due to discontinuation of specific treatment can reach 20%. For patients with OBI, prophylaxis with nucleot(s)ide analogues should be based on the HBV serological markers, the underlying diseases and the type of immunosuppressive treatment. Lamivudine prophylaxis is indicated in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation and in onco-hematological diseases when high dose corticosteroids and rituximab are used; monitoring may be indicated when rituximab-sparing schedules are used, but early treatment should be applied as soon as HBsAg becomes detectable. This review article presents an up-to-date evaluation of the current knowledge on OBI. PMID:25018849

  13. Albuminuria after renal transplantation: maintenance with sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus vs. mycophenolate mofetil/high-dose tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Skorupa, Jill Y; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Stevens, R Brian

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplantation has been associated with proteinuria. We report long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients maintained on steroid-free regimens, either SRL with low-dose tacrolimus (SRL/L-Tac) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with high-dose tacrolimus (MMF/H-Tac). We conducted a case-matched study of 50 patients receiving MMF/H-Tac, matched 1:2 with 100 patients maintained on SRL/L-Tac. All patients were induced with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by early steroid withdrawal. Comparisons were made of patient and graft survival, graft function, acute rejection, and albuminuria. There were no significant differences between the SRL/L-Tac and MMF/H-Tac groups for patient survival, graft survival, occurrence of acute rejection, or graft function. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥300 μg/mg (19% vs. 20%), but more patients in the SRL group were receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking agents (72% vs. 53%, p = 0.04). Only flushing the donor kidney with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (vs. UW solution) was predictive of albuminuria. Long-term outcomes are similar at our center for kidney transplant patients receiving either SRL/L-Tac or MMF/H-Tac. Although the occurrence of albuminuria was not different, significantly more SRL-treated patients were receiving antiproteinuric medications. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    YamazakI, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

  15. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.

  16. Immunosuppression in inflammatory bowel disease: traditional, biological or both?

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2009-07-01

    To focus on the emerging clinical evidence for the use of traditional immunosuppressives and biologicals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence published this year indicates that in Crohn's disease the early use of combined infliximab and purine analogues before the introduction of steroid therapy induces faster steroid-free remission and improves mucosal healing. We have also learned that, in patients with Crohn's disease who are naïve to traditional immunosuppressive therapy, combined infliximab and azathioprine improves clinical and mucosal healing outcomes at 6 months. On the contrary, in patients already exposed to traditional immunosuppressives prior to starting infliximab, withdrawal of azathioprine or methotrexate after 6 months of combined scheduled infliximab maintenance with these agents does not affect outcomes after 2 years of continued infliximab therapy. Finally, several important studies on the safety of immunosuppressives including anti-tumour necrosis factor agents have been published. The cumulative body of evidence suggests that combined immunosuppressive therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease increases toxicity. Treatment paradigms for traditional immunosuppressives and biologicals in inflammatory bowel disease are evolving, and the choice of therapy becomes highly dependent on the drugs previously used and disease severity.

  17. High-dose ascorbate with low-dose amphotericin B attenuates severity of disease in a model of the reappearance of candidemia during sepsis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Somparn, Poorichaya; Bootprapan, Tanabodee; Tu, Hongbin; Tangtanatakul, Pattarin; Nuengjumnong, Ratchanok; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Eiam-ong, Somchai; Levine, Mark; Chinampon, Ariya; Srisawat, Nattachai

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B (Ampho B) is a fungicidal drug that causes cell wall injury. Pharmacological ascorbate induces the extracellular prooxidants, which might enter the Ampho B-induced cell wall porosity and act synergistically. We tested low-dose Ampho B with a short course of pharmacological ascorbate using a mouse model of sepsis preconditioned with an injection of Candida albicans 6 h prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In this model, candidemia reappeared as early as 6 h after CLP with a predictably high mortality rate. This characteristic mimics sepsis in the phase of immunosuppression in patients. Using the model, at 12- and 18-h post-CLP, we administered isotonic (pH neutralized) pharmacological ascorbate intravenously with low-dose Ampho B or sodium deoxycholate, vehicle-controlled, administered IP. The survival rate of low-dose Ampho B plus ascorbate was 53%, compared with <11% for low-dose Ampho B or high-dose Ampho B alone. In addition, a beneficial effect was demonstrated in terms of kidney damage, liver injury, spleen histopathology, and serum markers at 24 h after CLP. Kidney injury was less severe in low-dose Ampho B plus ascorbate combination therapy due to less severe sepsis. Moreover, ascorbate enhanced the effectiveness of phagocytosis against C. albicans in human phagocytic cells. Taken together, the data indicate that the new mouse model simulates sepsis-induced immunosuppression and that the combination of pharmacological ascorbate with an antifungal drug is a potentially effective treatment that may reduce nephrotoxicity, and perhaps also increase fungicidal activity in patients with systemic candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. PMID:25994956

  18. Optimal prevention of seizures induced by high-dose busulfan.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Andrea L; Anderson, Gail D; Bubalo, Joseph S; McCune, Jeannine S

    2008-12-01

    High-dose busulfan is frequently used in a variety of conditioning regimens for hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this setting, busulfan has marked neurotoxicity, specifically causing seizures that generally are tonic-clonic in character. Phenytoin has been the preferred drug to treat busulfan-induced seizures, but this practice should be reexamined in light of newer antiepileptic drugs being preferentially used by neurologists. Characteristics of ideal seizure prophylaxis include lack of overlapping toxicity with the conditioning regimen, lack of interference with engraftment of donor cells, and minimal potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Based on these criteria, phenytoin is suboptimal due to possible toxicities and is especially ill suited because of its ability to induce busulfan metabolism. It is postulated that this induction adversely affects efforts to update methods for targeting busulfan doses to individual patients, based on recent developments in the understanding of the pharmacogenomics of busulfan metabolism. The existing clinical data support the use of benzodiazepines, most notably clonazepam and lorazepam, to prevent busulfan-induced seizures. The second-generation antiepileptic drug levetiracetam possesses the characteristics of optimal prophylaxis for busulfan-induced seizures, and early data of its efficacy are promising, although further study is needed.

  19. Overview of new immunosuppressive therapies.

    PubMed

    Nevins, T E

    2000-04-01

    This review covers the new immunosuppressive drugs that have appeared in the past 5 years. It begins with the newest formulation (Neoral, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA) of the clinically "mature" drug cyclosporin A and then reviews the literature on tacrolimus, sirolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. In each case, the emphasis is on the evolution of experience with the drug and on the questions that the drug poses for pediatricians considering the risk-benefit ratio of the drug in children.

  20. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciT

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA program of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  1. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciT

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  2. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    SciT

    Jiao, Zhijie

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  3. The modification of high-dose therapy shortens the duration of neutropaenia by delay of leucocyte nadir.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, T; Krüger, W H; Schüler, F; Lotze, C; Hirt, C; Dölken, G

    2006-06-01

    Infections during neutropaenia contribute still significantly to mortality and morbidity after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Further acceleration of haemopoietic recovery seems impossible for biological reasons. Another approach to shorten neutropaenia could be to remove drugs from high-dose therapy protocols with strong contribution to immunosuppression and neutropaenia and unproven antineoplastic activity. In this retrospective matched-pair analysis, conventional busulphan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) high-dose therapy was compared to single-agent busulphan conditioning before autologous stem cell transplantation. This modification led to a significant shorter neutropaenic interval by protraction of cell decrease and to a significant mitigation of neutropaenia. After single-agent busulphan conditioning, leucocytes dropped below 1/nl at median 1.5 days later when compared to the patients from the busulphanBu/Cy control group (P=0.001). In a significant percentage of patients (n=6, 60%) leucocytes did not fall below 0.5 cells/nl at any time. In contrast, all patients from the Bu/Cy control group experienced deep neutropaenia (P=0.004). Thrombocytopaenia and requirement for transfusions of platelets or red cells were not influenced. Antineoplastic activity seemed to be preserved as determined by survival analysis. In conclusion, modification of high-dose regimen with the intention to shorten neutropaenia with preserved antitumour activity could be an approach to reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality and to consider economic necessities.

  4. High Dose and Delayed Treatment with Bile Acids Ineffective in RML Prion-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Norman, Grant; Campeau, Jody; Sim, Valerie L

    2018-05-21

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the infectious form (PrP Sc ). There are currently no treatments for prion disease. Bile acids have the ability to protect hepatocytes from apoptosis and are neuroprotective in animal models of other protein folding neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, bile acids are approved for clinical use in patients with cirrhosis, and have recently been shown to be safe and possibly effective in pilot trials of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously reported that the bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), given early in disease, prolonged incubation periods in male RML-infected mice. Here we expand on this result to include tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment trials and delayed UDCA treatment. We demonstrate that, despite a high dose of TUDCA given early in disease, there was no significant difference in incubation periods between treated and untreated cohorts, regardless of sex. In addition, delayed treatment with a high dose of UDCA resulted in a significant shortening of the average survival time for both male and female mice when compared to their sex-matched controls, with evidence of increased BiP, a marker of apoptosis, in treated female mice. Our findings suggest that treatment with high dose TUDCA provides no therapeutic benefit and that delayed treatment with high dose UDCA is ineffective and could potentially worsen outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Erythromycin prophylaxis for Legionnaire's disease in immunosuppressed patients in a contaminated hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Vereerstraeten, P; Stolear, J C; Schoutens-Serruys, E; Maes, N; Thys, J P; Liesnard, C; Rost, F; Kinnaert, P; Toussaint, C

    1986-01-01

    Between January 1 and June 30, 1983, immunosuppressive drugs were administered in 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing 23 rejection episodes and in 3 patients with renal failure secondary to systemic disease. Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, pneumonia was diagnosed on 12/26 (47%) occasions. In an attempt to decrease this high rate, a program of erythromycin prophylaxis was instituted for every new patient who received immunosuppressive chemotherapy until eradication of the organism from the water supply could be realized. From July 1, 1983 to April 30, 1984, erythromycin prophylaxis (1.5-3 g/day by mouth) was administered during 39 episodes of high-dose immunosuppression (20 kidney graft recipients and 4 patients with systemic diseases); no cases of Legionnaire's disease were recorded. During the same period, erythromycin prophylaxis was withheld from 9 other high-dose immunosuppression episodes (7 kidney graft recipients and one patient with sarcoidosis); 5 cases of Legionnaire's disease occurred (56%) in this group. We conclude that erythromycin effectively protects immunocompromised patients in an environment contaminated with L pneumophila.

  6. Cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder complicating infectious mononucleosis in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England; Callen, Jeffrey P; Bahrami, Soon

    2011-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the syndrome produced by primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus during adolescence or early adulthood. In immunosuppressed individuals, depressed T-cell function allows the Epstein-Barr virus-driven B-cell proliferation to continue unabated, potentially leading to a lymphoproliferative disorder. A 15-year-old girl with a history of ulcerative colitis treated with 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine presented with the acute onset of a rapidly enlarging, ulcerative nodule on her left lower eyelid 4 weeks following recovery from infectious mononucleosis. The biopsy revealed an Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorder. Systemic disease was absent. Following discontinuation of 6-mercaptopurine, the patient was treated with two courses of intravenous cyclophosphamide. The lesion resolved completely and she remains disease free at 14 months following diagnosis. We report a solitary cutaneous lesion of an immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative disorder (IR-LPD) occurring as a complication of infectious mononucleosis, and review the pathogenesis and reported cases of Epstein-Barr virus-related immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative disorder arising in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease. It is important for dermatologists and dermatopathologists to be aware of the occurrence of IR-LPD in patients being treated for inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. Given the role of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus in the development of IR-LPD, consideration may be given to assessing Epstein-Barr virus status prior to initiating immunosuppressive therapy in young patients. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Recombinant MCF247 Virus, Leukemogenesis, and Immunosuppression in AKR Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    knowledge of thymic leukemia and lymphoma in the AKR mouse system. Early leukemia and lymphoma development in the AKR mouse strain is caused by the ...inevitable in all individuals in a high incidence strain (e.g. AKR), as the retrovirus is integrated into the germline and is transmitted by vertical...Only those strains in which virus could induce suppressor cells * developed leukemia (Kumar et al., 1976). The association of immunosuppression and

  8. High-Dose Vitamin C (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    High-dose vitamin C, in some studies, has shown improved quality of life and fewer side effects in some cancer patients. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved its use as a treatment for cancer. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. High-Dose Intravenous Ribavirin Therapy for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Shigeta, Shiro; Mori, Shuichi; Tomoda, Akemi; Shiraishi, Seiji; Miike, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated safely and effectively with high doses of intravenous ribavirin combined with intraventricular alpha interferon. The ribavirin concentrations maintained in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were higher than those which inhibit SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11181386

  10. Usefulness of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins treatment for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Michele; Buiatti, Alessandra; Merlo, Marco; Massa, Laura; Fabris, Enrico; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2013-11-01

    The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunosuppressive Therapy in Treatment of Refractory Hypoglycemia in Type B Insulin Resistance: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sirisena, Imali

    2017-01-01

    Type B insulin resistance is a rare syndrome characterized by fluctuating glucose levels (ranging from hyperglycemia with extreme insulin resistance to intractable hypoglycemia without exogenous insulin administration), high serum insulin levels, and insulin receptor autoantibodies. Most cases occur in the African American population in association with other underlying autoimmune systemic diseases. Treatments with high-dose steroids, immunosuppressants, and plasmapheresis have been used, with variable outcomes, in patients without spontaneous remission. We report the case of a 60-year-old African American woman with history of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with extreme fluctuations in glucose levels, ranging from severe hyperglycemia to refractory hypoglycemia, with high serum concentration of insulin in both phases. Her presentation and phenotype were very similar to those seen in known cases of type B insulin resistance associated with insulin receptor antibodies. Treatment in other reported cases used a combination of high-dose steroids and immunosuppressants. We tried high-dose steroids, azathioprine, and intravenous immunoglobulins, which resulted in improvement and barely detectable insulin receptor antibody. We present a case of type B insulin resistance with abnormally low titers of insulin receptor antibodies despite a typical clinical course and response. Future research is needed to improve diagnosis and treatment in this rare disease. PMID:29264467

  12. Molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression by cyclosporins.

    PubMed

    Zenke, G; Baumann, G; Wenger, R; Hiestand, P; Quesniaux, V; Andersen, E; Schreier, M H

    1993-06-23

    Despite the successful clinical application of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA, Sandimmun), its precise mechanism of action in the process of T cell activation remains elusive. CsA binds to the high-affinity cytosolic receptor cyclophilin whose peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity is inhibited upon binding. The linkage of this effect with the inhibition of the T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway, which leads to a suppression of lymphokine gene transcription, is still unclear. We analyzed the relationship between cyclophilin-binding and immunosuppressive activity (e.g., effect on IL-2 transcription) of cyclosporin derivatives in vitro. The results show that binding to cyclophilin is required, but not sufficient for immunosuppression. Cyclosporin analogues which completely lack immunosuppressive activity but fully retained their cyclophilin-binding capacity antagonize the immunosuppressive activity of CsA. These derivatives inhibit the isomerase activity of cyclophilin, which clearly demonstrates that inhibition of the cyclophilin isomerase activity does not lead to immunosuppression. In analogy to the other immunosuppressants of microbial origin, FK-506 and rapamycin, a specific structure of the "effector" domain of CsA, which is unrelated to the cyclophilin-binding domain, determines the biological activity. In the nucleus, CsA interferes with the DNA-binding of inducible transcription factors to their respective DNA motifs within lymphokine promoters by affecting intracellular translocation of transcription factor subunits.

  13. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    SciT

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes onmore » liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted.« less

  14. Finnish spectrolite as high-dose gamma detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-11-01

    A natural material called spectrolite, from Finland, was studied in this work. The purpose was to test it in gamma radiation beams to verify its performance as a high-dose detector. From this material, pellets were manufactured with two different concentrations of Teflon and spectrolite, and their responses were verified using two luminescent techniques: thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The TL and OSL signals were evaluated by means of characterization tests of the material response, after exposure to a nominal absorbed dose interval of 5 Gy to 10 kGy. The results obtained, for both concentrations, showed a good performance of this material in beams of high-dose gamma radiation. Both techniques were utilized in order to investigate the properties of the spectrolite+Teflon samples for different applications.

  15. High-dose buprenorphine: perioperative precautions and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D M; Meyer-Witting, M

    2005-02-01

    Buprenorphine has been in clinical use in anaesthesia for several decades. Recently, the high-dose sublingual formulation (Subutex, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, U.K.) has been increasingly used as maintenance therapy in opioid dependence, as an alternative to methadone and other pharmacological therapies. Buprenorphine has unique pharmacological properties making it well suited for use as a maintenance therapy in opioid dependence. However, these same properties may cause difficulty in the perioperative management of pain. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, attenuating the effects of supplemental illicit or therapeutic opioid agonists. As a result of its high receptor affinity, supplemental opioids do not readily displace buprenorphine from the opioid receptor in standard doses. High-dose buprenorphine has an extended duration of action that prolongs both of these effects. The perioperative management of patients stabilized on high-dose buprenorphine and undergoing surgery requires consideration of the likely analgesic requirements. Where possible the buprenorphine should be continued. Pain management should focus on maximizing non-opioid analgesia, local anaesthesia and non-pharmacological techniques. Where pain may not be adequately relieved by these methods, the addition of a full opioid agonist such as fentanyl or morphine at appropriate doses should be considered, accompanied by close monitoring in a high dependency unit. In situations where this regimen is unlikely to be effective, preoperative conversion to morphine or methadone may be an option. Where available, liaison with a hospital-based alcohol and drug service should always be considered.

  16. Preventing and Managing Toxicities of High-Dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Howard, Scott C; McCormick, John; Pui, Ching-Hon; Buddington, Randall K; Harvey, R Donald

    2016-12-01

    : High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX), defined as a dose higher than 500 mg/m 2 , is used to treat a range of adult and childhood cancers. Although HDMTX is safely administered to most patients, it can cause significant toxicity, including acute kidney injury (AKI) in 2%-12% of patients. Nephrotoxicity results from crystallization of methotrexate in the renal tubular lumen, leading to tubular toxicity. AKI and other toxicities of high-dose methotrexate can lead to significant morbidity, treatment delays, and diminished renal function. Risk factors for methotrexate-associated toxicity include a history of renal dysfunction, volume depletion, acidic urine, and drug interactions. Renal toxicity leads to impaired methotrexate clearance and prolonged exposure to toxic concentrations, which further worsen renal function and exacerbate nonrenal adverse events, including myelosuppression, mucositis, dermatologic toxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Serum creatinine, urine output, and serum methotrexate concentration are monitored to assess renal clearance, with concurrent hydration, urinary alkalinization, and leucovorin rescue to prevent and mitigate AKI and subsequent toxicity. When delayed methotrexate excretion or AKI occurs despite preventive strategies, increased hydration, high-dose leucovorin, and glucarpidase are usually sufficient to allow renal recovery without the need for dialysis. Prompt recognition and effective treatment of AKI and associated toxicities mitigate further toxicity, facilitate renal recovery, and permit patients to receive other chemotherapy or resume HDMTX therapy when additional courses are indicated. High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX), defined as a dose higher than 500 mg/m 2 , is used for a range of cancers. Although HDMTX is safely administered to most patients, it can cause significant toxicity, including acute kidney injury (AKI), attributable to crystallization of methotrexate in the renal tubular lumen, leading to tubular toxicity. When AKI occurs

  17. Preventing and Managing Toxicities of High-Dose Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, John; Pui, Ching-Hon; Buddington, Randall K.; Harvey, R. Donald

    2016-01-01

    High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX), defined as a dose higher than 500 mg/m2, is used to treat a range of adult and childhood cancers. Although HDMTX is safely administered to most patients, it can cause significant toxicity, including acute kidney injury (AKI) in 2%–12% of patients. Nephrotoxicity results from crystallization of methotrexate in the renal tubular lumen, leading to tubular toxicity. AKI and other toxicities of high-dose methotrexate can lead to significant morbidity, treatment delays, and diminished renal function. Risk factors for methotrexate-associated toxicity include a history of renal dysfunction, volume depletion, acidic urine, and drug interactions. Renal toxicity leads to impaired methotrexate clearance and prolonged exposure to toxic concentrations, which further worsen renal function and exacerbate nonrenal adverse events, including myelosuppression, mucositis, dermatologic toxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Serum creatinine, urine output, and serum methotrexate concentration are monitored to assess renal clearance, with concurrent hydration, urinary alkalinization, and leucovorin rescue to prevent and mitigate AKI and subsequent toxicity. When delayed methotrexate excretion or AKI occurs despite preventive strategies, increased hydration, high-dose leucovorin, and glucarpidase are usually sufficient to allow renal recovery without the need for dialysis. Prompt recognition and effective treatment of AKI and associated toxicities mitigate further toxicity, facilitate renal recovery, and permit patients to receive other chemotherapy or resume HDMTX therapy when additional courses are indicated. Implications for Practice: High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX), defined as a dose higher than 500 mg/m2, is used for a range of cancers. Although HDMTX is safely administered to most patients, it can cause significant toxicity, including acute kidney injury (AKI), attributable to crystallization of methotrexate in the renal tubular lumen, leading to tubular

  18. Cooperative binding mitigates the high-dose hook effect.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ranjita Dutta; Rosenmund, Christian; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-08-14

    The high-dose hook effect (also called prozone effect) refers to the observation that if a multivalent protein acts as a linker between two parts of a protein complex, then increasing the amount of linker protein in the mixture does not always increase the amount of fully formed complex. On the contrary, at a high enough concentration range the amount of fully formed complex actually decreases. It has been observed that allosterically regulated proteins seem less susceptible to this effect. The aim of this study was two-fold: First, to investigate the mathematical basis of how allostery mitigates the prozone effect. And second, to explore the consequences of allostery and the high-dose hook effect using the example of calmodulin, a calcium-sensing protein that regulates the switch between long-term potentiation and long-term depression in neurons. We use a combinatorial model of a "perfect linker protein" (with infinite binding affinity) to mathematically describe the hook effect and its behaviour under allosteric conditions. We show that allosteric regulation does indeed mitigate the high-dose hook effect. We then turn to calmodulin as a real-life example of an allosteric protein. Using kinetic simulations, we show that calmodulin is indeed subject to a hook effect. We also show that this effect is stronger in the presence of the allosteric activator Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), because it reduces the overall cooperativity of the calcium-calmodulin system. It follows that, surprisingly, there are conditions where increased amounts of allosteric activator actually decrease the activity of a protein. We show that cooperative binding can indeed act as a protective mechanism against the hook effect. This will have implications in vivo where the extent of cooperativity of a protein can be modulated, for instance, by allosteric activators or inhibitors. This can result in counterintuitive effects of decreased activity with increased concentrations of

  19. High-dose transdermal nicotine replacement for tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Brokowski, Laurie; Chen, Jiahui; Tanner, Sara

    2014-04-15

    The safety and efficacy of high-dose transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) for the treatment of tobacco-use cessation were reviewed. Transdermal nicotine doses of 7, 14, and 21 mg daily are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in tobacco cessation. However, studies have suggested that these doses are more adequate for people who smoke fewer than 20 cigarettes per day. A literature search was conducted to identify English-language studies that evaluated the use of transdermal nicotine doses of ≥42 mg daily. A total of 11 articles were identified, representing 10 separate trials. In terms of safety, the majority of the trials had no reports of serious adverse events related to transdermal NRT at doses of ≥42 mg daily. A dose-response relationship with adverse events occurred in most trials. In terms of efficacy, a numerically higher abstinence rate was achieved with high-dose transdermal NRT in all trials but 1. However, none of the studies showed significant differences in final abstinence rates at follow-up. Some reasons why statistical significance was not achieved in these trials may be related to the limitations of these trials, such as their small samples and the lack of a power calculation. A more robust trial is needed to support higher nicotine transdermal doses in tobacco cessation and to help elucidate which patient population would be most suitable for their use. The safety and efficacy of high-dose transdermal NRT for tobacco cessation have not been established in the medical literature.

  20. High dose vitamin K3 infusion in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv K; Kumar, Manoj; Garg, Sanjay; Hissar, Syed; Pandey, Chandana; Sharma, Barjesh C

    2006-09-01

    The survival of patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis is dismal. Current therapeutic options have limited efficacy. Vitamin K has been shown to have antitumor effect on HCC cells both in cell lines and patients with advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of high dose vitamin K3 in the treatment of advanced HCC with portal vein thrombosis. Forty-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC (Stage C according to BCLC staging system) with portal vein thrombosis were randomized into two groups: (i) high dose vitamin K3 (n = 23); and (ii) placebo (n = 19). The vitamin K3 was administered by i.v. infusion of 50 mg/day with daily increase of dose by 50 mg for 6 days, followed by 20 mg i.m. twice daily for 2 weeks. Of the 23 patients treated with vitamin K, one (4.3%) achieved complete response and three (13%) partial response, for a total of four (17.4%) objective responders overall. The overall mean survival was 8.9 +/- 8.8 months (median: 6; range 1-37 months) in the vitamin K group and 6.8 +/- 5.3 months (median: 5; range 1.5-21 months) in the placebo group (P = 0.552). The mean duration of survival was longer in patients in the vitamin K group who achieved objective response (22.5 +/- 12.2; median: 21; range 11-37 months) as compared to patients not achieving objective response (6.1 +/- 4.6; median: 5; range 1-16 months) (P = 0.0.002). Portal vein thrombosis resolved with complete patency in one (4.35%) patient. Treatment with high dose vitamin K produces objective response in 17% patients with improved survival in patients achieving objective response; however, it does not affect the overall survival.

  1. Prehospital high-dose sublingual nitroglycerin rarely causes hypotension.

    PubMed

    Clemency, Brian M; Thompson, Jeffrey J; Tundo, Gina N; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2013-10-01

    High-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is a common in-hospital treatment for respiratory distress due to congestive heart failure (CHF) with hypertension. Intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin administration is impractical in the prehospital setting. In 2011, a new regional Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocol was introduced allowing advanced providers to treat CHF with high-dose oral nitroglycerin. The protocol calls for patients to be treated with two sublingual tabs (0.8 mg) when systolic blood pressure (SBP) was >160 mm Hg, or three sublingual tabs (1.2 mg) when SBP was >200 mm Hg, every five minutes as needed. Hypothesis/Problem To assess the protocol's safety, the incidence of hypotension following prehospital administration of multiple simultaneous nitroglycerin (MSN) tabs by EMS providers was studied. This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients from a single commercial EMS agency over a 6-month period. Records from patients with at least one administration of MSN were reviewed. For each administration, the first documented vital signs pre- and post-administration were compared. Administrations were excluded if pre- or post-administration vital signs were missing. One hundred case-patients had at least one MSN administration by an advanced provider during the study period. Twenty-five case-patients were excluded due to incomplete vital signs. Seventy-five case-patients with 95 individual MSN administrations were included for analysis. There were 65 administrations of two tabs, 29 administrations of three tabs, and one administration of four tabs. The mean change in SBP following MSN was -14.7 mm Hg (SD = 30.7; range, +59 to -132). Three administrations had documented systolic hypotension in the post-administration vital signs (97/71, 78/50 and 66/47). All three patients were over 65 years old, were administered two tabs, had documented improved respiratory status, and had repeat SBP of at least 100. The incidence of hypotension following MSN

  2. High dose of antacid (Mylanta II) reduces bioavailability of ranitidine.

    PubMed Central

    Mihaly, G W; Marino, A T; Webster, L K; Jones, D B; Louis, W J; Smallwood, R A

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effect of antacid on the bioavailability and disposition of ranitidine six healthy volunteers were studied on two occasions one week apart. In the first study the received ranitidine 150 mg with 60 ml water, and in the second study they received ranitidine 150 mg plus 30 ml of an aluminium/magnesium hydroxide mixture (Mylanta II) and 30 ml water. Giving antacid reduced both the maximum plasma ranitidine concentration and the area under the curve by one-third; elimination of the drug was not changed. Thus giving a high dose of antacid significantly diminished the bioavailability of ranitidine. PMID:6289961

  3. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  4. AChR-specific immunosuppressive therapy of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-10-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by muscle fatigability. In most cases, it is mediated by autoantibodies targeting muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model for MG, which is usually induced by immunization with AChR purified from fish electric organ. Pathological autoantibodies to AChRs are directed at the extracellular surface, especially the main immunogenic region (MIR). Current treatments for MG can help many but not all patients. Antigen-specific immunosuppressive therapy for MG that specifically suppresses the autoimmune response without affecting the entire immune system and avoids side effects of general immunosuppression is currently unavailable. Early attempts at antigen-specific immunosuppression for EAMG using AChR extracellular domain sequences that form epitopes for pathological autoantibodies risked provoking autoimmunity rather than suppressing it. We discovered a novel approach to specific immunosuppression of EAMG with a therapeutic vaccine consisting of bacterially-expressed human AChR cytoplasmic domains, which has the potential to specifically suppress MG without danger of causing exacerbation. This approach prevents development of chronic EAMG when initiated immediately after the acute phase of EAMG, and rapidly reverses established chronic EAMG when started during the chronic phase of EAMG. Successfully treated rats exhibited long-term resistance to re-induction of EAMG. In this review we also discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms by which the therapy works. Vaccination with AChR cytoplasmic domains in adjuvant is promising as a safe, antigen-specific, potent, effective, rapidly acting, and long lasting approach to therapy of MG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-dose MVCT image guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciT

    Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potent treatment for early stage primary and limited metastatic disease. Accurate tumor localization is essential to administer SBRT safely and effectively. Tomotherapy combines helical IMRT with onboard megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging and is well suited for SBRT; however, MVCT results in reduced soft tissue contrast and increased image noise compared with kilovoltage CT. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of increased imaging doses on a clinical tomotherapy machine to improve image quality for SBRT image guidance. Methods: Two nonstandard, high-dose imaging modes were created on a tomotherapy machinemore » by increasing the linear accelerator (LINAC) pulse rate from the nominal setting of 80 Hz, to 160 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. Weighted CT dose indexes (wCTDIs) were measured for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes in a 30 cm solid water phantom using a calibrated A1SL ion chamber. Image quality was assessed from scans of a customized image quality phantom. Metrics evaluated include: contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), high-contrast spatial resolution, image uniformity, and percent image noise. In addition, two patients receiving SBRT were localized using high-dose MVCT scans. Raw detector data collected after each scan were used to reconstruct standard-dose images for comparison. Results: MVCT scans acquired using a pitch of 1.0 resulted in wCTDI values of 2.2, 4.7, and 8.5 cGy for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes respectively. CNR values for both low and high-contrast materials were found to increase with the square root of dose. Axial high-contrast spatial resolution was comparable for all imaging modes at 0.5 lp/mm. Image uniformity was improved and percent noise decreased as the imaging dose increased. Similar improvements in image quality were observed in patient images, with decreases in image noise being the most notable. Conclusions: High-dose imaging modes are made

  6. High-dose MVCT image guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Westerly, David C; Schefter, Tracey E; Kavanagh, Brian D; Chao, Edward; Lucas, Dan; Flynn, Ryan T; Miften, Moyed

    2012-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potent treatment for early stage primary and limited metastatic disease. Accurate tumor localization is essential to administer SBRT safely and effectively. Tomotherapy combines helical IMRT with onboard megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging and is well suited for SBRT; however, MVCT results in reduced soft tissue contrast and increased image noise compared with kilovoltage CT. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of increased imaging doses on a clinical tomotherapy machine to improve image quality for SBRT image guidance. Two nonstandard, high-dose imaging modes were created on a tomotherapy machine by increasing the linear accelerator (LINAC) pulse rate from the nominal setting of 80 Hz, to 160 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. Weighted CT dose indexes (wCTDIs) were measured for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes in a 30 cm solid water phantom using a calibrated A1SL ion chamber. Image quality was assessed from scans of a customized image quality phantom. Metrics evaluated include: contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), high-contrast spatial resolution, image uniformity, and percent image noise. In addition, two patients receiving SBRT were localized using high-dose MVCT scans. Raw detector data collected after each scan were used to reconstruct standard-dose images for comparison. MVCT scans acquired using a pitch of 1.0 resulted in wCTDI values of 2.2, 4.7, and 8.5 cGy for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes respectively. CNR values for both low and high-contrast materials were found to increase with the square root of dose. Axial high-contrast spatial resolution was comparable for all imaging modes at 0.5 lp∕mm. Image uniformity was improved and percent noise decreased as the imaging dose increased. Similar improvements in image quality were observed in patient images, with decreases in image noise being the most notable. High-dose imaging modes are made possible on a clinical tomotherapy machine by

  7. High-dose tigecycline and colistin for successful treatment of disseminated carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a liver transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Jennifer Marie; Mendler, Michel Henry; Hemming, Alan W; Aslam, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is a risk factor for the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. This infection is associated with a high mortality rate given the limited armamentarium of antibiotics for multidrug-resistant organisms along with continued immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. We report a case of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae pneumonia, bacteraemia and intra-abdominal infection in a newly transplanted liver recipient. The patient was successfully treated with a long course of high-dose tigecycline and colistin, along with surgical drainage. We discuss SOT-relevant epidemiology, therapeutic options and the rationale for our treatment choice. PMID:25378111

  8. ELDRS Characterization for a Very High Dose Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Kenna, Aaron J.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.; Clark, Karla B.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of bipolar linear parts which may have Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS) is problematic for missions that have very high dose radiation requirements. The accepted standards for evaluating parts that display ELDRS require testing at a very low dose rate which could be prohibitively long for very high dose missions. In this work, a methodology for ELDRS characterization of bipolar parts for mission doses up to 1 Mrad(Si) is evaluated. The procedure employs an initial dose rate of 0.01 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 50 krad(Si) and then changes to 0.04 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 1 Mrad(Si). This procedure appears to work well. No change in rate of degradation with dose has been observed when the dose rate is changed from 0.01 to 0.04 rad(Si)/s. This is taken as an indication that the degradation due to the higher dose rate is equivalent to that at the lower dose rate at the higher dose levels, at least for the parts studied to date. In several cases, significant parameter degradation or functional failure not observed at HDR was observed at fairly high total doses (50 to 250 krad(Si)) at LDR. This behavior calls into question the use of dose rate trend data and enhancement factors to predict LDR performance.

  9. Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimetry for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Christopher Jason; Ebeling, Robert; Hiatt, Jessica R.; Curran, Bruce; Sternick, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to determine whether optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were appropriate for in vivo measurements in high dose rate brachytherapy. In order to make this distinction, three dosimetric characteristics were tested: dose linearity, dose rate dependence, and angular dependence. The Landauer nanoDot™ OSLDs were chosen due to their popularity and their availability commercially. Methods: To test the dose linearity, each OSLD was placed at a constant location and the dwell time was varied. Next, in order to test the dose rate dependence, each OSLD was placed at different OLSD-to-source distances and the dwell time was held constant. A curved geometry was created using a circular Accuboost® applicator in order to test angular dependence. Results: The OSLD response remained linear for high doses and was independent of dose rate. For doses up to 600 cGy, the linear coefficient of determination was 0.9988 with a response of 725 counts per cGy. The angular dependence was significant only in “edge-on” scenarios. Conclusion: OSLDs are conveniently read out using commercially available readers. OSLDs can be re-read and serve as a permanent record for clinical records or be annealed using conventional fluorescent light. Lastly, OSLDs are produced commercially for $5 each. Due to these convenient features, in conjunction with the dosimetric performance, OSLDs should be considered a clinically feasible and attractive tool for in vivo HDR brachytherapy measurements. PMID:22888476

  10. Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome following treatment with high-dose methotrexate or high-dose cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Karol, Seth E; Yang, Wenjian; Smith, Colton; Cheng, Cheng; Stewart, Clinton F; Baker, Sharyn D; Sandlund, John T; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Bishop, Michael W; Pappo, Alberto S; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V

    2017-09-15

    Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) is an uncommon side effect of high-dose cytarabine or methotrexate. Prior case reports of PPES have been limited, and the predisposing factors for the development of PPES remain unknown. A review of databases identified 22 patients (1.3%) who developed 39 episodes of PPES among 1720 patients after treatment with high-dose cytarabine or methotrexate. Symptoms lasted a mean of 6.4 days. Hands and feet were both involved in 68% of the initial episodes. Parenteral opioids were required for pain control by 27% of the patients. In comparison with the 1698 children treated with similar therapy, the children who developed PPES were older (mean age at diagnosis, 14.3 vs 7.7 years; P = 7.5 × 10 -7 ). The frequency of PPES was less common in patients receiving methotrexate alone (7 of 946 or 0.7%) versus cytarabine (7 of 205 or 3.4%; P = .005) but was not different for those receiving both high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine (8 of 569 or 1.4%; P = .32). Prolonged infusions of methotrexate were associated with less frequent PPES in comparison with rapid infusions (P = 1.5 × 10 -5 ), as was the co-administration of dexamethasone with cytarabine (P = 2.5 × 10 -6 ). Self-described race and sex were not associated with PPES. In a multivariate analysis, older age and high-dose cytarabine administration without dexamethasone remained associated with PPES (P = 1.1 × 10 -4 and P = .038, respectively). A genome-wide association study did not identify any associations with PPES meeting the genome-wide significance threshold, but top variants were enriched for skin expression quantitative trait loci, including rs11764092 in AUTS2 (P = 6.45 × 10 -5 ). These data provide new insight into the incidence of PPES as well as its risk factors. Cancer 2017;123:3602-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  12. Chlorphenesin: an Antigen-Associated Immunosuppressant

    PubMed Central

    Whang, H. Y.; Neter, E.

    1970-01-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants. PMID:16557800

  13. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    PubMed

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  14. High dose bystander effects in spatially fractionated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asur, Rajalakshmi; Butterworth, Karl T.; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Prise, Kevin M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radiotherapy of bulky tumors has certain limitations. Spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are examples of advanced modulated beam therapies that help in significant reductions in normal tissue damage. GRID refers to the delivery of a single high dose of radiation to a large treatment area that is divided into several smaller fields, while IMRT allows improved dose conformity to the tumor target compared to conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In this review, we consider spatially fractionated radiotherapy approaches focusing on GRID and IMRT, and present complementary evidence from different studies which support the role of radiation induced signaling effects in the overall radiobiological rationale for these treatments. PMID:24246848

  15. High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    SciT

    Was, Gary; Wirth, Brian; Motta, Athur

    The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the capability to predict the evolution of microstructure and properties of structural materials in-reactor and at high doses, using ion irradiation as a surrogate for reactor irradiations. “Properties” includes both physical properties (irradiated microstructure) and the mechanical properties of the material. Demonstration of the capability to predict properties has two components. One is ion irradiation of a set of alloys to yield an irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior that are substantially the same as results from neutron exposure in the appropriate reactor environment. Second is the capability to predict the irradiatedmore » microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior on the basis of improved models, validated against both ion and reactor irradiations and verified against ion irradiations. Taken together, achievement of these objectives will yield an enhanced capability for simulating the behavior of materials in reactor irradiations.« less

  16. High-dose immunoglobulin during pregnancy for recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Whitington, Peter F; Hibbard, Judith U

    Neonatal haemochromatosis is a rare disease of gestation that results in severe fetal liver injury. We hypothesised an alloimmune aetiology for the disorder on the basis of its high recurrence rate in sibships. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness in preventing or changing the severity of recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis of administering during pregnancy high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) derived from pooled serum of multiple donors. Women whose most recent pregnancy ended in documented neonatal haemochromatosis were treated with IVIG, 1 g/kg bodyweight, weekly from the 18th week until the end of gestation in their subsequent pregnancy. The outcomes of treated pregnancies were compared with those of randomly selected previous affected pregnancies for each woman, which were used as historical controls. 15 women were treated through 16 pregnancies. All pregnancies progressed uneventfully and resulted in live babies with normal physical examinations and birthweights that were appropriate for gestational age. 12 babies had evidence of liver involvement with neonatal haemochromatosis: 11 had higher than normal concentrations of serum alpha-fetoprotein and ferritin or serum alpha-fetoprotein alone, including four with coagulopathy (international normalised ratio >1.5), and one had coagulopathy alone. All babies survived with medical or no treatment and were healthy at follow-up within the past 6 months. In analysis on a per-mother basis comparing outcomes of treated gestations with those of randomly selected previous affected gestations, gestational IVIG therapy was associated with better infant survival (15 good outcomes vs two in previous pregnancies; p=0.0009). Treatment with high-dose IVIG during gestation appears to have modified recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis so that it was not lethal to the fetus or neonate. These results further support an alloimmune mechanism for recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis.

  17. High-Dose Fluoride Impairs the Properties of Human Embryonic Stem Cells via JNK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Xie, Fang-Nan; Dong, Ping; Li, Qiu-Chen; Yu, Guang-Yan; Xiao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous natural substance that is often used in dental products to prevent dental caries. The biphasic actions of fluoride imply that excessive systemic exposure to fluoride can cause harmful effects on embryonic development in both animal models and humans. However, insufficient information is available on the effects of fluoride on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which is a novel in vitro humanized model for analyzing the embryotoxicities of chemical compounds. Therefore, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the proliferation, differentiation and viability of H9 hESCs. For the first time, we showed that 1 mM NaF did not significantly affect the proliferation of hESCs but did disturb the gene expression patterns of hESCs during embryoid body (EB) differentiation. Higher doses of NaF (2 mM and above) markedly decreased the viability and proliferation of hESCs. The mode and underlying mechanism of high-dose NaF-induced cell death were further investigated by assessing the sub-cellular morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activities, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). High-dose NaF caused the death of hESCs via apoptosis in a caspase-mediated but ROS-independent pathway, coupled with an increase in the phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pretreatment with a p-JNK-specific inhibitor (SP600125) could effectively protect hESCs from NaF-induced cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These findings suggest that NaF might interfere with early human embryogenesis by disturbing the specification of the three germ layers as well as osteogenic lineage commitment and that high-dose NaF could cause apoptosis through a JNK-dependent pathway in hESCs.

  18. High dose hydrocortisone immediately after trauma may alter the trajectory of PTSD: interplay between clinical and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Yahalom, Hila; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Matar, Michael A; Kaplan, Zeev; Yehuda, Rachel; Cohen, Hagit

    2011-11-01

    High-dose corticosteroids have been reported to reduce symptoms of acute stress and post-traumatic stress in polytrauma patients and in animal studies. The underlying mechanism of action remains largely unclear. These issues were addressed in parallel in the clinical and preclinical studies below. In this preliminary study, 25 patients with acute stress symptoms were administered a single intravenous bolus of high-dose hydrocortisone (100-140 mg) or placebo within 6 h of a traumatic event in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Early single high-dose hydrocortisone intervention attenuated the core symptoms of both the acute stress and of subsequent PTSD in patients. High-dose hydrocortisone treatment given in the first few hours after a traumatic experience was associated with significant favorable changes in the trajectory of exposure to trauma, as expressed by the reduced risk of the development of PTSD post-trauma. In parallel, a comparative study of morphological arborization in dentate gyrus and its modulating molecules was performed in stress-exposed animals treated with high-dose hydrocortisone. Steroid-treated stressed animals displayed significantly increased dendritic growth and spine density, with increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and obtunded postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) levels. The animal study provided insights into the potential mechanism of this intervention, as it identified relevant morphological and biochemical associations to the clinical observations. Thus, evidence from clinical and animal studies suggests that there is a "window of opportunity" in the early aftermath of trauma to help those who are vulnerable to the development of chronic PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  20. The clinical pharmacology of alkylating agents in high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huitema, A D; Smits, K D; Mathôt, R A; Schellens, J H; Rodenhuis, S; Beijnen, J H

    2000-08-01

    Alkylating agents are widely used in high-dose chemotherapy regimens in combination with hematological support. Knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these agents administered in high doses is critical for the safe and efficient use of these regimens. The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical pharmacology of the alkylating agents (including the platinum compounds) in high-dose chemotherapy. Differences between conventional and high doses will be discussed.

  1. Maintenance pharmacological immunosuppressive strategies in renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Vella, J. P.; Sayegh, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    Current maintenance immunosuppressive regimens for transplantation are based on three classes of drugs: corticosteroids, immunophilin-binding agents (eg, cyclosporin and tacrolimus), and antimetabolites (eg, azathioprine and mycophenolate). Drugs from the various classes inhibit the immune system at different points and are thus synergistic when used in combination. PMID:9338020

  2. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    PubMed

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  3. Putative Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Çelik, Pınar; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells. PMID:24804259

  4. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  5. [Effect of polysaccharides in processed Sibiraea on immunologic function of immunosuppression mice].

    PubMed

    Duan, Bowen; Li, Yun; Liu, Xin; Yang, Yongjian

    2010-06-01

    To study the effect of polysaccharides in processed Sibiraea on the immunologic function of immunosuppression mice. The immunosuppressed mice were induced by cyclophosphamide. After the treatment, the organ weight index and the delayed type hypersensitivity of the mice were investigated. The humoral immune function was determined by serum hemolysin assay. Non-specific immune function was determined by carbon clearance method. Cellular immune function was determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation test. Two hundred kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal controls, model group, low-dose group (110 mg x kg(-1)), middle-dose group (220 mg x kg(-1)), high-dose group (440 mg x kg(-1)). Drugs were given to the mice by oral gavage every day. The immunosuppressed mice treated with Sibiraea polysibcharide at intragastrica dose of 110-440 mg x kg(-1) have increased weight of the immune organs, increased content of DTH and content in serum hemolysin lgG and lgM. Mean while the rate of carbon clearance was enhanced and the proliferation of spleen lymphocyte was increased. Polysaccharides in processed Sibiraea can increase the weight of the immune organs. At the same time, non-specific immune, DTH, humoral immune and cellular immune function were enhanced significantly.

  6. Modulation of immunity in mice with latent toxoplasmosis--the experimental support for the immunosuppression hypothesis of Toxoplasma-induced changes in reproduction of mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Kaňková, Sárka; Holáň, Vladimír; Zajícová, Alena; Kodym, Petr; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2010-11-01

    The immunosuppression hypothesis suggests that the increased sex ratio in mice and women with latent toxoplasmosis, retarded embryonic growth in the early phases of pregnancy, prolonged pregnancy of Toxoplasma-infected women, and increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis in mothers of children with Down syndrome can be explained by the presumed immunosuppressive effects of latent toxoplasmosis. Here, we searched for indices of immunosuppression in mice experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Our results showed that mice in the early phase of latent infection exhibited temporarily increased production of interleukin (IL)-12 and decreased production of IL-10. In accordance with the immunosuppression hypothesis, the mice showed decreased production of IL-2 and nitric oxide and decreased proliferation reaction (synthesis of DNA) in the mixed lymphocyte culture in the early and also in the late phases of latent toxoplasmosis. Since about 30% of the world population are latently infected by T. gondii, the toxoplasmosis-associated immunosuppression might have serious public health consequences.

  7. Survival After Shock Requiring High-Dose Vasopressor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lanspa, Michael J.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Li, Yao; Carlson, Rick; Miller, Russell R.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Grissom, Colin K.; Morris, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some patients with hypotensive shock do not respond to usual doses of vasopressor therapy. Very little is known about outcomes after high-dose vasopressor therapy (HDV). We sought to characterize survival among patients with shock requiring HDV. We also evaluated the possible utility of stress-dose corticosteroid therapy in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with shock requiring HDV in the ICUs of five hospitals from 2005 through 2010. We defined HDV as receipt at any point of ≥ 1 μg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent (calculated by summing norepinephrine-equivalent infusion rates of all vasopressors). We report survival 90 days after hospital admission. We evaluated receipt of stress-dose corticosteroids, cause of shock, receipt of CPR, and withdrawal or withholding of life support therapy. Results: We identified 443 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventy-six (17%) survived. Survival was similar (20%) among the 241 patients with septic shock. Among the 367 nonsurvivors, 254 (69%) experienced withholding/withdrawal of care, and 115 (31%) underwent CPR. Stress-dose corticosteroid therapy was associated with increased survival (P = .01). Conclusions: One in six patients with shock survived to 90 days after HDV. The majority of nonsurvivors died after withdrawal or withholding of life support therapy. A minority of patients underwent CPR. Additionally, stress-dose corticosteroid therapy appears reasonable in patients with shock requiring HDV. PMID:22911566

  8. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  9. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldweri, Feras M.; Abuzayed, Manar H.; Al-Ajaleen, Musab S.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.

    2018-03-01

    Thymol blue (TB) solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA) films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source) from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125-1 kGy and of 5-20 kGy, respectively.

  10. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoníček, B.; Rosmus, J.; Čamra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Řež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  11. Image-guided high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy

    SciT

    Devic, Slobodan; Vuong, Te; Moftah, Belal

    2007-11-15

    Fractionated high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDR-EBT) using CT-based treatment planning is an alternative method for preoperative down-sizing and down-staging of advanced rectal adeno-carcinomas. The authors present an image guidance procedure that was developed to ensure daily dose reproducibility for the four brachytherapy treatment fractions. Since the applicator might not be placed before each treatment fraction inside the rectal lumen in the same manner as it was placed during the 3D CT volume acquisition used for treatment planning, there is a shift along the catheter axis that may have to be performed. The required shift is determined by comparison ofmore » a daily radiograph with the treatment planning digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR). A procedure is developed for DRR reconstruction from the 3D data set used for the treatment planning, and two possible daily longitudinal shifts are illustrated: above and below the planning dose distribution. The authors also describe the procedure for rotational alignment illustrated on a clinical case. Reproduction of the treatment planned dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for the success of fractionated 3D based brachytherapy treatments. Due to the cylindrical symmetry of the applicator used for preoperative HDR-EBT, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dwell position shift along the applicator's longitudinal axis. The impact of the longitudinal applicator shift prior to treatment delivery for 62 patients treated in our institution is also assessed.« less

  12. High-dose naltrexone therapy for cocaine-alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Green, Charles E; Herin, David V; Stotts, Angela L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of high-dose (100 mg/d) naltrexone versus placebo in a sample of 87 randomized subjects with both cocaine and alcohol dependence. Medication conditions were crossed with two behavioral therapy platforms that examined whether adding contingency management (CM) that targeted cocaine abstinence would enhance naltrexone effects compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) without CM. Primary outcome measures for cocaine (urine screens) and alcohol use (timeline followback) were collected thrice-weekly during 12 weeks of treatment. Retention in treatment and medication compliance rates were low. Rates of cocaine use and drinks per day did not differ between treatment groups; however naltrexone did reduce frequency of heavy drinking days, as did CBT without CM. Notably, adding CM to CBT did not enhance treatment outcomes. These weak findings suggest that pharmacological and behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy in the treatment of a single drug dependence disorder may not provide the coverage needed when targeting dual drug dependence.

  13. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Parameters of High Dose Rate Iridium -192 Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    A lack of physical data for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 sources has necessitated the use of basic radiation parameters measured with low dose rate (LDR) Ir-192 seeds and ribbons in HDR dosimetry calculations. A rigorous examination of the radiation parameters of several HDR Ir-192 sources has shown that this extension of physical data from LDR to HDR Ir-192 may be inaccurate. Uncertainty in any of the basic radiation parameters used in dosimetry calculations compromises the accuracy of the calculated dose distribution and the subsequent dose delivery. Dose errors of up to 0.3%, 6%, and 2% can result from the use of currently accepted values for the half-life, exposure rate constant, and dose buildup effect, respectively. Since an accuracy of 5% in the delivered dose is essential to prevent severe complications or tumor regrowth, the use of basic physical constants with uncertainties approaching 6% is unacceptable. A systematic evaluation of the pertinent radiation parameters contributes to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in HDR Ir-192 dose delivery. Moreover, the results of the studies described in this thesis contribute significantly to the establishment of standardized numerical values to be used in HDR Ir-192 dosimetry calculations.

  15. The Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in High-Dose Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Catherine; Tudor, Gregory; Tudor, Julie; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The most detailed reports of the response of the gastrointestinal system to high dose acute radiation have focused mainly on understanding the histopathology. However, to enable medical countermeasure assessment under the animal rule criteria, it is necessary to have a robust model in which the relationship between radiation dose and intestinal radiation syndrome incidence, timing and severity are established and correlated with histopathology. Although many mortality studies have been published, they have used a variety of mouse strains, ages, radiation sources and husbandry conditions, all of which influence the dose response. Further, it is clear that the level of bone marrow irradiation and supportive care can influence endpoints. In order to create robust baseline data we have generated dose response data in adult male mice, maintained under identical conditions, and exposed to either total or partial-body irradiation. Partial-body irradiation includes both extensive (40%) and minimal (5%) bone marrow sparing models, the latter designed to correlate with an established primate model and allow assessment of effects of any medical countermeasure on all three major radiation syndromes (intestinal, bone marrow and lung) in the surviving mice. Lethal dose (LD30, LD50 and LD70) data are described in the various models, along with the impact of enteric flora and response to supportive care. Correlation with diarrhea severity and histopathology are also described. This data can be used to aid the design of good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant Animal Rule studies that are reflective of the conditions following accidental radiation exposure. PMID:23091876

  16. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors in adults.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Rosti, Giovanni; Secondino, Simona; Carminati, Ornella; Demirer, Taner

    2007-10-01

    Supported by experimental evidence and convincing results of early phase II studies, since the 1980s high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support (AHSCT) has been uncritically adopted by many oncologists as a potentially curative option for several solid tumors. As a result, the number (and size) of randomized trials comparing this approach with conventional chemotherapy initiated (and often abandoned before completion) in this setting was limited and the benefit of a greater escalation of dose of chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation in solid tumors remains, with the possible exception of breast carcinoma (BC) and germ cell tumors (GCT), largely unsettled. In this article, we review and comment on the data from studies to date of HDC for solid tumors in adults.

  17. Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Janie; Harris, William S; Vors, Cécile; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, P<0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+3.3% compared with control, P<0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P<0.0001) while EPA increased (+2.5%, P<0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537). The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates

  18. Benefits of High-dose Steroid + Hespander + Mannitol Administration in the Treatment of Bell's Palsy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takatoshi; Abe, Yasuhiro; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Kakehata, Seiji

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale investigations have not been recently conducted on the efficacy of high-dose steroid administration of prednisolone (PSL) for Bell's palsy. We compared treatment results between normal-dose steroid (PSL 60 mg/d) and high-dose steroid (PSL 200 mg/d) + Hespander + Mannitol administration. We also investigated the recovery rate for antiviral agents. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. A total of 675 patients with Bell's palsy who had grade V and grade VI on the House-Brackmann (HB) scale were treated in our department between 1995 and 2014. These patients could be divided into a normal-dose group and high-dose group. We separately assessed treatment outcomes for HB grade V patients and HB grade VI patients. Logistic regression analysis was also performed to investigate factors that can impact treatment outcomes, i.e., sex, age, days to start of treatment, PSL dosage, and antiviral drug administration. Recovery rates were significantly better in the high-dose steroid + Hespander + Mannitol group in comparison with the normal-dose steroid group for HB grade V (100% versus 77.7%) and HB grade VI (92.5% versus 68.2%). Additional effects of antiviral agents were only shown in the normal-dose group. Significant factors for treatment outcomes were PSL 200 mg/d administration and early initiation of treatment. Insignificant factors were sex, age, and the antiviral agent. We showed the high-dose steroid + Hespander + Mannitol administration produced significantly better outcomes than normal-dose steroid administration in the treatment of patients with Bell's palsy.

  19. Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kouichi; Inamine, Moriyoshi; Oshima, Wataru; Kotani, Masaharu; Chiba, Yoichi; Ueno, Masaki; Ishihara, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-22

    The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and mortality for at least 28 days. To determine the brain alterations after SE, magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Both T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging showed changes in the limbic regions. These changes in the limbic regions demonstrated the development of cytotoxic edema three hours after SE, followed by the development of vasogenic edema two days after SE. In the pilocarpine-SE model, the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after SE was strongly associated with neuronal damage within a few hours to days after SE by the development of vasogenic edema via the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the limbic regions. High-dose levetiracetam significantly suppressed the parameters in the limbic areas. These data indicate that repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam for at least two days after SE termination by diazepam is important for controlling the neuronal damage by preventing brain edema. Therefore, these findings suggest that early treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after SE termination by diazepam may protect against adverse sequelae via the inhibition of neurotoxicity induced by brain edema events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Dose Methylprednisolone for Veno-Occlusive Disease of the Liver in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kasiani C.; Lawrence, Julia; Marsh, Rebecca A.; Davies, Stella M.; Jodele, Sonata

    2017-01-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver is a well-recognized serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with few successful treatment modalities available for severe disease. Some reports have demonstrated success in adults with the use of high-dose steroid therapy, but experience in the pediatric population is lacking. We retrospectively reviewed HSCT patients treated at our institution since 2003 and identified 15 (2.4%) who developed VOD. Of these, nine (60%) were treated with intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone (500 mg/m2 per dose every 12 hours for six doses). Steroid therapy was initiated at or before first ultrasound evidence of reversal of portal venous flow and before meeting criteria for initiation of defibrotide therapy. Four patients were also treated with defibrotide starting 2 to 5 days after initiation of steroids. Eight of nine patients (88%) with VOD were diagnosed with multiorgan failure. Response to high-dose steroid therapy as defined by decrease in bilirubin by 50% in 10 days from therapy initiation was noted in six of nine patients (67%), occurring within 3 to 6 days of steroid therapy. Two patients died from multiorgan failure due to VOD. Seven survivors of VOD recovered at the median 6 days (range, 5 to 38) from VOD diagnosis. Overall, VOD survival as a group was 78%; however, survival among responders was 100%. No serious toxicities related to high-dose steroid therapy were observed. We conclude that high-dose steroid therapy if initiated early may reverse VOD of the liver in pediatric HSCT patients, abrogating the need for defibrotide therapy with its associated toxicities and regulatory difficulties. PMID:23211838

  1. High-dose neutron irradiation performance of dielectric mirrors

    DOE PAGES

    Nimishakavi Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; ...

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al 2O 3/SiO 2 and HfO 2/SiO 2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO 2/SiO 2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al 2O 3/SiO 2 mirrors reducedmore » to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al 2O 3/SiO 2 specimens showed SiO 2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO 2/SiO 2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al 2O 3/SiO 2 mirror, though less evident in HfO 2/SiO 2 system. Lastly, the ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.« less

  2. Results of high dose 106-ruthenium irradiation of choroidal melanomas

    SciT

    Mueller, R.P.B.; Busse, H.; Poetter, R.K.

    The favored treatment of intraocular melanomas in Germany is 106-ruthenium eye plaque therapy. The Departments of Radiation Therapy and Ophthalmology (University of Muenster) initiated a clinical study in 1981 to reveal the effect of high-dose beta irradiation (15.000 cGy to the apex of the tumor) regarding tumor regression, treatment related side effects, visual acuity, and survival. Sixty-seven patients have been treated since 1981. In 12 patients a second course of irradiation has been performed because of insufficient tumor regression or no change after the first plaque treatment. Sixty-five percent (44/67 pts.) were over 60 years of age. Twenty-four patients hadmore » a small tumor (up to 3 mm in height), 20 patients had a medium sized tumor (3.1-5 mm in height), and 22 patients had a large tumor (more than 5.1 mm in height). Fifty-one patients had a follow-up of at least 12 months. A total tumor regression was achieved in 34/51 patients (67%), partial tumor regression occurred in 13/51 patients (25%), and in 4/51 patients (8%) there was no change after the first course. After the second course of 106-ruthenium-irradiation 5 of the 12 patients showed total tumor regression, 3 had partial regression, and in 4 patients only an increase of the tumor echogenity could be assessed by ultrasonography, but no change in height. Visual acuity, which depends mostly on the localization of the tumor, was preserved at pretreatment levels in 72% of the patients. Two patients died with documented metastatic disease, one patient died of myocardial infarction. There was only one enucleation because of neovascular glaucoma.A« less

  3. New insights into leishmaniasis in the immunosuppressed

    PubMed Central

    Akuffo, Hannah; van Griensven, Johan; Burza, Sakib; Moreno, Javier; Herrero, Mercè

    2018-01-01

    Immunosuppression contributes significantly to the caseload of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). HIV coinfection, solid organ transplantation, malnutrition, and helminth infections are the most important immunosuppression-related factors. This review briefly describes the challenges of these associations. East Africa and the Indian subcontinent are the places where HIV imposes the highest burden in VL. In the highlands of Northern Ethiopia, migrant rural workers are at a greater risk of coinfection and malnutrition, while in India, HIV reduces the sustainability of a successful elimination programme. As shown from a longitudinal cohort in Madrid, VL is an additional threat to solid organ transplantation. The association with malnutrition is more complex since it can be both a cause and a consequence of VL. Different regimes for therapy and secondary prevention are discussed as well as the role of nutrients on the prophylaxis of VL in poverty-stricken endemic areas. PMID:29746470

  4. New Immunosuppressive Therapies in Uveitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Navea, Amparo; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammatory process that initially starts in the uvea, but can also affect other adjacent eye structures, and is currently the fourth cause of blindness in developed countries. Corticoids are probably the most widespread treatment, but resorting to other immunosuppressive treatments is a frequent practice. Since the implication of different cytokines in uveitis has been well demonstrated, the majority of recent treatments for this disease include inhibitors or antibodies against these. Nevertheless, adequate treatment for each uveitis type entails a difficult therapeutic decision as no clear recommendations are found in the literature, despite the few protocolized clinical assays and many case-control studies done. This review aims to present, in order, the mechanisms and main indications of the most modern immunosuppressive drugs against cytokines. PMID:26270662

  5. Immunosuppressive therapy in glomerular diseases: major accomplishment of Tadeusz Orłowski and his school.

    PubMed

    Smogorzewski, Mirosław J; Lao, Mieczysław; Gradowska, Liliana; Rowińska, Danuta; Rancewicz, Zofia

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulopathies are the third most common cause of end-stage renal failure. Immunosuppressive treatment of glomerulonephritis in a systematic way was introduced in Poland by Professor Tadeusz Orłowski in the early 1960s. The studies were conducted at the First Department of Medicine and at the Transplantation Institute of the Medical Academy in Warsaw in the years 1962-1988. This paper critically reviews the results of studies on the use of combined, triple-drug (prednisone/chlorambucil/azathioprine), immunosuppressive protocol in various pathological forms of glomerulopathies. We conclude that immunosuppressive protocols pioneered by Tadeusz Orłowski continue to be the backbone of the treatment of glomerulonephritis, especially the one with nephrotic syndrome, progressive impairment of kidney function and poor prognosis.

  6. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTION DURING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Zunt, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Suppression of the immune system by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation increases susceptibility to CNS infection and modifies the presentation, diagnosis, and recommended treatment of various CNS infections. This chapter discusses how suppression of the host immune status modifies the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of selected CNS infections. PMID:11754299

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  8. Safety aspects of incobotulinumtoxinA high-dose therapy.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Saberi, Fereshte Adib; Kollewe, Katja; Schrader, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) used for dystonia and spasticity is dosed according to the number of target muscles and the severity of their muscle hyperactivities. With this no other drug is used in a broader dose range than BT. The upper end of this range, however, still needs to be explored. We wanted to do this by a prospective non-interventional study comparing a randomly selected group of dystonia and spasticity patients receiving incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) high-dose therapy (HD group, n = 100, single dose ≥400 MU) to a control group receiving incobotulinumtoxinA regular-dose therapy (RD group, n = 30, single dose ≤200 MU). At the measurement point all patients were evaluated for systemic BT toxicity, i.e. systemic motor impairment or systemic autonomic dysfunction. HD group patients (56.1 ± 13.8 years, 46 dystonia, 54 spasticity) were treated with Xeomin(®) 570.1 ± 158.9 (min 400, max 1,200) MU during 10.2 ± 7.0 (min 4, max 37) injection series. In dystonia patients the number of target muscles was 46 and the dose per target muscle 56.4 ± 19.1 MU, in spasticity patients 35 and 114.9 ± 67.1 MU. HD and RD group patients reported 58 occurrences of items on the systemic toxicity questionnaire. Generalised weakness, being bedridden, feeling of residual urine and constipation were caused by the underlying tetra- or paraparesis, blurred vision by presbyopia. Dysphagia and dryness of eye were local BT adverse effects. Neurologic examination, serum chemistry and full blood count did not indicate any systemic adverse effects. Elevated serum levels for creatine kinase/MB, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were most likely iatrogenic artefacts. None of the patients developed antibody-induced therapy failure. Xeomin(®) can be used safely in doses ≥400 MU and up to 1,200 MU without detectable systemic toxicity. This allows expanding the use of BT therapy to patients with more widespread and more severe muscle hyperactivity conditions. Further studies

  9. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation

    SciT

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: achen5@kumc.edu; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A.

    Purpose: To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculatedmore » by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). Results: The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus–related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). Conclusion: The development of brachial plexus–related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications.« less

  10. High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jindani, Amina; Harrison, Thomas S; Nunn, Andrew J; Phillips, Patrick P J; Churchyard, Gavin J; Charalambous, Salome; Hatherill, Mark; Geldenhuys, Hennie; McIlleron, Helen M; Zvada, Simbarashe P; Mungofa, Stanley; Shah, Nasir A; Zizhou, Simukai; Magweta, Lloyd; Shepherd, James; Nyirenda, Sambayawo; van Dijk, Janneke H; Clouting, Heather E; Coleman, David; Bateson, Anna L E; McHugh, Timothy D; Butcher, Philip D; Mitchison, Denny A

    2014-10-23

    Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily followed by 4 months of daily isoniazid and rifampicin; a 4-month regimen in which the isoniazid in the control regimen was replaced by moxifloxacin administered daily for 2 months followed by moxifloxacin and 900 mg of rifapentine administered twice weekly for 2 months; or a 6-month regimen in which isoniazid was replaced by daily moxifloxacin for 2 months followed by one weekly dose of both moxifloxacin and 1200 mg of rifapentine for 4 months. Sputum specimens were examined on microscopy and after culture at regular intervals. The primary end point was a composite treatment failure and relapse, with noninferiority based on a margin of 6 percentage points and 90% confidence intervals. We enrolled a total of 827 patients from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Zambia; 28% of patients were coinfected with the human immunodefiency virus. In the per-protocol analysis, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable response was 4.9% in the control group, 3.2% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, -1.8 percentage points; 90% confidence interval [CI], -6.1 to 2.4), and 18.2% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.6 percentage points; 90% CI, 8.1 to 19.1). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis these proportions were 14.4% in the control group, 13.7% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, 0.4 percentage points; 90% CI, -4.7 to 5.6), and 26.9% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.1 percentage points; 90% CI, 6.8 to 19.4). The 6-month regimen that included weekly administration of high-dose rifapentine and moxifloxacin was as effective as the control regimen

  11. Immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory mediators, infiltration of immune suppressor cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways in effector T cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how immunosuppression contributes to cancer and how proinflammatory mediators induce the immunosuppressive microenvironment via induction of immunosuppressive cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways. PMID:26354776

  12. Impact of High-Dose Acyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Failure in Abdominal Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Siodlak, Magdalena; Jorgenson, Margaret R; Descourouez, Jillian L; Leverson, Glen E; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Smith, Jeannina A; Redfield, Robert R

    2018-05-25

    To evaluate the clinical course and long-term impact of high-dose acyclovir (HD-A, 800 mg 4 times daily) cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis failure in a CMV- seropositive abdominal solid organ transplant population. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary academic medical center. A total of 691 adults who received solid organ transplants between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, without lymphocyte-depleting induction and were prescribed 3 months of HD-A prophylaxis at the time of hospital discharge; of those patients, 54 experienced prophylaxis failure, defined as CMV detected via molecular diagnostics or on biopsy while receiving HD-A (prophylaxis failure group), and 637 did not (comparator group). Mean ± SD time to failure was 64 ± 23 days; 98% (53/54 patients) was attributable to viremia diagnosed via positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these 53 patients, 34% (18 patients) were below the quantifiable range when detected. Median initial and peak CMV PCR for quantifiable readings were 1531 IU/ml (interquartile range [IQR] <250-2947) and 4442 IU/ml (IQR <250-32,500; 19 (36%) had a single detectable CMV PCR. Treatment was required in 56% (30/54 patients), with a median duration of 63 days; 40% (12 patients) were treated with valganciclovir alone, the remainder received intravenous ganciclovir. CMV disease resulted in hospitalization in 28% (15 patients). Immunosuppression was modified in 52% (28 patients). The rate of CMV recurrence after 100 days was significantly higher in the prophylaxis failure group (59% vs 13%, p<0.0001). Higher rates of rejection; higher rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft failure; and higher rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality were noted in the prophylaxis failure group on univariate analysis (43% vs 30%, p=0.045; 8%, 17%, and 34% vs 4%, 12%, and 17%, p=0.006; and 6%, 17%, and 26% vs 1%, 6%, and 10%, p=0.003, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increased risk of graft failure in the prophylaxis failure group (hazard

  13. A safety trial of high dose glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Segel, Reeval; Anikster, Yair; Zevin, Shoshana; Steinberg, Avraham; Gahl, William A; Fisher, Drora; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Zimran, Ari; Altarescu, Gheona

    2011-07-01

    Canavan disease (CD MIM#271900) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder presenting in early infancy. The course of the disease is variable, but it is always fatal. CD is caused by mutations in the ASPA gene, which codes for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA), which breaks down N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to acetate and aspartic acid. The lack of NAA-degrading enzyme activity leads to excess accumulation of NAA in the brain and deficiency of acetate, which is necessary for myelin lipid synthesis. Glyceryltriacetate (GTA) is a short-chain triglyceride with three acetate moieties on a glycerol backbone and has proven an effective acetate precursor. Intragastric administration of GTA to tremor mice results in greatly increased brain acetate levels, and improved motor functions. GTA given to infants with CD at a low dose (up to 0.25 g/kg/d) resulted in no improvement in their clinical status, but also no detectable toxicity. We present for the first time the safety profile of high dose GTA (4.5 g/kg/d) in 2 patients with CD. We treated 2 infants with CD at ages 8 months and 1 year with high dose GTA, for 4.5 and 6 months respectively. No significant side effects and no toxicity were observed. Although the treatment resulted in no motor improvement, it was well tolerated. The lack of clinical improvement might be explained mainly by the late onset of treatment, when significant brain damage was already present. Further larger studies of CD patients below age 3 months are required in order to test the long-term efficacy of this drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of single high dose and low dose rectal acetaminophen in pediatric ophthalmic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Ranju; Sunder, Rani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Analgesic efficacy of rectal acetaminophen is variable in different surgical procedures. Little data is available on its efficacy in ophthalmic surgeries. We conducted this prospective, randomized, double blind study to evaluate and compare the efficacy of single high dose and low dose rectal acetaminophen in pediatric ophthalmic surgery over a 24 hour period. Materials and Methods: 135 children scheduled for elective ophthalmic surgery were randomly allocated to one of the three groups, high, low, or control (H, L, or N) and received rectal acetaminophen 40 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg or no rectal drug respectively after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperative observations included recovery score, hourly observational pain score (OPS) up to 8 hours, time to first analgesic demand, and requirement of rescue analgesics and antiemetics over a 24 hour period. Results: Nineteen of 30 (63%) of children in group N required postoperative rescue analgesic versus 5/48 (10%) of group H (P <0.0001) and 10/47 (23%) of group L (P =0.0005) during 24 hour period. Mean time to requirement of first analgesic was 206±185 min in group H, 189±203min in group L, and 196 ±170 min in group N (P=0.985). OPS was significantly lower in group H and L compared to group N during first 8 hours. Requirement of rescue antiemetic was 18.7% in group H as compared to 23% each in group L and group N (P >0.5). Conclusions: Single dose rectal acetaminophen can provide effective postoperative analgesia for pediatric ophthalmic surgery at both high dose (40 mg/kg) and low dose (20 mg/kg) both in early postoperative and over a 24 hour period. PMID:23225924

  15. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Dustin, Laurie; Mahrer, Peter R; Azen, Stanley P; Detrano, Robert; Selhub, Jacob; Alaupovic, Petar; Liu, Chao-ran; Liu, Ci-hua; Hwang, Juliana; Wilcox, Alison G; Selzer, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    Although plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, it remains unclear whether homocysteine is a cause or a marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. We determined whether reduction of tHcy levels with B vitamin supplementation reduces subclinical atherosclerosis progression. In this double-blind clinical trial, 506 participants 40 to 89 years of age with an initial tHcy >8.5 micromol/L without diabetes and cardiovascular disease were randomized to high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B(12)+50 mg vitamin B(6)) or matching placebo for 3.1 years. Subclinical atherosclerosis progression across 3 vascular beds was assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to measure carotid artery intima media thickness (primary outcome) and multidetector spiral CT to measure aortic and coronary artery calcium (secondary outcome). Although the overall carotid artery intima media thickness progression rate was lower with B vitamin supplementation than with placebo, statistically significant between-group differences were not found (P=0.31). However, among subjects with baseline tHcy >or=9.1 micromol/L, those randomized to B vitamin supplementation had a statistically significant lower average rate of carotid artery intima media thickness progression compared with placebo (P=0.02); among subjects with a baseline tHcy <9.1 micromol/L, there was no significant treatment effect (probability value for treatment interaction=0.02). B vitamin supplementation had no effect on progression of aortic or coronary artery calcification overall or within subgroups. High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >or=9.1 micromol/L.

  16. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of benign obstructive endobronchial granulation tissue

    SciT

    Madu, Chika N.; Machuzak, Michael S.; Sterman, Daniel H.

    Background: Severe airway obstruction can occur in the setting of benign granulation tissue forming at bronchial anastomotic sites after lung transplantation in up to 20% of patients. Many of these benign lesions respond to stent placement, laser ablation, or balloon bronchoplasty. However, in certain cases, proliferation of granulation tissue may persist despite all therapeutic attempts. This study describes a series of refractory patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for benign proliferation of granulation tissue, causing airway compromise. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and June 2005, 5 patients with significant airway compromise from recurrent granulation tissue were treated with HDRmore » brachytherapy. All patients had previously failed to maintain a patent airway despite multiple bronchoscopic interventions. Treatment was delivered using an HDR brachytherapy afterloader with {sup 192}Ir. Dose prescription was to a depth of 1 cm. All patients were treated weekly, with total doses ranging from 10 Gy to 21 Gy in two to three fractions. Results: The median follow-up was 12 months. All patients experienced a reduction in therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures after HDR brachytherapy compared with the pretreatment period. With the exception of possible radiation-induced bronchitis in 1 patient, there were no other treatment related complications. At the time of this report, 2 patients have died and the other 3 are alive with marked symptomatic improvement and reduced bronchoscopic procedures. Conclusion: High-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for benign proliferation of granulation tissue causing airway obstruction. The early response to therapy is encouraging and further follow-up is necessary to determine long-term durability and late effects.« less

  17. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciT

    Friedman, Lois C., E-mail: Lois.Friedman@UHhospitals.org; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight ofmore » 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.« less

  18. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. The Role of High Dose Interleukin-2 in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gills, Jessie; Parker, William P; Pate, Scott; Niu, Sida; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Mirza, Moben; Holzbeierlein, Jeffery M; Lee, Eugene K

    2017-09-01

    We assessed survival outcomes following high dose interleukin-2 in a contemporary cohort of patients during the era of targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with high dose interleukin-2 between July 2007 and September 2014. Clinicopathological data were abstracted and patient response to therapy was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors), version 1.1 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free and overall survival in the entire cohort, the response to high dose interleukin-2 in regard to previous targeted agent therapy and the response to the targeted agent in relation to the response to high dose interleukin-2. We identified 92 patients, of whom 87 had documentation of a response to high dose interleukin-2. Median overall survival was 34.4 months from the initiation of high dose interleukin-2 therapy in the entire cohort. Patients who received targeted therapy before high dose interleukin-2 had overall survival (median 34.4 and 30.0 months, p = 0.88) and progression-free survival (median 1.5 and 1.7 months, p = 0.8) similar to those in patients who received no prior therapy, respectively. Additionally, patients with a complete or partial response to high dose interleukin-2 had similar outcomes for subsequent targeted agents compared to patients whose best response was stable or progressive disease (median overall survival 30.1 vs 25.4 months, p = 0.4). Our data demonstrate that patient responses to high dose interleukin-2 and to targeted agents before and after receiving high dose interleukin-2 are independent. As such, carefully selected patients should be offered high dose interleukin-2 for the possibility of a complete and durable response without the fear of limiting the treatment benefit of targeted agents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    SciT

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulatemore » lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.« less

  1. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  2. Atorvastatin repurposing for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in experimentally immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Madbouly Taha, Noha; Salah A Yousof, Hebat-Allah; El-Sayed, Shaimaa H; Younis, Azza Ibrahim; Ismail Negm, Mohamed Sherif

    2017-10-01

    The present study was conducted on 200 male mice for the detection of the effect of Atorvastatin on Cryptosporidium spp. infection versus the commercially used drug Nitazoxanide in experimentally immunosuppressed mice. Atorvastatin was used alone at low dose (20 mg/kg), high dose (40 mg/kg), and combined with Nitazoxanide (1000 mg/kg) with either the low dose or high dose for five consecutive days. Parasitological assessment of the drug effect was done using Modified Z-N staining of stool samples collected from mice. Results revealed a reduction of the number of oocysts shed with percentage of reduction on the 21st day post infection by 53.7%, 67.2%, 70.1% &77.5%, respectively, compared to the infected untreated group. The Nitazoxanide treated group showed 52.7% reduction. In addition, examination of small and large intestinal contents after mice scarification revealed reduced numbers of oocysts by 56.2%-58.8%, 65.1%-65.3%, 70.6%-73.9% and 77.8%-79.9%, respectively, compared to 51.2%-54.1% in Nitazoxanide treated group. The histopathological examination of sections from duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, stomach and lungs also revealed a significant improvement of the histopathological changes in Atorvastatin treated groups and more remarkable improvement in the groups treated with combined drugs as compared to infected untreated group. Accordingly, the combination of Atorvastatin and Nitazoxanide showed a synergistic effect through reduction of the number of oocysts shed and improvement of the histopathological changes induced by Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the small intestine, colon, stomach and lungs of infected immunosuppressed mice in comparison to that induced by either Nitazoxanide or Atorvastatin alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose phenobarbital in children with focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Nakahara, Eri; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Nakazawa, Mika; Takasu, Michihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of children with focal epilepsy treated with oral high-dose phenobarbital. We reviewed data on children (aged<15 years) with focal seizures treated with high-dose phenobarbital (>5 mg/kg/day to maintain a target serum level >40 μg/mL) for at least 6 months. Seizure frequency was evaluated after phenobarbital titration, and 1 and 2 years after high-dose phenobarbital treatment commenced. Treatment was judged effective when seizure frequencies fell by ⩾75%. Seven boys and eight girls were treated. The median age at commencement of high-dose phenobarbital therapy was 30 months. The maximal serum phenobarbital level ranged from 36.5 to 62.9 μg/mL. High-dose PB was effective in seven. In two patients, treatment was transiently effective, but seizure frequency later returned to the baseline. High-dose PB was ineffective in six. No significant association between effectiveness and any clinical variable was evident. Drowsiness was recorded in nine patients, but no patient developed a behavioral problem or hypersensitivity. Oral high-dose phenobarbital was effective in 7 of 15 patients with focal epilepsy and well tolerated. High-dose PB may be useful when surgical treatment is difficult. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Split high-dose oral levothyroxine treatment as a successful therapy option in myxedema coma.

    PubMed

    Charoensri, Suranut; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn; Nimitphong, Hataikarn

    2017-10-01

    High-dose intravenous thyroxine (T4) is the preferable treatment for myxedema coma. We describe the clinical course of a 69-year-old man who presented with myxedema coma and received oral levothyroxine (LT4) therapy (1 mg) in a split dose. This suggests split high-dose oral LT4 as a therapeutic option in myxedema coma.

  5. Transient engraftment of syngeneic bone marrow after conditioning with high-dose cyclophosphamide and thoracoabdominal irradiation in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciT

    Matsue, K.; Niki, T.; Shiobara, S.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of a 16 year old girl with aplastic anemia who was treated by syngeneic bone marrow transplantation. Engraftment was not obtained by simple infusion of bone marrow without immunosuppression. The patient received a high-dose cyclophosphamide and thoracoabdominal irradiation, followed by second marrow transplantation from the same donor. Incomplete but significant hematologic recovery was observed; however, marrow failure recurred 5 months after transplantation. Since donor and recipient pairs were genotypically identical, graft failure could not be attributed to immunological reactivity of recipient cells to donor non-HLA antigens. This case report implies that graft failure in somemore » cases of aplastic anemia might be mediated by inhibitory cells resistant to cyclophosphamide and irradiation.« less

  6. Generic immunosuppression in transplantation: current evidence and controversial issues.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Sandra; Kim, Miae; Phillips, Karen; Gabardi, Steven

    2015-05-01

    The overall success of organ transplantation in the 21st century has been predicated, in part, on the use of newer, more potent, and selective immunosuppressive agents. However, the high cost of lifelong immunosuppression represents a financial burden for many patients. In the past 15 years, regulatory agencies in Europe and America have approved several generic immunosuppressants. One concern is whether the conversion between innovator and generic immunosuppressants will prove to be problematic. This manuscript aims to compare and contrast the bioequivalence requirements among regulatory authorities in the USA, Europe, and Canada, evaluate published studies of generic immunosuppressants in transplant recipients, summarize consensus statements made by transplant organizations and discuss how to engage patients in discussion regarding the choice between innovator and generic immunosuppressants.

  7. High-dose rosuvastatin treatment for multifocal stroke in trauma-induced cerebral fat embolism syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Lesta D; Khot, Sandeep P; Standage, Stephen W

    2014-09-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is a life-threatening condition with treatment centering on the provision of excellent supportive care and early fracture fixation. No pharmacologic intervention has yet shown any clear benefit. We used high-dose rosuvastatin specifically for its anti-inflammatory effects to treat a patient with severe fat embolism syndrome. We also suggest that magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial Doppler studies are helpful in establishing the diagnosis and for monitoring the patient's course. A 17-year-old boy developed severe cerebral fat embolism syndrome with multifocal strokes after sustaining bilateral femur fractures. In spite of profound and prolonged neurological impairment, our patient experienced dramatic recovery by the time he was discharged from inpatient rehabilitation several weeks after his initial injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the classic "starfield" pattern of infarcts on diffusion-weighted sequences early in the illness. Additionally, serial transcranial Doppler studies demonstrated dramatically elevated microembolic events that resolved completely during the course of treatment. We feel that the acute administration of high-dose rosuvastatin early in the development of our patient's illness may have contributed to his ultimate recovery. Therapeutic guidelines cannot be extrapolated from a single patient, but our experience suggests that statin therapy could be potentially beneficial for individuals with severe fat embolism syndrome, and this approach deserves further clinical evaluation. Additionally, the diagnosis and monitoring of cerebral involvement in fat embolism syndrome is facilitated by both magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial Doppler studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential kidney/islet transplantation using prednisone-free immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Dixon B; Baker, Marshall S; Chen, Xiaojuan; Leventhal, Joseph R; Stuart, Frank P

    2002-08-01

    Islet transplantation is becoming established as a treatment option for type I diabetes in select patients. Individuals with type I diabetes who have previously received a successful kidney allograft may be good candidates for islet transplantation. They have already assumed the risks of chronic immunosuppression, so the added procedural risk of a subsequent islet transplant would be minimal. Furthermore, because of the preimmunosuppressed state it is possible that islet-after-kidney transplantation may result in a more efficient early islet engraftment. Consequently, insulin independence might be achieved with significantly fewer islets than the approximately 8-10,000 islet equivalents/kg/b.w. currently required. A mass that usually demands two or more cadaveric donors. A case of successful islet-after-kidney transplantation is described using the steroid-free Edmonton immunosuppression protocol. Characteristics of the final islet product are: a) islet equivalents: 265,888 (4100 islet equivalents/kg/b.w.); b) islet purity: 75-80%; c) viability: >95% (trypan blue exclusion); and d) mean islet potency (static low-high glucose challenge): 4.16 +/- 1.91-fold increase. Post-transplant the patient's hypoglycemic episodes abated. Exogenous insulin requirements were eliminated at week 12 post-transplant as basal and Ensure (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) oral glucose stimulated C-peptide levels peaked and stabilized. Twenty-four-hour continuous glucose monitoring confirmed moment-to-moment glycemic control, and periodic nonfasting finger stick glucose determinations over the next month confirmed glycemia was controlled. Hemoglobin A1c levels declined from a pretransplant level of 6.9% to 5.3%. Renal allograft function remained changed.

  9. The epidemiology of classic, African, and immunosuppressed Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wahman, A; Melnick, S L; Rhame, F S; Potter, J D

    1991-01-01

    The etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma remains somewhat obscure. While lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, African Kaposi's sarcoma, and immunosuppressed Kaposi's sarcoma have been found to be indistinguishable from one another, the reasons for the variations in type and severity have not been established. The origin of the spindle cell is yet to be agreed on. Geographic variation does not seem as important as ethnic variation. The very young and the very old, perhaps two ages of weakened immunity, tend to have a higher incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma. Children and AIDS patients tend to develop more virulent disease. Males tend to get Kaposi's sarcoma at higher rates than do females. Jewish and Mediterranean males have the highest incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, and African Bantu have the highest incidence of African Kaposi's sarcoma, classifications which do not apply to the Kaposi's sarcoma population in the United States. Male homosexuals have much higher incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma than do male heterosexuals, but since the early 1980s, its incidence as the presenting manifestation of AIDS has decreased dramatically. There is no unequivocal association with HLA haplotype (though DR5 carriers may be at especially high risk) or evidence of family clustering. There is an impressive but not always consistent association between Kaposi's sarcoma development and immunodeficiency. Environmental factors, such as nitrite use, immunosuppression, and repeated cytomegalovirus infection, are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism is unclear and the associations remain inconsistent. Finally, it is still unclear if there is a causative infectious agent for Kaposi's sarcoma. While cytomegalovirus has been linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, there are weaknesses in its hypothetical role as an etiologic agent as is the case for HIV itself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Effect of a single intraoperative high-dose ATG-Fresenius on delayed graft function in donation after cardiac-death donor renal allograft recipients: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Martijn W F; Kho, Marcia M L; Abrahams, Alferso C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; van Dijk, Marja; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2013-04-01

    Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting anti-T-lymphocyte antibodies is coupled with a reduction of the dosage of the calcineurin inhibitor. The separate effect of anti-T-cell therapy on the incidence and duration of delayed graft function is therefore difficult to assess. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of a single intraoperative high-dose of anti-T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG)-Fresenius (9 mg/kg body weight) on the incidence of delayed graft function. Eligible adult recipients of a first donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft were randomly assigned to ATG-Fresenius or no induction therapy. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, in an unadjusted dose, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The study was prematurely terminated because of a lower-than-anticipated inclusion rate. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the ATG-Fresenius group (n=28) and the control group (n=24). Twenty-two patients in the ATG-Fresenius group (79%) had delayed graft function, compared with 13 in the control group (54%; P = .06). Allograft and patient survival were comparable in both groups. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the ATG-Fresenius group than they did in the control group (57% vs 29%; P < .05). Intraoperative administration of a single high-dose of ATG-Fresenius in donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft recipients, followed by triple immunosuppression with an unadjusted tacrolimus dose, seems ineffective to reduce the incidence of delayed graft function. Moreover, this was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events (EudraCT-number, 2007-000210-36.).

  11. Metastatic Thymoma-Associated Myasthenia Gravis: Favorable Response to Steroid Pulse Therapy Plus Immunosuppressive Agent

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoyan; Liu, Peng; Dong, Huimin; Gu, Shanshan; Yang, Hongxia; Xue, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Background Our study retrospectively reviewed the therapeutic effect of steroid pulse therapy in combination with an immunosuppressive agent in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with metastatic thymoma. Material/Methods MG patients with metastatic thymoma that underwent methylprednisolone pulse therapy plus cyclophosphamide were retrospectively analyzed. Patients initially received methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral methylprednisolone. Cyclophosphamide was prescribed simultaneously at the beginning of treatment. Clinical outcomes, including therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of MG and thymoma, were assessed. Results Twelve patients were recruited. According to histological classification, 4 cases were type B2 thymoma, 3 were type B3, 2 were type B1, and 1 was type AB. After combined treatment for 15 days, both the thymoma and MG responded dramatically to high-dose methylprednisolone plus cyclophosphamide. The symptoms of MG were improved in all patients, with marked improvement in 6 patients and basic remission in 4. Interestingly, complete remission of thymoma was achieved in 5 patients and partial remission in 7 patients. Myasthenic crisis was observed in 1 patient and was relieved after intubation and ventilation. Adverse reactions were observed in 7 patients (58.3%), most commonly infections, and all were resolved without discontinuation of therapy. During the follow-up, all patients were stabilized except for 1 with pleural metastasis who received further treatment and another 1 who died from myasthenic crisis. Conclusions The present study in a series of MG patients with metastatic thymoma indicated that steroid pulse therapy in combination with immunosuppressive agents was an effective and well-tolerated for treatment of both metastatic thymoma and MG. Glucocorticoid pulse therapy plus immunosuppressive agents should therefore be considered in MG patients with metastatic thymoma. PMID:28278141

  12. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in pediatric cancer patients receiving high-dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Cheerva, Alexandra C; Raj, Ashok; Bertolone, Salvatore J; Bertolone, Kathy; Silverman, Craig L

    2007-09-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a known complication of oxazophosphorine chemotherapy. BK virus (BKV) has been commonly found to be associated with hematuria in stem cell transplant patients; however, it has rarely been reported after cyclophosphamide chemotherapy alone. The authors present 3 cases of BK viruria with HC in nontransplant pediatric oncology patients. The 3 patients with BKV had more prolonged hematuria (14 to 16 wk) compared with 1 patient with BKV-negative HC (10 wk). The HC necessitated chemotherapy delays and also prolonged supportive care. One patient was treated with intravenous cidofovir with resolution of BK viruria and hematuria. BKV may have an association with the development of HC in nonstem cell transplant patients receiving high-dose oxazophosphorine chemotherapy. HC may present early and be more prolonged in patients with BK viruria. Patients with HC after cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide with negative bacterial cultures should be studied for BKV. Cidofovir may be beneficial in certain patients with BK viruria and HC; however, definitive data will require a clinical trial.

  13. Medications during pregnancy: antihypertensives and immunosuppressives.

    PubMed

    Umans, Jason G

    2007-04-01

    Use of prescription and nonprescription medications is common during pregnancy and is required in many women with underlying kidney disease or hypertension and in all with solid-organ allografts. Systematic assessment of drug safety during pregnancy is lacking, as are rigorous and comprehensive studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide drug selection and dosing across pregnancy. Renal and hepatic clearances of many drugs change markedly during pregnancy and pitfalls may complicate routine therapeutic monitoring of some drugs during pregnancy. However, available data and clinical experience allow reasonable strategies for selection and dosing of immunosuppressive agents in pregnant transplant recipients and of antihypertensive agents in women with mild or more severe hypertension complicating their pregnancies.

  14. Stroke-induced immunosuppression and poststroke infection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kaibin; Wood, Kristofer; Shi, Fu-Dong; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Infections occur commonly after stroke and are strongly associated with an unfavourable functional outcome of these patients. Approaches for effective management of poststroke infection remain scarce, presenting an urgent need for preventive anti-infection strategies for patients who have suffered a stroke. Emerging evidence indicates that stroke impairs systemic immune responses and increases the susceptibility to infections, suggesting that the modification of impaired immune defence could be beneficial. In this review, we summarised previous attempts to prevent poststroke infections using prophylactic antibiotics and the current understanding of stroke-induced immunosuppression. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms of stroke will pave the way to tailored design of new treatment to combat poststroke infection via modifying the immune system. PMID:29600006

  15. Cycles of Transient High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Administration and Oncolytic Adenovirus Vector Intratumoral Injection for Long Term Tumor Suppression in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Debanjan; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses against oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors are thought to limit vector anti-tumor efficacy. In Syrian hamsters, which are immunocompetent and whose tumors and normal tissues are permissive for replication of Ad5-based oncolytic Ad vectors, treating with high-dose cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune system and exert chemotherapeutic effects enhances Ad vector anti-tumor efficacy. However, long term cyclophosphamide treatment and immunosuppression can lead to anemia and vector spread to normal tissues. Here we employed three cycles of transient high-dose cyclophosphamide administration plus intratumoral injection of the oncolytic Ad vector VRX-007 followed by withdrawal from cyclophosphamide. Each cycle lasted 4-6 weeks. This protocol allowed the hamsters to remain healthy so the study could be continued for ~100 days. The tumors were very well suppressed throughout the study. With immunocompetent hamsters, the vector retarded tumor growth initially, but after 3-4 weeks the tumors resumed rapid growth and further injections of vector were ineffective. Preimmunization of the hamsters with Ad5 prevented vector spillover from the tumor to the liver yet still allowed for effective long term anti-tumor efficacy. Our results suggest that a clinical protocol might be developed with cycles of transient chemotherapy plus intratumoral vector injection to achieve significant anti-tumor efficacy while minimizing the side effects of cytostatic treatment. PMID:24722357

  16. Cycles of transient high-dose cyclophosphamide administration and intratumoral oncolytic adenovirus vector injection for long-term tumor suppression in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dhar, D; Toth, K; Wold, W S M

    2014-04-01

    Immune responses against oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors are thought to limit vector anti-tumor efficacy. With Syrian hamsters, which are immunocompetent and whose tumors and normal tissues are permissive for replication of Ad5-based oncolytic Ad vectors, treating with high-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) to suppress the immune system and exert chemotherapeutic effects enhances Ad vector anti-tumor efficacy. However, long-term CP treatment and immunosuppression can lead to anemia and vector spread to normal tissues. Here, we employed three cycles of transient high-dose CP administration plus intratumoral injection of the oncolytic Ad vector VRX-007 followed by withdrawal of CP. Each cycle lasted 4-6 weeks. This protocol allowed the hamsters to remain healthy so the study could be continued for ~100 days. The tumors were very well suppressed throughout the study. With immunocompetent hamsters, the vector retarded tumor growth initially, but after 3-4 weeks the tumors resumed rapid growth and further injections of vector were ineffective. Preimmunization of the hamsters with Ad5 prevented vector spillover from the tumor to the liver yet still allowed for effective long-term anti-tumor efficacy. Our results suggest that a clinical protocol might be developed with cycles of transient chemotherapy plus intratumoral vector injection to achieve significant anti-tumor efficacy while minimizing the side effects of cytostatic treatment.

  17. [Development of a perforated peptic ulcer in a child during high dose prednisolone treatment].

    PubMed

    Moll Harboe, Kirstine; Midtgaard, Helle; Wewer, Vibeke; Cortes, Dina

    2012-09-24

    Since perforated peptic ulcer is uncommon in children proton pump inhibitor prophylaxis is not routinely recommended when children are treated with high dose steroids. We describe a case of perforated ulcer in a six-year-old patient with nephrotic syndrome treated with high dose prednisolone. Initially, ulcer was not suspected due to uncharacteristic symptoms. The child developed peritoneal signs and surgery revealed a perforated peptic ulcer in the stomach. We recommend treatment with proton pump inhibitors if children, who are treated with high dose steroids develop abdominal symptoms, which can be caused by an ulcus.

  18. Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ki Woong; Lim, Do Hoon; Yi, Eun Sang; Choi, Young Bae; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Ji Hye; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Joung, Yoo Sook; Shin, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in improving the survival of patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors while reducing the risks of late adverse effects from radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods For young children (< 3 years old), tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was administered after six cycles of induction chemotherapy. RT was deferred until after 3 years of age unless the tumor showed relapse or progression. For older patients (> 3 years old), RT including reduced-dose craniospinal RT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) was administered either after two cycles of induction chemotherapy or after surgery, and tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was administered after six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Results A total of 13 patients (five young and eight older) were enrolled from November 2004 to June 2012. Eight patients, including all five young patients, had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Six patients (four young and two older) experienced progression before initiation of RT, and seven were able to proceed to HDCT/auto-SCT without progression during induction treatment. Three of six patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent HDCT/auto-SCT as salvage treatment. All five young patients died from disease progression. However, four of the eight older patients remain progression-freewith a median follow-up period of 64 months (range, 39 to 108 months). Treatment-related late toxicities were acceptable. Conclusion The required dose of craniospinal RT might be reduced in older patients if the intensity of chemotherapy is increased. However, early administration of RT should be considered to prevent early progression in young patients. PMID:27034140

  19. Mucositis care in acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, José Manuel; Pereira, Dulcineia; Chacim, Sérgio; Mesquita, Edgar; Sousa, Inês; Martins, Ângelo; Azevedo, Teresa; Mariz, José Mário

    2014-09-01

    This study intends to provide new insights into the incidence and care of mucositis by the epidemiological characterization of patients with hematological malignancy treated at our institution. It also aims to understand the effectiveness of several treatments used. This is a longitudinal observational single-center study-convenience sample-which includes malignant hematologic inpatients submitted to high-dose CT from February to August 2012. We registered epidemiological data, diagnosis, oral mucositis daily questionnaire (OMDQ), World Health Organization (WHO) oral toxicity scale, and supportive medications used for mucositis. We evaluated 30 patients who had 73 episodes of hospitalization, having recorded the development of mucositis in 21.9 % (n = 16) episodes (22 patients with acute leukemia (AL) and 8 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)). Grades 3-4 mucositis was reported in 4.1 % of the total episodes. The results of OMDQ showed some limitations in the quality of life, of patients with mucositis, related with the ability to eat and drink due to mouth pain (p < 0.001). In patients with NHL and AL, neutropenia entails an increased risk of mucositis (p < 0.001). Patients who did not initiate early prophylaxis with conservative measures developed mucositis earlier (p < 0.05). The incidence of mucositis is high, being reported mainly in AL patients, with limitations in quality of life. Grade 4 neutropenia increases mucositis risk. Early prophylaxis with basic oral care may delay mucositis. Further studies are crucial to characterize mucositis epidemiology, physiopathology, and its management.

  20. Improved long-term survival after intra-operative single high-dose ATG-Fresenius induction in renal transplantation: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Kaden, Jürgen; May, Gottfried; Völp, Andreas; Wesslau, Claus

    2009-01-01

    In organ grafts donor-specific sensitization is initiated immediately after revascularization. Therefore, in 1990 we introduced the intra-operative single high-dose ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) induction in addition to standard triple drug therapy (TDT) consisting of steroids, azathioprine and cyclosporin. A total of 778 first renal transplantations from deceased donors, performed between 1987 and 1998, were included in this evaluation. This retrospective analysis of clinic records and electronic databases presents data of all recipients of first kidney grafts who received two different ATG-F inductions (1(st) group: 9 mg/kg body weight as single high-dose intra-operatively, n=484; 2(nd) group: 3 mg/kg body weight on 7 or 8 consecutive days as multiple-dose starting also intra-operatively, n=78) and standard TDT alone (3(rd) group: TDT alone, n=216). The 10-year patient survival rates were 72.6+/-2.6% (TDT + ATG-F single high-dose), 79.5+/-5.1% (TDT + ATG-F multiple-dose) and 67.2+/-3.7%% (TDT alone; Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; ATG-F vs TDT alone, p=0.001). The 10-year graft survival rates with censoring of patients that died with a functioning graft were 73.8+/-2.4%, 57.7+/-5.8% and 58.4+/-3.6% (Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; 1(st) vs 2(nd )and 3(rd) group, respectively, p<0.001) and the 10-year graft survival rates with patient death counted as graft failure were 58.3+/-2.7%, 55.7+/-5.8% and 48.2+/-3.5% (Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; ATG-F single high-dose vs TDT, p=0.023). In pre-sensitized recipients there were also significant differences in favour of ATG-F, more notably in the single high-dose ATG-F induction. A total of 69% of the patients in the two cohorts receiving ATG-F did not experience any transplant rejections compared to 56% in patients undergoing TDT alone (p=0.018). The incidence of infectious complications was comparable across all groups. According to evidence obtained from the routine documentation of 778

  1. Association of High-Dose Ibuprofen Use, Lung Function Decline, and Long-Term Survival in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Konstan, Michael W; VanDevanter, Donald R; Sawicki, Gregory S; Pasta, David J; Foreman, Aimee J; Neiman, Evgueni A; Morgan, Wayne J

    2018-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis deaths result primarily from lung function loss, so chronic respiratory therapies, intended to preserve lung function, are cornerstones of cystic fibrosis care. Although treatment-associated reduction in rate of lung function loss should ultimately improve cystic fibrosis survival, no such relationship has been described for any chronic cystic fibrosis therapy. In part, this is because the ages of most rapid lung function decline-early adolescence-precede the median age of cystic fibrosis deaths by more than a decade. To study associations of high-dose ibuprofen treatment with the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline and mortality among children followed in the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis and subsequently in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry. We performed a matched cohort study using data from Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis. Exposure was defined as high-dose ibuprofen use reported at ≥80% of encounters over 2 years. Unexposed children were matched to exposed children 5:1 using propensity scores on the basis of demographic, clinical, and treatment covariates. The rate of decline of percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second during the 2-year follow-up period was estimated by mixed-effects modeling with random slopes and intercepts. Survival over 16 follow-up years in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry was compared between treatment groups by using proportional hazards modeling controlling for matching and covariates. We included 775 high-dose ibuprofen users and 3,665 nonusers who were well matched on demographic, clinical, and treatment variables. High-dose ibuprofen users declined on average 1.10 percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 0.51, 1.69) during the 2-year treatment period, whereas nonusers declined at a rate of 1.76% percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 1.48, 2

  2. Factors impacting short and long-term kidney graft survival: modification by single intra-operative -high-dose induction with ATG-Fresenius.

    PubMed

    Kaden, Jürgen; May, Gottfried; Völp, Andreas; Wesslau, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A majority of recipients benefited from the intra-operative single high-dose induction (HDI) with ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) still leaving a group of recipients who did not profit from this kind of induction. Therefore the aim of this retrospective analysis was 1st to identify the risk factors impacting short and long-term graft survival, and 2nd to assess the efficacy of this type of induction in kidney graft recipients with or without these risk factors. A total of 606 recipients receiving two different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (1st: Triple drug therapy [TDT, n=196] consisting mainly of steroids, azathioprine and cyclosporine; 2nd: TDT + 9 mg/kg ATG-F intra-operatively [HDI, n=410]) were included in this analysis and grouped according to their kidney graft survival time (short GST: ≤1 yr, n=100 and long GST: >5 yrs, n=506). The main risk factors associated with a shortened graft survival were pre-transplant sensitization, re-transplantation, rejections (in particular vascular or mixed ones) and the necessity of a long-term anti-rejection therapy. Adding ATG-F single high dose induction to TDT was more efficient in prolonging kidney graft survival than TDT alone not only in recipients without any risk factors (p<0.005) but also in recipients with at least one risk factor (p<0.021). Only in 4.6% of recipients having two or more risk factors this effect could not be demonstrated. The intra-operative single high-dose induction with ATG-F significantly improves the kidney graft survival in recipients with or without risk factors and can therefore be recommended.

  3. Cyclophosphamide priming reduces intestinal damage in man following high dose melphalan chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, P. J.; Lopes, N.; Mundy, J.; Crofts, M.; Millar, J. L.; McElwain, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    A small pre-treatment 'priming' dose of cyclophosphamide will reduce gut damage due to high dose i.v. melphalan in mice and sheep but efforts to demonstrate this effect in man have been hampered by difficulty in the measurement of gut damage. We have evaluated the 51CR EDTA absorption test, a new method for measuring intestinal permeability, as a means of assessing damage due to high dose melphalan. The test was reliable, with a narrow normal range, easy to use and well tolerated. It detected an increase in intestinal permeability after high dose melphalan with a maximum occurring between 9 and 15 days after treatment and subsequently returning to normal. It was shown in 19 patients that a pre-treatment dose of cyclophosphamide was capable of significantly reducing the abnormalities in intestinal permeability which resulted from high dose melphalan. PMID:3111515

  4. Current trends in immunosuppressive therapies for renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ruth-Ann; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-11-15

    Current trends in immunosuppressive therapies for renal transplant recipients are reviewed. The common premise for immunosuppressive therapies in renal transplantation is to use multiple agents to work on different immunologic targets. The use of a multidrug regimen allows for pharmacologic activity at several key steps in the T-cell replication process and lower dosages of each individual agent, thereby producing fewer drug-related toxicities. In general, there are three stages of clinical immunosuppression: induction therapy, maintenance therapy, and treatment of an established acute rejection episode. Only immunosuppressive therapies used for maintenance therapy are discussed in detail in this review. The most common maintenance immunosuppressive agents can be divided into five classes: (1) the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) (cyclosporine and tacrolimus), (2) costimulation blockers (belatacept), (3) mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus), (4) antiproliferatives (azathioprine and mycophenolic acid derivatives), and (5) corticosteroids. Immunosuppressive regimens vary among transplantation centers but most often include a CNI and an adjuvant agent, with or without corticosteroids. Selection of appropriate immunosuppressive regimens should be patient specific, taking into account the medications' pharmacologic properties, adverse-event profile, and potential drug-drug interactions, as well as the patient's preexisting diseases, risk of rejection, and medication regimen. Advancements in transplant immunosuppression have resulted in a significant reduction in acute cellular rejection and a modest increase in long-term patient and graft survival. Because the optimal immunosuppression regimen is still unknown, immunosuppressant use should be influenced by institutional preference and tailored to the immunologic risk of the patient and adverse-effect profile of the drug.

  5. Severe neuropathy after high dose carboplatin in three patients receiving multidrug chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Heinzlef, O.; Lotz, J.; Roullet, E.

    1998-01-01

    Three patients are described who developed a severe neuropathy after chemotherapy with high dose cis-diamine-(1,1-cyclobutane dicarboxylato) platinum (carboplatin). This toxic side effect, which is unusual at conventional doses, might become more frequent as increasing doses are administered to overcome drug resistance in cancer treatment, and might limit its use at very high doses before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 

 PMID:9598687

  6. High-Dose Azithromycin versus High-Dose Amoxicillin-Clavulanate for Treatment of Children with Recurrent or Persistent Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Antonio; Arguedas, Adriano; Fernandez, Pilar; Block, Stan L.; Emperanza, Paz; Vargas, Sergio L.; Erhardt, William A.; de Caprariis, Pascal J.; Rothermel, Constance D.

    2003-01-01

    Infants and young children, especially those in day care, are at risk for recurrent or persistent acute otitis media (AOM). There are no data on oral alternatives to high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate for treating AOM in these high-risk patients. In this double-blind, double-dummy multicenter clinical trial, we compared a novel, high-dose azithromycin regimen with high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate for treatment of children with recurrent or persistent AOM. Three hundred four children were randomized; 300 received either high-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 3 days) or high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (90 mg/kg divided twice a day for 10 days). Tympanocentesis was performed at baseline; clinical response was assessed at day 12 to 16 and day 28 to 32. Two-thirds of patients were aged ≤2 years. A history of recurrent, persistent, or recurrent plus persistent AOM was noted in 67, 18, and 14% of patients, respectively. Pathogens were isolated from 163 of 296 intent-to-treat patients (55%). At day 12 to 16, clinical success rates for azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were comparable for all patients (86 versus 84%, respectively) and for children aged ≤2 years (85 versus 79%, respectively). At day 28 to 32, clinical success rates for azithromycin were superior to those for amoxicillin-clavulanate for all patients (72 versus 61%, respectively; P = 0.047) and for those aged ≤2 years (68 versus 51%, respectively; P = 0.017). Per-pathogen clinical efficacy against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae was comparable between the two regimens. The rates of treatment-related adverse events for azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were 32 and 42%, respectively (P = 0.095). Corresponding compliance rates were 99 and 93%, respectively (P = 0.018). These data demonstrate the efficacy and safety of high-dose azithromycin for treating recurrent or persistent AOM. PMID:14506028

  7. Evidence of immunosuppression by Demodex canis.

    PubMed

    Barriga, O O; al-Khalidi, N W; Martin, S; Wyman, M

    1992-04-01

    Three clinically normal beagles, 3 beagles with localized demodectic mange (LDM), and 3 beagles with generalized demodectic mange (GDM) were investigated simultaneously 1-3 and 4-6 weeks from the appearance of the clinical signs. Blood clinical examination and reactivity of peripheral lymphocytes to Con A and PHA were investigated in the first instance, and reactivity to Con A, PHA, and LPS in the second. Eight aliquots were used in each blastogenesis assay for each dog. All dogs were negative for rheumatoid factor. The results of blastogenesis showed that many observations were distributed non-normally, and that not all dogs in each group responded homogeneously. Comparison of blastogenesis results between dogs demands careful statistical analysis. Responses to mitogens were normal in all dogs at 1-3 weeks except for the LDM dogs that showed an increased response to PHA. Only the response to Con A was moderately inhibited in the LDM dogs at 4-6 weeks. All responses were severely depressed in the GDM dogs at 4-6 weeks. This means that immunosuppression follows rather than precedes the clinical manifestations of GDM, and implies that the phenomenon is induced by the parasite or the host's reaction to it.

  8. Effect of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation at the initiation of HAART on HIV disease progression and mortality in Tanzania: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Isanaka, Sheila; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Hawkins, Claudia; Spiegelman, Donna; Okuma, James; Aboud, Said; Guerino, Chalamilla; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2012-10-17

    Large randomized trials have previously shown that high-dose micronutrient supplementation can increase CD4 counts and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and mortality among individuals not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the safety and efficacy of such supplementation has not been established in the context of HAART. To test the hypothesis that high-dose multivitamin supplementation vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of HIV disease progression or death and improves immunological, virological, and nutritional parameters in patients with HIV initiating HAART. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation for 24 months in 3418 patients with HIV initiating HAART between November 2006 and November 2008 in 7 clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. INTERVENTION The provision of daily oral supplements of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E at high levels or standard levels of the recommended dietary allowance. The composite of HIV disease progression or death from any cause. The study was stopped early in March 2009 because of evidence of increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients receiving the high-dose multivitamin supplement. At the time of stopping, 3418 patients were enrolled (median follow-up, 15 months), and there were 2374 HIV disease progression events and 453 observed deaths (2460 total combined events). Compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplementation, high-dose supplementation did not reduce the risk of HIV disease progression or death. The absolute risk of HIV progression or death was 72% in the high-dose group vs 72% in the standard-dose group (risk ratio [RR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.04). High-dose supplementation had no effect on CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level concentration, but increased the risk of ALT elevations (1239 events per 1215 person

  9. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Multivitamin Supplementation at the Initiation of HAART on HIV Disease Progression and Mortality in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Hawkins, Claudia; Spiegelman, Donna; Okuma, James; Aboud, Said; Guerino, Chalamilla; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Context Large randomized trials have previously shown that high-dose micronutrient supplementation can increase CD4 counts and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and mortality among individuals not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the safety and efficacy of such supplementation has not been established in the context of HAART. Objective To test the hypothesis that high-dose multivitamin supplementation vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of HIV disease progression or death and improves immunological, virological, and nutritional parameters in patients with HIV initiating HAART. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation for 24 months in 3418 patients with HIV initiating HAART between November 2006 and November 2008 in 7 clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Intervention The provision of daily oral supplements of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E at high levels or standard levels of the recommended dietary allowance. Main Outcome Measure The composite of HIV disease progression or death from any cause. Results The study was stopped early in March 2009 because of evidence of increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients receiving the high-dose multivitamin supplement. At the time of stopping, 3418 patients were enrolled (median follow-up, 15 months), and there were 2374 HIV disease progression events and 453 observed deaths (2460 total combined events). Compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplementation, high-dose supplementation did not reduce the risk of HIV disease progression or death. The absolute risk of HIV progression or death was 72% in the high-dose group vs 72% in the standard-dose group (risk ratio [RR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96–1.04). High-dose supplementation had no effect on CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level

  10. Management of patients with multiple myeloma: emphasizing the role of high-dose therapy.

    PubMed

    Kyle, R A

    2001-06-01

    Treatment for multiple myeloma should not be given until the patient is symptomatic or at risk for the occurrence of complications of the disease. If the patient is younger than 70 years, the physician should seriously consider an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Most physicians initially administer vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone (VAD) for 3 to 4 months and then collect the stem cells before exposure to alkylating agents. Following stem cell collection, one may proceed with high-dose chemotherapy and then infusion of the stem cells, or one can administer alkylating agents until a plateau is reached and delay transplantation until progressive disease occurs. There is no difference in overall survival between early and late transplantation, but the former avoids the cost and inconvenience of alkylating agent therapy. Double or tandem autologous stem cell transplants may produce better results, but the evidence is not strong. Almost all patients have a relapse after an autologous stem cell transplant, so efforts are being made to prolong the response with a2-interferon or dendritic cell therapy. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is feasible for only 5%-10% of patients, but the mortality is high and it is curative in only a small fraction of patients. Treatment with melphalan and prednisone results in an objective response in 50%-60% of patients. Combinations of alkylating agents produce a higher response rate, but there is no survival benefit. Thalidomide produces an objective response in about one third of patients with refractory disease. It currently is being studied in conjunction with dexamethasone for conventional initial therapy.

  11. Acinetobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated with Debridement and High-Dose Tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Amadio, Claudio; Leiva, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Prosthesis retention is not recommended for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter prosthetic joint infection due to its high failure rate. Nevertheless, replacing the prosthesis implies high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Although tigecycline is not approved for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, its appropriate use may preclude prosthesis exchange. Since the area under the curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration is the best pharmacodynamic predictor of its efficacy, we used tigecycline at high dose, in order to optimize its efficacy and achieve implant retention in 3 patients who refused prosthesis exchange. All patients with prosthetic joint infections treated at our Institution are prospectively registered in a database. Three patients with early prosthetic joint infection of total hip arthroplasty due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii were treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention, using a high maintenance dose of tigecycline (100 mg every 12 hours). The cases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients signed informed consent for receiving off-label use of tigecycline. Tigecycline was well tolerated, allowing its administration at high maintenance dose for a median of 40 days (range 30-60). Two patients were then switched to minocycline at standard doses for a median of 3.3 months in order to complete treatment. Currently, none of the patients showed relapse. Increasing the dose of tigecycline could be considered as a means to better attain pharmacodynamic targets in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat infections. Tigecycline at high maintenance dose might be useful when retention of the implant is attempted for treatment for prosthetic joint infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Although this approach might be promising, off-label use of tigecycline should be interpreted cautiously until prospective data are available. Tigecycline is

  12. High-dose HOOK effect in urinary DcR2 assay in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Chen, Ke-Hong; Wang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Feng, Lei; Dai, Huan-Zi; He, Ya-Ni

    2018-06-05

    Urinary DcR2 (uDcR2) is a biomarker for the early detection the tubulointerstitial injury (TII) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the high-dose hook effect may lead to falsely low or even negative results when using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This study aimed to investigate if the high-dose hook effect exists with ELISA testing, and to uncover a potential approach for reducing this effect. 72 CKD patients were recruited and categorized into four groups based on TII scores. uDcR2 was measured in undiluted and serially diluted (two-, four-, eight- and 16-fold dilutions) urine using an ELISA kit. The results from the assay were normalized to urinary creatinine. We evaluated the correlation between uDcR2/cre levels at different dilutions and renal histological parameters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to examine the value of uDcR2/cre for predicting TII. uDcR2/cre levels in the undiluted urine were significantly higher in patients with CKD than those in the control. However, higher TII scores did not yield higher levels of uDcR2/cre in the undiluted urine. After serial dilution, uDcR2/cre levels were highest with the four-fold dilution. A positive correlation was found between uDcR2/cre levels at different dilutions and TII scores, with the highest correlation coefficient and the largest AUC being observed at the four-fold dilution. The high-dose hook effect was apparent during ELISA testing of uDcR2 in CKD patients, yet dilution of the urine samples neutralized this effect. However, the use of a four-fold dilution of urine for uDcR2/cre testing may eliminate the high-dose hook effect and make it possible to effectively monitor the severity of TII in CKD patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. High dose vitamin D may improve lower urinary tract symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Johanna; Verelst, Margareta; Jorde, Rolf; Cashman, Kevin; Grimnes, Guri

    2017-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in postmenopausal women, and have been reported inversely associated with vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if high dose vitamin D supplementation would affect LUTS in comparison to standard dose. In a randomized controlled study including 297 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density, the participants were allocated to receive capsules of 20 000IU of vitamin D 3 twice a week (high dose group) or similar looking placebo (standard dose group). In addition, all the participants received 1g of calcium and 800IU of vitamin D daily. A validated questionnaire regarding LUTS was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. At baseline, 76 women in the high dose group and 82 in the standard dose group reported any LUTS. Levels of serum 25(OH)D increased significantly more in the high dose group (from 64.7 to 164.1nmol/l compared to from 64.1 to 81.8nmol/l, p<0.01). No differences between the groups were seen regarding change in LUTS except for a statistically significant reduction in the reported severity of urine incontinence in the high dose group as compared to the standard dose group after one year (p<0.05). The results need confirmation in a study specifically designed for this purpose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of high-dose nandrolone aggravates septic shock in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chien, Su-Yu; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2011-06-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic-androgenic steroid, is widely misused by athletes who wish to rapidly increase muscle mass and performance. An increasing number of reports have indicated that nandrolone may affect and modulate the immune system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nandrolone on septic shock-caused immune responses and the cellular mechanism of action using a sepsis murine model. Before septic shock induction, BALB/c mice were given a high dose of nandrolone or peanut oil only. After septic shock induction, mice were sacrificed at different time points. Their blood and tissue specimens were analyzed. It was found that the high-dose nandrolone group had significantly increased mortality compared with the control group (p<0.001). The serum malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the high-dose group compared with the control group. Animals administered a high dose of nandrolone had significantly increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α or splenic interferon-γ at 0 and 6 hours. In lung tissue, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 mRNA expression were increased in the high-dose nandrolone group at 6 hours. Nandrolone abuse may hasten the death of patients with septic shock and may aggravate septic shock in mice. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Clinical views from the forefront of immunosuppressive drugs].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, many immunosuppressants have been developed and some of them have already been introduced in clinical organ transplantation. With a new concept of immunoregulation, which focuses on prevention of rejection and over-immunosuppression, the latest protocol has been conducted. Chimeric or humanized antibodies targeting the lymphocyte surface molecule such as CD19, 20, 25, 40, and 52 are administrated in the induction phase, and calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporin and tacrolimus) are used as key drugs. For tapering the doses of them, the combined application of anti-metabolic agents of azathioprine, mizoribine, or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been proved effective. Lymphocyte forming drugs induce unique immunoregulation, targeting at sphingosine 1-phosphate (SlP) receptors. FTY720 is now in the procedure of clinical trial to compare with MMF. KRP203 is also a candidate for more specific SIP receptor agonist. In this issue, I reviewed the recent immunosuppressive strategy and focused on the advance of novel immunosuppressive drugs.

  16. Influence of Population Immunosuppression and Past Vaccination on Smallpox Reemergence

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C. Raina; Chen, Xin; Segelov, Eva; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Kelleher, Anthony; Kunasekaran, Mohana; Lane, John Michael

    2018-01-01

    We built a SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered) model of smallpox transmission for New York, New York, USA, and Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that accounted for age-specific population immunosuppression and residual vaccine immunity and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate the effect these parameters might have on smallpox reemergence. At least 19% of New York’s and 17% of Sydney’s population are immunosuppressed. The highest smallpox infection rates were in persons 0–19 years of age, but the highest death rates were in those >45 years of age. Because of the low level of residual vaccine immunity, immunosuppression was more influential than vaccination on death and infection rates in our model. Despite widespread smallpox vaccination until 1980 in New York, smallpox outbreak severity appeared worse in New York than in Sydney. Immunosuppression is highly prevalent and should be considered in future smallpox outbreak models because excluding this factor probably underestimates death and infection rates. PMID:29553311

  17. Behavioral conditioning of immunosuppression is possible in humans.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Marion U; Trebst, Almuth E; Steiner, Jan; Xie, Yu F; Exton, Michael S; Frede, Stilla; Canbay, Ali E; Michel, Martin C; Heemann, Uwe; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2002-12-01

    Behavioral conditioned immunosuppression has been described in rodents as the most impressive demonstration of brain-to-immune system interaction. To analyze whether behavioral conditioned immunosuppression is possible in humans, healthy subjects in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study were conditioned in four sessions over 3 consecutive days, receiving the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A as an unconditioned stimulus paired with a distinctively flavored drink (conditioned stimulus) each 12 h. In the next week, re-exposure to the conditioned stimulus (drink), but now paired with placebo capsules, induced a suppression of immune functions as analyzed by the IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression, intracellular production, and in vitro release of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, as well as lymphocyte proliferation. These data demonstrate for the first time that immunosuppression can be behaviorally conditioned in humans.

  18. Pulmonary co-infection with nocardia species and nontuberculous mycobacteria mimicking miliary tuberculosis in a patient with Crohn's disease under combined immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marko; Rüddel, Jessica; Bruns, Tony; Pletz, Mathias W; Stallmach, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare infection caused by ubiquitous soil-born, acid-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria that can be life-threatening in immunocompromised patients. Originally usually diagnosed in HIV-positive patients, only few cases have been reported in patients on immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease or rheumatologic disorders. We present a case of a 32-year-old man who was treated with infliximab, prednisolone, and azathioprine for severe terminal ileitis. Although the clinical status improved under triple immunosuppressive therapy, weight loss, weakness, and fatigue persisted. Laboratory studies revealed iron deficiency anemia, hypalbuminemia and raised inflammatory markers. Chest computed tomography scan showed multiple pulmonary nodules and a large cavity in the left upper lobe (segment 3a). Empiric tuberculostatic therapy was introduced for suspected miliary tuberculosis but stopped for lack of clinical improvement and negative tuberculosis tests (interferon-gamma release assay, microscopy, polymerase chain reaction). Finally, the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis with concomitant pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection was confirmed microbiologically, and the patient was treated with high-dose co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin for 12 months.This case report underlines the increased risk of severe and rare infections like nocardiosis with combination immunosuppressive therapy and the necessity for thorough diagnostic screening for opportunistic infection. Although long-term antibiotic treatment for nocardiosis is mandatory, the optimal timing to restart immunosuppressive therapy remains ambiguous. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Plasma Doping—Enabling Technology for High Dose Logic and Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Godet, L.; Papasouliotis, G. D.; Singh, V.

    2008-11-01

    As logic and memory device dimensions shrink with each generation, there are more high dose implants at lower energies. Examples include dual poly gate (also referred to as counter-doped poly), elevated source drain and contact plug implants. Plasma Doping technology throughput and dopant profile benefits at these ultra high dose and lower energy conditions have been well established [1,2,3]. For the first time a production-worthy plasma doping implanter, the VIISta PLAD tool, has been developed with unique architecture suited for precise and repeatable dopant placement. Critical elements of the architecture include pulsed DC wafer bias, closed-loop dosimetry and a uniform low energy, high density plasma source. In this paper key performance metrics such as dose uniformity, dose repeatability and dopant profile control will be presented that demonstrate the production-worthiness of the VIISta PLAD tool for several high dose applications.

  20. The role of autologous blood stem cells in support of high-dose therapy for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Fermand, J P; Chevret, S; Levy, Y; Miclea, J M; Tsapis, A; Gerota, J; Benbunan, M; Brouet, J C

    1992-04-01

    During the last few years, high-dose therapy with hemopoietic stem cell support has become a well-admitted therapeutic option for young patients with MM. The role of allogeneic or autologous graft and of blood rather than bone marrow as the source of hemopoietic stem cells must be further investigated. Autologous PBSC transplantation has, however, both practical and theoretic advantages over allogeneic and autologous BMT: (1) It can be applied to most patients, especially if blood stem cells are collected early in the course of therapy. (2) It usually induces relatively rapid hematologic reconstitution. (3) In comparison with autologous BMT, it appears to minimize the hazard of the reinfusion of malignant cells.

  1. Moderate- vs high-dose methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Strain, E C; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; Stitzer, M L

    1999-03-17

    Methadone hydrochloride treatment is the most common pharmacological intervention for opioid dependence, and recent interest has focused on expanding methadone treatment availability beyond traditional specially licensed clinics. However, despite recommendations regarding effective dosing of methadone, controlled clinical trials of higher-dose methadone have not been conducted. To compare the relative clinical efficacy of moderate- vs high-dose methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. A 40-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial starting in June 1992 and ending in October 1995. Outpatient substance abuse treatment research clinic at the Johns Hopkins University Bayview Campus, Baltimore, Md. One hundred ninety-two eligible clinic patients. Daily oral methadone hydrochloride in the dose range of 40 to 50 mg (n = 97) or 80 to 100 mg (n = 95), with concurrent substance abuse counseling. Opioid-positive urinalysis results and retention in treatment. By intent-to-treat analysis through week 30 patients in the high-dose group had significantly lower rates of opioid-positive urine samples compared with patients in the moderate-dose group (53.0% [95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-59.2%] vs 61.9% [95% CI, 55.9%-68.0%]; P = .047. These differences persisted during withdrawal from methadone. Through day 210 no significant difference was evident between dose groups in treatment retention (high-dose group mean retention, 159 days; moderate-dose group mean retention, 157 days). Nineteen (33%) of 57 patients in the high-dose group and 11 (20%) of 54 patients in the moderate-dose group completed detoxification. Both moderate- and high-dose methadone treatment resulted in decreased illicit opioid use during methadone maintenance and detoxification. The high-dose group had significantly greater decreases in illicit opioid use.

  2. Differential Effects of High Dose Magnetic Seizure Therapy (MST) and Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Spellman, Timothy; McClintock, Shawn M.; Terrace, Herbert; Luber, Bruce; Husain, Mustafa M.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is under investigation as an alternative form of convulsive therapy that induces more focal seizures and spares cortical regions involved in memory. Using a newly expanded version of the Columbia University Primate Cognitive Profile, we compared the cognitive effects of high-dose MST delivered at 100 Hz (6X seizure threshold) with electroconvulsive shock (ECS) delivered at 2.5X seizure threshold. Methods Daily high-dose MST, ECS, and Sham (anesthesia-only) were administered for 4 weeks each in a within-subject cross-over design. Rhesus macaques (n = 3) were trained on five cognitive tasks assessing automatic memory, anterograde learning and memory, combined anterograde and retrograde simultaneous chaining, and spatial and serial working memory. Acutely following each intervention, monkeys were tested on the cognitive battery twice daily, separated by a 3-hour retention interval. Results Subjects were slower to complete criterion tasks (p’s<0.0001) following ECS, compared to sham and high-dose MST. Moreover, time to task-completion following high-dose MST did not differ from sham. Out of 6 measures of accuracy, treatment effects were found in 4; in all of these, ECS, but not MST, fared worse than Sham. On all accuracy and time to completion measurements, subjects performed as well as following high-dose MST as did subjects from a previous study on moderate-dose MST. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that high-dose MST results in benign acute cognitive side-effect profile relative to ECS, and are in line with our previous studies. PMID:18262171

  3. Collagenous colitis: Requirement for high-dose budesonide as maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Piqueras, Marta; Guagnozzi, Danila; Robles, Virginia; Ruiz-Cerulla, Alexandra; Casanova, María José; Gisbert, Javier P; Busquets, David; Arguedas, Yolanda; Pérez-Aisa, Angeles; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2017-09-01

    Controlled studies show high efficacy of budesonide in inducing short-term clinical remission in collagenous colitis (CC), but relapses are common after its withdrawal. To evaluate the need for high-dose budesonide (≥6mg/d) to maintain clinical remission in CC. Analysis of a multicentre retrospective cohort of 75 patients with CC (62.3±1.5years; 85% women) treated with budesonide in a clinical practice setting between 2013 and 2015. Frequency of budesonide (9mg/d) refractoriness and safety, and the need for high-dose budesonide to maintain clinical remission, were evaluated. Drugs used as budesonide-sparing, including azathioprine and mercaptopurine, were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the need for high-dose budesonide (≥6mg/d) to maintain clinical remission. Budesonide induced clinical remission in 92% of patients, with good tolerance. Fourteen of 68 patients (21%; 95% CI, 13-32%) needed high-dose budesonide to maintain remission. Only intake of NSAIDs at diagnosis (OR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.6-44) was associated with the need for high-dose budesonide in the multivariate analysis. with thiopurines was effective in 5 out of 6 patients (83%; 95% CI, 44-97%), allowing for withdrawal from or a dose decrease of budesonide. One fifth of CC patients, especially those with NSAID intake at diagnosis, require high-dose budesonide (≥6mg/d) to maintain clinical remission. In this setting, thiopurines might be effective as budesonide-sparing drugs. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole-Body Imaging of High-Dose Ionizing Irradiation-Induced Tissue Injuries Using 99mTc-Duramycin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven E.; Li, Zhixin; Liu, Yu; Moulder, John E.; Zhao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    High-dose ionizing irradiation can cause extensive injuries in susceptible tissues. A noninvasive imaging technique that detects a surrogate marker of apoptosis may help characterize the dynamics of radiation-induced tissue damage. The goal of this study was to prove the concept of imaging the temporal and spatial distribution of damage in susceptible tissues after high-dose radiation exposure, using 99mTc-duramycin as a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding radiopharmaceutical. Methods Rats were subjected to 15 Gy of total-body irradiation with x-rays. Planar whole-body 99mTc-duramycin scanning (n = 4 per time point) was conducted at 24, 48, and 72 h using a clinical γ-camera. On the basis of findings from planar imaging, preclinical SPECT data were acquired on control rats and on irradiated rats at 6 and 24 h after irradiation (n = 4 per time point). Imaging data were validated by γ-counting and histology, using harvested tissues in parallel groups of animals (n = 4). Results Prominent focal uptake was detected in the thymus as early as 6 h after irradiation, followed by a gradual decline in 99mTc-duramycin binding accompanied by extensive thymic atrophy. Early (6–24 h) radioactivity uptake in the gastrointestinal region was detected. Significant signal was seen in major bones in a slightly delayed fashion, at 24 h, which persisted for at least 2 d. This finding was paralleled by an elevation in signal intensity in the kidneys, spleen, and liver. The imaging results were consistent with ex vivo γ-counting results and histology. Relatively high levels of apoptosis were detected from histology in the thymus, guts, and bones, with the thymus undergoing substantial atrophy. Conclusion As a proof of principle, this study demonstrated a noninvasive imaging technique that allows characterization of the temporal and spatial dynamics of injuries in susceptible tissues during the acute phase after high-dose ionizing irradiation. Such an imaging capability will potentially

  5. Typhoid outbreak in Kingston, Ont: experience with high-dose oral ampicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, G.; Padfield, C. J.; Chadwick, P.; Partington, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four children contracted typhoid fever at a summer camp near Kingston, Ont. Six were treated with chloramphenicol alone and 15 with high doses of ampicillin (300 mg/kg-d) by mouth. Ampicillin in this dosage was well tolerated except in three children in whom severe urticarial rashes developed and two who had significant diarrhea. However, high-dose oral ampicillin therapy had no advantage over that with lower doses or over chloramphenicol as judged by the rate of defervescence after the start of treatment, the rate of clinical relapse and the frequency of excretion of Salmonella typhi during convalescence. PMID:849559

  6. [High-dosed gestagen therapy of the metastatic mammary carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Firusian, N; Becher, R

    1981-12-01

    Thirty patients with histologically proven metastatic mammary carcinoma were treated, after exhaustion of hormonal and cytostatic therapeutic means, with high-dosed medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) during a ten-day induction phase with 1000 mg MPAi.m. per day and then with 600 mg oral MPA per day. In eleven patients a complete or partial remission was achieved. The median period of remission comprised ten months. A positive relationship was found between the response to high-dosed MPA therapy and the length of free intervals. Side effects were tolerable.

  7. Resistance of a lizard (the green anole, Anolis carolinensis; Polychridae) to ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression

    Cope, R.B.; Fabacher, D.L.; Lieske, C.; Miller, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is the most northerly distributed of its Neotropical genus. This lizard avoids a winter hibernation phase by the use of sun basking behaviors. Inevitably, this species is exposed to high doses of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Increases in terrestrial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation secondary to stratospheric ozone depletion and habitat perturbation potentially place this species at risk of UVR-induced immunosuppression. Daily exposure to subinflammatory UVR (8 kJ/m2/day UV-B, 85 kJ/m2/day ultraviolet A [UV-A]), 6 days per week for 4 weeks (total cumulative doses of 192 kJ/m2 UV-B, 2.04 × 103 kJ/m2 UV-A) did not suppress the anole's acute or delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to horseshoe crab hemocyanin. In comparison with the available literature UV-B doses as low as 0.1 and 15.9 kJ/m2 induced suppression of DTH responses in mice and humans, respectively. Exposure of anoles to UVR did not result in the inhibition of ex vivo splenocyte phagocytosis of fluorescein labeled Escherichia coli or ex vivo splenocyte nitric oxide production. Doses of UV-B ranging from 0.35 to 45 kJ/m2 have been reported to suppress murine splenic/peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and nitric oxide production. These preliminary studies demonstrate the resistance of green anoles to UVR-induced immunosuppression. Methanol extracts of anole skin contained two peaks in the ultraviolet wavelength range that could be indicative of photoprotective substances. However, the resistance of green anoles to UVR is probably not completely attributable to absorption by UVR photoprotective substances in the skin but more likely results from a combination of other factors including absorption by the cutis and absorption and reflectance by various components of the dermis.

  8. Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on T Cells in a Septic Context: Immunosuppression or Immunostimulation?

    PubMed

    Le Burel, Sébastien; Thepenier, Cédric; Boutin, Laetitia; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Peltzer, Juliette

    2017-10-15

    Sepsis is a complex process, including a first wave of damage partially due to the body's response to pathogens, followed by a phase of immune cell dysfunction. The efficacy of a pharmacological approach facing a rapidly evolving system implies a perfect timing of administration-this difficulty could explain the recent failure of clinical trials. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are usually defined as immunosuppressive and their beneficial effects in preclinical models of acute sepsis have been shown to rely partly on such ability. If nonregulated, this phenotype could be harmful in the immunosuppressed context arising hours after sepsis onset. However, MSCs being environment sensitive, we hypothesized that they could reverse their immunosuppressive properties when confronted with suffering immune cells. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of human MSCs on activated human lymphocytes in an in vitro endotoxemia model. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) underwent a 24-h lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intoxication and were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in contact with MSCs. MSCs induced a differential effect on lymphocytes depending on PBMC intoxication with LPS. Unintoxicated lymphocytes were highly proliferative with PHA and were inhibited by MSCs, whereas LPS-intoxicated lymphocytes showed a low proliferation rate, but were supported by MSCs, even when monocytes were depleted. These data, highlighting MSC plasticity in their immunomodulatory activity, pave the way for further studies investigating the mechanisms of mutual interactions between MSCs and immune cells in sepsis. Thus, MSCs might be able to fight against both early sepsis-induced hyperinflammatory response and later time points of immune dysfunction.

  9. Methods for Analysis of Nanoparticle Immunosuppressive Properties In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug effects on the immune system function represent a significant concern in the pharmaceutical industry, because 10-20% of the drug withdrawal from the market is accounted to immunotoxicity. Immunosuppression is one such adverse effect. The traditional immune function test used to estimate materials' immunosuppression is a T-cell-dependent antibody response (TDAR). This method involves a 28 day in vivo study evaluating the animal's antibody titer to a known antigen (KLH) with and without challenge. Due to the limited quantities of novel drug candidates, an in vitro method called human leukocyte activation (HuLa) assay has been developed to substitute the traditional TDAR assay during early preclinical development. In this test, leukocytes isolated from healthy donors vaccinated with the current year's flu vaccine are incubated with Fluzone in the presence or absence of a test material. The antigen-specific leukocyte proliferation is then measured by ELISA analyzing incorporation of BrdU into DNA of the proliferating cells. Here, we describe the experimental procedures for investigating immunosuppressive properties of nanoparticles by both TDAR and HuLa assays, discuss the in vitro-in vivo correlation of these methods, and show a case study using the iron oxide nanoparticle formulation, Feraheme.

  10. [Diagnosis of cerebral metastasis with standard dose gadobutrol vs. a high dose protocol. Intraindividual evaluation of a phase II high dose study].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Friebe, C E; Balzer, T; Mack, M G; Steiner, S; Schedel, H; Pegios, W; Lanksch, W; Banzer, D; Felix, R

    1995-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of normal and high doses of Gadobutrol versus a standard dose of Gadolinium DTPA in the MR evaluation of patients with brain metastases. In a clinical phase-II study 20 patients who had been diagnosed as having brain metastases with CT or MRT were studied prospectively with Gadobutrol, a new nonionic, low osmolality contrast agent. Each patient received an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight and an additional dose of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol 10 min later. Spin-echo images were obtained before and after the two applications of Gadobutrol. Dynamic scanning (Turbo-FLASH) was performed for 3 min after each injection of the contrast agent. Both quantitative and qualitative data were intraindividually evaluated. The primary tumor was a bronchial carcinoma in 11 cases; in 9 other cases there were different primary tumors. Forty-eight hours after the use of Gadobutrol there were no adverse signs in the clinical examination, vital signs or blood and urine chemistry. Statistical analysis (Friedman test and Wilcoxon test) of the C/N ratios between tumor and white matter, percentage enhancement, and visual assessment rating revealed statistically significant superiority of high-dose Gadobutrol injection in comparison to the standard dose. The percentage enhancement increased on average from 104% after 0.1 mmol/kg to 162% after 0.3 mmol/kg Gadobutrol. Qualitative delineation and contrast of the lesions increased significantly. The use of high-dose Gadobutrol improved the detection of 36 additional lesions in 6 patients. The first in vivo results prove the excellent contrast capacity of the nonionic contrast agent Gadobutrol for the diagnosis of intracerebral metastases.

  11. High-dose dexamethasone or all-trans-retinoic acid restores the balance of macrophages towards M2 in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q; Xu, M; Yu, Y Y; Hou, Y; Mi, X; Sun, Y X; Ma, S; Zuo, X Y; Shao, L L; Hou, M; Zhang, X H; Peng, J

    2017-09-01

    Essentials M1/M2 imbalance is involved in many autoimmune diseases, and could be restored. The expressions and functions of M1 and M2 were investigated in an in vitro culture system. A preferred M1 polarization is involved in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). High-dose dexamethasone or all-trans-retinoic acid restores M1/M2 balance in ITP patients. Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder. Deficiency of immune tolerance in antigen-presenting cells and cross-communication between antigen-presenting cells and T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. Macrophages can polarize into proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes in response to different environmental stimuli, and have diverse immunologic functions. Objectives To investigate the M1/M2 imbalance in ITP and whether high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) could restore this imbalance. Methods The numbers of M1 and M2 macrophages in the spleens of ITP patients and patients with traumatic spleen rupture were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Monocyte-derived macrophages were cultured and induced with cytokines and drugs. The expression of M1 and M2 markers and functions of M1 and M2 macrophages before and after modulation by HD-DXM or ATRA were evaluated with flow cytometry and ELISA. Results There was preferred M1 polarization in ITP spleens as compared with healthy controls. Monocyte-derived macrophages from ITP patients had increased expression of M1 markers and impaired immunosuppressive functions. Either HD-DXM or ATRA corrected this imbalance by decreasing the expression of M1 markers and increasing the expression of M2 markers. Moreover, HD-DXM-modulated or ATRA-modulated macrophages suppressed both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell proliferation and expanded CD4 + CD49 + LAG3 + type 1 T-regulatory cells. HD-DXM or ATRA modulated macrophages to shift the T-cell cytokine profile towards Th2. Treating patients with HD-DXM or ATRA

  12. Immunosuppressant dose reduction and long-term rejection risk in renal transplant recipients with severe bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Yang, Wu-Chang; Yang, Chih-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Due to lifelong immunosuppression, renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of infectious complications such as pneumonia. Severe pneumonia results in respiratory failure and is life‑threatening. We aimed to examine the influence of immunosuppressant dose reduction on RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure. From January 2001 to January 2011, 33 of 1,146 RTRs at a single centre developed bacterial pneumonia with respiratory failure. All patients were treated using mechanical ventilation and aggressive therapies in the intensive care unit. Average time from kidney transplantation to pneumonia with respiratory failure was 6.8 years. In-hospital mortality rate was 45.5% despite intensive care and aggressive therapies. Logistic regression analysis indicated that a high serum creatinine level at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio 1.77 per mg/dL, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.09; p = 0.045) was a mortality determinant. Out of the 33 patients, immunosuppressive agents were reduced in 17 (51.5%). We found that although immunosuppressant dose reduction tended to improve in-hospital mortality, this was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, during a mean follow-up period of two years, none of the survivors (n = 18) developed acute rejection or allograft necrosis. In RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure, higher serum creatinine levels were a mortality determinant. Although temporary immunosuppressant dose reduction might not reduce mortality, it was associated with a minimal risk of acute rejection during the two-year follow-up. Our results suggest that early immunosuppressant reduction in RTRs with severe pneumonia of indeterminate microbiology may be safe even when pathogens are bacterial in nature.

  13. Novel Methods for Tracking Long-Term Maintenance Immunosuppression Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Paula M.; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Brennan, Daniel C.; Dzebisashvili, Nino; Willoughby, Lisa M.; Axelrod, David; Salvalaggio, Paolo R.; Abbott, Kevin C.; Burroughs, Thomas E.; Lentine, Krista L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Accurate assessment of the use of immunosuppressive medications is vital for observational analyses that are widely used in transplantation research. This study assessed the accuracy of three potential sources of maintenance immunosuppression data. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This study investigated the agreement of immunosuppression information in directly linked electronic medical records for Medicare beneficiaries who received a kidney transplant at one center in 1998 through 2001, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) survey data, and Medicare pharmacy claims. Pair-wise, interdata concordance (κ) and percentage agreement statistics were used to compare immunosuppression regimens reported at discharge, and at 6 mo and 1 yr after transplantation in each data source. Results: Among 181 eligible participants, agreement between data sources for nonsteroid immunosuppression increased with time after transplantation. By 1-yr, concordance was excellent for calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate mofetil (κ = 0.79 to 1.00), and very good for azathioprine (κ = 0.73 to 0.85). Similarly, percentage agreement at 1 yr was 94.9 to 100% for calcineurin inhibitors, 91.1 to 95.7% for mycophenolate mofetil, and 87.5 to 92.8% for azathioprine. Widening the comparison time window resolved 33.6% of cases with discordant indications of calcineurin inhibitor and/or antimetabolite use in claims compared with other data sources. Conclusions: This analysis supports the accuracy of the three sources of data for description of nonsteroid immunosuppression after kidney transplantation. Given the current strategic focus on reducing collection of data, use of alternative measures of immunosuppression exposure is appropriate and will assume greater importance. PMID:18077785

  14. Immunosuppressive agents are associated with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding can be fatal. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are administered for long-term usage. The present study assessed the association between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of lowering the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) was evaluated. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy performed at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital (Yotsukaido, Japan) from October 2014 to September 2015. During this period, a total of 1,023 patients underwent an upper GI endoscopy. A total of 1,023 patients, including 431 males (age, 68.1±12.9 years) and 592 females (age, 66.4±12.3 years), who had been administered NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, PPIs and H2RAs, were respectively enrolled. Endoscopic findings of the patients were reviewed and their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of peptic ulcer bleeding for each medication; immunosuppressive agents had an odds ratio of 5.83, which was larger than that for NSAIDs (4.77). The Wald test was applied to confirm the correlation between immunosuppressive agents and peptic ulcer bleeding. Furthermore, χ 2 tests were applied to the correlation between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of PPIs or H2RAs. Immunosuppressive agents had the largest χ 2 , and the P-value was 0.03. Administration of PPIs was significantly correlated with non-peptic ulcer bleeding (P=0.02); furthermore, a tendency toward non-peptic ulcer bleeding with administration of H2RA was indicated, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.12). In conclusion, immunosuppressive agents were correlated with peptic ulcer bleeding and PPIs were effective at

  15. Immunosuppressive agents are associated with peptic ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding can be fatal. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are administered for long-term usage. The present study assessed the association between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, the efficacy of lowering the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) was evaluated. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy performed at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital (Yotsukaido, Japan) from October 2014 to September 2015. During this period, a total of 1,023 patients underwent an upper GI endoscopy. A total of 1,023 patients, including 431 males (age, 68.1±12.9 years) and 592 females (age, 66.4±12.3 years), who had been administered NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, PPIs and H2RAs, were respectively enrolled. Endoscopic findings of the patients were reviewed and their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of peptic ulcer bleeding for each medication; immunosuppressive agents had an odds ratio of 5.83, which was larger than that for NSAIDs (4.77). The Wald test was applied to confirm the correlation between immunosuppressive agents and peptic ulcer bleeding. Furthermore, χ2 tests were applied to the correlation between peptic ulcer bleeding and administration of PPIs or H2RAs. Immunosuppressive agents had the largest χ2, and the P-value was 0.03. Administration of PPIs was significantly correlated with non-peptic ulcer bleeding (P=0.02); furthermore, a tendency toward non-peptic ulcer bleeding with administration of H2RA was indicated, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.12). In conclusion, immunosuppressive agents were correlated with peptic ulcer bleeding and PPIs were effective at

  16. Monthly high dose vitamin D treatment for the prevention of functional decline: a randomized clinical trial

    Importance: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor physical performance. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of high dose vitamin D in lowering the risk of functional decline. Design, Setting, and Participants: One-year double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in Zurich,...

  17. [High-dose chemotherapy as a strategy to overcome drug resistance in solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Selle, Frédéric; Gligorov, Joseph; Soares, Daniele G; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The concept of high-doses chemotherapy was developed in the 1980s based on in vitro scientific observations. Exposure of tumor cells to increasing concentrations of alkylating agents resulted in increased cell death in a strong dose-response manner. Moreover, the acquired resistance of tumor cells could be overcome by dose intensification. In clinic, dose intensification of alkylating agents resulted in increased therapeutic responses, however associated with significant hematological toxicity. Following the development of autologous stem cells transplantation harvesting from peripheral blood, the high-doses of chemotherapy, initially associated with marked toxic effects, could be more easily tolerated. As a result, the approach was evaluated in different types of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian and germ cell tumors, small cell lung carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas and Ewing sarcoma. To date, high-doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cells support is only used as a salvage therapy to treat poor prognosis germ cell tumors patients with chemo-sensitive disease. Regarding breast and ovarian cancer, high-doses chemotherapy should be considered only in the context of clinical trials. However, intensive therapy as an approach to overcome resistance to standard treatments is still relevant. Numerous efforts are still ongoing to identify novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments to improve patients' responses. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication and hangover on cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Gussek, Philipp; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication on cognitive flexibility processes are not well understood, and processes related to hangover after intoxication have remained even more elusive. Similarly, it is unknown in how far the complexity of cognitive flexibility processes is affected by intoxication and hangover effects. We performed a neurophysiological study applying high density electroencephalography (EEG) recording to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) and perform source localization in a task switching paradigm which varied the complexity of task switching by means of memory demands. The results show that high-dose ethanol intoxication only affects task switching (i.e. cognitive flexibility processes) when memory processes are required to control task switching mechanisms, suggesting that even high doses of ethanol compromise cognitive processes when they are highly demanding. The EEG and source localization data show that these effects unfold by modulating response selection processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Perceptual and attentional selection processes as well as working memory processes were only unspecifically modulated. In all subprocesses examined, there were no differences between the sober and hangover states, thus suggesting a fast recovery of cognitive flexibility after high-dose ethanol intoxication. We assume that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) system accounts for the observed effects, while they can hardly be explained by the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. High-dose short-term administration of naringin did not alter talinolol pharmacokinetics in humans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M A; Staubach, P; Tamai, I; Langguth, P

    2015-02-20

    Naringin is considered the major causative ingredient of the inhibition of intestinal drug uptake by grapefruit juice. Moreover, it is contained in highly dosed nutraceuticals available on the market. A controlled, open, randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy volunteers to investigate the effect of high-dose naringin on the bioavailability of talinolol, a substrate of intestinal organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Following 6-day supplementation with 3 capsules of 350 mg naringin daily, 100mg talinolol were administered orally with 3 capsules of the same dietary supplement (1050 mg naringin) on the seventh day. This test treatment was compared to 100mg talinolol only (control). The results showed that short-term high-dose naringin supplementation did not significantly affect talinolol pharmacokinetics. Geometric mean ratios of test versus control ranged between 0.90 and 0.98 for talinolol c(max), AUC(0-48 h), AUC(0-∞), t(1/2) and A(e(0-48 h)). The high dose may provoke inhibition of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which counteracts the uptake inhibition. As disintegration and dissolution processes are required for the solid dosage form, dissolved naringin may arrive at the site of interaction after talinolol is already absorbed. In conclusion, the effect of nutraceuticals on drug pharmacokinetics can deviate from that observed when administered as food component due to the different dose and dosage form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ``In Vivo'' Dosimetry in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Azcorra, S. A.; Mota-García, A.; Poitevín-Chacón, M. A.; Santamaría-Torruco, B. J.; Rodríguez-Ponce, M.; Herrera-Martínez, F. P.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Ruíz-Trejo, C.; Buenfil, A. E.

    2008-08-01

    In this prospective study, rectal dose was measured "in vivo" using TLD-100 crystals (3×3×1 mm3), and it has been compared to the prescribed dose. Measurements were performed in patients with cervical cancer classified in FIGO stages IB-IIIB and treated with high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan).

  1. High-dose prazosin for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Fawcett, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequently symptomatic despite being on medications currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for PTSD. There is evidence to support the notion that prazosin is effective for PTSD nightmares. However, PTSD-related nightmares often do not resolve completely on a low dose of prazosin. The capacity of prazosin to treat daytime symptoms of PTSD which are distressing to patients has not been well studied. Clinicians are reluctant to increase the dose of prazosin due to side effect concerns. To date, the highest reported dose of prazosin used for PTSD is 16 mg daily. We illustrate two case reports using high-dose (up to 30 and 45 mg) prazosin for PTSD with comorbid treatment-resistant mood disorders. We report that high-dose prazosin was safe, tolerable and effective for PTSD in adults. To our knowledge, this is the first case series to highlight the importance of using high-dose prazosin for the treatment of PTSD. In patients with partial response to currently available medications for PTSD, greater utilization of high-dose prazosin for the management of PTSD may lead to better outcomes. PMID:24490030

  2. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Mihir

    2014-01-01

    Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse) amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa. PMID:23571255

  3. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Mihir

    2014-12-01

    Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse) amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  4. State-of-the-art: Immunosuppression and biologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandborn, William J

    2010-01-01

    Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are orally administered immunosuppressive drugs which are effective for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Azathioprine is rapidly converted to 6-mercaptopurine after administration. 6-Mercaptopurine is then either converted to the putative active metabolites, the 6-thioguinine nucleotides, or inactivated by the enzyme xanthine oxidase to 6-thiouric acid or alternatively inactivated to 6-methylmercaptopurine by the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity is genetically determined, with one in 300 patients having low or absent enzyme activity, one in 10 patients having intermediate enzyme activity, and 9 in 10 patients having normal enzyme activity. Patients with intermediate or low thiopurine methyltransferase activity are at risk for early leukopenia. Higher erythrocyte 6-thioguinine nucleotide concentrations are associated with a greater likelihood of clinical response. Azathioprine is modestly effective for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Toxicity associated with azathioprine includes infection and lymphoma. Anti-TNF therapy with infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol is effective for induction and maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease, and infliximab is effective for ulcerative colitis. Toxicity associated with anti-TNF therapy includes infection and lymphoma. Combination therapy with infliximab and azathioprine is more effective for inducing and maintaining steroid-free remission and mucosal healing then monotherapy with either drug alone. Strategies to reduce immunogenicity of anti-TNF agents include combination therapy with azathioprine and administration of a loading dose followed by systematic maintenance dosing. Higher serum trough concentrations of infliximab occur more frequently in patients receiving combination therapy with azathioprine and are associated with better clinical outcomes. Combination therapy is associated with an increased

  5. The financial impact of increasing home-based high dose haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Treharne, Catrin; Culleton, Bruce; Crowe, Lydia; Arici, Murat

    2014-10-02

    Evidence suggests that high dose haemodialysis (HD) may be associated with better health outcomes and even cost savings (if conducted at home) versus conventional in-centre HD (ICHD). Home-based regimens such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) are also associated with significant cost reductions and are more convenient for patients. However, the financial impact of increasing the use of high dose HD at home with an increased tariff is uncertain. A budget impact analysis was performed to investigate the financial impact of increasing the proportion of patients receiving home-based dialysis modalities from the perspective of the England National Health Service (NHS) payer. A Markov model was constructed to investigate the 5 year budget impact of increasing the proportion of dialysis patients receiving home-based dialysis, including both high dose HD at home and PD, under the current reimbursement tariff and a hypothetically increased tariff for home HD (£575/week). Five scenarios were compared with the current England dialysis modality distribution (prevalent patients, 14.1% PD, 82.0% ICHD, 3.9% conventional home HD; incident patients, 22.9% PD, 77.1% ICHD) with all increases coming from the ICHD population. Under the current tariff of £456/week, increasing the proportion of dialysis patients receiving high dose HD at home resulted in a saving of £19.6 million. Conducting high dose HD at home under a hypothetical tariff of £575/week was associated with a budget increase (£19.9 million). The costs of high dose HD at home were totally offset by increasing the usage of PD to 20-25%, generating savings of £40.0 million - £94.5 million over 5 years under the increased tariff. Conversely, having all patients treated in-centre resulted in a £172.6 million increase in dialysis costs over 5 years. This analysis shows that performing high dose HD at home could allow the UK healthcare system to capture the clinical and humanistic benefits associated with this therapy while

  6. Amlodipine at high dose increases preproendothelin-1 expression in the ventricles and aorta of normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Krenek, Peter; Morel, Nicole; Kyselovic, Jan; Wibo, Maurice

    2004-04-01

    High doses of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers can activate the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system. Both noradrenaline and angiotensin II stimulate preproendothelin-1 gene expression, yet the effects of high doses of dihydropyridines on preproendothelin-1 expression in vivo remain unknown. To investigate the effects of high doses of dihydropyridines on preproendothelin-1 expression in the ventricles and aorta of normotensive rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with amlodipine 5 or 20 mg/kg per day (Amlo 5 or Amlo 20) in drinking water for 5 days or 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Amlo 5 increased heart rate during the first week only and had no effect on blood pressure and ventricular weight and gene expression. Amlo 20 reduced blood pressure transiently and increased heart rate consistently. It did not change relative left ventricular weight (corrected for body weight) after 5 days, but increased it after 5 weeks; it increased relative right ventricular weight at both time points. Aorta weight (mg/mm) was decreased after 5 weeks of treatment with both dosages of amlodipine. Preproendothelin-1 mRNA levels were increased by Amlo 20 in the ventricles and aorta and, concomitantly, renin mRNA was increased in the kidney. Less consistently, interleukin-6 mRNA also increased in ventricles, whereas cardiotrophin-1 mRNA remained unchanged. The sensitivity of isolated aorta to the contractile effect of noradrenaline was decreased by Amlo 5, but not by Amlo 20. In Sprague-Dawley rats, high-dose amlodipine, while promoting neurohormonal activation, induced overexpression of preproendothelin-1 mRNA in the ventricles and aorta. Endothelin-1 overexpression could contribute to the lack of inhibitory effect of high-dose amlodipine on ventricular mass in normotensive rats.

  7. High-dose anti-histamine use and risk factors in children with urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Pınar; Avcil, Sibelnur; Erge, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Aim The drugs of choice in the treatment of urticaria in children are H1-antihistamines. The aim of the study was to evaluate children with urticaria and define risk factors for requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines in children with urticaria. Material and Methods The medical data of children who were diagnosed as having urticaria admitted to our outpatient clinic between January 2014 and January 2016 were searched. The medical histories, concomitant atopic diseases, parental atopy histories, medications, treatment responses, blood eosinophil and basophil counts, and serum total IgE levels were recorded. In addition, the urticaria activity score for seven days, autoimmune antibody tests, and skin prick test results were evaluated in children with chronic urticaria. Results The numbers of the children with acute and chronic urticaria were 138 and 92, respectively. The age of the children with chronic urticaria was higher than that of those with acute urticaria (p<0.0001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of blood eosinophil and basophil counts, and serum total IgE levels (p>0.05). There was a negative correlation between blood eosinophil count and the UAS7 score in children with chronic urticaria (r=−0.276, p=0.011). Chronic urticaria and requirement of high dose H1-antihistamines were significant in children aged ≥10 years (p<0.001, p=0.015). High UAS7 score (OR: 1.09; CI 95%: [1.03–1.15]) and basopenia (OR: 6.77; CI 95%: [2.01–22.75]) were associated with the requirement of high-dose H1-AH in children with chronic urticaria. Conclusion The requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines was higher with children’s increasing age. Disease severity and basopenia were risk factors for the requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines. PMID:28123332

  8. High-dose anti-histamine use and risk factors in children with urticaria.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Pınar; Avcil, Sibelnur; Erge, Duygu

    2016-12-01

    The drugs of choice in the treatment of urticaria in children are H1-antihistamines. The aim of the study was to evaluate children with urticaria and define risk factors for requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines in children with urticaria. The medical data of children who were diagnosed as having urticaria admitted to our outpatient clinic between January 2014 and January 2016 were searched. The medical histories, concomitant atopic diseases, parental atopy histories, medications, treatment responses, blood eosinophil and basophil counts, and serum total IgE levels were recorded. In addition, the urticaria activity score for seven days, autoimmune antibody tests, and skin prick test results were evaluated in children with chronic urticaria. The numbers of the children with acute and chronic urticaria were 138 and 92, respectively. The age of the children with chronic urticaria was higher than that of those with acute urticaria (p<0.0001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of blood eosinophil and basophil counts, and serum total IgE levels (p>0.05). There was a negative correlation between blood eosinophil count and the UAS7 score in children with chronic urticaria (r=-0.276, p=0.011). Chronic urticaria and requirement of high dose H1-antihistamines were significant in children aged ≥10 years (p<0.001, p=0.015). High UAS7 score (OR: 1.09; CI 95%: [1.03-1.15]) and basopenia (OR: 6.77; CI 95%: [2.01-22.75]) were associated with the requirement of high-dose H1-AH in children with chronic urticaria. The requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines was higher with children's increasing age. Disease severity and basopenia were risk factors for the requirement of high-dose H1-antihistamines.

  9. Tolerance to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Rats Exposed to Single High-Dose Binges

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D.; Franken, Frederick H.; Rutter, John J.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) stimulates the transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). High-dose exposure to MDMA causes persistent 5-HT deficits (e.g., depletion of brain 5-HT) in animals, yet the functional and clinical relevance of such deficits are poorly defined. Here we examine functional consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT depletions in rats. Male rats received binges of 3 ip injections of MDMA or saline, one injection every 2 h; MDMA was given at a threshold pharmacological dose (1.5 mg/kg × 3, low dose) or at a 5-fold higher amount (7.5 mg/kg × 3, high dose). One week later, jugular catheters and intracerebral guide cannulae were implanted. Two weeks after binges, rats received acute iv challenge injections of 1 and 3 mg/kg MDMA. Neuroendocrine effects evoked by iv MDMA (prolactin and corticosterone secretion) were assessed via serial blood sampling, while neurochemical effects (5-HT and dopamine release) were assessed via microdialysis in brain. MDMA binges elevated core temperatures only in the high-dose group, with these same rats exhibiting ~50% loss of forebrain 5-HT two weeks later. Prior exposure to MDMA did not alter baseline plasma hormones or dialysate monoamines, and effects of iv MDMA were similar in saline and low-dose groups. By contrast, rats pretreated with high-dose MDMA displayed significant reductions in evoked hormone secretion and 5-HT release when challenged with iv MDMA. As tolerance developed only in rats exposed to high-dose binges, hyperthermia and 5-HT depletion are implicated in this phenomenon. Our results suggest that MDMA tolerance in humans may reflect 5-HT deficits which could contribute to further dose escalation. PMID:18313226

  10. Comparative trial of low- and high-dose zonisamide as monotherapy for childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Heung Dong; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, In Kyu; Chung, Hee Jung; Kim, Joon Sik; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Young-Mock; Suh, Eun Sook; Kim, Dong Wook; Eom, Soyong; Lee, Joon Soo; Moon, Han Ku

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of zonisamide (ZNS) as monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. This randomized, multicenter trial included a 2-4-week titration and a 24-week maintenance phase after randomization to low-(3-4 mg/kg/day) or high-(6-8 mg/kg/day) dose groups as target maintenance dosages. The primary outcome measure was the seizure-free rate over 6 months, while a secondary measure was the change in cognition and behavior from screening to the end of the maintenance phase. Out of 125 patients enrolled, 90 (49 low-dose and 41 high-dose) completed the study. Forty-one patients (63.1%) in the low-dose group and 34(57.6%) in the high-dose group achieved 6 months' freedom from seizures (p=0.66). After treatment, the picture arrangement subtest improved in the low-dose group (p=0.047) while the vocabulary subtest worsened in the high-dose group (p=0.020). Comparing between the two groups, the vocabulary subtest in the high-dose group was significantly worse than that in the low-dose group (p=0.002). Social competence, somatic complaints, depression/anxiety and delinquent and aggressive behavior in the low-dose group were significantly improved (p<0.05). Moreover, total social competence, somatic complaints, delinquent behavior, externalizing, and total behavior problems were significantly more improved in the low-dose group than the high-dose group (p<0.05). ZNS is an effective monotherapy for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. Lower doses of ZNS have a similar efficacy and more beneficial neurocognitive effects compared to higher doses. When prescribing higher doses of ZNS, one must be aware of the possible manifestation of problems associated with language development, such as those affecting vocabulary acquisition. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of high-dose intravenous vitamin C as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle K; Baguley, Bruce C; Wall, Clare; Jameson, Michael B; Findlay, Michael P

    2014-03-01

    In the 1970s, Pauling and Cameron reported increased survival of patients with advanced cancer treated with high-dose intravenous (IV) vitamin C (L-ascorbate, ascorbic acid). These studies were criticized for their retrospective nature and lack of standardization of key prognostic factors including performance status. Subsequently, several well-designed randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate a significant survival benefit, although these trials used high-dose oral vitamin C. Marked differences are now recognized in the pharmacokinetics of vitamin C with oral and IV administration, opening the issue of therapeutic efficacy to question. In vitro evidence suggests that vitamin C functions at low concentrations as an antioxidant but may have pro-oxidant activity at high concentrations. The mechanism of its pro-oxidant action is not fully understood, and both intra- and extracellular mechanisms that generate hydrogen peroxide have been proposed. It remains to be proven whether vitamin C-induced reactive oxygen species occur in vivo and, if so, whether this will translate to a clinical benefit. Current clinical evidence for a therapeutic effect of high-dose IV vitamin C is ambiguous, being based on case series. The interpretation and validation of these studies is hindered by limited correlation of plasma vitamin C concentrations with response. The methodology exists to determine if there is a role for high-dose IV vitamin C in the treatment of cancer, but the limited understanding of its pharmacodynamic properties makes this challenging. Currently, the use of high-dose IV vitamin C cannot be recommended outside of a clinical trial. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    , and double doses of oral ivermectin respectively (P = 0.006) in modified intention to treat analysis. No serious adverse event associated with treatment was found in any of the groups. Conclusion/Significance This study confirms that both a single, and a double dose of oral ivermectin taken two weeks apart, is more effective than a 7-day course of high dose albendazole for patients with chronic infection due to S. stercoralis. Double dose of ivermectin, taken two weeks apart, might be more effective than a single dose in patients with concomitant illness. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00765024 PMID:21572981

  13. Mucocutaneous manifestation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to degree of immunosuppression: a study of a West African population.

    PubMed

    Umoru, Dominic; Oviawe, Osawaru; Ibadin, Michael; Onunu, Abel; Esene, Hendrith

    2012-03-01

    Mucocutaneous lesions occur at one point or the other during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. These lesions can be the initial presenting features but could also be a pointer to the presence of immunosuppression. This study was carried out to determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestation in children who have human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to their level of immunosuppression. One hundred children who were HIV seropositive aged 18months to 16years were evaluated for mucocutaneous lesions, and their degree of immunosuppression was also determined using total CD(4+) count or CD(4+) percentage. Another group of age and gender matched 100 HIV-negative children were also examined for mucocutaneous lesions. The mucocutaneous manifestations were more common among the subjects compared to controls (P=0.000). The overall prevalence among the seropositive and seronegative subjects was 64% and 12% respectively. The prevalence of mucocutaneous findings in children with severe, moderate, and no immunosuppression were 93.8%, 55.2%, and 46.2%, respectively. The lesions were significantly more common among those with moderate and severe immunosuppression compared to those with no immunosuppression (P=0.000). Multiple lesions were more frequent among those with severe immunosuppression. Oral thrush was the most frequent lesion (25.6%) among the subjects followed by pruritic papular eruption (20.7%) and dermatophytosis (14.1%). Severe and atypical forms of dermatophytosis and herpes ulcer were also observed among the subjects. This study shows that mucocutaneous lesions are common in children with HIV/AIDS and could be an early indicator of immune suppression. It is important to recognize them early in order to enhance early case detection and treatment. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Novel oxytocin receptor variants in laboring women requiring high doses of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Erin L; Goodwin, Zane A; Raghuraman, Nandini; Lee, Grace Y; Jo, Erin Y; Gezahegn, Beakal M; Pillai, Meghan K; Cahill, Alison G; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; England, Sarah K

    2017-08-01

    Although oxytocin commonly is used to augment or induce labor, it is difficult to predict its effectiveness because oxytocin dose requirements vary significantly among women. One possibility is that women requiring high or low doses of oxytocin have variations in the oxytocin receptor gene. To identify oxytocin receptor gene variants in laboring women with low and high oxytocin dosage requirements. Term, nulliparous women requiring oxytocin doses of ≤4 mU/min (low-dose-requiring, n = 83) or ≥20 mU/min (high-dose-requiring, n = 104) for labor augmentation or induction provided consent to a postpartum blood draw as a source of genomic DNA. Targeted-amplicon sequencing (coverage >30×) with MiSeq (Illumina) was performed to discover variants in the coding exons of the oxytocin receptor gene. Baseline relevant clinical history, outcomes, demographics, and oxytocin receptor gene sequence variants and their allele frequencies were compared between low-dose-requiring and high-dose-requiring women. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform algorithm was used to predict the effect of variants on oxytocin receptor function. The Fisher exact or χ 2 tests were used for categorical variables, and Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for continuous variables. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. The high-dose-requiring women had greater rates of obesity and diabetes and were more likely to have undergone labor induction and required prostaglandins. High-dose-requiring women were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for first-stage arrest and less likely to undergo cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status. Targeted sequencing of the oxytocin receptor gene in the total cohort (n = 187) revealed 30 distinct coding variants: 17 nonsynonymous, 11 synonymous, and 2 small structural variants. One novel variant (A243T) was found in both the low- and high-dose-requiring groups. Three novel variants (Y106H, A240_A249del, and P197

  15. Cost effectiveness of high-dose intravenous esomeprazole for peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Barkun, Alan N; Adam, Viviane; Sung, Joseph J Y; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mössner, Joachim; Jensen, Dennis; Stuart, Robert; Lau, James Y; Nauclér, Emma; Kilhamn, Jan; Granstedt, Helena; Liljas, Bengt; Lind, Tore

    2010-01-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is a serious and sometimes fatal condition. The outcome of PUB strongly depends on the risk of rebleeding. A recent multinational placebo-controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00251979) showed that high-dose intravenous (IV) esomeprazole, when administered after successful endoscopic haemostasis in patients with PUB, is effective in preventing rebleeding. From a policy perspective it is important to assess the cost efficacy of this benefit so as to enable clinicians and payers to make an informed decision regarding the management of PUB. Using a decision-tree model, we compared the cost efficacy of high-dose IV esomeprazole versus an approach of no-IV proton pump inhibitor for prevention of rebleeding in patients with PUB. The model adopted a 30-day time horizon and the perspective of third-party payers in the USA and Europe. The main efficacy variable was the number of averted rebleedings. Healthcare resource utilization costs (physician fees, hospitalizations, surgeries, pharmacotherapies) relevant for the management of PUB were also determined. Data for unit costs (prices) were primarily taken from official governmental sources, and data for other model assumptions were retrieved from the original clinical trial and the literature. After successful endoscopic haemostasis, patients received either high-dose IV esomeprazole (80 mg infusion over 30 min, then 8 mg/hour for 71.5 hours) or no-IV esomeprazole treatment, with both groups receiving oral esomeprazole 40 mg once daily from days 4 to 30. Rebleed rates at 30 days were 7.7% and 13.6%, respectively, for the high-dose IV esomeprazole and no-IV esomeprazole treatment groups (equating to a number needed to treat of 17 in order to prevent one additional patient from rebleeding). In the US setting, the average cost per patient for the high-dose IV esomeprazole strategy was $US14 290 compared with $US14 239 for the no-IV esomeprazole strategy (year 2007 values). For

  16. Evaluation of incidence and risk factors for high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wiczer, Tracy; Dotson, Emily; Tuten, Amy; Phillips, Gary; Maddocks, Kami

    2016-06-01

    High-dose methotrexate (doses ≥1 g/m(2)) is a key component of several chemotherapy regimens used to treat patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Despite appropriate precautions with hydration, urine alkalinization, and leucovorin, nephrotoxicity remains a risk which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Current reports of risk factors for nephrotoxicity focus on patients with nephrotoxicity with a lack of comparison to those without toxicity. This study aimed to describe the incidence of high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity at our institution and determined risk factors for high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by examining characteristics of patients with and without nephrotoxicity. This was a retrospective, single-center, chart review. Adult patients with a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma who received high-dose methotrexate were included. Serum creatinine values were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria v4.03. Data related to the following proposed risk factors were collected: age, sex, body mass index, methotrexate dose, number of high-dose methotrexate exposures, leucovorin administration route, baseline renal function, albumin, hydration status, Clostridium difficile infection, urine pH, and concomitant interacting and nephrotoxic medications. The primary endpoint was evaluated with exact binomial methods and risk factors were identified using multivariable random-effects logistic regression. Final analyses included 140 patients with 432 high-dose methotrexate exposures. There were no differences in baseline demographical characteristics. Fifty-four patients (38.6%) experienced nephrotoxicity of any grade: 27.9% with grade 1, 5.7% with grade 2, 3.6% grade 3, 0% with grade 4, and 1.4% with grade 5 toxicity. More patients in the toxicity group received doses of methotrexate ≥3 g/m(2) (58.3% versus 57.2%, p < 0.001), had an albumin level <3 g/dL (31.9% versus

  17. Phase 2 study of high-dose proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for unresectable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lu, Charles; Wen, Hong Y; Allen, Pamela K; Tsao, Anne; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D

    2011-10-15

    The authors sought to improve the toxicity of conventional concurrent chemoradiation therapy for stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using proton-beam therapy to escalate the radiation dose to the tumor. They report early results of a phase 2 study of high-dose proton therapy and concurrent chemotherapy in terms of toxicity, failure patterns, and survival. Forty-four patients with stage III NSCLC were treated with 74 grays (radiobiologic equivalent) proton therapy with weekly carboplatin (area under the curve, 2 U) and paclitaxel (50 mg/m(2)). Disease was staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT), and treatments were simulated with 4-dimensional (4D) CT to account for tumor motion. Protons were delivered as passively scattered beams, and treatment simulation was repeated during the treatment process to determine the need for adaptive replanning. Median follow-up time was 19.7 months (range, 6.1-44.4 months), and median overall survival time was 29.4 months. No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 proton-related adverse events. The most common nonhematologic grade 3 toxicities were dermatitis (n = 5), esophagitis (n = 5), and pneumonitis (n = 1). Nine (20.5%) patients experienced local disease recurrence, but only 4 (9.1%) had isolated local failure. Four (9.1%) patients had regional lymph node recurrence, but only 1 (2.3%) had isolated regional recurrence. Nineteen (43.2%) patients developed distant metastasis. The overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 86% and 63% at 1 year. Concurrent high-dose proton therapy and chemotherapy are well tolerated, and the median survival time of 29.4 months is encouraging for unresectable stage III NSCLC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  18. Assessing Impact of High-Dose Pitavastatin on Carotid Artery Elasticity with Speckle-Tracking Strain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chee Hae; Wang, Shuang; Park, Jun-Bean; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2018-03-07

    Speckle-tracking imaging has been introduced for the precise assessment of vessel mechanics. However, there are no data on the role of this imaging tool in assessing the changes in vasculature with statin therapy, which is known to enhance vascular elasticity. This study was a prospective study including 48 statin-naïve patients (age, 58.2±8.4 years; 29.2% male) with hypercholesterolemia. Circumferential carotid artery strain (CAS) and stiffness index (β 2 ) were measured using speckle-tracking imaging before and after 3 months of high-dose pitavastatin treatment (4 mg daily). For the comparison, we measured conventional carotid elasticity parameters and intima-media thickness using B-mode ultrasound at the same time points. Compared with baseline, there was significant improvement in circumferential CAS (2.98%±1.18% to 3.40%±1.43%, p=0.008) and β 2 (0.19±0.07 to 0.17±0.08, p=0.047) after statin therapy. Contrariwise, there were no significant changes in all conventional carotid elasticity metrics and intima-media thickness. When stratifying patients into two subgroups by 10 year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, speckle-tracking-derived circumferential CAS and β 2 improved significantly only in patients with ASCVD risk ≥ 7.5%. Short-term treatment with high-dose pitavastatin improved carotid artery elasticity measured by speckle-tracking method, but not conventional parameters by B-mode ultrasound. Speckle-tracking-based measurements may allow the early noninvasive assessment of statin effects on vascular function in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  19. Neurodevelopmental and body composition outcomes in children with congenital hypothyroidism treated with high-dose initial replacement and close monitoring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Heather, Natasha; Derraik, José G B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Wouldes, Trecia; Tregurtha, Sheryl; Mathai, Sarah; Webster, Dianne; Jefferies, Craig; Gunn, Alistair J; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    Despite newborn screening and early levothyroxine replacement, there are continued reports of mild neurocognitive impairment in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT). In Auckland, New Zealand, cases are identified by a neonatal screening program with rapid institution of high-dose levothyroxine replacement (10-15 μg/kg·d), producing prompt normalization of thyroid function. Subsequently, frequent monitoring and dose alterations are performed for 2 years. We aimed to assess whether the Auckland treatment strategy prevents impairment of intellectual and motor development. This study encompassed all children with CHT born in 1993-2006 in Auckland and their siblings. Neurocognitive assessments included the following: 1) intelligence quotient via Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children IV; 2) Movement Assessment Battery for Children; and 3) Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Forty-four CHT cases and 53 sibling controls aged 9.6 ± 3.9 years were studied. Overall intelligence quotient was similar among CHT cases and controls (95.2 vs 98.6; P = .20), and there were also no differences in motor function. Severity of CHT did not influence outcome, but greater time to normalize free T4 was associated with worse motor balance. There were no differences in anthropometry or body composition between groups. These findings suggest that a strategy of rapidly identifying and treating infants with CHT using high-dose levothyroxine replacement is associated with normal intellectual and motor development. The subtle negative impact on motor function associated with time to normalize free T4 levels is consistent with benefit from rapid initial correction.

  20. Pneumocystis pneumonia complicating immunosuppressive therapy in Crohns disease: A preventable problem?

    PubMed

    Omer, Omer; Cohen, Patrizia; Neong, Shuet Fong; Smith, Geoffrey V

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with moderate active Crohn's colitis that was refractory to high-dose corticosteroids, mesalazine and 6-mercaptopurine. He subsequently received a trial of infliximab with poor response and was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, improving on antiviral therapy. Three weeks into treatment he developed acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates. This was confirmed as Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage. He responded well to treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and was subsequently discharged home. Despite the favourable outcome, our case raises the question of whether chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is appropriate. There are currently no recommendations on providing chemoprophylaxis against CMV colitis and so we focus on pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) where wide debate surrounds the use of prophylactic TMP-SMX in HIV-negative patients. Contrasting approaches to chemoprophylaxis against PCP in IBD likely relates to a lack of clear parameters for defining risk of PCP among patient groups. This must be addressed in order to develop universal guidelines that take into account patient-dependent risk factors. Awareness of the severity of PCP among HIV-negative individuals and the current consensus on PCP prophylaxis in IBD must be raised in order to minimise the risk of PCP and drive research in this controversial area.

  1. Pneumocystis pneumonia complicating immunosuppressive therapy in Crohns disease: A preventable problem?

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Omer; Cohen, Patrizia; Neong, Shuet Fong; Smith, Geoffrey V

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with moderate active Crohn's colitis that was refractory to high-dose corticosteroids, mesalazine and 6-mercaptopurine. He subsequently received a trial of infliximab with poor response and was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, improving on antiviral therapy. Three weeks into treatment he developed acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates. This was confirmed as Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage. He responded well to treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and was subsequently discharged home. Despite the favourable outcome, our case raises the question of whether chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is appropriate. There are currently no recommendations on providing chemoprophylaxis against CMV colitis and so we focus on pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) where wide debate surrounds the use of prophylactic TMP-SMX in HIV-negative patients. Contrasting approaches to chemoprophylaxis against PCP in IBD likely relates to a lack of clear parameters for defining risk of PCP among patient groups. This must be addressed in order to develop universal guidelines that take into account patient-dependent risk factors. Awareness of the severity of PCP among HIV-negative individuals and the current consensus on PCP prophylaxis in IBD must be raised in order to minimise the risk of PCP and drive research in this controversial area. PMID:28839859

  2. Immunosuppressive effect of extracts from leaves of Fraxinus Mandshurica Rupr.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujuan; Xue, Gang; Liu, Feizhou; Gong, Xiuling

    2017-05-04

    Plants provide a rich resource of medicinal material for research and development of new medicine. To discover new compounds as Immunosuppressant from plants, we evaluated the immunosuppressive effect of different fractions and particularly one compound (Calceolarioside A) that were extracted from the leaves of Fraxinus Mandshurica Rupr. The fractions and the compound were tested on the ability to reduce Immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion by human U266 multiple myeloma cells (U266 cells) and to reduce interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by mouse spleen cells. Our results showed that both the butanol extract fraction and the compound of Calceolarioside A inhibited the IgE and IL-2 production in U266 cells and mouse spleen cells respectively, and no cytotoxicity was observed within the effective dose range. These results suggest that Calceolarioside A could potentially serve as an immunosuppressant.

  3. Use of Belatacept as Alternative Immunosuppression in Three Renal Transplant Patients with De Novo Drug-Induced Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cicora, Federico; Paz, Marta; Mos, Fernando; Roberti, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), a severe complication of renal transplantation, is a pathological process involving microvascular occlusion, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. It generally appears within the first weeks after transplantation, when immunosuppressive drugs are used at high doses. De novo TMA may also be drug-induced when calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors are used. We report three cases of de novo drug-induced TMA in renal transplant patients who were managed by replacing calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors with belatacept, a primary maintenance immunosuppressive drug, which blocks the CD28 costimulation pathway, preventing the activation of T lymphocytes. To identify the cause of TMA, we ruled out HUS, hepatitis C serology, HIV serology, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, anti-HLA antibodies, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. We suspect that the TMA was caused by the calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors. Belatacept treatment was initiated at a dose of 10 mg/kg on days 1, 5, 14, 28, 60, and 90; maintenance treatment was 5 mg/kg once a month for 1 year. Belatacept, in combination with other agents, prevented graft rejection in three patients. PMID:24198835

  4. Underlying renal insufficiency: the pivotal risk factor for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients with non-transplant glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Tang, Nan; Wen, Yu-Bing; Li, Hang; Li, Min-Xi; Du, Bin; Li, Xue-Mei

    2016-11-01

    Data on PCP in patients with glomerular disease are rare. The aim of this study was to assess the predictors of PCP development, the risk factors for mortality and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when high-dose trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was used in patients with non-transplant glomerular disease. Forty-seven patients with PCP, as confirmed by positive results for Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA or Pneumocystis jirovecii cysts tested by a methenamine silver stain between January 1, 2003, and December 30, 2012, were retrospectively investigated. The baseline characteristics of glomerular disease, clinical findings of PCP and renal parameters after treatment were collected. Predictors for PCP development and risk factors for mortality were determined using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. All PCP patients exclusively received immunosuppressants. Baseline renal insufficiency [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min·1.73 m 2 ] was present in 87.23 % of patients. The overall mortality rate was 29.79 %. A pulmonary coinfection and the need for mechanical ventilation were independently associated with PCP mortality. A lower eGFR, lower serum albumin level and a higher percentage of global glomerulosclerosis were independent predictors of PCP in patients with IgA nephropathy receiving immunosuppressants. AKI occurred in 60.47 % of patients who received TMP-SMX. After treatment cessation, 93.75 % of surviving patients showed a recovery of renal function to baseline values. PCP is a fatal complication in patients with glomerular disease, and the use of immunosuppressants may be a basic risk factor for this infection. Underlying renal insufficiency and high renal pathology chronicity are the key risk factors for PCP in IgA nephropathy. TMP-SMX therapy remains an ideal choice because of high treatment response and frequently reversible kidney injury.

  5. High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Overview of Six Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Donald A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Lei, Xiudong; Caputo, Jean; Smith, Dori A.; Yancey, Linda J.; Crump, Michael; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Biron, Pierre; Crown, John P.; Schmid, Peter; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Rosti, Giovanni; Bregni, Marco; Demirer, Taner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose High doses of effective chemotherapy are compelling if they can be delivered safely. Substantial interest in supporting high-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow or autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the 1980s and 1990s led to the initiation of randomized trials to evaluate its effect in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Methods We identified six randomized trials in metastatic breast cancer that evaluated high doses of chemotherapy with transplant support versus a control regimen without stem-cell support. We assembled a single database containing individual patient information from these trials. The primary analysis of overall survival was a log-rank test comparing high dose versus control. We also used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for known covariates. We addressed potential treatment differences within subsets of patients. Results The effect of high-dose chemotherapy on overall survival was not statistically different (median, 2.16 v 2.02 years; P = .08). A statistically significant advantage in progression-free survival (median, 0.91 v 0.69 years) did not translate into survival benefit. Subset analyses found little evidence that there are groups of patients who might benefit from high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic support. Conclusion Overall survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the six randomized trials was not significantly improved by high-dose chemotherapy; any benefit from high doses was small. No identifiable subset of patients seems to benefit from high-dose chemotherapy. PMID:21768454

  6. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. High dose of prokinetics for refractory hiccups after chemotherapy or the return to a simple drug.

    PubMed

    Uña, Esther; Alonso, Pilar

    2013-10-29

    Hiccups in patients with cancer might be difficult to treat, impacting negatively on the quality of life. Many therapies are available, but they are usually started empirically, and often they are unsuccessful. We report a case of a man with metastatic colon cancer who after the first cycle of chemotherapy developed persistent hiccups refractory to neuroleptics and low dose of metoclopramide. After searching for the potential cause, a high dose of prokinetics was initiated in the hospital and his symptoms disappeared. This case shows how searching for potential causes helps start the right treatment immediately, and therefore it is relevant for the prompt relief from this bothersome symptom. So far, no cases reporting high doses of prokinetics to treat persistent hiccups after chemotherapy have been published. This option should be taken into account when developing hiccups and gastro-oesophageal reflux after chemotherapy, especially if low doses of prokinetics have already been tried.

  8. Thermoluminescence glow-curve characteristics of LiF phosphors at high doses of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benny, P. G.; Khader, S. A.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2013-05-01

    High doses of ionising radiation are becoming increasingly common for radiation-processing applications of various medical, agricultural and polymer products using gamma and electron beams. The objective of this work was to study thermoluminescence (TL) glow-curve characteristics of commonly used commercial LiF TL phosphors at high doses of radiation with a view to use them in dosimetry of radiation-processing applications. The TL properties of TLD 100 and 700 phosphors, procured from the Thermo-Scientific (previously Harshaw) company, have been studied in the dose range of 1-60 kGy. The shift in glow peaks was observed in this dose range. Integral TL responses of TLD 100 and TLD 700 were found to decrease as a linear function of dose in the range of 5-50 kGy. The paper describes initial results related to the glow-curve characteristics of these phosphors.

  9. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    PubMed

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  10. Synergies Between ' and Cavity Formation in HT-9 Following High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    SciT

    Field, Kevin G.; Parish, Chad M.; Saleh, Tarik A.

    Candidate cladding materials for advanced nuclear power reactors including fast reactor designs require materials capable of withstanding high dose neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. One candidate material, HT-9, through various research programs have demonstrated the ability to withstand significant swelling and other radiation-induced degradation mechanisms in the high dose regime (>50 displacements per atom, dpa) at elevated temperatures (>300 C). Here, high efficiency multi-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) acquisition with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and modeling technique is used to probe the microstructural features that contribute to the exceptional swelling resistance of HT-9. In particular, themore » synergies between ' and fine-scale and moderate-scale cavity formation is investigated.« less

  11. Dramatic response to high-dose icotinib in a lung adenocarcinoma patient after erlotinib failure.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yin; Zhao, Hong; Meng, Jing; Yan, Xiang; Jiao, ShunChang

    2014-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) retreatment is rarely administered for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who did not respond to previous TKI treatment. A high dose of TKI may overcome resistance to the standard dose of TKI and have different effectiveness toward cancer compared with the standard dose of TKI. This manuscript describes a dramatic and durable response to high-dose icotinib in a NSCLC patient who did not respond to a previous standard dose of erlotinib. The treatment extended the life of the patient for one additional year. A higher dose of icotinib deserves further study not only for patients whose therapy failed with the standard dose of TKI but also for newly diagnosed NSCLC patients with a sensitive mutation. Serial mutation testing during disease development is necessary for analysis and evaluation of EGFR TKI treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in the vaccination of the elderly against influenza: role of a high-dose vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Seth J; Jacobson, Robert; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    On 23 December 2009, the US FDA approved Fluzone® High Dose, a high-dose formulation of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, for prevention of influenza in people 65 years of age and older. As it was approved via an accelerated process designed to allow expeditious availability of safe and effective products with promise to treat or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases, the manufacturer is required to conduct further studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Although these studies are underway, a recently completed randomized, controlled trial demonstrated that this vaccine, containing four-times more hemagglutinin than standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines, can produce an enhanced immunologic response in subjects of 65 years of age and older, while maintaining a favorable safety profile. This article introduces the vaccine, presents currently available safety and immunogenicity data, discusses current recommendations for use, and proposes what we can expect in the coming years.

  13. Rapid Onset of Retinal Toxicity From High-Dose Hydroxychloroquine Given for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Loh-Shan B; Neal, Joel W; Wakelee, Heather A; Sequist, Lecia V; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    To report rapid onset of retinal toxicity in a series of patients followed on high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine during an oncologic clinical trial studying hydroxychloroquine with erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer. Retrospective observational case series. Ophthalmic surveillance was performed on patients in a multicenter clinical trial testing high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The US Food & Drug Administration-recommended screening protocol included only visual acuity testing, dilated fundus examination, Amsler grid testing, and color vision testing. In patients seen at Stanford, additional sensitive screening procedures were added at the discretion of the retinal physician: high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Out of the 7 patients having exposure of at least 6 months, 2 developed retinal toxicity (at 11 and 17 months of exposure). Damage was identified by OCT imaging, mfERG testing, and, in 1 case, visual field testing. Fundus autofluorescence imaging remained normal. Neither patient had symptomatic visual acuity loss. These cases show that high doses of hydroxychloroquine can initiate the development of retinal toxicity within 1-2 years. Although synergy with erlotinib is theoretically possible, there are no prior reports of erlotinib-associated retinal toxicity despite over a decade of use in oncology. These results also suggest that sensitive retinal screening tests should be added to ongoing and future clinical trials involving high-dose hydroxychloroquine to improve safety monitoring and preservation of vision. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Treating tuberculosis with high doses of anti-TB drugs: mechanisms and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuhui; Wu, Jianan; Liao, Sha; Sun, Zhaogang

    2017-10-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug monitoring study results suggest that high-dose treatment regimens can compensate the low serum concentration of anti-TB drugs and shorten the therapy duration. The article presents a critical review on the possible changes that occur in the host and the pathogen upon the administration of standard and high-dose regimens. Some of the most common factors that are responsible for low anti-TB drug concentrations in the serum are differences in hosts' body weight, metabolic processing of the drug, malabsorption and/or drug-drug interaction. Furthermore, failure to reach the cavitary pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues also contributes to the therapeutic inefficiency of the drugs. In such conditions, administration of higher doses can help in compensating the pathogenic outcomes of enhancement of the pathogen's physical barriers, efflux pumps and genetic mutations. The present article also presents a summary of the recorded treatment outcomes of clinical trials that were conducted to test the efficacy of administration of high dose of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This review will help physicians across the globe to understand the underlying pathophysiological changes (including side effects) that dictate the clinical outcomes in patients administered with standard and/or high dose anti-TB drugs.

  15. High-dose hook effect in six automated human chorionic gonadotrophin assays.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahdili, Huda A; Jones, Graham R D

    2010-07-01

    The high-dose hook effect is a well-known phenomenon of two-site immunoassays including those for human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). We investigated the occurrence of a high-dose hook effect in six routinely available hCG assays using a sample with a total hCG concentration of approximately 3,600,000 IU/L. Dilutions of a sample with high hCG concentration were analysed using six common methods: Advia Centaur, Immulite 2000, Dimension RxL, Unicel DxI 800, Roche E170 and Abbott Architect. The measured concentrations and corresponding assay signals were obtained for each method. Performance was compared with manufacturer claims. Four of the tested platforms demonstrated a clear high-dose hook effect, while the other methods showed no hook effect at the highest level tested. Our results indicate that the hook effect may occur in some hCG assays, although the risk of reporting falsely low results was in most cases at higher concentrations than those indicated in manufacturers' product information. Assay design plays a major role in its occurrence. Laboratories should be aware of the assay limitations in this regard.

  16. Effect of high-dose vocal fold injection of cidofovir and bevacizumab in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mostafa M; Connor, Matthew P; Palazzolo, Mitzi; Thompson, Michelle E; Lospinoso, Josh; O'Connor, Peter; Howard, N Scott; Maturo, Stephen C

    2017-03-01

    Perform a follow-up study to investigate the histologic impact of high-dose intralaryngeal cidofovir injections in porcine vocal cords, either alone or in combination with bevacizumab, and compared to saline controls. This was an in vivo study involving 24 pigs with blinded pathologist review of specimens. Six groups were created, with four subjects in each group. Each subject received 10 or 20 mg of either cidofovir or bevacizumab alone, or in combination, injected into the right vocal cord. The left vocal fold was used as a saline control. Three separate injections were made at 2-week intervals. Larynges were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and trichrome stain, and reviewed for histologic changes by two blinded pathologists. Minimal inflammation, edema, and atypia were noted with all treatments. Increased glandular inflammation was noted with 10 mg bevacizumab (P < 0.05), which decreased when combined with 10 mg cidofovir (P < 0.05). No lamina propria or muscle fibrosis was observed. Drug duration had no statistically significant histologic impact. High-dose cidofovir and bevacizumab do not induce detrimental vocal fold changes. Combination cidofovir and bevacizumab do not cause vocal fold scarring. Further work is needed to assess systemic concentration with this high-dose combination in humans. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:671-675, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Near-Fatal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in a Child with Medulloblastoma on High Dose Dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Yecies, Derek; Tawfik, Daniel; Damman, Jennifer; Thorson, Chad; Hong, David S; Grant, Gerald A; Bensen, Rachel; Damian, Mihaela

    2017-07-07

    A four-year-old female was admitted to a university-based children's hospital with a newly-diagnosed posterior fossa tumor. She was started on famotidine and high-dose dexamethasone and underwent gross total resection of a medulloblastoma. She was continued on dexamethasone and famotidine. She exhibited postoperative posterior fossa syndrome and was started on enteral feeds via the nasoduodenal tube. She had small gastrointestinal bleeds on postoperative days eight, 11, and 18, and was found to have a well-circumscribed posterior duodenal ulcer. On postoperative day 19, she suffered a massive life-threatening gastrointestinal bleed requiring aggressive resuscitation with blood products. She required an emergent laparotomy due to ongoing blood loss and she was found to have posterior duodenal wall erosion into her gastroduodenal artery. She recovered and subsequently began delayed chemotherapy. This case demonstrates a rare and life-threatening complication of high-dose dexamethasone therapy in the setting of posterior fossa pathology despite stress ulcer prophylaxis. We present a historical perspective with the review of the association between duodenal and intracranial pathology and the usage of high-dose dexamethasone in such cases.

  18. High doses of nandrolone decanoate reduce volume of testis and length of seminiferous tubules in rats.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Ardekani, Fakhrodin Mesbah

    2005-02-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds rank among the drugs most widely abused with the goal of improving athletic ability, appearance, or muscle mass. It has been shown that these compounds have adverse effects on human and animal physiology and sperm quality, but quantitative structural changes of the testis have received less attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate, which is one of the AAS compounds, on testis weight and volume, diameter and length of seminiferous tubules in rats by unbiased stereological methods. Adult rats were divided into three groups. The first comprised control rats; the second and third groups received low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate for 14 weeks. The rats were then left untreated for 14 weeks. After removal of the testis, stereological study of these tissues showed that the mean volume of testis and length of the seminiferous tubules in the animals that received high doses of nandrolone decanoate were reduced approximately 32% (p<0.01) and approximately 31% (p<0.04), respectively, in comparison with the control group. It can be concluded that the high doses of nandrolone decanoate produce structural changes in the rat testis that remain 14 weeks after stopping injection of the drug.

  19. The effect of high-dose dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance on cannabis self-administration.

    PubMed

    Schlienz, Nicolas J; Lee, Dustin C; Stitzer, Maxine L; Vandrey, Ryan

    2018-06-01

    There is a clear need for advancing the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Prior research has demonstrated that dronabinol (oral THC) can dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal and reduce the acute effects of smoked cannabis. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether high-dose dronabinol could reduce cannabis self-administration among daily users. Non-treatment seeking daily cannabis users (N = 13) completed a residential within-subjects crossover study and were administered placebo, low-dose dronabinol (120 mg/day; 40 mg tid), or high-dose dronabinol (180-240 mg/day; 60-80 mg tid) for 12 consecutive days (order counterbalanced). During each 12-day dronabinol maintenance phase, participants were allowed to self-administer smoked cannabis containing <1% THC (placebo) or 5.7% THC (active) under forced-choice (drug vs. money) or progressive ratio conditions. Participants self-administered significantly more active cannabis compared with placebo in all conditions. When active cannabis was available, self-administration was significantly reduced during periods of dronabinol maintenance compared with placebo maintenance. There was no difference in self-administration between the low- and high-dose dronabinol conditions. Chronic dronabinol dosing can reduce cannabis self-administration in daily cannabis users and suppress withdrawal symptoms. Cannabinoid agonist medications should continue to be explored for therapeutic utility in the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing.

  1. Survey of pain specialists regarding conversion of high-dose intravenous to neuraxial opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gorlin, Andrew W; Rosenfeld, David M; Maloney, Jillian; Wie, Christopher S; McGarvey, Johnathan; Trentman, Terrence L

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of high-dose intravenous (IV) opioids to an equianalgesic epidural (EP) or intrathecal (IT) dose is a common clinical dilemma for which there is little evidence to guide practice. Expert opinion varies, though a 100 IV:10:EP:1 IT conversion ratio is commonly cited in the literature, especially for morphine. In this study, the authors surveyed 724 pain specialists to elucidate the ratios that respondents apply to convert high-dose IV morphine, hydromorphone, and fentanyl to both EP and IT routes. Eighty-three respondents completed the survey. Conversion ratios were calculated and entered into graphical scatter plots. The data suggest that there is wide variation in how pain specialists convert high-dose IV opioids to EP and IT routes. The 100 IV:10 EP:1 IT ratio was the most common answer of survey respondent, especially for morphine, though also for hydromorphone and fentanyl. Furthermore, more respondents applied a more aggressive conversion strategy for hydromorphone and fentanyl, likely reflecting less spinal selectivity of those opioids compared with morphine. The authors conclude that there is little consensus on this issue and suggest that in the absence of better data, a conservative approach to opioid conversion between IV and neuraxial routes is warranted. PMID:27703394

  2. High-dose calcium stimulation test in a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Doi, Ryuichiro; Kohno, Yasuhiro; Shimono, Dai; Kuwamura, Naomitsu; Inoue, Koichi; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    It is reported that some cases with insulinoma present with neuropsychiatric symptoms and are often misdiagnosed as psychosis. Here we report a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria, whose final diagnosis could be made using high-dose calcium stimulation test. A 28-yr-old woman was referred presenting with substupor, mutism, mannerism, restlessness, and incoherence. Laboratory examinations revealed hypoglycemia (33 mg/dL) and detectable insulin levels (9.7 microU/mL), suggesting the diagnosis of insulinoma. However, neither imaging studies nor selective arterial calcium injection (SACI) test with a conventional dose of calcium (0.025 mEq/kg) indicated the tumor. High-dose calcium injection (0.05 mEq/kg) evoked insulin secretion when injected into superior mesenteric artery. A solitary tumor in the head of the pancreas was resected, and her plasma glucose returned to normal. Postoperatively, iv injection of secretin resulted in a normal response of insulin, which was not found preoperatively. This case suggests the usefulness of the SACI test with high-dose of calcium in the case of insulinoma when the standard dose fails to detect such a tumor.

  3. High-dose octreotide acetate for management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Manpreet K; Lombardo, Jeffrey; Mashtare, Terry; Wilding, Gregory E; Litwin, Alan; Raczyk, Cheryl; Gibbs, John F; Kuvshinoff, Boris; Javle, Milind M; Iyer, Renuka V

    2009-10-01

    Long-acting sandostatin (S-LAR; octreotide acetate) is well tolerated and effective for symptom control and possibly disease control in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). We undertook a retrospective analysis to study the efficacy and tolerability of higher doses (more than 20-30 mg/month) of S-LAR in GEP-NETs. With IRB approval, charts of all patients with GEP-NET who received S-LAR between June 2002 to September 2007 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were reviewed and their data analyzed. Fifty-four patients with GEP-NET received S-LAR; thirty required dose escalation. Patients received a median of 5 doses of S-LAR at conventional dose followed by up-titration of the dose for symptom control (20) and radiological progression (17). Median high dose of S-LAR was 40 mg (range: 40-90 mg) with a median of 8.5 high doses received. No treatment related toxicities were seen. The estimated 1-year survival for patients on conventional dose alone was 0.77 (95% CI of 0.50 to 0.91) and those on high-dose was 0.88 (95% CI of 0.68 to 0.96) (p=0.4777) while median time to any other intervention was 2.9 months versus 17.7 months (p=0.12). Dose escalation of S-LAR is well tolerated and may provide longer disease control.

  4. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients. PMID:26820986

  5. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    SciT

    Oliveira, Lucas N.; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP; Vieira, Silvio L.

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the responsemore » to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)« less

  6. High-dose ascorbic acid decreases cholesterolemic factors of an atherogenic diet in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Filis, Konstantinos; Anastassopoulou, Aikaterini; Sigala, Fragiska; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Manouras, Andreas; Leandros, Emanouel; Sigalas, Panagiotis; Hepp, Wolfgang; Bramis, John

    2007-03-01

    The study evaluates the effect of a high supplemental dose of ascorbic acid (AA) on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), total lipids (TL), and lipoprotein fractions high-density, very-low-density-, and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, VLDL, LDL) in guinea pigs fed with atherogenic diet. Group I consisted of 5 normally fed guinea pigs plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), group II consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), and group III consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a high dose of AA (30 mg/100 g/day). Cholesterolemic factors concentrations were determined after nine weeks. Concentrations of TC, TG, TL, LDL, and VLDL were increased in group II compared to group I (p < 0.01 for all differences). Supplementation with a high dose of AA resulted in decreased concentrations of TC (p < 0.01), TG (p < 0.01), TL (p < 0.01), and LDL (p < 0.01) in group III compared to group II. Additionally, concentration of HDL was increased in group III compared to group II (p < 0.01). High-dose AA supplementation to an atherogenic diet decreases concentrations of TC, TG, TL, and LDL and increases concentration of HDL compared to low-dose AA.

  7. High-dose Vitamin D Supplementation Precipitating Hypercalcemic Crisis in Granulomatous Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Karethimmaiah, Hareeshababu; Goel, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation precipitating hypercalcemic crisis is often the first manifestation in patients with granulomatous disorders. We report our experience on patients presenting with hypercalcemic crisis due to granulomatous disorder and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the precipitation of hypercalcemic crisis in them. The study included five patients with granulomatous disorders who presented with hypercalcemic crisis. All patients initially presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms to other health-care centers to receive high-dose Vitamin D supplementation (60,000 U/week or 600,000 U intramuscular single dose). All of these patients presented with hypercalcemic crisis (serum calcium: 16.04 ± 0.3 mg/dl) to our centers after a period of 32.8 ± 9.62 days. Three patients were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis, and two were diagnosed to have tuberculosis. All five patients had parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcemia with elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated in all the three patients with sarcoidosis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in two patients with sarcoidosis which demonstrated diffusely increased tracer uptake in liver. In these two patients, liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. High-dose Vitamin D supplementation is most often the underlying cause of hypercalcemic crisis in patients with granulomatous disorders. Hence, high-dose Vitamin D supplementation should be used judiciously.

  8. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    PubMed

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients.

  9. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciT

    Speiser, B.L.; Spratling, L.

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% formore » the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  10. Myocardial protection induced by fentanyl in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita Castro; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Viana, Bruno Gonçalves; Vane, Matheus Fachini; Carmona, Maria Jose Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    The use of high doses of adrenaline is common in critical patients, especially during cardiac arrest. During these situations, myocardial dysfunction can be a result of multiple factors, including adrenaline use. In addition, opioids have been shown to have anti-arrhythmic and anti-ischemic mechanisms that may confer cardiac protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fentanyl on myocardial function in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline. After institutional ethics committee approval, 26 pigs were randomly allocated to receive either 20 μg/kg fentanyl (n = 10; fentanyl group) administered 5 min before five doses of adrenaline (20 μg/kg), equivalent-volume saline (n = 10; saline group) using the same adrenaline dosing protocol, or neither fentanyl nor adrenaline (n = 6; sham group). The fentanyl group showed lower levels of troponin at the end of the sixth hour compared with the saline group (1.91 ± 1.47 vs 5.44 ± 5.35 ng/mL, P = 0.019). Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry also showed less myocardial injury in the fentanyl group. The conclusion was reached that fentanyl attenuates myocardial injury caused by high-dose adrenaline without blunting the hemodynamic effect of adrenaline. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism and the development of chronic critical illness after surgery.

    PubMed

    Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M; Bihorac, Azra; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hollen, McKenzie K; Segal, Mark S; Baker, Henry V; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Frederick A; Brakenridge, Scott C

    2018-05-25

    As early as the 1990s, chronic critical illness, a distinct syndrome of persistent high-acuity illness requiring management in the ICU, was reported under a variety of descriptive terms including the "neuropathy of critical illness," "myopathy of critical illness," "ICU-acquired weakness," and most recently "post-intensive care unit syndrome." The widespread implementation of targeted shock resuscitation, improved organ support modalities, and evidence-based protocolized ICU care has resulted in significantly decreased in-hospital mortality within surgical ICUs, specifically by reducing early multiple organ failure deaths. However, a new phenotype of multiple organ failure has now emerged with persistent but manageable organ dysfunction, high resource utilization, and discharge to prolonged care facilities. This new multiple organ failure phenotype is now clinically associated with the rapidly increasing incidence of chronic critical illness in critically ill surgery patients. Although the underlying pathophysiology driving chronic critical illness remains incompletely described, the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome has been proposed as a mechanistic framework in which to explain the increased incidence of chronic critical illness in surgical ICUs. The purpose of this review is to provide a historic perspective of the epidemiologic evolution of multiple organ failure into persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome; describe the mechanism that drives and sustains chronic critical illness, and review the long-term outcomes of surgical patients who develop chronic critical illness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-dose sequential epirubicin and cyclophosphamide with peripheral blood stem cell support for advanced breast cancer: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Cottu, P H; Extra, J M; Espie, M; Marolleau, J P; Roquancourt, A de; Makke, J; Miclea, J M; Laurence, V; Mayeur, D; Lerebours, F; Cuvier, C; Marty, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a high-dose intensity and high-dose density multicycle epirubicin and cyclophosphamide regimen with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and haematopoietic growth factor (G-CSF) support in advanced breast cancer patients. From August 1994 to September 1999, 56 breast cancer patients (8 stage IIIB and 48 stage IV) received 205 courses of cyclophosphamide 3 g m−2and epirubicin 100 mg m−2every 14 days. G-CSF 5 μg kg−1day−1was administered from day 3 to neutrophil recovery. 4 courses were planned. PBSC were collected after course 1, and reinfused after courses 3 and 4, with ≥ 2 × 106CD34+ PBSC kg−1required for each reinfusion. 48 patients (86%) received all 4 planned courses. Early withdrawal was consecutive to infectious complications (n= 4), severe asthenia (n= 3), haemorrhagic cystitis (n= 1). A median number of 10.8 × 106CD34+ PBSC kg−1(range, 3–80) was harvested with 1 or 2 apheresis in 48 patients (94%). Median relative dose intensity was 91.3% (range, 72–102%). Grade 4 neutrophil toxicity was observed in 100% of patients. Febrile neutropenia was observed in 40% of courses (median duration 2 days). Red blood cells and platelets had to be transfused in 54% and 27% of courses, respectively. There were no toxic deaths. Objective response rate was 69% in stage IV patients (31/45 evaluable pts), with a 16% complete response rate. Their median progression-free and overall survivals were 22.5 and 37 months, respectively. This epirubicine-containing high-dose regimen appeared feasible, albeit with high toxicity. Time-related progression parameters exceed commonly reported ones. Controlled studies of upfront sequential high-dose chemotherapy are still needed to evaluate its real benefit. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720455

  13. Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alvaro A; Gustafson, Gary; Gonzalez, José; Armour, Elwood; Mitchell, Chris; Edmundson, Gregory; Spencer, William; Stromberg, Jannifer; Huang, Raywin; Vicini, Frank

    2002-06-01

    To overcome radioresistance for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer, a prospective trial of pelvic external beam irradiation (EBRT) interdigitated with dose-escalating conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy was performed. Between November 1991 and August 2000, 207 patients were treated with 46 Gy pelvic EBRT and increasing HDR brachytherapy boost doses (5.50-11.5 Gy/fraction) during 5 weeks. The eligibility criteria were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >or=10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score >or=7, or clinical Stage T2b or higher. Patients were divided into 2 dose levels, low-dose biologically effective dose <93 Gy (58 patients) and high-dose biologically effective dose >93 Gy (149 patients). No patient received hormones. We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for biochemical failure. The median age was 69 years. The mean follow-up for the group was 4.4 years, and for the low and high-dose levels, it was 7.0 and 3.4 years, respectively. The actuarial 5-year biochemical control rate was 74%, and the overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rate was 92%, 98%, and 68%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical control rate for the low-dose group was 52%; the rate for the high-dose group was 87% (p <0.001). Improvement occurred in the cause-specific survival in favor of the brachytherapy high-dose level (p = 0.014). On multivariate analysis, a low-dose level, higher Gleason score, and higher nadir value were associated with increased biochemical failure. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 gastrointestinal/genitourinary complications ranged from 0.5% to 9%. The actuarial 5-year impotency rate was 51%. Pelvic EBRT interdigitated with transrectal ultrasound-guided real-time conformal HDR prostate brachytherapy boost is both a precise dose delivery system and a very effective treatment for unfavorable prostate cancer. We demonstrated an incremental beneficial effect on biochemical control and

  14. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    Goldberg, Diana R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  15. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  16. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciT

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C.

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Deathmore » occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.« less

  17. Black Dot Tinea Capitis in an Immunosuppressed Man

    PubMed Central

    Mendese, Gary W.; Loo, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common superficial fungal infection of the scalp primarily afflicting young children. In adults, this infection may have an atypical presentation that may lead to a delay in diagnosis. The authors present a case report of black dot tinea capitis in an immunosuppressed Asian man with psoriasis and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23710273

  18. Hacking macrophage-associated immunosuppression for regulating glioblastoma angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Morales, Renee-Tyler Tan; Qian, Weiyi; Wang, Haoyu; Gagner, Jean-Pierre; Dolgalev, Igor; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Zagzag, David; Cimmino, Luisa; Snuderl, Matija; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Weiqiang

    2018-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary adult brain tumor and its pathology is hallmarked by distorted neovascularization, diffuse tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, and potent immunosuppression. Reconstituting organotypic tumor angiogenesis models with biomimetic cell heterogeneity and interactions, pro-/anti-inflammatory milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics is critical for preclinical anti-angiogenic therapeutic screening. However, current in vitro systems do not accurately mirror in vivo human brain tumor microenvironment. Here, we engineered a three-dimensional (3D), microfluidic angiogenesis model with controllable and biomimetic immunosuppressive conditions, immune-vascular and cell-matrix interactions. We demonstrate in vitro, GL261 and CT-2A GBM-like tumors steer macrophage polarization towards a M2-like phenotype for fostering an immunosuppressive and proangiogenic niche, which is consistent with human brain tumors. We distinguished that GBM and M2-like immunosuppressive macrophages promote angiogenesis, while M1-like pro-inflammatory macrophages suppress angiogenesis, which we coin "inflammation-driven angiogenesis." We observed soluble immunosuppressive cytokines, predominantly TGF-β1, and surface integrin (α v β 3 ) endothelial-macrophage interactions are required in inflammation-driven angiogenesis. We demonstrated tuning cell-adhesion receptors using an integrin (α v β 3 )-specific collagen hydrogel regulated inflammation-driven angiogenesis through Src-PI3K-YAP signaling, highlighting the importance of altered cell-ECM interactions in inflammation. To validate the preclinical applications of our 3D organoid model and mechanistic findings of inflammation-driven angiogenesis, we screened a novel dual integrin (α v β 3 ) and cytokine receptor (TGFβ-R1) blockade that suppresses GBM tumor neovascularization by simultaneously targeting macrophage-associated immunosuppression, endothelial-macrophage interactions, and

  19. Comparative MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Fibroblasts after Low and High Doses of Low-LET Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Olivier C.; Xu, Suying; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu; Wang, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage to cells, and provokes a plethora of cellular responses controlled by unique gene-directed signaling pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (22-nucleotide), non-coding RNAs which functionally silence gene expression by either degrading the messages or inhibiting translation. Here we investigate radiation-dependent changes in these negative regulators by comparing the expression patterns of all 462 known human miRNAs in fibroblasts, after exposure to low (0.1 Gy) or high (2 Gy) doses of X-rays at 30 min, 2, 6 and 24 hrs post-treatment. The expression patterns of microRNAs after low and high doses of radiation show a similar qualitative down-regulation trend at early (0.5 hr) and late (24 hr) time points, with a quantitatively steeper slope following the 2 Gy exposures. Interestingly, an interruption of this downward trend is observed after the 2 Gy exposure, i.e. a significant up-regulation of microRNAs at 2 hrs, then reverting to the downward trend by 6 hrs; this interruption at the intermediate time point was not observed with the 0.1 Gy exposure. At the early time point (0.5 hr), candidate gene targets of selected down-regulated microRNAs, common to both 0.1 and 2 Gy exposures, were those functioning in chromatin remodeling. Candidate target genes of unique up-regulated microRNAs seen at a 2 hr intermediate time point, after the 2 Gy exposure only, are those involved in cell death signaling. Finally, putative target genes of down-regulated microRNAs seen at the late (24 hr) time point after either doses of radiation are those involved in the up-regulation of DNA repair, cell signaling and homeostasis. Thus we hypothesize that after radiation exposure, microRNAs acting as hub negative regulators for unique signaling pathways needed to be down-regulated so as to de-repress their target genes for the proper cellular responses, including DNA repair and cell maintenance. The unique microRNAs up-regulated at 2 hr after 2

  20. Engraftment versus immunosuppression: cost-benefit analysis of immunosuppression after intrahepatic murine islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marzorati, Simona; Melzi, Raffaella; Citro, Antonio; Cantarelli, Elisa; Mercalli, Alessia; Scavini, Marina; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2014-05-27

    Immunosuppression (IS) in islet transplantation (Tx) is a double-edged sword: it prevents immunoreaction but has the potential to impair islet engraftment. The aim of this study was to identify in murine animal models the IS platform with the best balance between these two opposite effects. To study the impact of IS on islet engraftment diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with 350 syngeneic islets through the portal vein and treated once-daily with either rapamycin (RAPA; 0.1-0.5-1 mg/kg ip), tacrolimus (FK506; 0.1-0.5-1 mg/kg ip), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; 60-120-300 mg/kg oral) or vehicle for 14 days. Islet function was evaluated by measuring not-fasting glycemia and by performing an IVGTT on days 15 and 30 post-Tx. RAPA ≥0.5 mg/Kg, FK506 ≥0.5 mg/Kg, and MMF ≥120 mg/kg had detrimental effects on islet engraftment but not on the function of islets already engrafted in the liver. The effect on engraftment was irreversible and persisted even after IS withdrawal. The lower dose of IS that did not affect engraftment was tested for preventing rejection in the full mismatch allogeneic Tx BALB/c to C57BL/6 model. RAPA and/or FK506 were inefficient in preventing rejection, even when anti-IL2R mAb was added to the IS regimen. On the other hand, MMF alone or in association with FK506 significantly prolonged the time to islet rejection. IS showed profound dose-dependent deleterious effects on islet cell engraftment. The MMF/FK506 combination proved the best balance with less toxicity at the time of engraftment and more efficacy in controlling graft rejection.

  1. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  2. Using a simulation model to assess risk of false negative point-of-care urinary human chorionic gonadotropin device results due to high-dose hook interference.

    PubMed

    Milhorn, Denise; Korpi-Steiner, Nichole

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear if the point-of-care (POC) Clinitest hCG device is subject to high-dose hook interference from physiological concentrations of intact human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), β-core fragment of hCG (hCGβcf), and hCG free β-subunit (hCGβ) found in urine during pregnancy. We used a simulation model to address this question and related our findings to our institution's pregnant population in order to assess risk for potential false-negative hCG results. The expected distribution of days relative to ovulation during routine POC hCG testing was estimated from 182 patients. Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device susceptibility to high-dose hook interference from hCG variants and potential risk of false-negative results as it relates to this population were evaluated by testing increasing concentrations of hCG, hCGβcf, hCGβ as well as urine simulating physiological hCG, hCGβcf and hCGβ concentrations expected during early pregnancy (≤44 days post-ovulation). The Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device exhibited high-dose hook interference from hCGβcf alone, but not from hCG, hCGβ, or simulated physiological urinary concentrations of combined hCG, hCGβcf and hCGβ expected during early pregnancy. The majority of our patient population had urinary hCG testing conducted during early pregnancy. The Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device is unlikely to exhibit false-negative urinary hCG results due to high-dose hook interference for women in early healthy pregnancy, although additional studies are necessary to determine potential risk in other patient populations. Visual interpretation of POC urinary hCG device results is an important failure mode to consider in risk analyses for erroneous urinary hCG device results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assessing the effect of immunosuppression on engraftment of pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Hirakata, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akira; Okumi, Masayoshi; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Hong, Hanzhou; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sachs, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In addition to ischemia and immunologic factors, immunosuppressive drugs have been suggested as a possible contributing factor to the loss of functional islets following allogeneic islet cell transplantation. Using our previously described islet-kidney transplantation model in miniature swine, we studied whether an islet toxic triple-drug immunosuppressive regimen (cyclosporine + azathioprine + prednisone) affects the islet engraftment process and thus long-term islet function. Design and Methods Donor animals underwent partial pancreatectomy, autologous islet preparation and injection of these islets under the autologous kidney capsule to prepare an islet-kidney (IK). Experimental animals received daily triple drug immunosuppression during the islet engraftment period. Control animals did not receive any immunosuppression during this period. Four to eight weeks later, these engrafted IK were transplanted across a minor histocompatibility mismatched barrier into pancreatectomized, nephrectomized recipient animals at an islet dose of ~ 4500 islet equivalents (IE)/kg recipient weight. Cyclosporine was administered for 12 days to the recipients to induce tolerance of the IK grafts and the animals were followed long-term. Results Diabetes was corrected by IK transplantation in all pancreatectomized recipients on both the control (n=3) and the experimental (n=4) arms of the study and all animals showed normal glucose regulation over the follow-up period. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed at 1, 2, > 3 months post-IK transplant showed essentially equivalent glycemic control in both control and experimental animals. Conclusion In this pre-clinical, in vivo large animal model of islet transplantation, the effect of triple drug immunosuppression on islet function does not negatively affect islet engraftment, as assessed by the long-term function of engrafted islets. PMID:23883972

  4. Generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jennifer J; Schiff, Jeffrey R; Coursol, Christian J; Daley, Christopher J A; Dipchand, Anne I; Heywood, Norine M; Keough-Ryan, Tammy M; Keown, Paul A; Levy, Gary A; Lien, Dale C; Wichart, Jenny R; Cantarovich, Marcelo

    2012-04-15

    The introduction of generic immunosuppressant medications may present an opportunity for cost savings in solid organ transplantation if equivalent clinical outcomes to the branded counterparts can be achieved. An interprofessional working group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation was established to develop recommendations on the use of generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) based on a review of the available data. Under current Health Canada licensing requirements, a demonstration of bioequivalence with the branded formulation in healthy volunteers allows for bridging of clinical data. Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are designated as "critical dose drugs" and are held to stricter criteria. However, whether this provides sufficient guarantee of therapeutic equivalence in SOTR remains controversial, and failure to maintain an appropriate balance of immunosuppression may have serious consequences, including rejection, graft loss, and death. Published evidence supporting therapeutic equivalence of generic formulations in SOTR is lacking. Moreover, in the setting of multiple generic formulations the potential for uncontrolled product switching is a major concern, since generic preparations are not required to demonstrate bioequivalence with each other. Although close monitoring is recommended with any change in formulation, drug product switches are likely to occur without prescriber knowledge and may pose a significant patient safety risk. The advent of generic immunosuppression will require new practices including more frequent therapeutic drug and clinical monitoring, and increased patient education. The additional workload placed on transplant centers without additional funding will create challenges and could ultimately jeopardize patient outcomes. Until more robust clinical data are available and adequate regulatory safeguards are instituted, caution in the use of generic immunosuppressive drugs in solid organ

  5. CCL2 is critical for immunosuppression to promote cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Shirako, Hiromi; Ohike, Misa; Tsukamoto, Nobuo; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    We previously found that cancer metastasis is accelerated by immunosuppression during Snail-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the molecular mechanism still remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CCL2 is a critical determinant for both tumor metastasis and immunosuppression induced by Snail(+) tumor cells. CCL2 is significantly upregulated in various human tumor cells accompanied by Snail expression induced by snail transduction or TGFβ treatment. The Snail(+) tumor-derived CCL2 amplifies EMT events in other cells including Snail(-) tumor cells and epithelial cells within tumor microenvironment. CCL2 secondarily induces Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in the Snail(+) tumor cells in an autocrine manner. CCL2 and LCN2 cooperatively generate immunoregulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) having suppressive activity accompanied by lowered expression of costimulatory molecules such as HLA-DR but increased expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as PD-L1 in human PBMCs. The CCL2/LCN2-induced DCreg cells subsequently induce immunosuppressive CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells, and finally impair tumor-specific CTL induction. In murine established tumor model, however, CCL2 blockade utilizing the specific siRNA or neutralizing mAb significantly inhibits Snail(+) tumor growth and metastasis following systemic induction of anti-tumor immune responses in host. These results suggest that CCL2 is more than a chemoattractant factor that is the significant effector molecule responsible for immune evasion of Snail(+) tumor cells. CCL2 would be an attractive target for treatment to eliminate cancer cells via amelioration of tumor metastasis and immunosuppression.

  6. Effects of high-dose parenteral vitamin D therapy on lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with diabetic nephropathy: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Gayani C; Lekamwasam, Sarath; Weerarathna, Thilak P; Liyanage, Chandrani E

    2017-12-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the effect of high dose vitamin D given to patients with early diabetic renal disease on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in a randomized controlled trial MATERIALS AND METHOD: Patients with early diabetic nephropathy were recruited. Selected patients were allocated to two groups by Block randomization method. Treatment group received 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 intramuscularly and the control group was given an equal volume of distilled water (0.25mL) monthly for six months. Blood and urine were collected at the baseline for biochemical analyses and blood pressure was measured. After six months all the measurements done at the baseline were repeated. Of 155 patients invited, 85 were randomly assigned to two groups. No significant differences were found between treatment and control groups at the baseline. Vitamin D therapy significantly reduced DBP, total cholesterol and LDL but the between group differences were not significant. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol level in the treatment group while there was no change in the control group Between groups difference was significant (P=<0.001). There was a significant improvement of serum HDL level with six months therapy of high dose vitamin D in patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and (peri)myocarditis with immunosuppression and i.v. immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Hufnagel, Günther; Kölsch, Susanne; Funck, Rainer; Richter, Annette; Rupp, Heinz; Herzum, Matthias; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2004-09-01

    under conventional heart failure treatment cannot be ruled out completely as the main cause for amelioration. ESETCID (European Study on the Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Disease) is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controled three-armed trial with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoreactive (virus negative) DCMi, interferon alpha for enterovirus positive DCMi, high-dose immunoglobulin for cytomegalovirus and intermediate dose for adeno- and Parvo B19 DCMi. It has now randomized more than 120 patients to the different treatment arms. Its final result has still to be awaited.-Patients not willing to randomize in the trial were included in a registry follow-up, which shows improvement of hemodynamic parameters and elimination of the inflammation in the majority of patients. This is in concordance with several non-randomized trials. Since evidence is conflicting (level of evidence C, indication class IIb; if negative viral etiology is taken into consideration class IIa) treatment with immunosuppression cannot be generally recommended but should be further evaluated in doubleblind randomized clinical trials or at least in controlled trials and registries. This also applies to treatment with interferon for enteroviral or other viral infections in the heart. : The elimination of anticardiac antibodies, which have been associated with DCMi, is a currently discussed concept, which is supported by published registry data and a few very small controlled investigations but not by a randomized double-blind trial with clinical endpoints of relevance. In some studies immunoglobulins have been substituted, so that an additional immunomodulatory effect has to be taken into account. The current proof of concept can be ranked level of evidence C, indication class IIa only. An even more challenging and still more attractive hypothesis is that cardiac inflammation caused by specific circulating beta-adrenoceptor antibodies can be eradicated with the elimination

  8. Successful immunosuppressant-free heterotopic transplantation of tracheal allografts in the pig.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Julien; Brieu, Mathias; Zawadzki, Christophe; Ung, Alexandre; Kipnis, Eric; Jashari, Ramadan; Hubert, Thomas; Fayoux, Pierre; Mariette, Christophe; Copin, Marie-Christine; Wurtz, Alain

    2017-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that both heterotopic and orthotopic transplants of epithelium-denuded cryopreserved tracheal allografts are feasible in immunosuppressant-free rabbits. Validation of these results in large animals is required before considering clinical applications. We evaluated the viability, immune tolerance and strain properties of such tracheal allografts heterotopically transplanted in a pig model. Ten tracheal segments, 5 short (5 rings) and 5 long (10 rings), were obtained from male Landrace pigs. The tracheal segments were surgically denuded of their epithelium, then cryopreserved and stored in a tissue bank for 33 to 232 days. After thawing, tracheal segments stented with a silicone tube were wrapped in the omentum in 2 groups of 5 female recipients. The animals did not receive any immunosuppressive drugs. The animals were euthanized from Day 6 to Day 90 in both groups. An effective revascularization of allografts regardless of length was observed. Lymphocyte infiltrate was shown in the early postoperative period and became non-significant after 30 days. Allografts displayed high levels of neoangiogenesis and viable cartilage rings with islets of calcification. Biomechanical measurements demonstrated strain properties similar to those of a fresh tracheal segment from Day 58. Our results demonstrate the acceptability and satisfactory stiffness of epithelium-denuded cryopreserved tracheal allografts implanted in the omentum, despite the absence of immunosuppressive drugs. Since the omentum has the capability to reach the tracheal region, this approach should be investigated in the setting of orthotopic transplants in a pig model before considering clinical applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Does high dose vitamin D supplementation enhance cognition?: A randomized trial in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Jacqueline A

    2017-04-01

    Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks. Baseline and follow-up serum 25(OH)D and cognitive performance were assessed and the latter consisted of: Symbol Digit Modalities Test, verbal (phonemic) fluency, digit span, and the CANTAB® computerized battery. There were no significant baseline differences between Low (n=40) and High (n=42) dose groups. Serum 25(OH)D increased significantly more in the High Dose (from 67.2±20 to 130.6±26nmol/L) than the Low Dose group (60.5±22 to 85.9±16nmol/L), p=0.0001. Performance improved in the High Dose group on nonverbal (visual) memory, as assessed by the Pattern Recognition Memory task (PRM), from 84.1±14.9 to 88.3±13.2, p=0.043 (d=0.3) and Paired Associates Learning Task, (PAL) number of stages completed, from 4.86±0.35 to 4.95±0.22, p=0.044 (d=0.5), but not in the Low Dose Group. Mixed effects modeling controlling for age, education, sex and baseline performance revealed that the degree of improvement was comparatively greater in the High Dose Group for these tasks, approaching significance: PRM, p=0.11 (d=0.4), PAL, p=0.058 (d=0.4). Among those who had insufficient 25(OH)D (<75nmol/L) at baseline, the High Dose group (n=23) improved significantly (p=0.005, d=0.7) and to a comparatively greater degree on the PRM (p=0.025, d=0.6). Nonverbal (visual) memory seems to benefit from higher doses of vitamin D supplementation, particularly among those

  10. Synergistic effect of cumulative corticosteroid dose and immunosuppressants on avascular necrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H H; Bang, S Y; Won, S; Park, Y; Yi, J H; Joo, Y B; Lee, H S; Bae, S C

    2018-01-01

    9.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-16.73), 0.58 (95% CI 0.36-0.81) and 2.66 (95% CI 1.42-4.99), respectively, supporting the presence of synergistic interactions in the development of symptomatic AVN in our Korean lupus cohort. Conclusions An individual risk assessment for AVN development should be made prior to and during treatment for SLE, especially in patients with high-dose corticosteroid and immunosuppressant use regardless of clinical manifestations and disease activity.

  11. Acute cognitive effects of high doses of dextromethorphan relative to triazolam in humans

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Reissig, Chad J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although concerns surrounding high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have recently increased, few studies have examined the acute cognitive effects of high doses of DXM. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive effects of DXM with those of triazolam and placebo. METHODS Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg /70 kg), and placebo were administered p.o. to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Effects on cognitive performance were examined at baseline and after drug administration for up to 6 hours. RESULTS Both triazolam and DXM produced acute impairments in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and metacognition. Impairments observed following doses of 100-300 mg/70 kg DXM were generally smaller in magnitude than those observed after 0.5 mg/70 kg triazolam. Doses of DXM that impaired performance to the same extent as triazolam were in excess of 10-30 times the therapeutic dose of DXM. CONCLUSION The magnitude of the doses required for these effects and the absence of effects on some tasks within the 100-300 mg/70 kg dose range of DXM, speak to the relatively broad therapeutic window of over-the-counter DXM preparations when used appropriately. However, the administration of supratherapeutic doses of DXM resulted in acute cognitive impairments on all tasks that were examined. These findings are likely relevant to cases of high-dose DXM abuse. PMID:22989498

  12. Vitamin E Reversed Apoptosis of Cardiomyocytes Induced by Exposure to High Dose Formaldehyde During Mice Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongyuan; Jiang, Zhirong; Gong, Bing; Dou, Yue; Song, Mingxuan; Song, Xiaoxia; Tian, Yu

    2017-10-21

    In this study, we investigated the protection effect of Vitamin E (Vit E) on formaldehyde (FA) exposure during pregnancy induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and used an HL-1 cell line to confirmed the findings in vivo.Pregnant mice received different doses of FA (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, 0.1 μg Vit E, or 1.5 mg/kg + 0.1 μg Vit E). TUNEL staining was used to reveal the apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and SOD, MDA, GSH, Livin, and Caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes were detected by ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blot. For in vitro study, HL-1 cells were treated with vehicle, 5 μmol/L FA, 25 μmol/L FA, 50 μmol/L FA, 10 mg/L Vit. E, and 50 μmol/L FA+ 10 mg/L Vit E, respectively. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell vitality and apoptosis. A high dose of FA exposure led to cytotoxicity in both pregnant mice and offspring, as TUNEL staining revealed a significant apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and the alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3 was found in cardiomyocytes. 0.1 μg Vit. E could reverse high doses of FA exposure induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring. The in vitro study revealed that FA exposure induced a decrease of cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress in HL-1 cells with alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3.This study revealed a high dose of FA induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring, and Vit E supplement during pregnancy reversed the systemic and myocardial toxicity of FA.

  13. High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sedel, Frédéric; Papeix, Caroline; Bellanger, Agnès; Touitou, Valérie; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Galanaud, Damien; Gout, Olivier; Lyon-Caen, Olivier; Tourbah, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    No drug has been found to have any impact on progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Biotin is a vitamin acting as a coenzyme for carboxylases involved in key steps of energy metabolism and fatty acids synthesis. Among others, biotin activates acetylCoA carboxylase, a potentially rate-limiting enzyme in myelin synthesis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of high doses of biotin in patients suffering from progressive MS. Uncontrolled, non-blinded proof of concept study 23 consecutive patients with primary and secondary progressive MS originated from three different French MS reference centers were treated with high doses of biotin (100-300mg/day) from 2 to 36 months (mean=9.2 months). Judgement criteria varied according to clinical presentations and included quantitative and qualitative measures. In four patients with prominent visual impairment related to optic nerve injury, visual acuity improved significantly. Visual evoked potentials in two patients exhibited progressive reappearance of P100 waves, with normalization of latencies in one case. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) in one case showed a progressive normalization of the Choline/Creatine ratio. One patient with left homonymous hemianopia kept on improving from 2 to 16 months following treatment׳s onset. Sixteen patients out of 18 (89%) with prominent spinal cord involvement were considered as improved as confirmed by blinded review of videotaped clinical examination in 9 cases. In all cases improvement was delayed from 2 to 8 months following treatment׳s onset. These preliminary data suggest that high doses of biotin might have an impact on disability and progression in progressive MS. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials are on going. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Dose Cytosine Arabinoside in the consolidation of adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M H; Khan, M A; Islam, M S; Afrose, S; Ara, T

    2012-04-01

    This interventional study was done to evaluate the duration of remission with High Dose Cytosine Arabinoside (Ara-C) as post-remission chemotherapy in the consolidation of adult acute myeloid leukemia. A total of 32 patients were included in this study. Among them, 19 were male and 13 were female and the age of the patients ranges from 15-60 years. We use High Dose Cytosine Arabinoside 1.5-2.5 g/m2 i.v, 12 hourly, over 2-3 hours on day 1, 3 and 5 in a 28 days cycle. This study was done during the period of April 2007 to March 2009 in the department of hematology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital. History, clinical features and laboratory investigations were included. Among 32 patients, 5 patients (15.6%) received one cycle, 20 patients (62.5%) received two cycles and 7 patients (21.9%) received three cycles. The mean ± SD duration of remission (disease free survival) was 5.20 ± 3.83 months who received one cycle, 9.55 ± 3.30 months and 10.71 ± 1.70 months who received two cycles and three cycles respectively. The adverse effects of the therapy were neutropenia and neutropenic fever, purpuric rash, gum bleeding, mucositis and peripheral neuropathy. The supportive materials needed were antibiotics (both prophylactic and treatment) 86.13%, blood and blood products 51.7% and G-CSF 14.9% patients of all cycles. High Dose Ara-C (HiDAC) is a safe and cost effective consolidation treatment for AML patients in complete remission. This therapy merits multi-center control study to define its efficacy and cost-effectiveness in contrast to our socio-economic condition.

  15. High-dose alcohol intoxication differentially modulates cognitive subprocesses involved in response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Schulz, Tom; Lenhardt, Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aside from well-known physiological effects, high-dose alcohol intoxication (a.k.a. binge drinking) can lead to aversive social and legal consequences because response inhibition is usually compromised under the influence of alcohol. Although the behavioral aspects of this phenomenon were reported on extensively, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms mediating this disinhibition are unclear. To close this gap, we used both behavioral and neurophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to investigate which subprocesses of response inhibition are altered under the influence of high-dose alcohol intoxication. Using a within-subject design, we asked young healthy participants (n = 27) to complete a GO/NOGO task once sober and once intoxicated (approximately 1.2‰). During intoxication, high-dose alcohol effects were highest in a condition where the participants could not rely on automated stimulus-response mapping processes during response inhibition. In this context, the NOGO-P3 (ERP), that likely depends on dopaminergic signaling within mesocorticolimbic pathways and is thought to reflect motor inhibition and/or the evaluation of inhibitory processes, was altered in the intoxicated state. In contrast to this, the N2 component, which largely depends on nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and is thought to reflect inhibition on a pre-motor level, was not altered. Based on these results, we demonstrate that alcohol-induced changes of dopaminergic neurotransmission do not exert a global effect on response inhibition. Instead, changes are highly subprocess-specific and seem to mainly target mesocorticolimbic pathways that contribute to motor inhibition and the evaluation of such. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. High-Dose Citalopram and Escitalopram and the Risk of Out-of-Hospital Death.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wayne A; Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C Michael

    2017-02-01

    Studies demonstrating that higher doses of citalopram (> 40 mg) and escitalopram (> 20 mg) prolong the corrected QT interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30-74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness who were prescribed high-dose SSRIs from 1998 through 2011. The mean age was 47 years, and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of proarrhythmic effects. The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.75), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.75-2.05), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.45-1.24), and 1.53 (95% CI, 0.91-2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (≥ 60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study end point. We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. High-Dose Citalopram and Escitalopram and the Risk of Out-of-Hospital Death

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wayne A.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Murray, Katherine T.; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C. Michael

    2018-01-01

    Objective Studies demonstrating higher doses of citalopram (>40mg) and escitalopram (>20mg) prolong the QTc interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these SSRIs to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Method The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30–74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness prescribed high-dose SSRIs. The mean age was 47 years and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of pro-arrhythmic effects. Results The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–1.75), 1.24 (0.75–2.05), 0.75 (0.45–1.24), and 1.53 (0.91–2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (≥60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study endpoint. Conclusions We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. PMID:27736049

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of High-Dose Escitalopram in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2017-02-01

    Open-label trials suggest that escitalopram (up to 20 mg/d) is an effective treatment for some, but not all posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Higher doses of escitalopram effectively reduced major depression symptoms in patients who had not responded to regular doses. The current study examines the efficacy, tolerability, and adherence to high-dose escitalopram in PTSD. Forty-five PTSD patients received 12 weeks of gradually increasing doses of escitalopram reaching 40 mg daily at 4 weeks. Among those, 12 participants received regular doses of antidepressants at study onset including escitalopram (n = 7). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) evaluated PTSD symptoms severity before treatment, at 3 months (upon treatment termination), and at 6 months (maintenance effect). A 20% reduction in CAPS scores was deemed clinically significant. Adverse events and medication adherence were monitored at each clinical session. Linear mixed-models analysis showed a significant reduction of mean CAPS scores (11.5 ± 18.1 points) at 3 months and maintenance of gains by 6 months (F2,34.56 = 8.15, P = 0.001). Eleven participants (34.3%) showed clinically significant improvement at 3 months. Only 9 participants (20%) left the study. There were no serious adverse events and few mild ones with only 2 adverse events (diarrhea, 11.1%; drowsiness, 11.1%) reported by more than 10% of participants. High doses of escitalopram are tolerable and well adhered to in PTSD. Their beneficial effect at a group level is due to a particularly good response in a subset of patients.Variability in prior pharmacological treatment precludes a definite attribution of the results to high doses of escitalopram.

  19. Effect of high doses of magnesium on converting ibutilide to a safe and more effective agent.

    PubMed

    Patsilinakos, Sotirios; Christou, Apostolos; Kafkas, Nikolaos; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Antonatos, Dionysios; Katsanos, Spyridon; Spanodimos, Stavros; Babalis, Dimitrios

    2010-09-01

    Ibutilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent indicated for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter to sinus rhythm (SR). The most serious complication of ibutilide is torsades de pointes (TdP). Magnesium has been successfully used for the treatment of TdP, but its use as a prophylactic agent for this arrhythmia has not yet been established. The present study investigated whether high dose of magnesium would increase the safety and efficacy of ibutilide administration. A total of 476 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter who were candidates for conversion to SR were divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 229 patients who received ibutilide to convert atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter to SR. Group B consisted of 247 patients who received an intravenous infusion of 5 g of magnesium sulfate for 1 hour followed by the administration of ibutilide. Then, another 5 g of magnesium were infused for 2 additional hours. Of the patients in groups A and B, 154 (67.3%) and 189 (76.5%), respectively, were converted to SR (p = 0.033). Ventricular arrhythmias (sustained, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and TdP) occurred significantly more often in group A than in group B (7.4% vs 1.2%, respectively, p = 0.002). TdP developed in 8 patients (3.5%) in group A and in none (0%) in group B (p = 0.009). The administration of magnesium (despite the high doses used) was well tolerated. In conclusion, the administration of high doses of magnesium probably makes ibutilide a much safer agent, and magnesium increased the conversion efficacy of ibutilide. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prescriptions for chronic high-dose cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are often inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

    PubMed

    Roumie, Christianne L; Arbogast, Patrick G; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2005-10-01

    To describe the use of coxibs outside of licensed indications and recommended dosing ranges including rofecoxib 50 mg, valdecoxib 20 to 40 mg, and celecoxib 400 mg. Cross-sectional study of coxib utilization in 2002 and 2003 and retrospective cohort analysis of new users. Patients with known age and sex enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program. The prevalence of coxib use by dose and duration, and the proportion of persons initially prescribed a high-dose coxib and indications for such use. The estimated daily prevalence of nonaspirin prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was 8.7% in 2002 to 2003 (45.7% coxibs). NSAID use peaked at age 65 to 74 with a prevalence of 19.8% (56.3% coxibs). Doses above the recommended daily dose for osteoarthritis accounted for 33.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 32.4%, 33.9%) of celecoxib use, 14.9% (95% CI 14.4%, 15.5%) of rofecoxib use, and 52.2% (95% CI 50.6%, 53.8%) of valdecoxib use. Most of these prescriptions were for a month's supply. For new coxib users, 13.5% were given a month's supply for the highest dose category, and 28% refilled their prescriptions within 7 days of the end of the original prescription. Of these new chronic high-dose users, 17.2% had ischemic heart disease and 7.1% had heart failure. A substantial portion of coxib prescriptions were for a month's supply at doses above those recommended for most chronic indications. New users were also prescribed high doses despite evidence for cardiovascular comorbidity. These prescribing patterns at doses outside licensed indications are both inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

  1. Prescriptions for Chronic High-Dose Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors are Often Inappropriate and Potentially Dangerous

    PubMed Central

    Roumie, Christianne L; Arbogast, Patrick G; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of coxibs outside of licensed indications and recommended dosing ranges including rofecoxib 50 mg, valdecoxib 20 to 40 mg, and celecoxib 400 mg. Design Cross-sectional study of coxib utilization in 2002 and 2003 and retrospective cohort analysis of new users. Participants Patients with known age and sex enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program. Measurements The prevalence of coxib use by dose and duration, and the proportion of persons initially prescribed a high-dose coxib and indications for such use. Results The estimated daily prevalence of nonaspirin prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was 8.7% in 2002 to 2003 (45.7% coxibs). NSAID use peaked at age 65 to 74 with a prevalence of 19.8% (56.3% coxibs). Doses above the recommended daily dose for osteoarthritis accounted for 33.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 32.4%, 33.9%) of celecoxib use, 14.9% (95% CI 14.4%, 15.5%) of rofecoxib use, and 52.2% (95% CI 50.6%, 53.8%) of valdecoxib use. Most of these prescriptions were for a month's supply. For new coxib users, 13.5% were given a month's supply for the highest dose category, and 28% refilled their prescriptions within 7 days of the end of the original prescription. Of these new chronic high-dose users, 17.2% had ischemic heart disease and 7.1% had heart failure. Conclusions A substantial portion of coxib prescriptions were for a month's supply at doses above those recommended for most chronic indications. New users were also prescribed high doses despite evidence for cardiovascular comorbidity. These prescribing patterns at doses outside licensed indications are both inappropriate and potentially dangerous. PMID:16191131

  2. Does perioperative high-dose prednisolone have clinical benefits for generalized myasthenia gravis?

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuo; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Hamada, Chikuma; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Iyoda, Akira; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical benefits of perioperative administration of high-dose prednisolone (PSL) combined with extended thymectomy on the long-term outcomes of 116 consecutive patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG). A retrospective review was conducted on 116 patients diagnosed with generalized MG who received alternate-day oral administration of high-dose PSL (100 mg/alternate days) and had undergone transsternal extended thymectomy. Incidences of postoperative myasthenic crisis, adverse effects of steroid, long-term outcomes, such as complete stable remission (CSR), pharmacologic remission (PR) or improvement (Imp), and disease recurrence after CSR were evaluated. Six patients (5.2%) experienced post-thymectomy myasthenic crisis. Crude cumulative CSR and PR + CSR rates were 44.8 and 62.7%, respectively. Life table analysis showed that 41.8, 52.8 and 63.4% of the patients were in CSR at 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and pretreatment classification according to the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) criteria tended to be independent predictors of CSR. There were 6.9% with compressive vertebral fracture, 13.8% with cataract, and 5.2% with steroid-induced diabetes. Life table analysis revealed that recurrence rates after CSR were 36.8 and 46.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Patients with thymoma had a significantly higher rate of recurrence than those without thymoma (p = 0.001). Alternate-day administration of high-dose prednisolone reduced the risk of post-thymectomy myasthenic crisis. Presence of thymoma was a risk factor for MG recurrence after CSR.

  3. High-Dose Oral Ibuprofen in Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Full-Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Pourarian, Shahnaz; Rezaie, Mehrdad; Amoozgar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali-Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad-Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

    2015-08-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an important risk for heart failure due to left to right shunt in term neonates. In this study, we evaluated the effect of high dose ibuprofen in closure of PDA in term neonates. We used double dose ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg) for 3 - 30 day old term neonates with PDA who were admitted in the neonatal wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The results of this study were compared to the data of the previous study in our center which used the low dose of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg). 29 full term neonates received high-dose ibuprofen, in 18 neonates, PDA was closed after 4 days (62.1% versus 43.3% for the standard dose and 4.7% for the control group in the previous study) (P = 0.001). The results showed no significant correlation between the closure rate and gestational age, postnatal age, sex, and weight. In the 4(th) day of treatment, size of the pulmonic end of ductus arteriosus decreased from 2.09 mm to 0.77 mm compared to 1.68 mm to 0.81 mm in the standard dose of oral ibuprofen and 2.1 mm to 1.4 mm in the control group (P = 0.046). This study indicated that high-dose oral ibuprofen was more effective in closing or decreasing the size of PDA.

  4. Improved Behavior and Neuropsychological Function in Children With ROHHAD After High-Dose Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Shruti; McReynolds, Lisa J.; Steppan, Diana A.; Chen, Allen R.; Paz-Priel, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare, generally progressive, and potentially fatal syndrome of unclear etiology. The syndrome is characterized by normal development followed by a sudden, rapid hyperphagic weight gain beginning during the preschool period, hypothalamic dysfunction, and central hypoventilation, and is often accompanied by personality changes and developmental regression, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe 2 children who had symptomatic and neuropsychological improvement after high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment. Our experience supports an autoimmune pathogenesis and provides the first neuropsychological profile of patients with rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation. PMID:27313069

  5. Cost-effectiveness of high-dose atorvastatin compared with regular dose simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Peter; Graff, Jennifer; Olsson, Anders G; Pedersen, Terje J; Jönsson, Bengt

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of high-dose atorvastatin when compared with generic simvastatin for secondary prevention in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden based on the recently completed IDEAL trial. The IDEAL trial showed that high-dose treatment with atorvastatin was associated with fewer non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI) or coronary heart disease death (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.01) and major cardiovascular events by (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98) or any coronary event (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.76-0.91) than simvastatin with no significant difference in the number of serious adverse events. Costs during the trial period was estimated based on the trial data and a Markov model was constructed where the risk of MIs and revascularization procedures and the long-term costs, quality of life, and mortality associated with these events was simulated. Costs were based on resource consumptions recorded in the trial multiplied with recent unit costs from each country. Both direct health care costs and indirect costs (costs from lost production due to work absence) were included. Intervention lasted for the duration of the trial (4.8 years) while health-effects and costs are predicted for the lifespan of the patient. The main outcome was quality adjusted life-years (QALY) gained. High-dose treatment was predicted to lead to a mean increase in survival of 0.049 years per patient and 0.033 QALYs gained. The cost to gain one QALY was predicted to 47,197euro (Denmark), 62,639euro (Finland), 35,210euro (Norway), and 43,667euro (Sweden), with cost-effectiveness ratio decreasing with higher risk. In the prevention of cardiovascular events among patients with a previous MI, high-dose atorvastatin appears to be a cost-effective strategy when compared with generic simvastatin 20-40 mg in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. In Finland, it is cost-effective in high-risk patients. The key driver of the cost-effectiveness is the price-difference between 80

  6. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina; Casciari, Joseph; Rogers, Andrea; Taylor, Paul

    2012-09-11

    An inflammatory component is present in the microenvironment of most neoplastic tissues. Inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival in many types of cancer.Vitamin C has been suggested as having both a preventative and therapeutic role in a number of pathologies when administered at much higher-than-recommended dietary allowance levels.Since in vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways by millimolar concentrations of vitamin C, we decided to analyze the effects of high dose IVC therapy in suppression of inflammation in cancer patients. 45 patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer and B-cell lymphoma were treated at the Riordan Clinic by high doses of vitamin C (7.5 g -50 g) after standard treatments by conventional methods.CRP and tumor markers were measured in serum or heparin-plasma as a routine analysis. In addition, serum samples were collected before and after the IVCs for the cytokine kit tests. According to our data positive response to treatment, which was demonstrated by measurements of C- reactive protein, was found in 75% of patients and progression of the inflammation in 25% of patients. IVC treatments on all aggressive stage cancer patients showed the poor response of treatment.There was correlation between tumor markers (PSA, CEA, CA27.29 and CA15-3) and changes in the levels of C-reactive protein.Our test of the effect of IVC on pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated that inflammation cytokines IL-1α, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, chemokine eotaxin and CRP were reduced significantly after treatments. The high dose intravenous ascorbic acid therapy affects C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients. In our study, we found that modulation of inflammation by IVC correlated with decreases in tumor marker levels.In summary, our data support the hypothesis that

  7. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An inflammatory component is present in the microenvironment of most neoplastic tissues. Inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival in many types of cancer. Vitamin C has been suggested as having both a preventative and therapeutic role in a number of pathologies when administered at much higher-than-recommended dietary allowance levels. Since in vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways by millimolar concentrations of vitamin C, we decided to analyze the effects of high dose IVC therapy in suppression of inflammation in cancer patients. Methods 45 patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer and B-cell lymphoma were treated at the Riordan Clinic by high doses of vitamin C (7.5 g -50 g) after standard treatments by conventional methods. CRP and tumor markers were measured in serum or heparin-plasma as a routine analysis. In addition, serum samples were collected before and after the IVCs for the cytokine kit tests. Results According to our data positive response to treatment, which was demonstrated by measurements of C- reactive protein, was found in 75% of patients and progression of the inflammation in 25% of patients. IVC treatments on all aggressive stage cancer patients showed the poor response of treatment. There was correlation between tumor markers (PSA, CEA, CA27.29 and CA15-3) and changes in the levels of C-reactive protein. Our test of the effect of IVC on pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated that inflammation cytokines IL-1α, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, chemokine eotaxin and CRP were reduced significantly after treatments. Conclusions The high dose intravenous ascorbic acid therapy affects C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients. In our study, we found that modulation of inflammation by IVC correlated with decreases in tumor marker levels. In

  8. Anterior uveitis as a complication of treatment with high dose cytosine-arabinoside.

    PubMed

    Planer, David; Cukierman, Tali; Liebster, Diana; Ilsar, Michael; Chajek-Shaul, Tova

    2004-07-01

    We present a case of a 21-year-old woman suffering from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who developed acute anterior uveitis shortly after completing chemotherapeutic course with HYPER-CVAD protocol (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone) alternating with methotrexate and high-dose cytosine-arabinoside (HIDAC), with poor adherence to recommended prophylactic treatment with saline eye drops. Complete resolution of her symptoms was achieved within a few days of treatment with topical steroids. To our knowledge this is the first report of acute anterior uveitis secondary to treatment with HIDAC. Differential diagnosis and a suggested mechanism are discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  10. Necrosis and Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Low-Dose Versus High-Dose Preoperative Chemoembolization

    SciT

    Lu Wei, E-mail: dr-lw@163.com; Li Yanhao, E-mail: liyanhao@fimmu.com; He Xiaofeng

    Our purpose was to study necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with use of low-dose and high-dose anticancer drugs in HCCs. Fifty-four patients with advanced but surgically resectable HCC were studied. Thirty-four patients who elected to undergo preoperative superselective TACE were randomized to low- and high-dose TACE. Patients in group A (n = 16) received low-dose anticancer drugs: 2 mg mitomycin C (MMC), 10 mg epirubicin (EPI), and 100 mg carboplatin (CBP). Patients in group B (n = 18) were given high doses of anticancer drugs (10 mg MMC, 40 mg EPI,more » and 300 mg CBP). Hepatic resection was subsequently performed. Group C comprised 20 patients who underwent resection without TACE. In all patients the necrosis rates and apoptosis index of tumor cells were evaluated by pathologic examinations and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling assay. There was no significant difference between group A and group B in tumor response (p > 0.05) after TACE. Necrosis rates in groups A, B, and C were 88.4 {+-} 11.1%, 87.1 {+-} 12.5%, and 7.3 {+-} 3.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference between group A and group B (p > 0.05), while statistical difference was found between group A and group C (p < 0.001) and between group B and group C (p < 0.001). Apoptosis indexes in the three groups were 11.0 {+-} 4.0%, 10.7 {+-} 3.9%, and 5.6 {+-} 2.6%, respectively. Statistical difference exhibited between group A and group C (p < 0.001) and group B versus group C (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between group A and group B (p > 0.05). In conclusion, superselective TACE with low- and high-dose chemotherapeutic agents induced similar degrees of cellular apoptosis and necrosis.« less

  11. Advantages of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokov, A. A.; Vanina, E. A.; Tseluyko, S. S.

    2017-09-01

    One of the modern methods of preserving organs radiation treatment is brachytherapy. This article analyzes the results of prostate brachytherapy. These studies of the advantages of high dose brachytherapy lead to the conclusion that this method of radiation treatment for prostate cancer has a favorable advantage in comparison with remote sensing methods, and is competitive, preserving organs in comparison to surgical methods of treatment. The use of the method of polyfocal transperineal biopsy during the brachytherapy session provides information on the volumetric spread of prostate cancer and adjust the dosimetry plan taking into account the obtained data.

  12. On the use of multi-dimensional scaling and electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Th I.; Ermer, M.; Salas-González, D.; Kellermeier, M.; Strnad, V.; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B.; Tomé, A. M.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy affords a frequent reassurance of the precise dwell positions of the radiation source. The current investigation proposes a multi-dimensional scaling transformation of both data sets to estimate dwell positions without any external reference. Furthermore, the related distributions of dwell positions are characterized by uni—or bi—modal heavy—tailed distributions. The latter are well represented by α—stable distributions. The newly proposed data analysis provides dwell position deviations with high accuracy, and, furthermore, offers a convenient visualization of the actual shapes of the catheters which guide the radiation source during the treatment.

  13. Incidence of Hyponatremia with High-Dose Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsapepas, Demetra; Chiles, Mariana; Babayev, Revekka; Rao, Maya K; Jaitly, Manasvi; Salerno, David; Mohan, Sumit

    2016-12-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a commonly prescribed antibiotic used at high doses for treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia and other infections. Trimethoprim is structurally related to the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride and has been associated with hyperkalemia and hyponatremia through blocking of epithelial sodium channels in the distal nephron. The incidence of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients treated with high-dose TMP-SMX is unknown. We performed a single-center retrospective chart review of all hospitalized patients who received high-dose TMP-SMX (n = 235) from January 2012 to July 2014. Patients with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , baseline hyponatremia, and those on other medications associated with hyponatremia were excluded. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level <136 mEq/L. Analysis was restricted to 76 unique patients who received more than 8 mg/kg/d of TMP for ≥3 days. Mean starting serum sodium at time of TMP-SMX initiation was 138.4 ± 2.1 mEq/L. Fifty-five patients (72.3%) developed hyponatremia while on therapy, of which 43.6% (n = 24) were cases of serum sodium <130 mEq/L. Mean sodium at the time of nadir was 131.6 ± 5.1 mEq/L. Hyponatremia was noted, on average, 5.5 days after initiation of therapy, with more severe hyponatremia development among African American patients. Urine sodium concentrations were available for 40.0% (22/55) of incident hyponatremia cases, with mean urinary sodium of 104.8 ± 55.9 mEq/L. Hyponatremia often resolved within 3 weeks of drug discontinuation. There is a high incidence (72.3%) of hyponatremia associated with the use of high-dose TMP-SMX among hospitalized patients. This is an overlooked and potentially reversible cause of hyponatremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Belatacept: a novel biologic for maintenance immunosuppression after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Spencer T; Tichy, Eric M; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-04-01

    In the past decade, the availability of new immunosuppressive maintenance therapies for use in solid organ transplantation has remained limited. Patients and clinicians have relied on immunosuppressive drugs that require a significant amount of therapeutic monitoring and are associated with a variety of adverse effects that affect both quality of life and allograft function. Belatacept is an investigational intravenous biologic agent for long-term use in renal transplant recipients. The costimulatory pathway (signal 2) of T-cell activation and proliferation is produced by stimulation of the T-cell surface marker, CD28, and is essential to the immune system's cellular response and ability to recognize an allograft as foreign. Belatacept is a potent antagonist of B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) ligands present on antigen-presenting cells that are responsible for activation of CD28. Recent phase III trials describe various dosing strategies of belatacept versus a standard cyclosporine protocol in recipients of both living- and deceased-donor renal transplants, as well as in patients receiving kidneys transplanted from extended-criteria donors. Compared with cyclosporine, belatacept has been shown to be noninferior in both patient and allograft survival rates. However, the rate of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection occurred more frequently in the belatacept groups. Also, compared with standard calcineurin-based regimens, the risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is increased in patients receiving belatacept, with the greatest risk in transplant recipients who are Epstein-Barr virus seronegative before transplantation. However, this investigational immunosuppressive agent may avert common adverse effects experienced with standard immunosuppressive protocols including renal dysfunction, metabolic disorders, neurotoxicities, glucose abnormalities, and cosmetic effects. More data on the long-term risks of belatacept are needed to better define its role as

  15. Efficacy and safety of intravenous secukinumab in noninfectious uveitis requiring steroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Letko, Erik; Yeh, Steven; Foster, C Stephen; Pleyer, Uwe; Brigell, Mitchell; Grosskreutz, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    safe and was well tolerated. Intravenous secukinumab was effective and well tolerated in noninfectious uveitis requiring systemic corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy. Greater activity with IV dosing suggests that patients may not receive sufficient drug with SC administration. High-dose IV secukinumab may be necessary to deliver secukinumab in therapeutic concentrations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Irradiation Rapidly Reduces Tumor Vasculature and Perfusion in a Xenograft Model of Neuroblastoma

    SciT

    Jani, Ashish; Shaikh, Fauzia; Barton, Sunjay

    Purpose: To characterize the effects of high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) on neuroblastoma tumor vasculature, including the endothelial cell (EC)–pericyte interaction as a potential target for combined treatment with antiangiogenic agents. Methods and Materials: The vascular effects of radiation therapy were examined in a xenograft model of high-risk neuroblastoma. In vivo 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed. Results: HDRT significantly reduced tumor blood volume 6 hours after irradiation compared with the lower doses used in conventionally fractionated radiation. There was a 63% decrease in tumor blood volume after 12-Gy radiation compared with a 24% decrease after 2 Gy. Analysis ofmore » tumor vasculature by lectin angiography showed a significant loss of small vessel ends at 6 hours. IHC revealed a significant loss of ECs at 6 and 72 hours after HDRT, with an accompanying loss of immature and mature pericytes at 72 hours. Conclusions: HDRT affects tumor vasculature in a manner not observed at lower doses. The main observation was an early reduction in tumor perfusion resulting from a reduction of small vessel ends with a corresponding loss of endothelial cells and pericytes.« less

  17. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Constant Immunosuppression: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Galipeau, Jacques; Nooka, Ajay K.

    2013-01-01

    The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. PMID:24350294

  18. Valganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathology in permissive immunosuppressed female and male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E; Buller, Robert Mark L; Wold, William S M

    2015-03-23

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  19. Income-related disparities in kidney transplant graft failures are eliminated by Medicare's immunosuppression coverage

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Robert S.; Page, Timothy F.; Soares, Ricardo; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Lentine, Krista L.; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning January 1, 2000, Medicare extended coverage of immunosuppression medications from 3-years to lifetime based on age >65 years or disability. Using USRDS data for Medicare-insured recipients of kidney transplants between July 1995 and December 2000, we identified four Cohorts of Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients. Patients in Cohort 1 were individuals who were both eligible and received lifetime-coverage. Patients in Cohort 2 would have been eligible, but their three-year coverage expired before lifetime-coverage was available. Patients in Cohort 3 were ineligible for lifetime-coverage because of youth or lack of disability. Patients in Cohort 4 were transplanted 1996–1996 and were ineligible for lifetime-coverage. Incomes were categorized by ZIP-code median household income from census data. Lifetime-extension of Medicare immunosuppression was associated with improved allograft survival among low-income transplant recipients in the sense that the previously existing income-related disparities in graft survival in Cohort 2 were not apparent in Cohort 1. Ineligible individuals served as a control group; the income-related disparities in graft survival observed in the early Cohort 4 persisted in more recent Cohort 3. Multivariate proportional-hazards models confirmed these findings. Future work should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these coverage increases, as well as that of benefits extensions to broader patient groups. PMID:19032227

  20. Oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed children and young adults after liver or kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Pawłowska, Joanna; Garczewska, Barbara; Smirska, Ewa; Grenda, Ryszard; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis is an infectious complication in organ transplant recipients resulting from the patients' immunodeficiency and virulence of fungi pathogens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida spp. and identify their presence in the oral lesions of graft recipients. This study included 185 patients, 1.5 to 25.2 years of age (mean = 13.1 +/- 4.2 years) who were receiving combined immunosuppression treatment after kidney or liver transplantation and 70 control subjects. Evaluation included clinical oral examination, mycology, and statistical analysis. Candida spp. colonies were found in the oral mucosa of 63 (34%) graft recipients and in 19 (27%) control subjects. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species. This study showed that, regardless of the type of the organ transplant and immunosuppression, frequent, regular oral follow-up and mycologic tests are recommended. Diagnosing increased density of Candida spp. colonies in the oral cavity will help initiate early antifungal treatment. Candida spp. prevalence in the oral cavity in transplant recipients was higher than in immunocompetent control subjects. Kidney or liver transplantation predisposes one to the development of an increased density of Candida spp. colonies.

  1. High-Dose Hook Effect in 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Assay in a Patient with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Türkkahraman, Doğa

    2015-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most commonly encountered form. The analysis of steroids in pediatric cases requires high-sensitivity assays. A 14-year-old Syrian girl was referred for evaluation of short stature, amenorrhea, and hirsutism. On physical examination, breast development was Tanner stage 1. She had a phallic clitoris with a single urogenital orifice. Laboratory findings revealed primary adrenal deficiency with high androgen levels and low levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), (<0.05 ng/mL) and estrogen. This unexpected result led to suspicion of a high-dose hook effect. The measurement was repeated after 1/10 dilution of serum, and a high level of 17-OHP (115.4 ng/mL) was detected with the same test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Simple virilizing form of CAH (21-OHD) was suspected and confirmed with genetic analysis. After initiation of glucocorticoid therapy, breast development was noted along with a decrease in testosterone level and an increase in estrogen level. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of hook effect for 17-OHP immunoassay in a patient with 21-OHD. High-dose hook effect should be suspected in patients with CAH when the test results are incompatible with one another. Additionally, this case demonstrates that a high testosterone level can block aromatase activity and consequently also estrogen production and breast development.

  2. Calorimetry of electron beams and the calibration of dosimeters at high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, J. C.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    Graphite or metal calorimeters are used to make absolute dosimetric measurements of high-energy electron beams. These calibrated beams are then used to calibrate several types of dosimeters for high-dose applications such as medical-product sterilization, polymer modification, food processing, or electronic-device hardness testing. The electron beams are produced either as continuous high-power beams at approximately 4.5 MeV by d.c. type accelerators or in the energy range of approximately 8 to 50 MeV using pulsed microwave linear accelerators (linacs). The continuous beams are generally magnetically scanned to produce a broad, uniform radiation environment for the processing of materials of extended lateral dimensions. The higher-energy pulsed beams may also be scanned for processing applications or may be used in an unscanned, tightly-focused mode to produce maximum absorbed dose rates such as may be required for electronic-device radiation hardness testing. The calorimeters are used over an absorbed dose range of 10 2 to 10 4 Gy. Intercomparison studies are reported between National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) graphite disk calorimeters at high doses, using the NPL 10-MeV linac, and agreement was found within 1.5%. It was also shown that the electron-beam responses of radiochromic film dosimeters and alanine pellet dosimeters can be accurately calibrated by comparison with calorimeter readings.

  3. Quality of life in a cohort of high-dose benzodiazepine dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Lugoboni, Fabio; Mirijello, Antonio; Faccini, Marco; Casari, Rebecca; Cossari, Anthony; Musi, Gessica; Bissoli, Giorgia; Quaglio, Gianluca; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZD) are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries. Since BZD can produce tolerance and dependence even in a short time, their use is recommended for a very limited time. However, these recommendations have been largely disregarded. The chronic use of BZD causes a number of serious side effects, i.e., cognitive impairment, falls, traffic accidents, dependence and tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of 62 consecutive high-dose BZD-dependent patients seeking a BZD detoxification. Patients seeking BZD detoxification were evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the short form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Patients showed a significant reduction of QoL as measured by either SF-36 or GHQ-12. In particular, the greater impairment was observed in the items exploring physical and emotional status. Physical functioning was the item more influenced by the length of BZD abuse. Female patients showed a greater reduction of QoL compared to male, at least in some of the explored items. Social functioning scores were greatly reduced. The present study shows for the first time that high-doses BZD dependent patients have a reduced QoL and a reduced social functioning, along with high levels of psychological distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety of prolonged high-dose levofloxacin therapy for bone infections.

    PubMed

    Senneville, E; Poissy, J; Legout, L; Dehecq, C; Loïez, C; Valette, M; Beltrand, E; Caillaux, M; Mouton, Y; Migaud, H; Yazdanpanah, Y

    2007-12-01

    The records of 84 patients with bone infections treated with high-dose levofloxacin (i.e. 0.75-1g daily) for more than 4 weeks were reviewed. Patients were given either 500 mg b.i.d. throughout the treatment period [Group 1 (n=41)], 500 mg b.i.d. for 3 weeks and then 750 mg q.d. [Group 2 (n=21)] or 750 mg q.d. for the whole treatment period [Group 3 (n=22)]. All patients had combined therapy, including levofloxacin-rifampin in 62 cases (73.8%), for an average duration of 13.7 weeks. Muscular pain and/or tendonitis were reported in 19 patients (22.6%) which affected more patients in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (14/41 and 5/21 vs. 0/22; p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). A dosage of 750 mg q.d. may be warranted for prolonged high-dose levofloxacin treatment in patients with bone infections rather than 500 mg b.i.d. for the entire duration of treatment, or for the first 3 weeks.

  5. Can high-dose fotemustine reverse MGMT resistance in glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Gallo, Chiara; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Valeria; De Placido, Sabino; Marinelli, Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest grade malignant glioma, is associated with a grim prognosis-median overall survival is in the range 12-15 months, despite optimum treatment. Surgery to the maximum possible extent, external beam radiotherapy, and systemic temozolomide chemotherapy are current standard treatments for newly diagnosed GBM, with intracerebral delivery of carmustine wafers (Gliadel). Unfortunately, the effectiveness of chemotherapy can be hampered by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), which confers resistance both to temozolomide and nitrosoureas, for example fotemustine and carmustine. MGMT activity can be measured by PCR and immunohistochemistry, with the former being the current validated technique. High-dose chemotherapy can deplete MGMT levels in GBM cells and has proved feasible in various trials on temozolomide, in both newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM. We here report the unique case of a GBM patient, with high MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry, who underwent an experimental, high-dose fotemustine schedule after surgery and radiotherapy. Although treatment caused two episodes of grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia, a complete response and survival of more than three years were achieved, with a 30% increase in dose intensity compared with the standard fotemustine schedule.

  6. High-dose proton beam therapy for sinonasal mucosal malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Shusuke; Kasami, Masako; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Kashiwagi, Hiroya; Kiyohara, Yoshio

    2014-07-23

    The significance of definitive radiotherapy for sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SMM) is sill controvertial. This study was to evaluate the role of high-dose proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with SMM. The cases of 20 patients with SMM localized to the primary site who were treated by PBT between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The patterns of overall survival and morbidity were assessed. The median follow-up time was 35 months (range, 6-77 months). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 51% and 38%, respectively. Four patients showed local failure, 2 showed regrowth of the primary tumor, and 2 showed new sinonasal tumors beyond the primary site. The 5-year local control rate after PBT was 62%. Nodal and distant failure was seen in 7 patients. Three grade 4 late toxicities were observed in tumor-involved optic nerve. Our findings suggested that high-dose PBT is an effective local treatment that is less invasive than surgery but with comparable outcomes.

  7. Effects of high-dose ketoconazole treatment on adrenal mineralocorticoid biosynthesis in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    De Coster, R; Coene, M C; Haelterman, C; Beerens, D; Goeminne, N

    1987-07-01

    At high doses, ketoconazole blocks both testicular and adrenal androgen biosyntheses and partially inhibits the glucocorticoid production. To investigate the effects of this imidazole derivative on the mineralocorticoid biosynthesis, 7 male mongrel dogs received a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg of ketoconazole or placebo, in a cross-over way. From 2 to 4 h after treatment, an iv infusion of angiotensin II (10 ng/kg per min) was performed. Ketoconazole treatment significantly blunted the aldosterone and cortisol increment, whereas 18-hydroxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone, and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone rose to peak concentrations, respectively 2.5-, 6-, 8-, 2.5- and 1.5-fold higher than those observed after placebo administration. Plasma 11-deoxycortisol and renin activity levels remained similar in both groups. On the other hand, 2 X 2 groups of 10 male adult rats each were fed with a normal or a sodium-depleted diet. Of the two sets of groups, one was treated ip with ketoconazole (20 mg/kg twice a day), the other with vehicle solution. In animals on either diet, ketoconazole lowered 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone concentrations. Plasma DOC rose up to 25-fold in the salt-deprived animals. Serum Na+, Cl-, corticosterone and plasma renin activity remained unaffected by the treatment. These results show that high-dose ketoconazole treatment partially inhibits the biosynthesis of aldosterone by affecting the cytochrome P-45011 beta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Introduction of novel 3D-printed superficial applicators for high-dose-rate skin brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma-Louise; Tonino Baldion, Anna; Thomas, Christopher; Burrows, Tom; Byrne, Nick; Newton, Victoria; Aldridge, Sarah

    Custom-made surface mold applicators often allow more flexibility when carrying out skin brachytherapy, particularly for small treatment areas with high surface obliquity. They can, however, be difficult to manufacture, particularly if there is a lack of experience in superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy techniques or with limited resources. We present a novel method of manufacturing superficial brachytherapy applicators utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-printing techniques. We describe the treatment planning process and the process of applicator manufacture. The treatment planning process, with the introduction of a pre-plan, allows for an "ideal" catheter arrangement within an applicator to be determined, exploiting varying catheter orientations, heights, and curvatures if required. The pre-plan arrangement is then 3D printed to the exact specifications of the pre-plan applicator design. This results in improved target volume coverage and improved sparing of organs at risk. Using a pre-plan technique for ideal catheter placement followed by automated 3D-printed applicator manufacture has greatly improved the entire process of superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment. We are able to design and manufacture flexible, well-fitting, superior quality applicators resulting in a more efficient and improved patient pathway and patient experience. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracellular activation of digestive zymogens in rat pancreatic acini. Stimulation by high doses of cholecystokinin.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, S D; Modlin, I M; Scheele, G A; Gorelick, F S

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism by which digestive zymogens become activated during acute pancreatitis remains poorly understood. Given the ability for cholecystokinin (CCK) to induce pancreatitis in vivo, the effects of high dose CCK on preparations of isolated pancreatic acini were examined. Using an immunologic technique for the detection of zymogen activation, CCK was found to stimulate the conversion of procarboxypeptidase A1 to a 35-kD form having the same net charge and electrophoretic mobility as purified recombinant carboxypeptidase A1. This enhanced conversion was proportional to the dose of CCK (maximal at 100 nM), and time dependent. CCK also produced changes in the electrophoretic mobility of procarboxypeptidase B and chymotrypsinogen 2 immunoreactivity, consistent with activation of these zymogens. These events were detectable only within acinar cell pellets and not in the incubation medium, suggesting an intracellular site of conversion. The conversion of procarboxypeptidase A1 to its active form was inhibited by pretreatment with the weak base chloroquine (40 microM) and the protonophore monensin (10 microM). This conversion was also inhibited by pretreatment with the serine protease inhibitor benzamidine (10 mM) but not the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 (100 microM). The results suggest that high dose CCK stimulates the intracellular activation of digestive zymogens within isolated pancreatic acini. This event appears to require an acidic subcellular compartment and serine protease activity. Images PMID:1985109

  10. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2011-08-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent [i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40] rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a "challenge" high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this "resistance" were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Low- and high-dose laser irradiation effects on cell migration and destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Elivia; Gallagher, Kyra A.; Zukerman, Sara; Stevens, Brianna; Zhou, Feifan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2018-02-01

    Metastases are the cause of more than 90 percent of cancer-related deaths. Current treatment methods, including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, fail to target the metastases effectively. One potential treatment for metastatic cancer is laser immunotherapy (LIT). LIT combines the use of a photothermal laser with an immunoadjuvant, Glycated Chitosan (GC). GC combined with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has proven to be a viable alternative to traditional cancer treatment methods, when under irradiation of laser with appropriate wavelength. In this study, the effects of low dose and high dose laser irradiation on metastatic pancreatic cancer cell migration were observed. It was found that low dose irradiation increased the migration rate, but the high dose irradiation significantly decreased the migration rate of the cancer cells. When using LIT, the goal is to kill tumor cells and to prompt the correct immune response. If the tumor were irradiated with a low dose, it would promote metastasis. If the dose of irradiation were too high, it would destroy the entire tumor and the immune response would not recognize the tumor. Therefore, the laser dose plays an important role in LIT, particularly when using SWNT as light absorbing agent. Our results from this study will delineate the optimal laser irradiation dose for destroying tumor cells and at the same time preserve and release tumor antigens as a precursor of antitumor immune response.

  12. Chromosome neighborhood composition determines translocation outcomes after exposure to high-dose radiation in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brianna Caddle, Lura; Grant, Jeremy L; Szatkiewicz, Jin; van Hase, Johann; Shirley, Bobbi-Jo; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Cremer, Christoph; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre; Mills, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard for military personnel, some health care professionals, airport security screeners, and medical patients, with some individuals at risk for acute, high-dose exposures. Therefore, the biological effects of radiation, especially the potential for chromosome damage, are major occupational and health concerns. However, the biophysical mechanisms of chromosome instability subsequent to radiation-induced DNA damage are poorly understood. It is clear that interphase chromosomes occupy discrete structural and functional subnuclear domains, termed chromosome territories (CT), which may be organized into 'neighborhoods' comprising groups of specific CTs. We directly evaluated the relationship between chromosome positioning, neighborhood composition, and translocation partner choice in primary lymphocytes, using a cell-based system in which we could induce multiple, concentrated DNA breaks via high-dose irradiation. We critically evaluated mis-rejoining profiles and tested whether breaks occurring nearby were more likely to fuse than breaks occurring at a distance. We show that CT neighborhoods comprise heterologous chromosomes, within which inter-CT distances directly relate to translocation partner choice. These findings demonstrate that interphase chromosome arrangement is a principal factor in genomic instability outcomes in primary lymphocytes, providing a structural context for understanding the biological effects of radiation exposure, and the molecular etiology of tumor-specific translocation patterns.

  13. Update on pediatric resuscitation drugs: high dose, low dose, or no dose at all.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Annalise

    2005-04-01

    Pediatric resuscitation has been a topic of discussion for years. It is difficult to keep abreast of changing recommendations, especially for busy pediatricians who do not regularly use these skills. This review will focus on the most recent guidelines for resuscitation drugs. Three specific questions will be discussed: standard dose versus high-dose epinephrine, amiodarone use, and the future of vasopressin in pediatric resuscitation. The issue of using high-dose epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation refractory to standard dose epinephrine has been a topic of debate for many years. Recently, a prospective, double-blinded study was performed to help settle the debate. These results will be reviewed and compared with previous studies. Amiodarone is a medication that was added to the pediatric resuscitation algorithms with the most recent recommendations from the American Heart Association in 2000. Its use and safety will also be discussed. Another topic that is resurfacing in resuscitation is the use of vasopressin. Its mechanism and comparisons to other agents will be highlighted, although its use in the pediatric patient has not been thoroughly studied. Pediatric resuscitation is a constantly evolving subject that is on the mind of anyone taking care of sick children. Clinicians are continually searching for the most effective methods to resuscitate children in terms of short- and long-term outcomes. It is important to be familiar with not only the agents being used but also the optimal way to use them.

  14. Effect of crospovidone and hydroxypropyl cellulose on carbamazepine in high-dose tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Felicia; Betz, Gabriele

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a high-dose tablet formulation of the poorly soluble carbamazepine (CBZ) with sufficient tablet hardness and immediate drug release. A further aim was to investigate the influence of various commercial CBZ raw materials on the optimized tablet formulation. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC-SL) was selected as a dry binder and crospovidone (CrosPVP) as a superdisintegrant. A direct compacted tablet formulation of 70% CBZ was optimized by a 3² full factorial design with two input variables, HPC (0--10%) and CrosPVP (0--5%). Response variables included disintegration time, amount of drug released at 15 and 60 min, and tablet hardness, all analyzed according to USP 31. Increasing HPC-SL together with CrosPVP not only increased tablet hardness but also reduced disintegration time. Optimal condition was achieved in the range of 5--9% HPC and 3--5% CrosPVP, where tablet properties were at least 70 N tablet hardness, less than 1 min disintegration, and within the USP requirements for drug release. Testing the optimized formulation with four different commercial CBZ samples, their variability was still observed. Nonetheless, all formulations conformed to the USP specifications. With the excipients CrosPVP and HPC-SL an immediate release tablet formulation was successfully formulated for high-dose CBZ of various commercial sources.

  15. Immunosuppressive compounds from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, S P; Cranick, S; Longley, R E

    1989-01-01

    Two immunosuppressive compounds, 4 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol and 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid were isolated from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis. Their structures were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of samples isolated from other organisms. Both compounds were highly active in suppression of the response of murine splenocytes in the two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with little to no demonstrable cytotoxicity at lower doses. In addition, 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to suboptimal concentrations of the mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). These results describe for the first time compounds isolated from the marine sponge A. flabelliformis that possess potent in vitro immunosuppressive activity.

  16. Neurologic emergencies in HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-De-Villoria, J A; Fernández-García, P; Borrego-Ruiz, P J

    HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response. Infectious disease is the first diagnostic suspicion, and the identification of an opportunistic pathogen should be oriented in function of the type and degree of immunosuppression. Other neurologic emergencies include ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, neoplastic processes, and pharmacological neurotoxicity. This article reviews the role of neuroimaging in HIV-negative immunodepressed patients with a neurologic complication that requires urgent management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sub-acute thyroiditis in a patient on immunosuppressive treatment].

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Giovanna; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Caleo, Alessia; Garzi, Alfredo; Vitale, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Sub-acute thyroiditis or De Quervain's thyroiditis is a viral, inflammatory disease which causes the serum release of thyroidal hormones and hyperthyroidism. The pathogenesis of thyroid follicle damage is unclear because the exclusive viral action or a concomitant autoimmune component, determined by the lymphoid infiltrate remain to be assessed. We describe the case of a patient under immunosuppressive treatment, who developed sub-acute thyroiditis with hormone release and hyperthyroidism. The patient, while was under immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant, exhibited a clinical picture and hormonal profile of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid scintiscan exhibited an extremely low uptake. Fine-needle cytologic diagnosis was granulomatous sub-acute thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis). This case suggests the primary or even exclusive role of the viral infection in hormone release and hyperthyroidism in sub-acute thyroiditis, excluding an autoimmune component.

  18. Fungemia Due to Fusarium sacchari in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa; Barreiro, M. Da Gloria C.; Gonçalves, Renato T.

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium sacchari was isolated repeatedly from the blood of an immunosuppressed host. The infection was treated successfully with a small dose of amphotericin B. The strain was resistant to this antifungal in vitro. MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations of six antifungals for the clinical isolate are provided. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving this fungus in a case of fungemia. PMID:10618130

  19. Forging a link between oncogenic signaling and immunosuppression in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Jahan S; Hwu, Patrick; Lizée, Gregory

    2013-02-01

    Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments limit the efficacy of T cell-based immunotherapy. We have recently demonstrated that the inhibition of BRAF V600E with vemurafenib relieves interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced T-cell suppression as mediated by melanoma tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs). These results suggest that inhibitors of the MAPK pathway in combination with T cell-based immunotherapies may induce long-lasting and durable responses.

  20. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Karolina; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Sindrewicz, Krzysztof; Bober, Joanna; Domański, Leszek; Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Domański, Maciej; Smektała, Tomasz; Masiuk, Marek; Skrzypczak, Wiesław; Ożgo, Małgorzata; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents’ toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins’ synthesis. Very slight differences were observed between the group receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (CMG) and the control group. In contrast, compared to the control group, animals receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (TMG) exhibited higher expression of proteins responsible for renal drug metabolism and lower expression levels of cytoplasmic actin and the major urinary protein. In the TMG group, we observed higher expression of proteins responsible for drug metabolism and a decrease in the expression of respiratory chain enzymes (thioredoxin-2) and markers of distal renal tubular damage (heart fatty acid-binding protein) compared to expression in the CMG

  1. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and immunosuppressive therapy in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  2. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

  3. A rationale for age-adapted immunosuppression in organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Krenzien, Felix; ElKhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Hirofumi, Uehara; Gabardi, Steven; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes are associated with a steady increase of older patients with end-stage organ failure in need for transplantation. As a result, the majority of transplant recipients are currently older >50 years and organs from elderly donors are more frequently utilized. Nevertheless, the benefit of transplantation in older patients is well recognized whereas the most frequent causes of death among older recipients are potentially linked to side effects of their immunosuppressants. Immunosenescence is a physiological part of aging linked to higher rates of diabetes, bacterial infections and malignancies representing the major causes of death in older patients. These age-related changes impact older transplant candidates and may have significant implications for an age-adapted immunosuppression. For instance, immunosenescence is linked to lower rates of acute rejections in older recipients while the engraftment of older organs has been associated with higher rejection rates. Moreover, new-onset diabetes mellitus following transplantation is more frequent in the elderly, potentially related to corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. This review presents current knowledge for an age-adapted immunosuppression based on both, experimental and clinical studies in and beyond transplantation. Recommendations of maintenance and induction therapy may help to improve graft function and to design future clinical trials in the elderly. PMID:26244716

  4. A Rationale for Age-Adapted Immunosuppression in Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, Felix; ElKhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Hector; Hirofumi, Uehara; Gabardi, Steven; Tullius, Stefan G

    2015-11-01

    Demographic changes are associated with a steady increase of older patients with end-stage organ failure in need for transplantation. As a result, the majority of transplant recipients are currently older than 50 years, and organs from elderly donors are more frequently used. Nevertheless, the benefit of transplantation in older patients is well recognized, whereas the most frequent causes of death among older recipients are potentially linked to side effects of their immunosuppressants.Immunosenescence is a physiological part of aging linked to higher rates of diabetes, bacterial infections, and malignancies representing the major causes of death in older patients. These age-related changes impact older transplant candidates and may have significant implications for an age-adapted immunosuppression. For instance, immunosenescence is linked to lower rates of acute rejections in older recipients, whereas the engraftment of older organs has been associated with higher rejection rates. Moreover, new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation is more frequent in the elderly, potentially related to corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors.This review presents current knowledge for an age-adapted immunosuppression based on both, experimental and clinical studies in and beyond transplantation. Recommendations of maintenance and induction therapy may help to improve graft function and to design future clinical trials in the elderly.

  5. Immunosuppressants: tools to investigate the physiological role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Quesniaux, V F

    1993-11-01

    The cyclic peptide Cyclosporine A (CsA) is best known as the immunosuppressive drug which has revolutionized organ transplantation. It selectively suppresses T cell activation by blocking the transcription of cytokine genes such as IL-2 at the level of transcription factor modulation. The structurally unrelated immunosuppressant FK 506 acts on the same pathway and blocks cytokine gene expression. In contrast, rapamycin, a structural analogue of FK 506, interferes with the immune response at a different level, by blocking the response induced by cytokines such as IL-2. Although these drugs have been most studied for their immunosuppressive activities, it is clear that their effects on cytokine pathways extend far beyond the sole IL-2-mediated responses involved in the immune response. For instance, CsA and FK 506 inhibit the transcription of IL-3, IL-4, IFN gamma, TNF alpha or GM-CSF by activated T cells, and rapamycin has been shown to block the response to various growth factors such as IL-3, IL-4 or IL-6. Here, we recap what is known about the effects of CsA, FK 506 and rapamycin on hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo and extrapolate on what these drugs can teach us about the physiological role of cytokines for hematopoiesis.

  6. Memory-updating abrogates extinction of learned immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Bösche, Katharina; Wirth, Timo; Buck, Benjamin; Beetz, Oliver; Christians, Uwe; Schniedewind, Björn; Lückemann, Laura; Güntürkün, Onur; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    When memories are recalled, they enter a transient labile phase in which they can be impaired or enhanced followed by a new stabilization process termed reconsolidation. It is unknown, however, whether reconsolidation is restricted to neurocognitive processes such as fear memories or can be extended to peripheral physiological functions as well. Here, we show in a paradigm of behaviorally conditioned taste aversion in rats memory-updating in learned immunosuppression. The administration of sub-therapeutic doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A together with the conditioned stimulus (CS/saccharin) during retrieval blocked extinction of conditioned taste aversion and learned suppression of T cell cytokine (interleukin-2; interferon-γ) production. This conditioned immunosuppression is of clinical relevance since it significantly prolonged the survival time of heterotopically transplanted heart allografts in rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that memories can be updated on both neural and behavioral levels as well as on the level of peripheral physiological systems such as immune functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vivo Persistence of Human Rhinoviruses in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Ilka; Dewilde, Anny; Lazrek, Mouna; Batteux, Mathilde; Hamissi, Aminati; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Hober, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Several species of the genus Enterovirus cause persistent infections in humans. Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are generally self-limiting but occasionally persistent infections have been described. This study aimed to identify persistent HRV infections and investigate the clinical and virologic characteristics of patients with persistent infections. From January 2012 to March 2015, 3714 respiratory specimens from 2608 patients were tested for respiratory viruses by using a multiplex reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A retrospective study was performed. Patients with at least two specimens positive for HRV/enterovirus taken 45 days or longer apart were identified and the HRV/enteroviruses were typed. Patients with persistent infection were compared to patients with reinfection and patients with cleared infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein(VP)4/VP2 region was performed. 18 patients with persistent HRV/enterovirus infection were identified. Minimum median duration of persistence was 92 days (range 50–455 days). All but one patients with persistence were immunosuppressed. Immunosuppression and hematologic disorders were more frequent in patients with persistence (n = 18) than in patients with reinfection (n = 33) and with cleared infection (n = 25) (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, this retrospective study identified HRV persistence in vivo which occurred mainly in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:28151988

  8. Opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in Minia District, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Ali, Basma A; Moslam, Fadia A

    2012-03-01

    A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children.

  9. Opportunistic Parasites among Immunosuppressed Children in Minia District, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Azza K.; Ali, Basma A.; Moslam, Fadia A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (P<0.0001). The most common protozoan infection in immunosuppressed group was Cryptosporidium parvum (60.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children. PMID:22451735

  10. Immunosuppressive phenolic compounds from Hydnora abyssinica A. Braun.

    PubMed

    Koko, Waleed S; Mesaik, Mohamed A; Ranjitt, Rosa; Galal, Mohamed; Choudhary, Muhammad I

    2015-11-09

    Hydnora abyssinica (HA) A. Braun is an endemic Sudanese medicinal plant traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and against many infectious diseases. However, it proved to be very rich in phenols and tannins, so the present study was undertaken to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the whole plant ethanolic extract and its isolated compounds. Lymphocyte proliferation, chemiluminescence and superoxide reduction assays were used for immunomodulatory evaluation. While, MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) test was performed on 3 T3 cell line clone in order to evaluate the cytoxicity effect of the extracts and isolated compounds of phenolic derivatives which were carried out by chromotographic techniques. Catechin, (1), tyrosol (2) and benzoic acid, 3, 4, dihydroxy-, ethyl ester (3) compounds were isolated from HA ethanolic extract which revealed potent immunosuppressive activity against reactive oxygen species from both polymorph nuclear cells (PMNs) (45-90 % inhibition) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) (30 -65 % inhibition), T lymphocyte proliferation assay (70-93 % inhibition) as well as potent inhibitory effect against superoxide production (42-71 % inhibition) at concentrations of 6.25-100 μg/mL. Catechin (1) was found the most potent immunosuppressive agent among all constituents examined. These results can support the traditional uses of H. abyssinica extracts as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive and further investigations of the mode of action and other pharmacological studies are highly desirable.

  11. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6–11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    PubMed Central

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören; Nordvall, S Lennart; Pedroletti, Christophe; Bengtsson, Thomas; Johannes-Hellberg, Ingegerd; Rosenborg, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. Methods Twenty boys and girls (6–11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis®) 4.5 µg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl®) 500 µg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler®) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. Results Formoterol and terbutaline had significant β2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration and PR interval, the systemic effects were significantly more pronounced with terbutaline than with formoterol. Thus, mean minimum plasma potassium, was suppressed from 3.56 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.48–3.65) mmol l−1 on the day of no treatment to 2.98 (CI: 2.90–3.08) after 10 × F4.5 and 2.70 (CI: 2.61–2.78) mmol l−1 after 10 × T500, and maximum Q-Tc (heart rate corrected Q-T interval [Bazett's formula]) was prolonged from 429 (CI: 422–435) ms on the day of no treatment, to 455 (CI: 448–462) ms after 10 × F4.5 and 470 (CI: 463–476) ms after 10 × T500. Estimates of relative dose potency indicated that F4.5 µg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 µg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children) than with terbutaline (95%). A serious adverse event occurred after inhalation of 45 µg formoterol over the 1 h dosing time, that prompted the extension of dosing time to 2.5 h

  12. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören; Nordvall, S Lennart; Pedroletti, Christophe; Bengtsson, Thomas; Johannes-Hellberg, Ingegerd; Rosenborg, Johan

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis) 4.5 microg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl) 500 microg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. Formoterol and terbutaline had significant beta2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration and PR interval, the systemic effects were significantly more pronounced with terbutaline than with formoterol. Thus, mean minimum plasma potassium, was suppressed from 3.56 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.48-3.65) mmol l(-1) on the day of no treatment to 2.98 (CI: 2.90-3.08) after 10 x F4.5 and 2.70 (CI: 2.61-2.78) mmol l(-1) after 10 x T500, and maximum Q-Tc (heart rate corrected Q-T interval [Bazett's formula]) was prolonged from 429 (CI: 422-435) ms on the day of no treatment, to 455 (CI: 448-462) ms after 10 x F4.5 and 470 (CI: 463-476) ms after 10 x T500. Estimates of relative dose potency indicated that F4.5 microg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 microg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children) than with terbutaline (95%). A serious adverse event occurred after inhalation of 45 microg formoterol over the 1 h dosing time, that prompted the extension of dosing time to 2.5 h. Multiple inhalations over 2.5 h of

  13. High-dose levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Seo Woo; Kim, Ji Hye; Ryu, Yon Ju; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) involves combination therapy consisting of a β-lactam penicillin or a cephalosporin with a macrolide. Alternatively, high-dose levofloxacin treatment has been used as single-agent therapy for treating CAP, covering atypical pathogens. This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of high-dose levofloxacin with combined ceftriaxone and azithromycin for the treatment of CAP. This phase IV, prospective, randomized, open-label trial enrolled patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for CAP treatment from 2010 to 2011. Hospital admission was decided based on clinical judgement and the pneumonia severity index. Forty subjects were enrolled and assigned to two treatment arms using a random numbers table. The 20 subjects in the experimental group were given levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously once daily, followed by the same dose of oral levofloxacin at discharge when clinically improved and the 20 subjects in the control group were given ceftriaxone 2.0 g intravenously once daily plus oral azithromycin 500 mg for 3 consecutive days, followed by oral cefpodoxime 200 mg per day at discharge after clinical improvement. The primary outcome was the clinical success rate. Secondary outcomes were the microbiological success rate and adverse events during the study. Of the 40 subjects enrolled, 36 completed the study: 17 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group. The groups did not differ in terms of demographic factors or clinical findings at baseline. The clinical success rate (cured + improved) was 94% in the experimental (levofloxacin) group and 84% in the control group (p > 0.05). The microbiological success rate and overall adverse events were also similar in both groups. Single-agent, high-dose levofloxacin treatment exhibited excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy with a safety profile comparable to that of ceftriaxone plus azithromycin therapy. Large-scale clinical

  14. High-Dose Opioid Prescribing and Opioid-Related Hospitalization: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kimberly; Martins, Diana; Juurlink, David; Mamdani, Muhammad; Paterson, J Michael; Spooner, Luke; Singh, Samantha; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of national clinical practice guidelines and provincial drug policy interventions on prevalence of high-dose opioid prescribing and rates of hospitalization for opioid toxicity. Interventional time-series analysis. Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2014. Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) beneficiaries aged 15 to 64 years from 2003 to 2014. Publication of Canadian clinical practice guidelines for use of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain (May 2010) and implementation of Ontario's Narcotics Safety and Awareness Act (NSAA; November 2011). Three outcomes were explored: the rate of opioid use among ODB beneficiaries, the prevalence of opioid prescriptions exceeding 200 mg and 400 mg morphine equivalents per day, and rates of opioid-related emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Over the 12 year study period, the rate of opioid use declined 15.2%, from 2764 to 2342 users per 10,000 ODB eligible persons. The rate of opioid use was significantly impacted by the Canadian clinical practice guidelines (p-value = .03) which led to a decline in use, but no impact was observed by the enactment of the NSAA (p-value = .43). Among opioid users, the prevalence of high-dose prescribing doubled (from 4.2% to 8.7%) over the study period. By 2014, 40.9% of recipients of long-acting opioids exceeded daily doses of 200 mg morphine or equivalent, including 55.8% of long-acting oxycodone users and 76.3% of transdermal fentanyl users. Moreover, in the last period, 18.7% of long-acting opioid users exceeded daily doses of 400 mg morphine or equivalent. Rates of opioid-related emergency department visits and hospital admissions increased 55.0% over the study period from 9.0 to 14.0 per 10,000 ODB beneficiaries from 2003 to 2013. This rate was not significantly impacted by the Canadian clinical practice guidelines (p-value = .68) or enactment of the NSAA (p-value = .59). Although the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for use of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain led

  15. Bladder–Rectum Spacer Balloon in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Cervix Carcinoma

    SciT

    Rai, Bhavana; Patel, Firuza D., E-mail: firuzapatel@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Santam

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To compare bladder and rectum doses with the use of a bladder–rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus standard gauze packing in the same patient receiving 2 high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy fractions. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized study to compare the reduction in bladder and rectum doses with the use of a BRSB compared with standard gauze packing in patients with carcinoma of the cervix being treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The patients were randomized between 2 arms. In arm A, vaginal packing was done with standard gauze packing in the first application, and BRSB was used in the secondmore » application. Arm B was the reverse of arm A. The International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses and doses to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, 2-cm{sup 3}, 5-cm{sup 3}, and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes of bladder and rectum were compared. The patients were also subjectively assessed for the ease of application and the time taken for application. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled; however, 3 patients had to be excluded because the BRSB could not be inserted owing to unfavorable local anatomy. Thus 40 patients (80 plans) were evaluated. The application was difficult in 3 patients with BRSB, and in 2 patients with BRSB the application time was prolonged. There was no significant difference in bladder doses to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, 5 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and ICRU bladder point. Statistically significant dose reductions to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, and 2-cm{sup 3} volumes for rectum were observed with the BRSB. No significant differences in 5-cm{sup 3} and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes and ICRU rectum point were observed. Conclusion: A statistically significant dose reduction was observed for small high-dose volumes in rectum with the BRSB. The doses to bladder were comparable for BRSB and gauze packing. Transparent

  16. [Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with high doses od metformin in older people diabetic].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Hugo; Masferrer, Dominique; Lera, Lydia; Arancibia, Estrella; Angel, Barbara; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate if B12 deficiency is associated with the use of metformin in the elderly diabetics. Case-control study in diabetic OP. Cases (n = 137) were defined as elderly with B12 < 221 pmol/L and controls (n = 279) elderly with B12 > 221 pmol/L. Four categories of metformin use were defined: non-users, ≤850 mg/day, > 850 and < 2,550 mg/day and ≥2,550 mg/day. Metformin ≥2,550 mg/day was high doses considered. The crude OR for B12 deficiency and consumption of Metformin were calculated. Logistic regression models were developed to explore the association between B12 deficiency and metformin dose. The research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of INTA. The age of cases and controls was (70.2 years vs 68.6 years (p < 0.05). The 62% were women in cases vs 74.9% in controls (p < 0.05). The 73% of cases and 76% of controls used metformin (p < 0.05) the average consumption of metformin was de 1,954.3 mg/day (SD: 1,063.2) in cases and 1,696.6 mg/day (SD: 1,074.4) in controls (p < 0.05). The use of 2,550 mg/day was observed in 29.2% of cases and 19.3% for controls (p < 0.05). It was observed that OP who consumed high doses of metformin had 1.9 times the risk of B12 deficiency (OR: 1.9; 95%CI: 1,08- 3,30). These results show a strong association between high doses of metformin and low levels of vitamin B12 in diabetic elderly. This project was funded by FONIS SA11I2092. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulatory T Cell Responses to High-Dose Methylprednisolone in Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mathian, Alexis; Jouenne, Romain; Chader, Driss; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Haroche, Julien; Fadlallah, Jehane; Claër, Laetitia; Musset, Lucile; Gorochov, Guy; Amoura, Zahir; Miyara, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    A slight increase in the proportion of circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients taking oral prednisone. The effects of intravenous (IV) high dose methylprednisolone (MP) on Tregs have not yet been described, especially in active SLE. We prospectively analyzed the proportion of circulating CD4+ Treg cell subsets defined as follows: (1) naïve Treg (nTreg) FoxP3lowCD45RA+ cells; (2) effector Treg (eTreg) FoxP3highCD45RA- cells; and (3) non-suppressive FoxP3lowCD45RA- cells (non-regulatory Foxp3low T cells). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active SLE were analyzed before the first infusion of IV high dose MP (day 0) and the following days (day 1, day 2, ±day 3 and ±day 8). The activity of SLE was assessed by the SLEDAI score. Seventeen patients were included. Following MP infusions, the median (range) percentage of eTregs significantly increased from 1.62% (0.53-8.43) at day 0 to 2.80% (0.83-14.60) at day 1 (p = 0.003 versus day 0), 4.64% (0.50-12.40) at day 2 (p = 0.06 versus day 1) and 7.50% (1.02-20.70) at day 3 (p = 0.008 versus day 2), and declined to baseline values at day 8. Expanding eTreg cells were actively proliferating, as they expressed Ki-67. The frequency of non-regulatory FoxP3low T cells decreased from 6.39% (3.20-17.70) at day 0 to 4.74% (1.03-9.72) at day 2 (p = 0.005); nTreg frequency did not change. All patients clinically improved immediately after MP pulses. The absence of flare after one year of follow up was associated with a higher frequency of eTregs at day 2. IV high dose MP induces a rapid, dramatic and transient increase in circulating regulatory T cells. This increase may participate in the preventive effect of MP on subsequent flares in SLE.

  18. Regulatory T Cell Responses to High-Dose Methylprednisolone in Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chader, Driss; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Haroche, Julien; Fadlallah, Jehane; Claër, Laetitia; Musset, Lucile; Gorochov, Guy; Amoura, Zahir; Miyara, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose A slight increase in the proportion of circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients taking oral prednisone. The effects of intravenous (IV) high dose methylprednisolone (MP) on Tregs have not yet been described, especially in active SLE. Methods We prospectively analyzed the proportion of circulating CD4+ Treg cell subsets defined as follows: (1) naïve Treg (nTreg) FoxP3lowCD45RA+ cells; (2) effector Treg (eTreg) FoxP3highCD45RA− cells; and (3) non-suppressive FoxP3lowCD45RA− cells (non-regulatory Foxp3low T cells). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active SLE were analyzed before the first infusion of IV high dose MP (day 0) and the following days (day 1, day 2, ±day 3 and ±day 8). The activity of SLE was assessed by the SLEDAI score. Results Seventeen patients were included. Following MP infusions, the median (range) percentage of eTregs significantly increased from 1.62% (0.53–8.43) at day 0 to 2.80% (0.83–14.60) at day 1 (p = 0.003 versus day 0), 4.64% (0.50–12.40) at day 2 (p = 0.06 versus day 1) and 7.50% (1.02–20.70) at day 3 (p = 0.008 versus day 2), and declined to baseline values at day 8. Expanding eTreg cells were actively proliferating, as they expressed Ki-67. The frequency of non-regulatory FoxP3low T cells decreased from 6.39% (3.20–17.70) at day 0 to 4.74% (1.03–9.72) at day 2 (p = 0.005); nTreg frequency did not change. All patients clinically improved immediately after MP pulses. The absence of flare after one year of follow up was associated with a higher frequency of eTregs at day 2. Conclusion IV high dose MP induces a rapid, dramatic and transient increase in circulating regulatory T cells. This increase may participate in the preventive effect of MP on subsequent flares in SLE. PMID:26629828

  19. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciT

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; Lis, Eric

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included diseasemore » progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias

  20. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  1. High doses of S-methylcysteine cause hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis accompanied by engulfment of mitochondaria by nucleus.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed A; Abdo, Walied S; El-Maddaway, Mustafa; Nasr, Nasr M; Gaber, Rasha A; El-Shetry, Eman S; Saleh, Ayman A; Alzahrani, Faisal Abdulrahman Ali; Abdelhady, Doaa H

    2017-10-01

    Despite its important role as a medicinal plant, some studies reported a toxic effect for garlic (Allium sativum) when given in higher doses. Herein, we investigated the possible cardiotoxic effects of high doses of S-methylcysteine (SMC), a water soluble organosulfur compound present in garlic. Rats were orally administered SMC at a low dose (50mg), high dose (150mg) and very high dose (300mg)/kg body weight, or saline (control) for 10days. High and very high doses of SMC resulted in a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers [aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT)], as well as oxidative stress marker nitric oxide (NO) concentration in heart and a significant decrease in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, ultrastructure findings in myocardium of rats treated by high and very high doses showed inter-bundle vacuolation, loss of myofibrils, and centripetal movement of mitochondria towards nucleus. The mitochondria were partially surrounded by nuclear membrane at high dose SMC, and completely engulfed by nucleus at very high dose. This centripetal movement of mitochondria accompanied by cardiomyocytes hypoxia-induced apoptosis as evident by increasing TUNEL positive cells as well as upregulation of apoptotic genes (caspase3 and Bax), hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α), dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1) and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl2. We conclude that high and very high doses of SMC cause hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis accompanied by engulfment of mitochondria by nucleus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. aPKC-ι/P-Sp1/Snail signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immunosuppression in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yawei; Yao, Wei; Yang, Tao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Weipeng; Wang, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly malignant bile duct cancer that tends to invade and metastasize early. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, as well as in cancer cell evasion of host immunity. In this study, we investigated the interaction between atypical protein kinase C-iota (aPKC-ι) and Snail in the regulation of EMT and its relationship to CCA immunosuppression. Our results demonstrated that aPKC-ι, Snail, and infiltrated immunosuppressive cells were significantly up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and linked to poor prognosis. aPKC-ι induced EMT and immunosuppression by regulating Snail in vitro and in vivo, although aPKC-ι did not directly interact with Snail in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. To further clarify the molecular interaction between aPKC-ι and Snail in relation to EMT, quantitative iTRAQ-based phosphoproteomic analysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were conducted to identify the substrates of aPKC-ι-dependent phosphorylation. Combined with coimmunoprecipitation, we showed that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was directly phosphorylated by aPKC-ι on Ser59 (P-Sp1). Both Sp1 and P-Sp1 were up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and associated with clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CCA patients. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that P-Sp1 regulated Snail expression by increasing Sp1 binding to the Snail promoter. P-Sp1 also regulated aPKC-ι/Snail-induced EMT-like changes and immunosuppression in CCA cells. Our findings further indicated that CCA cells with EMT-like features appear to generate immunosuppressive natural T regulatory-like cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4 + )CD25 - cells rather than to increase CD4 + CD25 + natural T regulatory cells, in part by mediating T regulatory-inducible cytokines such as transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin 2. These results demonstrate that a

  3. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy of high-dose losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yuhei; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Norimatsu, Kenji; Hitaka, Yuka; Nagata, Itsuki; Koyoshi, Rie; Morii, Joji; Kuwano, Takashi; Uehara, Yoshinari; Inoue, Asao; Shirotani, Tetsuro; Fujisawa, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Eiyu; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of high-dose losartan (100 mg/day) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 12.5 mg/day) compared with those of the combination of high-dose telmisartan (80 mg/day) and HCTZ (12.5 mg/day). Forty hypertensive patients who received a combination of high-dose telmisartan and HCTZ were enrolled. We applied a changeover strategy with switching from a combination of high-dose telmisartan and HCTZ to high-dose losartan and HCTZ. We divided the patients into two groups; those who achieved the target blood pressure (controlled group) and those who did not reach the target blood pressure (uncontrolled group) before the changeover and performed further analysis. The uncontrolled group showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (143±12 mmHg to 126±11 mmHg at three months). In addition, serum uric acid significantly decreased in all subjects, and in each of the controlled and uncontrolled groups. There were no significant changes in other biochemical parameters, such as potassium and hemoglobin A1c, at three months after the changeover in all subjects. Combination therapy with high-dose losartan and HCTZ was superior to the combination of telmisartan and HCTZ with respect to significant decreases in systolic blood pressure and serum uric acid in hypertensive patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Improved Behavior and Neuropsychological Function in Children With ROHHAD After High-Dose Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Rane, Shruti; McReynolds, Lisa J; Steppan, Diana A; Chen, Allen R; Paz-Priel, Ido

    2016-07-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare, generally progressive, and potentially fatal syndrome of unclear etiology. The syndrome is characterized by normal development followed by a sudden, rapid hyperphagic weight gain beginning during the preschool period, hypothalamic dysfunction, and central hypoventilation, and is often accompanied by personality changes and developmental regression, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe 2 children who had symptomatic and neuropsychological improvement after high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment. Our experience supports an autoimmune pathogenesis and provides the first neuropsychological profile of patients with rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. An unusual case of episodic SUNCT responding to high doses of topiramate.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Modar; Maniyar, Farooq; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) are rare. Cluster headaches comprise the majority, with short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) being the rarest and shortest in duration. The majority of SUNCT are primary with a few cases occurring secondary to posterior fossa or pituitary lesions. Although activities like exercise or blowing of the nose can trigger SUNCT, onset during orgasm has not been described. Short-lasting aura has been described in TACs including SUNCT, but persistence of focal symptoms and signs without an underlying structural lesion have not been described. Lastly, treatment of SUNCT is difficult, with lamotrigine being the most common effective reported. We report a case of episodic SUNCT with symptoms suggestive of brainstem stroke that completely resolved spontaneously for which no underlying structural cause was found. The onset of first attack occurred during orgasm, and the patient responded to a high dose of topiramate. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  6. Low, but not high, dose caffeine is a readily available probe for adenosine actions.

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Bertil B; Yang, Jiangning; Wang, Yingqing

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is very widely used and knowledge of its mode of action can be used to gain an understanding of basal physiological regulation. This review makes the point that caffeine is - in low doses - an antagonist of adenosine acting at A 1 , A 2A and A 2B receptors. We use published and unpublished data to make the point that high dose effects of caffeine are not only qualitatively different but have a different underlying mechanism. Therefore one must be careful in only using epidemiological or experimental data where rather low doses of caffeine are used to draw conclusions about the physiology and pathophysiology of adenosine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-dose intravenous levetiracetam for acute seizure exacerbation in children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Depositario-Cabacar, Dewi T; Peters, Jurriaan M; Pong, Amanda W; Roth, Julie; Rotenberg, Alexander; Riviello, James J; Takeoka, Masanori

    2010-07-01

    We review our experience with high-dose intravenous levetiracetam (IV-LEV) for acute seizure exacerbations in nine children with medically intractable epilepsy. All children had acute repetitive seizures-while on chronic antiepileptic drugs-that either led to hospitalization (eight) or occurred during hospitalization (one), and received doses of IV-LEV of 150 mg/kg/day or greater, with a mean dose of 228 +/- 48 mg/kg/day. Eight of nine children had resolution of the acute repetitive seizures. Seizure frequency was reduced to less than baseline in seven children (seizure-free in two, >/=80% reduction in four, and 50% reduction in one). Except for one child with increased seizures, IV-LEV was well tolerated in all children without complications.

  8. High-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy inverse planning on dose-volume criteria by simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Deist, T M; Gorissen, B L

    2016-02-07

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy is a tumor treatment method where a highly radioactive source is brought in close proximity to the tumor. In this paper we develop a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize the dwell times at preselected dwell positions to maximize tumor coverage under dose-volume constraints on the organs at risk. Compared to existing algorithms, our algorithm has advantages in terms of speed and objective value and does not require an expensive general purpose solver. Its success mainly depends on exploiting the efficiency of matrix multiplication and a careful selection of the neighboring states. In this paper we outline its details and make an in-depth comparison with existing methods using real patient data.

  9. In vivo TLD dose measurements in catheter-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Adlienė, Diana; Jakštas, Karolis; Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis

    2015-07-01

    Routine in vivo dosimetry is well established in external beam radiotherapy; however, it is restricted mainly to detection of gross errors in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy due to complicated measurements in the field of steep dose gradients in the vicinity of radioactive source and high uncertainties. The results of in vivo dose measurements using TLD 100 mini rods and TLD 'pin worms' in catheter-based HDR brachytherapy are provided in this paper alongside with their comparison with corresponding dose values obtained using calculation algorithm of the treatment planning system. Possibility to perform independent verification of treatment delivery in HDR brachytherapy using TLDs is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. High-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy: the nuts and bolts of starting a program

    PubMed Central

    Moningi, Shalini; Armour, Elwood P.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Efron, Jonathan E.; Gearhart, Susan L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Kumar, Rachit; Le, Yi; Kien Ng, Sook; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Zellars, Richard C.; Ellsworth, Susannah G.; Ahuja, Nita

    2014-01-01

    High-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) has historically provided effective local control (LC) for patients with unresectable and recurrent tumors. However, IORT is limited to only a few specialized institutions and it can be difficult to initiate an HDR-IORT program. Herein, we provide a brief overview on how to initiate and implement an HDR-IORT program for a selected group of patients with gastrointestinal and pelvic solid tumors using a multidisciplinary approach. Proper administration of HDR-IORT requires institutional support and a joint effort among physics staff, oncologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses. In order to determine the true efficacy of IORT for various malignancies, collaboration among institutions with established IORT programs is needed. PMID:24790628

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of high-dose daptomycin in suspected Staphylococcus aureus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Riser, M Shawn; Bland, Christopher M; Rudisill, Celeste N; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2010-11-01

    To report a case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia with suspected MSSA meningitis treated with high-dose daptomycin assessed with concurrent serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. A 54-year-old male presented to the emergency department with generalized weakness and presumed health-care-associated pneumonia shown on chest radiograph. Treatment was empirically initiated with vancomycin, levofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Blood cultures revealed S. aureus susceptible to oxacillin. Empiric antibiotic treatment was narrowed to nafcillin on day 4. On day 8, the patient developed acute renal failure (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dL, increased from 1.2 mg/dL the previous day and 0.8 mg/dL on admission). The patient's Glasgow Coma Score was 3, with normal findings shown on computed tomography scan of the head 72 hours following an episode of cardiac arrest on day 10. The patient experienced relapsing MSSA bacteremia on day 9, increasing the suspicion for a central nervous system (CNS) infection. Nafcillin was discontinued and daptomycin 9 mg/kg daily was initiated for suspected meningitis and was continued until the patient's death on day 16. Daptomycin serum and CSF trough concentrations were 11.21 μg/mL and 0.52 μg/mL, respectively, prior to the third dose. Lumbar puncture results were inconclusive and no further blood cultures were positive for MSSA. Creatine kinase levels were normal prior to daptomycin therapy and were not reassessed. Daptomycin was initiated in our patient secondary to possible nafcillin-induced acute interstitial nephritis and relapsing bacteremia. At a dose of 9 mg/kg, resultant penetration of 5% was higher than in previous reports, more consistent with inflamed meninges. High-dose daptomycin may be an alternative option for MSSA bacteremia with or without a CNS source in patients who have failed or cannot tolerate standard therapy. Further clinical evaluation in patients with confirmed meningitis is

  12. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  13. Quality Control of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Treatment Delivery Analysis Using Statistical Process Control

    SciT

    Able, Charles M., E-mail: cable@wfubmc.edu; Bright, Megan; Frizzell, Bart

    Purpose: Statistical process control (SPC) is a quality control method used to ensure that a process is well controlled and operates with little variation. This study determined whether SPC was a viable technique for evaluating the proper operation of a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment delivery system. Methods and Materials: A surrogate prostate patient was developed using Vyse ordnance gelatin. A total of 10 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were placed from prostate base to apex. Computed tomography guidance was used to accurately position the first detector in each train at the base. The plan consisted of 12 needles withmore » 129 dwell positions delivering a prescribed peripheral dose of 200 cGy. Sixteen accurate treatment trials were delivered as planned. Subsequently, a number of treatments were delivered with errors introduced, including wrong patient, wrong source calibration, wrong connection sequence, single needle displaced inferiorly 5 mm, and entire implant displaced 2 mm and 4 mm inferiorly. Two process behavior charts (PBC), an individual and a moving range chart, were developed for each dosimeter location. Results: There were 4 false positives resulting from 160 measurements from 16 accurately delivered treatments. For the inaccurately delivered treatments, the PBC indicated that measurements made at the periphery and apex (regions of high-dose gradient) were much more sensitive to treatment delivery errors. All errors introduced were correctly identified by either the individual or the moving range PBC in the apex region. Measurements at the urethra and base were less sensitive to errors. Conclusions: SPC is a viable method for assessing the quality of HDR treatment delivery. Further development is necessary to determine the most effective dose sampling, to ensure reproducible evaluation of treatment delivery accuracy.« less

  14. Mechanical Performance of Ferritic Martensitic Steels for High Dose Applications in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered for core applications and pressure vessels in Generation IV reactors as well as first walls and blankets for fusion reactors. There are significant scientific data on testing and industrial experience in making this class of alloys worldwide. This experience makes F/M steels an attractive candidate. In this article, tensile behavior, fracture toughness and impact property, and creep behavior of the F/M steels under neutron irradiations to high doses with a focus on high Cr content (8 to 12) are reviewed. Tensile properties are very sensitive to irradiation temperature. Increase in yield and tensile strength (hardening) is accompanied with a loss of ductility and starts at very low doses under irradiation. The degradation of mechanical properties is most pronounced at <0.3 T M ( T M is melting temperature) and up to 10 dpa (displacement per atom). Ferritic/martensitic steels exhibit a high fracture toughness after irradiation at all temperatures even below 673 K (400 °C), except when tested at room temperature after irradiations below 673 K (400 °C), which shows a significant reduction in fracture toughness. Creep studies showed that for the range of expected stresses in a reactor environment, the stress exponent is expected to be approximately one and the steady state creep rate in the absence of swelling is usually better than austenitic stainless steels both in terms of the creep rate and the temperature sensitivity of creep. In short, F/M steels show excellent promise for high dose applications in nuclear reactors.

  15. High doses of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate trigger a stress-like response.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Humberto; Delgado-Morales, Raul; Sanz-Garcia, Ancor; Armario, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by a wide range of stimuli, including drugs. Here we report that in male rats, a dose of sodium butyrate (NaBu) that is typically used to inhibit histone deacetylation (1200 mg/kg) increased the peripheral levels of HPA hormones and glucose. In a further experiment, we compared the effects of two different doses of NaBu (200 and 1200 mg/kg) and equimolar saline solutions on peripheral neuroendocrine markers and brain c-Fos expression to demonstrate a specific stress-like effect of NaBu that is not related to hypertonicity and to localise putatively involved brain areas. Only the high dose of NaBu increased the plasma levels of stress markers. The equimolar (hypertonic) saline solution also activated the HPA axis and the c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a key area for the control of the HPA axis, but the effects were of a lower magnitude than those of NaBu. Regarding other brain areas, group differences in c-Fos expression were not observed in the medial prefrontal cortex or the medial amygdala, but they were observed in the central amygdala and the lateral ventral septum. However, only the latter area of the NaBu group showed enhanced c-Fos expression that was significantly higher than that after hypertonic saline. The present data indicate that high doses of NaBu appear to act as a pharmacological stressor, and this fact should be taken into account when using this drug to study the role of epigenetic processes in learning and emotional behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High doses of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride accelerate onset of CNS oxygen toxicity seizures in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Pilla, R; Held, H E; Landon, C S; Dean, J B

    2013-08-29

    Pseudoephedrine (PSE) salts (hydrochloride and sulfate) are commonly used as nasal and paranasal decongestants by scuba divers. Anecdotal reports from the Divers Alert Network suggest that taking PSE prior to diving while breathing pure O₂ increases the risk for CNS oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT), which manifests as seizures. We hypothesized that high doses of PSE reduce the latency time to seizure (LS) in unanesthetized rats breathing 5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) of hyperbaric oxygen. Sixty-three male rats were implanted with radio-transmitters that recorded electroencephalogram activity and body temperature. After ≥7-day recovery, and 2 h before "diving", each rat was administered either saline solution (control) or PSE hydrochloride intragastrically at the following doses (mg PSE/kg): 0, 40, 80, 100, 120, 160, and 320. Rats breathed pure O₂ and were dived to 5ATA until the onset of behavioral seizures coincident with neurological seizures. LS was the time elapsed between reaching 5ATA and exhibiting seizures. We observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the LS at doses of 100-320 mg/kg, whereas no significant differences in LS from control value were observed at doses ≤80 mg/kg. Our findings showed that high doses of PSE accelerate the onset of CNS-OT seizures in unanesthetized rats breathing 5ATA of poikilocapnic hyperoxia. Extrapolating our findings to humans, we conclude that the recommended daily dose of PSE should not be abused prior to diving with oxygen-enriched gas mixes or pure O₂. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug elution from high-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement: a comparative, in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Giorgio; De Gori, Marco; Calonego, Giovanni; Della Bora, Tommaso; Caroleo, Benedetto; Galasso, Olimpio

    2014-11-01

    High-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement (ALAC) is used for managing peri-prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The marked increase in resistant high-virulence bacteria is drawing the attention of physicians toward alternative antimicrobial formulations loaded into acrylic bone cement. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the elution kinetics of 14 different high-dose ALACs. All ALAC samples showed a burst release of antibiotics in the first hour, progressively decreasing over time, and elution curves strictly adhered to a nonlinear regression analysis formula. Among aminoglycosides, commonly seen as the most appropriate antibiotics to be loaded into the bone cement, the highest elution rate was that of tobramycin. Among the glycopeptides, a class of antibiotics that should be considered to treat PJIs because of the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance, vancomycin showed better elution than teicoplanin. Clindamycin, which can be associated with aminoglycosides to prepare ALACs and represents a useful option against the most common pathogens responsible for PJIs, showed the highest absolute and relative elutions among all the tested formulations. A noticeable elution was also detected for colistin, an antibiotic of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria. The current study demonstrates theoretical advantages in the preparation of ALAC for some antibiotics not routinely used in the clinical setting for PJIs. The use of these antibiotics based on the infecting bacteria sensitivity may represent a useful option for physicians to eradicate PJIs. In vivo testing should be considered in the future to confirm the results of this study. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Assessment of simulated high-dose partial-body irradiation by PCC-R assay.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ivonne; García, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I; Gregoire, Eric; González, Jorge E; Morales, Wilfredo; Martin, Cécile; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Voisin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of the dose and the irradiated fraction of the body is important information in the primary medical response in case of a radiological accident. The PCC-R assay has been developed for high-dose estimations, but little attention has been given to its applicability for partial-body irradiations. In the present work we estimated the doses and the percentage of the irradiated fraction in simulated partial-body radiation exposures at high doses using the PCC-R assay. Peripheral whole blood of three healthy donors was exposed to doses from 0-20 Gy, with ⁶⁰Co gamma radiation. To simulate partial body irradiations, irradiated and non-irradiated blood was mixed to obtain proportions of irradiated blood from 10-90%. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with Colcemid and Calyculin-A before harvest. Conventional and triage scores were performed for each dose, proportion of irradiated blood and donor. The Papworth's u test was used to evaluate the PCC-R distribution per cell. A dose-response relationship was fitted according to the maximum likelihood method using the frequencies of PCC-R obtained from 100% irradiated blood. The dose to the partially irradiated blood was estimated using the Contaminated Poisson method. A new D₀ value of 10.9 Gy was calculated and used to estimate the initial fraction of irradiated cells. The results presented here indicate that by PCC-R it is possible to distinguish between simulated partial- and whole-body irradiations by the u-test, and to accurately estimate the dose from 10-20 Gy, and the initial fraction of irradiated cells in the interval from 10-90%.

  19. Elimination of ascorbic acid after high-dose infusion in prostate cancer patients: a pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Torben K; Højgaard, Martin; Andersen, Jon T; Poulsen, Henrik E; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Mikines, Kári J

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with high-dose intravenous (IV) ascorbic acid (AA) is used in complementary and alternative medicine for various conditions including cancer. Cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines has been observed with millimolar concentrations of AA. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of high-dose IV AA. The purpose of this study was to assess the basic kinetic variables in human beings over a relevant AA dosing interval for proper design of future clinical trials. Ten patients with metastatic prostate cancer were treated for 4 weeks with fixed AA doses of 5, 30 and 60 g. AA was measured consecutively in plasma and indicated first-order elimination kinetics throughout the dosing range with supra-physiological concentrations. The target dose of 60 g AA IV produced a peak plasma AA concentration of 20.3 mM. Elimination half-life was 1.87 hr (mean, S.D. ± 0.40), volume of distribution 0.19 L/kg (S.D. ±0.05) and clearance rate 6.02 L/hr (100 mL/min). No differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed between weeks/doses. A relatively fast first-order elimination with half-life of about 2 hr makes it impossible to maintain AA concentrations in the potential cytotoxic range after infusion stop in prostate cancer patients with normal kidney function. We propose a regimen with a bolus loading followed by a maintenance infusion based on the calculated clearance. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Gafchromic EBT-XD film: Dosimetry characterization in high-dose, volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Fumika; Sumida, Naoki; Okazue, Toshiya; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2016-11-08

    Radiochromic films are important tools for assessing complex dose distributions. Gafchromic EBT-XD films have been designed for optimal performance in the 40-4,000 cGy dose range. We investigated the dosimetric characteristics of these films, including their dose-response, postexposure density growth, and dependence on scanner orientation, beam energy, and dose rate with applications to high-dose volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification. A 10 MV beam from a TrueBeam STx linear accelerator was used to irradiate the films with doses in the 0-4,000 cGy range. Postexposure coloration was analyzed at postirradiation times ranging from several minutes to 48 h. The films were also irradiated with 6 MV (dose rate (DR): 600 MU/min), 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) (DR: 1,400 MU/ min), and 10 MV FFF (DR: 2,400 MU/min) beams to determine the energy and dose-rate dependence. For clinical examinations, we compared the dose distribu-tion measured with EBT-XD films and calculated by the planning system for four VMAT cases. The red channel of the EBT-XD film exhibited a wider dynamic range than the green and blue channels. Scanner orientation yielded a variation of ~ 3% in the net optical density (OD). The difference between the film front and back scan orientations was negligible, with variation of ~ 1.3% in the net OD. The net OD increased sharply within the first 6 hrs after irradiation and gradually afterwards. No significant difference was observed for the beam energy and dose rate, with a variation of ~ 1.5% in the net OD. The gamma passing rates (at 3%, 3 mm) between the film- measured and treatment planning system (TPS)-calculated dose distributions under a high dose VMAT plan in the absolute dose mode were more than 98.9%. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. A statewide effort to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing through coordinated care organizations.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Daniel M; Alley, Lindsey; Leichtling, Gillian; Korthuis, P Todd; Hildebran, Christi

    2018-05-01

    Oregon's Medicaid program is delivered through 16 Coordinated Care Organizations (CCOs) participating in a statewide performance improvement program to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing. CCOs were allowed flexibility to develop their own dose targets and any policies, trainings, guidelines, and/or materials to meet these targets. In this study, we characterize CCO strategies to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing across the 16 CCOs. We reviewed relevant CCO documents and conducted semi-structured interviews with CCO administrators to acquire opioid-related policies, practices, timelines and contextual factors. We applied a systematic coding procedure to develop a comprehensive description of each CCO's strategy. We used administrative data from the state to summarize contextual utilization data for each CCO. Most CCOs selected a target daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose of 90 mg. Sixteen issued quantity limits related to dose, eight restricted specific drug formulations (short-acting or long-acting), and 11 allowed for time-limited taper plan periods for patients over threshold. Many CCOs also employed provider trainings, feedback reports, and/or onsite technical assistance. Other innovations included incentive measures, electronic health record alerts, and toolkits with materials on local alternative therapy resources and strategies for patient communication. CCOs leveraging collaborations with regional partners appeared to mount a greater intensity of interventions than independently operating CCOs. CCOs developed a diversity of interventions to confront high-risk opioid prescribing within their organization. As healthcare systems mount interventions to reduce risky opioid prescribing, it is critical to carefully describe these activities and examine their impact on process and health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciT

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineatedmore » on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.« less

  3. High-Dose Filgrastim Treatment of Nonregenerative Pancytopenia Associated With Chronic Canine Ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Mauricio; Arteaga, Rafael; Calvo, Gustavo

    2017-03-01

    To report the management and outcome of a dog with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and nonregenerative pancytopenia, with high doses of filgrastim. An 8-year-old male, mixed-breed dog, weighing 5.6kg, presented with a 1-month history of hyporexia, adynamia, and a weight loss of approximately 1kg. The general condition of the dog was observed to be poor as follows: lethargy, tachycardia, marked pallor of the mucous membranes, petechiae on the abdomen, hepatosplenomegaly, and cervical lymphadenopathy. A complete blood count analysis revealed severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. A direct immunofluorescence assay using anti-Ehrlichia canis-immunoglobin G (1:400) yielded positive result. The dog was diagnosed with nonregenerative pancytopenia associated with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The dog presented poor prognostic signs (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and severe anemia). The dog was treated with antibiotics and a short course of high-dose filgrastim (50µg/kg, SC, q 48h for 4 days) to stimulate bone marrow response, prednisone to decrease peripheral platelet destruction, and an iron supplement to compensate for the iron deficiency in the bone deposits. Although temporary side effects associated with filgrastim use, such as bone pain, bleeding, and the worsening of thrombocytopenia, were observed, the treatment improved the clinical course and the cell counts in less than a month. The treatment protocol used in this case might be an alternative for treating cases of severe myelosuppression. This treatment plan can substantially change the clinical course of the disease for the better, compared to conventional treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  5. Effect of prolonged use of high dose of tibolone on the vagina of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Helene Nara; de Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann; Soares Filho, Porphirio José; Pantaleão, José Augusto Soares; Guzmán-Silva, Maria Angélica

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of prolonged use of high dose of tibolone on the vagina of ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed on 14 rats weighing 250 g. Thirty days later, vaginal smears were collected verifying the menopause status by anoestrus cytology. Rats were divided randomly into groups: experimental rats (n = 9) received 1 mg tibolone/day orally and control rats (n = 6) received placebo (carboxymethylcellulose). After 150 days, all rats were sedated and euthanized by cervical displacement. The vagina was removed, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, sampled and processed for paraffin embedding. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius red, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and PAS-diastase, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin. Cell proliferation was analysed by immunohistochemistry to detect Ki67. Histomorphometric analyses were performed for epithelial thickness, per cent area of collagen fibres and blood vessels, mast cells and Ki67-positive nuclei per mm of basal membrane. Means and standard error of means were calculated, and data were compared using the Mann-Whitney test, with significance level at P < 0.05. In the vagina, epithelial thickness, number of Ki67-positive nuclei per mm of basal membrane, number of vessels and number of mast cells were significantly higher in the tibolone group when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of glycogen and glycoproteins in the vaginal epithelium was modified by tibolone. Tibolone administered in high dose and for a long period has a trophic effect, reversing vaginal atrophy, and has no dysplastic or neoplastic effect in the vagina of ovariectomized rats. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  6. Dosimetric Effects of Air Pockets Around High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Vaginal Cylinders

    SciT

    Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.ed; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Most physicians use a single-channel vaginal cylinder for postoperative endometrial cancer brachytherapy. Recent published data have identified air pockets between the vaginal cylinders and the vaginal mucosa. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, size, and dosimetric effects of these air pockets. Methods and Materials: 25 patients receiving postoperative vaginal cuff brachytherapy with a high-dose rate vaginal cylinders were enrolled in this prospective data collection study. Patients were treated with 6 fractions of 200 to 400 cGy per fraction prescribed at 5 mm depth. Computed tomography simulation for brachytherapy treatment planning was performed for each fraction.more » The quantity, volume, and dosimetric impact of the air pockets surrounding the cylinder were quantified. Results: In 25 patients, a total of 90 air pockets were present in 150 procedures (60%). Five patients had no air pockets present during any of their treatments. The average number of air pockets per patient was 3.6, with the average total air pocket volume being 0.34 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-1.32 cm{sup 3}). The average dose reduction to the vaginal mucosa at the air pocket was 27% (range, 9-58%). Ten patients had no air pockets on their first fraction but air pockets occurred in subsequent fractions. Conclusion: Air pockets between high-dose rate vaginal cylinder applicators and the vaginal mucosa are present in the majority of fractions of therapy, and their presence varies from patient to patient and fraction to fraction. The existence of air pockets results in reduced radiation dose to the vaginal mucosa.« less

  7. HIGH-DOSE HIGH-FREQUENCY AFLIBERCEPT FOR RECALCITRANT NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    PubMed

    You, Qi Sheng; Gaber, Raouf; Meshi, Amit; Ramkumar, Hema L; Alam, Mostafa; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Freeman, William R

    2018-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of monthly (0.1 mL/4 mg) aflibercept for refractory neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet age-related macular degeneration). This was a retrospective interventional case series in which patients with wet age-related macular degeneration were treated with stepwise dose escalation. Nonvitrectomized patients resistant to monthly (Q4W) ranibizumab/bevacizumab were switched to 2 mg aflibercept every 8 weeks. With resistance, they were escalated to Q4W 2 mg aflibercept, then Q4W 4 mg (high dose high frequency, 4Q4W) aflibercept. Resistance was defined as ≥2 recurrences after being dry following ≥3 injections or persistent exudation on treatment of ≥5 injections. Thirty-three eyes of 28 patients were treated with 4Q4W aflibercept and followed for a mean of 16 months. A dry retina (no intraretinal or subretinal fluid) was achieved after initiating 4Q4W aflibercept treatment at a mean of 3.8 months. Central foveal thickness, maximum foveal thickness, intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and retinal pigment detachment height decreased significantly at 1 month after initiating the 4Q4W aflibercept, and the morphologic therapeutic effect was sustained until the last visit. Forty-five percent of eyes had one or more lines of vision improvement. New geographic atrophy developed in 9% of eyes during follow-up. No ocular or systemic adverse events occurred after initiating 4Q4W aflibercept. Intravitreal high-dose high-frequency aflibercept is an effective treatment for patients with refractory wet age-related macular degeneration.

  8. High-Dose Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) for Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Reddy, Akhila; Tannir, Nizar M; Chisholm, Gary B; Lee, Richard Tsong; Lopez, Gabriel; Escalante, Carmen P; Manzullo, Ellen F; Frisbee Hume, Susan; Williams, Janet L; Cohen, Lorenzo; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and severe symptom in patients with cancer. The number and efficacy of available treatments for CRF are limited. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the safety of high-dose Panax ginseng (PG) for CRF. In this prospective, open-label study, 30 patients with CRF (≥4/10) received high-dose PG at 800 mg orally daily for 29 days. Frequency and type of side effects were determined by the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, day 15, and day 29. Global Symptom Evaluation (GSE) was assessed at day 29. Of the 30 patients enrolled, 24 (80%) were evaluable. The median age was 58 years; 50% were females, and 84% were white. No severe (≥grade 3) adverse events related to the study drug were reported. Of the 24 evaluable patients, 21 (87%) had an improved (by ≥3 points) FACIT-F score by day 15. The mean ESAS score (standard deviation) for well-being improved from 4.67 (2.04) to 3.50 (2.34) (P = .01374), and mean score for appetite improved from 4.29 (2.79) to 2.96 (2.46) (P = .0097). GSE score of PG for fatigue was ≥3 in 15/24 patients (63%) with median improvement of 5. PG is safe and improves CRF fatigue as well as overall quality of life, appetite, and sleep at night. Randomized controlled trials of PG for CRF are justified. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effects of high-dose gentamicin sulfate on neuromuscular blockade in halothane-anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Hague, B A; Martinez, E A; Hartsfield, S M

    1997-11-01

    To evaluate effects of a single high dose of gentamicin on neuromuscular function in horses anesthetized with halothane. 6 healthy adult horses. Halothane-anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and the right hind limb was immobilized in a reusable fiberglass cast fixed to a steel frame. The hoof was attached to a force transducer, and resting tension of 0.93 +/- 0.16 kg was maintained. A supramaximal train-of-four stimulus of 2 Hz for a duration of 0.25 millisecond was applied to the superficial peroneal nerve every 20 seconds by a square-wave stimulator. The force of the evoked digital extensor tension was recorded to determine first muscle twitch tension, compared with the baseline value (T1%) and the ratio of the force of the fourth twitch to the first twitch (T4/T1). Data were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after i.v. administration of vehicle or gentamicin (6 mg/kg of body weight). There was a significant (P = 0.04) treatment-time interaction for the effect of gentamicin on T1%; T1% associated with vehicle decreased from 100% to 92% during the 60- minute study period, but no decrease was associated with gentamicin. For T4/T1, there was no significant effect of treatment or time or treatment-time interaction between gentamicin and vehicle. Gentamicin did not cause a decrease in initial muscular strength, nor did it impair the muscles' ability to sustain strength. A single high dose of gentamicin does not cause significant neuromuscular blockade when administered alone to healthy horses anesthetized with halothane.

  10. Safety and T Cell Modulating Effects of High Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Menheere, Paul; Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background A poor vitamin D status has been associated with a high disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, we described associations between vitamin D status and peripheral T cell characteristics in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients. In the present study, we studied the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on safety and T cell related outcome measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifteen RRMS patients were supplemented with 20 000 IU/d vitamin D3 for 12 weeks. Vitamin D and calcium metabolism were carefully monitored, and T cell characteristics were studied by flowcytometry. All patients finished the protocol without side-effects, hypercalcaemia, or hypercalciuria. The median vitamin D status increased from 50 nmol/L (31–175) at week 0 to 380 nmol/L (151–535) at week 12 (P<0.001). During the study, 1 patient experienced an exacerbation of MS and was censored from the T cell analysis. The proportions of (naïve and memory) CD4+ Tregs remained unaffected. Although Treg suppressive function improved in several subjects, this effect was not significant in the total cohort (P = 0.143). An increased proportion of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells was found after supplementation (P = 0.021). Additionally, a decrease of the ratio between IFN-γ+ and IL-4+ CD4+ T cells was observed (P = 0.035). Conclusion/Significance Twelve week supplementation of high dose vitamin D3 in RRMS patients was well tolerated and did not induce decompensation of calcium metabolism. The skewing towards an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile supports the evidence on vitamin D as an immune-modulator, and may be used as outcome measure for upcoming randomized placebo-controlled trials. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00940719 PMID:21179201

  11. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for malignant facial skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Jumeau, R; Renard-Oldrini, S; Courrech, F; Buchheit, I; Oldrini, G; Vogin, G; Peiffert, D

    2016-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a well-known treatment in the management of skin tumors. For facial or scalp lesions, applicators have been developed to deliver non-invasive treatment. We present cases treated with customized applicators with high dose rate system. Patients with poor performance status treated for malignant skin lesions of the scalp or the facial skin between 2011 and 2014 were studied. Afterloading devices were chosen between Freiburg(®) Flap, silicone-mold or wax applicators. The clinical target volume (CTV) was created by adding margins to lesions (10mm to 20mm). The dose schedules were 25Gy in five fractions for postoperative lesions, 30Gy in six fractions for exclusive treatments and a single session of 8Gy could be considered for palliative treatments. In 30 months, 11 patients received a treatment for a total of 12 lesions. The median age was 80 years. The median follow-up was 17 months and the 2-year local control rate was 91%. The mean CTV surface was 41.1cm(2) with a mean thickness of 6.1mm. We conceived three wax applicators, used our silicone-mold eight times and the Freiburg(®) Flap one time. We observed only low-grade radiodermitis (grade I: 50%, grade II: 33%), and no high-grade skin toxicity. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for facial skin and scalp lesions is efficient and safe. It is a good modality to treat complex lesions in patients unfit for invasive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutropenia induced by high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin in treating neurosyphilis: Does it really matter?

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui-Rui; Wu, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Qi, Tengfei; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Lu, Haikong; Long, Fuquan; Gao, Zixiao; Zhang, Sufang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2017-03-01

    Prompt therapy with high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin for a prolonged period is critical for neurosyphilis patients to avoid irreversible sequelae. However, life-threatening neutropenia has been reported as a complication of prolonged therapy with high doses of benzylpenicillin when treating other diseases. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, presentation, management and prognosis of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia in treating neurosyphilis based on a large sample of syphilis patients in Shanghai. Between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2015, 1367 patients with neurosyphilis were treated with benzylpenicillin, 578 of whom were eligible for recruitment to this study. Among patients without medical co-morbidities, the total incidence of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia and severe neutropenia was 2.42% (95% CI: 1.38-4.13%) and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.06-1.39%), respectively. The treatment duration before onset of neutropenia ranged from 10 to 14 days, with a total cumulative dose of between 240 and 324 megaunits of benzylpenicillin. Neutropenia was accompanied by symptoms of chills and fever (5 patients), fatigue (2 patients), cough (1 patient), sore throat (1 patient), diarrhea (1 patient) and erythematous rash (1 patient). The severity of neutropenia was not associated with age, gender or type of neurosyphilis (p>0.05). Neutropenia, even when severe, was often tolerated and normalized within one week. A more serious neutropenia did not occur when reinstituting benzylpenicillin in patients with mild or moderate neutropenia nor when ceftriaxone was used three months after patients had previously experienced severe neutropenia. Benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia was uncommon in our cohort of patients. Continuation of therapy was possible with intensive surveillance for those with mild or moderate neutropenia. For severe neutropenia, it is not essential to aggressively use hematopoietic growth factors or broad-spectrum antibiotics for patients in

  13. De novo alloreactive memory CD8+ T cells develop following allogeneic challenge when CNI immunosuppression is delayed.

    PubMed

    Hart-Matyas, M; Gareau, A J; Hirsch, G M; Lee, T D G

    2015-01-01

    Allospecific memory T cells are a recognized threat to the maintenance of solid-organ transplants. Limited information exists regarding the development of alloreactive memory T cells when post-transplant immunosuppression is present. The clinical practice of delaying calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) initiation post-transplant may permit the development of a de novo allospecific memory population. We investigated the development of de novo allospecific memory CD8+ T cells following the introduction of CNI immunosuppression in a murine model using allogeneic cell priming. Recipient mice alloprimed with splenocytes from fully mismatched donors received cyclosporine (CyA), initiated at 0, 2, 6, or 10days post-prime. Splenocytes from recipients were analyzed by flow cytometry or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for evidence of memory cell formation. Memory and effector CD8+ T cell development was prevented when CyA was initiated at 0day or 2days post-prime (p<0.001), but not 6days post-prime. Following a boost challenge, these memory CD8+ T cells were capable of producing a similarly sized population of secondary effectors as recipients not treated with CyA (p>0.05). Delaying CyA up to 6days or later post-prime permits the development of functional de novo allospecific memory CD8+ T cells. The development of this potentially detrimental T cell population in patients could be prevented by starting CNI immunosuppression early post-transplant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-dose bee venom exposure induces similar tolerogenic B-cell responses in allergic patients and healthy beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Boonpiyathad, T; Meyer, N; Moniuszko, M; Sokolowska, M; Eljaszewicz, A; Wirz, O F; Tomasiak-Lozowska, M M; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, A; Ruxrungtham, K; van de Veen, W

    2017-03-01

    The involvement of B cells in allergen tolerance induction remains largely unexplored. This study investigates the role of B cells in this process, by comparing B-cell responses in allergic patients before and during allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and naturally exposed healthy beekeepers before and during the beekeeping season. Circulating B cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Phospholipase A2 (PLA)-specific B cells were identified using dual-color staining with fluorescently labeled PLA. Expression of regulatory B-cell-associated surface markers, interleukin-10, chemokine receptors, and immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotypes, was measured. Specific and total IgG1, IgG4, IgA, and IgE from plasma as well as culture supernatants of PLA-specific cells were measured by ELISA. Strikingly, similar responses were observed in allergic patients and beekeepers after venom exposure. Both groups showed increased frequencies of plasmablasts, PLA-specific memory B cells, and IL-10-secreting CD73 - CD25 + CD71 + B R 1 cells. Phospholipase A2-specific IgG4-switched memory B cells expanded after bee venom exposure. Interestingly, PLA-specific B cells showed increased CCR5 expression after high-dose allergen exposure while CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR6, and CCR7 expression remained unaffected. This study provides the first detailed characterization of allergen-specific B cells before and after bee venom tolerance induction. The observed B-cell responses in both venom immunotherapy-treated patients and naturally exposed beekeepers suggest a similar functional immunoregulatory role for B cells in allergen tolerance in both groups. These findings can be investigated in other AIT models to determine their potential as biomarkers of early and successful AIT responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Non-specific immunosuppressive effect induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans].

    PubMed

    Ochiai, K; Kurita, T; Kamino, Y; Ikeda, T

    1990-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that immunosuppressive effects are related to the pathogenicity of periodontopathic bacteria and the development of periodontal disease. We reported soluble sonic extracts (SE) from A. actinomycetemcomitans and B. intermedius had a strong immunosuppressive effect on primary response of anti-SRBC plaque forming cells. SE from A. actinomycetemcomitans inhibited the IgM----IgG isotype switching. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SE on secondary immunoresponse. As a control, mice (C3H/HeN) were immunized with intraperitoneal injection of SRBC and complete Freund's adjuvant, and additional SRBC after 30 days. In order to study the effect of SE from A. actinomycetemcomitans on secondary response, four groups were prepared in this study. One group of C3H/HeN mice were injected SE intravenously before the primary immunization of SRBC. The other three groups were given SE at different time on secondary injection of SRBC and designated the pre-, post-, or simultaneous injection, respectively. Hemolytic plaque assay was performed and estimated anti-SRBC plaque forming cells in each immunoglobulin class and IgG subclass, on the 5th day after the secondary injection. The immunosuppressive effect was found in all the groups which we examined. The present study strongly suggests that periodontopathic bacteria have strong adjuvant activity, and long-term Actinobacillus infection accompanied by periodontal fluctuation in bacterial flora may induce aberration in the immune system. The suppressed immune system explain the explosive growth of bacteria tested in our investigation, resulting in the mixed or opportunistic infection by bacteria harbored in the gingival crevice.

  16. Optimizing Immunosuppressive Regimens Among Living-Donor Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Mohamed Adel; Nagib, Ayman Maher; Gheith, Osama Ashry; Hamdy, Ahmed Farouk; Refaie, Ayman Fathi; Donia, Ahmed Farouk; Neamatalla, Ahmed Hassan; Eldahshan, Khaled Farouk; Denewar, Ahmed Abdelfattah; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Mostafa, Amany Ismail; Ghoneim, Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    We review different immunosuppressant protocols used for living-donor kidney transplant recipients at our center. Many prospective randomized studies from our center have been reported between March 1976 and 2016, with more than 2700 renal transplant procedures conducted. The first study was a prospective randomized trial of azathioprine versus cyclosporine. The second study compared triple therapy (prednisolone + azathioprine + cyclosporine) versus conventional therapy (prednisolone + azathioprine). The third study was a cost-saving study, in which 100 patients received ketoconazole along with the triple regimen. Another trial demonstrated the advantages of a microemulsion form of cyclosporine. A subsequent trial compared calcineurin inhibitor minimization versus avoidance protocols. Rescue therapies were carried out to intensify immunosuppressive regimens after repeated rejection. In addition, steroid-free regimens were evaluated during both short- and long-term treatment. A recent trial reported a step-forward avoidance protocol with a calcineurin inhibitor and a steroid-free regimen, whereas another current study is the TRANSFORM one. The rationale behind antibody therapy was tho roughly evaluated among living-donor renal trans plant recipients with different agents, including basiliximab, daclizumab, antithymocyte globulin, and alemtuzumab. Earlier studies have demonstrated the efficacy of conventional regimens without induction therapy, especially in longer follow-up. The standard triple therapy has emerged with intensified immunosuppressive and lowered dose of each drug, especially cyclosporine. In minimization studies, no significant differences were encountered regarding patient and graft survival, even in the long-term. Steroid avoidance was safe and effective. Calcineurin inhibitors and steroid-free regimens have shown comparable patient and graft survival. Induction therapy has lowered the incidence and severity of acute rejection. A better 5-year graft

  17. Vaccinations in immunosuppressive-dependent pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen-Tran; Minar, Phillip; Jackson, Kimberly; Fulkerson, Patricia C

    2017-11-14

    To determine the vaccination rates in pediatric immunosuppression-dependent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and review the safety and efficacy of vaccinations in this population. The electronic medical records from October 2009 to December 2015 of patients diagnosed with IBD at 10 years of age or younger and prescribed anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy were reviewed for clinical history, medication history, vaccination history, and hepatitis B and varicella titers. Literature discussing vaccination response in IBD patients were identified through search of the MEDLINE database and reviewed using the key words "inflammatory bowel disease", "immunization", "vaccination", "pneumococcal", "varicella", and "hepatitis B". Non-human and non-English language studies were excluded. Search results were reviewed by authors to select articles that addressed safety and efficacy of immunizations in inflammatory bowel disease. A total of 51 patients diagnosed with IBD prior to the age of 10 and receiving anti-TNF-α therapy were identified. Thirty-three percent of patients (17/51) had incomplete or no documentation of vaccinations. Sixteen case reports, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized trials were determined through review of the literature to describe the safety and efficacy of hepatitis B, pneumococcal, and varicella immunizations in adult and pediatric patients with IBD. These studies showed that patients safely tolerated the vaccines without significant adverse effects. Importantly, IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive medications, particularly anti-TNF-α treatment, have decreased vaccine response compared to controls. However, the majority of patients are still able to achieve protective levels of specific antibodies. Immunizations have been shown to be well-tolerated and protective immunity can be achieved in patients with IBD requiring immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Østensen, Monika; Khamashta, Munther; Lockshin, Michael; Parke, Ann; Brucato, Antonio; Carp, Howard; Doria, Andrea; Rai, Raj; Meroni, Pierluigi; Cetin, Irene; Derksen, Ronald; Branch, Ware; Motta, Mario; Gordon, Caroline; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Spinillo, Arsenio; Friedman, Deborah; Cimaz, Rolando; Czeizel, Andrew; Piette, Jean Charles; Cervera, Ricard; Levy, Roger A; Clementi, Maurizio; De Carolis, Sara; Petri, Michelle; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Faden, David; Valesini, Guido; Tincani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given. PMID:16712713

  19. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Østensen, Monika; Khamashta, Munther; Lockshin, Michael; Parke, Ann; Brucato, Antonio; Carp, Howard; Doria, Andrea; Rai, Raj; Meroni, Pierluigi; Cetin, Irene; Derksen, Ronald; Branch, Ware; Motta, Mario; Gordon, Caroline; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Spinillo, Arsenio; Friedman, Deborah; Cimaz, Rolando; Czeizel, Andrew; Piette, Jean Charles; Cervera, Ricard; Levy, Roger A; Clementi, Maurizio; De Carolis, Sara; Petri, Michelle; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Faden, David; Valesini, Guido; Tincani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given.

  20. A case of gas gangrene in an immunosuppressed Crohn's patient.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Natalie; Ho, Vincent; Pascoe, Andrew

    2011-09-07

    Clostridium septicum (C. septicum) gas gangrene is well documented in the literature, typically in the setting of trauma or immunosuppression. In this paper, we report a unique case of spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis in a patient with Crohn's disease and sulfasalazine-induced neutropenia. The patient presented with left thigh pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Blood tests demonstrated a profound neutropenia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh confirmed extensive myonecrosis. The patient underwent emergency hip disarticulation, followed by hemicolectomy. C. septicum was cultured from the blood. Following completion of antibiotic therapy, the patient developed myonecrosis of the right pectoral muscle necessitating further debridement, and remains on lifelong prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

  1. Cost of lifetime immunosuppression coverage for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Page, Timothy F; Woodward, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    On January 1, 2000, Medicare extended the coverage of immunosuppression medications from 3 years to life for elderly and disabled kidney transplant recipients. This research estimates the impact of extending this lifetime coverage to all kidney transplant recipients on Medicare's cash flows. The study finds that extending coverage to all kidney transplant recipients would have increased Medicare's net cash outflows if the coverage were extended for patients of all income levels. There is evidence that extending coverage to only patients in the lowest income quartile could have resulted in a net cost savings to Medicare.

  2. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Spearing, R L; Pamphilon, D H; Prentice, A G

    1986-06-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with haematological malignancies is becoming more common. Predisposing factors are powerful immunosuppressive chemotherapy, neutropenia and synergistic combinations of antibiotics of great potency and wide spectrum of activity. Clinical and radiological signs are heterogeneous, sometimes misleading and often absent. Treatment is often empirical on suspicion alone. Amphotericin B is the only effective drug but it has marked toxicity, mainly renal. Infection is usually fatal without adequate treatment. This paper describes eight cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis seen in one centre in two years, reviews the literature and assesses associated problems.

  3. Diverse spectrum of tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats following single high doses of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU).

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, G.; Koestner, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, 30-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, were inoculated intraperitoneally with a single dose of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of N-ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU). A wide spectrum of neoplasms occurred. The most common tumors were those of the mammary gland and of the nervous system. Although the incidence of mammary tumors was highest in the two high-dose groups (90 and 180 mg/kg ENU), the incidence of neurogenic tumors was highest in the 45 mg/kg dose group. Mammary tumor development led to early death and precluded development of tumors of the nervous system, which require a longer latency period. A variety of neoplasms of other organs have been associated particularly with high doses of ENU, including ameloblastic tumors, carcinomas of the thyroid, prostate, kidney, pancreas, intestine, and lung, hemilymphatic tumors, and sarcomas. It is concluded that large doses of ENU are capable of expanding the tumor spectrum in young male rats beyond the target organs generally affected with lower doses, as described in earlier reports. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6465287

  4. Oral High-Dose Multivitamins and Minerals or Post Myocardial Infarction Patients in TACT

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Mark, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Yves; Stylianou, Mario; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L.; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral multivitamins and minerals are often used in conjunction with ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid infusions to treat atherosclerotic disease. Whether high-dose multivitamins are effective as secondary prevention of atherosclerotic disease, however, has not been established. Objective The vitamin component of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy assessed whether oral multivitamins reduced cardiovascular events, and were safe. Design The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy was designed as a double-blind placebo-controlled 2×2 factorial multicenter randomized trial. Setting 134 US and Canadian academic and clinical sites participated. Patients 1708 patients, age ≥50 years, ≥6 weeks post myocardial infarction, with creatinine level ≤ 176.8 µmol/L (2.0 mg/dL). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00044213). Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to an oral 28-component high-dose multivitamin and multimineral mixture or placebo. Measurements Study results were analyzed per randomized group. The primary endpoint was time to total mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. Limited secondary endpoints and subgroup analyses were also pre-specified. Results The median age was 65 years, 18% female. The qualifying myocardial infarction had occurred 4.6 (1.6, 9.2) years prior to enrollment. The median duration of follow-up was 55 months (IQR 26, 60) overall. The median number of months during which patients took their vitamins was 31 (13, 59) in the active treatment group, and 35 (13, 60) in the placebo group (p=0.65). There were 645 (76%) vitamin patients and 646 (76%) placebo patients who completed at least 1 year of oral therapy (p=0.98); and 400 (46.9%) vitamin patients and 426 (49.8%) placebo patients who completed at least 3 years of oral therapy (p=0.23). There were 783 (46%) of patients who discontinued their vitamin regimen (390 (46%) in placebo, 394 (46%) in active; p=0.67), and 17% of

  5. In vivo measurements for high dose rate brachytherapy with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters

    SciT

    Sharma, Renu; Jursinic, Paul A.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To show the feasibility of clinical implementation of OSLDs for high dose-rate (HDR) in vivo dosimetry for gynecological and breast patients. To discuss how the OSLDs were characterized for an Ir-192 source, taking into account low gamma energy and high dose gradients. To describe differences caused by the dose calculation formalism of treatment planning systems.Methods: OSLD irradiations were made using the GammaMedplus iX Ir-192 HDR, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA. BrachyVision versions 8.9 and 10.0, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA, were used for calculations. Version 8.9 used the TG-43 algorithm and version 10.0 used the Acuros algorithm. The OSLDsmore » (InLight Nanodots) were characterized for Ir-192. Various phantoms were created to assess calculated and measured doses and the angular dependence and self-absorption of the Nanodots. Following successful phantom measurements, patient measurements for gynecological patients and breast cancer patients were made and compared to calculated doses.Results: The OSLD sensitivity to Ir-192 compared to 6 MV is between 1.10 and 1.25, is unique to each detector, and changes with accumulated dose. The measured doses were compared to those predicted by the treatment planning system and found to be in agreement for the gynecological patients to within measurement uncertainty. The range of differences between the measured and Acuros calculated doses was -10%-14%. For the breast patients, there was a discrepancy of -4.4% to +6.5% between the measured and calculated doses at the skin surface when the Acuros algorithm was used. These differences were within experimental uncertainty due to (random) error in the location of the detector with respect to the treatment catheter.Conclusions: OSLDs can be successfully used for HDR in vivo dosimetry. However, for the measurements to be meaningful one must account for the angular dependence, volume-averaging, and the greater sensitivity to Ir-192 gamma rays than to 6

  6. Pathological characteristics of spine metastases treated with high-dose single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Lovelock, Michael; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Spine radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat spinal metastases. As patients are living longer because of the increasing efficacy of systemic agents, appropriate follow-up and posttreatment management for these patients is critical. Tumor progression after spine radiosurgery is rare; however, vertebral compression fractures are recognized as a more common posttreatment effect. The use of radiographic imaging alone posttreatment may makeit difficult to distinguish tumor progression from postradiation changes such as fibrosis. This is the largest series from a prospective database in which the authors examine histopathology of samples obtained from patients who underwent surgical intervention for presumed tumor progression or mechanical pain secondary to compression fracture. The majority of patients had tumor ablation and resulting fibrosis rather than tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor histopathology and characteristics of patients who underwent pathological sampling because of radiographic tumor progression, fibrosis, or collapsed vertebrae after receiving high-dose single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS Between January 2005 and January 2014, a total of 582 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based single-fraction (18-24 Gy) stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors retrospectively identified 30 patients (5.1%) who underwent surgical intervention for 32 lesions with vertebral cement augmentation for either mechanical pain or instability secondary to vertebral compression fracture (n = 17) or instrumentation (n = 15) for radiographic tumor progression. Radiation and surgical treatment, histopathology, and long-term outcomes were reviewed. Survival and time to recurrence were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The mean age at the time of radiosurgery was 59 years (range 36-80 years). The initial pathological diagnoses were obtained for all patients and primarily included radioresistant

  7. Pathological characteristics of spine metastases treated with high-dose single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Lovelock, Michael; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Spine radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat spinal metastases. As patients are living longer because of the increasing efficacy of systemic agents, appropriate follow-up and posttreatment management for these patients is critical. Tumor progression after spine radiosurgery is rare; however, vertebral compression fractures are recognized as a more common posttreatment effect. The use of radiographic imaging alone posttreatment may make it difficult to distinguish tumor progression from postradiation changes such as fibrosis. This is the largest series from a prospective database in which the authors examine histopathology of samples obtained from patients who underwent surgical intervention for presumed tumor progression or mechanical pain secondary to compression fracture. The majority of patients had tumor ablation and resulting fibrosis rather than tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor histopathology and characteristics of patients who underwent pathological sampling because of radiographic tumor progression, fibrosis, or collapsed vertebrae after receiving high-dose single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS Between January 2005 and January 2014, a total of 582 patients were treated with linear accelerator–based single-fraction (18–24 Gy) stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors retrospectively identified 30 patients (5.1%) who underwent surgical intervention for 32 lesions with vertebral cement augmentation for either mechanical pain or instability secondary to vertebral compression fracture (n = 17) or instrumentation (n = 15) for radiographic tumor progression. Radiation and surgical treatment, histopathology, and long-term outcomes were reviewed. Survival and time to recurrence were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The mean age at the time of radiosurgery was 59 years (range 36–80 years). The initial pathological diagnoses were obtained for all patients and primarily included

  8. Acute Exposure to High Dose γ-Radiation Results in Transient Activation of Bone Lining Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Wong, Carmen P.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Wagner, Lindsay A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Menn, Scott A.; Taylor, James; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    The present studies investigated the cellular mechanisms for the detrimental effects of high dose whole body γ-irradiation on bone. In addition, radioadaptation and bone marrow transplantation were assessed as interventions to mitigate the skeletal complications of irradiation. Increased trabecular thickness and separation and reduced fractional cancellous bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number were detected in proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra 14 days following γ-irradiation with 6 Gy. To establish the cellular mechanism for the architectural changes, vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry 1, 3, and 14 days following irradiation. Marrow cell density decreased within 1 day (67% reduction, p<0.0001), reached a minimum value after 3 days (86% reduction, p<0.0001), and partially rebounded by 14 days (30% reduction, p=0.0025) following irradiation. In contrast, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter was increased by 290% (1 day, p=0.04), 1230% (3 days, p<0.0001), and 530% (14 days, p=0.003), respectively. There was a strong association between radiation-induced marrow cell death and activation of bone lining cells to express the osteoblast phenotype (Pearson correlation −0.85, p<0.0001). An increase (p=0.004) in osteoclast-lined bone perimeter was also detected with irradiation. A priming dose of γ-radiation (0.5 mGy), previously shown to reduce mortality, had minimal effect on the cellular responses to radiation and did not prevent detrimental changes in bone architecture. Bone marrow transplantation normalized marrow cell density, bone turnover, and most indices of bone architecture following irradiation. In summary, radiation-induced death of marrow cells is associated with 1) a transient increase in bone formation due, at least in part, to activation of bone lining cells, and 2) an increase in bone resorption due to increased osteoclast perimeter. Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure

  9. Effect of high-dose irradiation on quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Haeng Lee, Kyung; Jung Lee, Hyun; Woon Lee, Ju; Uk Ahn, Dong; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    High-dose (higher than 30 kGy) irradiation has been used to sterilize specific-purposed foods for safe and long-term storage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on the quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast in comparison with those of the low-dose irradiation. Ready-to-eat chicken breast was manufactured, vacuum-packaged, and irradiated at 0, 5, and 40 kGy. The populations of total aerobic bacteria were 4.75 and 2.26 Log CFU/g in the samples irradiated at 0 and 5 kGy, respectively. However, no viable cells were detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy. On day 10, bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy but the number of bacteria in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy was increased. The pH at day 0 was higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of the samples were not significantly different on day 0. However, on day 10, the TBARS value was significantly higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. There was no difference in the sensory scores of the samples, except for off-flavor, which was stronger in samples irradiated at 5 and 40 kGy than control. However, no difference in off-flavor between the irradiated ones was observed. After 10 days of storage, only the samples irradiated at 40 kGy showed higher off-flavor score. SPME-GC-MS analysis revealed that 5 kGy of irradiation produced 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, which were not present in the control, whereas 40 kGy of irradiation produced hexane, heptane, pentanal, dimethly disulfide, heptanal, and nonanal, which were not detected in the control or the samples irradiated at 5 kGy. However, the amount of compounds such as allyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide decreased significantly in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy and 40 kGy.

  10. Implementation of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciT

    Lilleby, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lilleby@ous-hf.no; Tafjord, Gunnar; Raabe, Nils K.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome (overall survival [OS], the actuarial 5-year cancer-specific survival [CSS], disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival [BFS]), complications and morbidity in patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and hormonal treatment with curative aims. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 275 prospectively followed pN0/N0M0 patients were included: 19 patients (7%) with T2, Gleason score 7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 and 256 patients (93%) with T3 or Gleason score 8-10 or PSA >20 received multimodal treatment with conformal four-field radiotherapy (prostate/vesiculae 2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25) combined with HDR-BT (iridium 192; prostate 10 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) with long-term androgenmore » deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: After a median observation time of 44.2 months (range, 10.4-90.5 months) 12 patients had relapsed clinically and/or biochemically and 10 patients were dead, of which 2 patients died from prostate cancer. Five-year estimates of BFS, CSS, DFS, and OS rates were 98.5%, 99.3%, 95.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. None of the patients with either Gleason score <8 or with intermediate risk profile had relapsed. The number of HDR-BT treatments was not related to outcome. Despite of age (median, 65.7 years; range, 45.7-77 years) and considerable pretreatment comorbidity in 39 of 275 patients, Genitourinary treatment-related morbidity was moderate with long-lasting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 voiding problems in 26 patients (9.5%) and occasionally mucous discharge in 20 patients (7%), none with Grade >2 for gastrointestinal at follow-up. Complications during implantations were related to pubic arch interference (4 patients) and lithotomy time, causing 2 patients to develop compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Despite still preliminary observations, our 5-year outcome estimates favor the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in high-risk patients combined with

  11. Developing A Directional High-Dose Rate (d-HDR) Brachytherapy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, Athena Yvonne

    Conventional sources used in brachytherapy provide nearly isotropic or radially symmetric dose distributions. Optimizations of dose distributions have been limited to varied dwell times at specified locations within a given treatment volume, or manipulations in source position for seed implantation techniques. In years past, intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT) has been used to reduce the amount of radiation to surrounding sensitive structures in select intracavitary cases by adding space or partial shields. Previous work done by Lin et al., at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has shown potential improvements in conformality for brachytherapy treatments using a directionally shielded low dose rate (LDR) source for treatments in breast and prostate. Directional brachytherapy sources irradiate approximately half of the radial angles around the source, and adequately shield a quarter of the radial angles on the opposite side, with sharp gradient zones between the treated half and shielded quarter. With internally shielded sources, the radiation can be preferentially emitted in such a way as to reduce toxicities in surrounding critical organs. The objective of this work is to present findings obtained in the development of a new directional high dose rate (d-HDR) source. To this goal, 103Pd (Z = 46) is reintroduced as a potential radionuclide for use in HDR brachytherapy. 103Pd has a low average photon energy (21 keV) and relatively short half -life (17 days), which is why it has historically been used in low dose rate applications and implantation techniques. Pd-103 has a carrier-free specific activity of 75000 Ci/g. Using cyclotron produced 103Pd, near carrier-free specific activities can be achieved, providing suitability for high dose rate applications. The evolution of the d-HDR source using Monte Carlo simulations is presented, along with dosimetric parameters used to fully characterize the source. In addition, a discussion on how to obtain elemental

  12. ABVD versus BEACOPP for Hodgkin's lymphoma when high-dose salvage is planned.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Simonetta; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Brusamolino, Ercole; Levis, Alessandro; Bonfante, Valeria; Vitolo, Umberto; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Liberati, Anna Marina; Specchia, Giorgina; Valagussa, Pinuccia; Rossi, Andrea; Zaja, Francesco; Pogliani, Enrico M; Pregno, Patrizia; Gotti, Manuel; Gallamini, Andrea; Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Bonadonna, Gianni; Gianni, Alessandro M

    2011-07-21

    BEACOPP, an intensified regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone, has been advocated as the new standard of treatment for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma, in place of the combination of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD). We randomly assigned 331 patients with previously untreated and unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage IIB, III, or IV, or an international prognostic score of ≥3 on a scale of 0 to 7, with higher scores indicating increased risk), to receive either BEACOPP or ABVD, each followed by local radiotherapy when indicated. Patients with residual or progressive disease after the initial therapy were to be treated according to a state-of-the-art high-dose salvage program. The median follow-up period was 61 months. The 7-year rate of freedom from first progression was 85% among patients who had received initial treatment with BEACOPP and 73% among those who had received initial treatment with ABVD (P=0.004), and the 7-year rate of event-free survival was 78% and 71%, respectively (P=0.15). A total of 65 patients (20 in the BEACOPP group, and 45 in the ABVD group) went on to receive the intended high-dose salvage regimen. As of the cutoff date, 3 of the 20 patients in the BEACOPP group and 15 of the 45 in the ABVD group who had had progressive disease or relapse after the initial therapy were alive and free of disease. After completion of the overall planned treatment, including salvage therapy, the 7-year rate of freedom from a second progression was 88% in the BEACOPP group and 82% in the ABVD group (P=0.12), and the 7-year rate of overall survival was 89% and 84%, respectively (P=0.39). Severe adverse events occurred more frequently in the BEACOPP group than in the ABVD group. Treatment with BEACOPP, as compared with ABVD, resulted in better initial tumor control, but the long-term clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the two regimens

  13. High-dose tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss in posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Kushioka, Junichi; Yamashita, Tomoya; Okuda, Shinya; Maeno, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Tomiya; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic antifibrinolytic drug, has been reported to reduce blood loss in orthopedic surgery, but there have been few reports of its use in spine surgery. Previous studies included limitations in terms of different TXA dose regimens, different levels and numbers of fused segments, and different surgical techniques. Therefore, the authors decided to strictly limit TXA dose regimens, surgical techniques, and fused segments in this study. There have been no reports of using TXA for prevention of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose TXA in reducing blood loss and its safety during single-level PLIF. METHODS The study was a nonrandomized, case-controlled trial. Sixty consecutive patients underwent single-level PLIF at a single institution. The first 30 patients did not receive TXA. The next 30 patients received 2000 mg of intravenous TXA 15 minutes before the skin incision was performed and received the same dose again 16 hours after the surgery. Intra- and postoperative blood loss was compared between the groups. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in preoperative parameters of age, sex, body mass index, preoperative diagnosis, or operating time. The TXA group experienced significantly less intraoperative blood loss (mean 253 ml) compared with the control group (mean 415 ml; p < 0.01). The TXA group also had significantly less postoperative blood loss over 40 hours (mean 321 ml) compared with the control group (mean 668 ml; p < 0.01). Total blood loss in the TXA group (mean 574 ml) was significantly lower than in the control group (mean 1080 ml; p < 0.01). From 2 hours to 40 hours, postoperative blood loss in the TXA group was consistently significantly lower. There were no perioperative complications, including thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS High-dose TXA significantly reduced both intra

  14. High-dose benzodiazepine dependence: a qualitative study of patients' perception on cessation and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Liebrenz, Michael; Gehring, Marie-Therese; Buadze, Anna; Caflisch, Carlo

    2015-05-13

    Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been reported following attempts to withdraw even from low or therapeutic doses and has been compared to barbiturate and alcohol withdrawal. This experience is known to deter patients from future cessation attempts. Research on other psychotropic substances shows that the reasons and motivations for withdrawal attempts - as well as the experiences surrounding those attempts - at least partially predict future efforts at discontinuation as well as relapse. We therefore aimed to qualitatively explore what motivates patients to discontinue this medication as well as to examine their experiences surrounding previous and current withdrawal attempts and treatment interventions in order to positively influence future help-seeking behavior and compliance. To understand these patients better, we conducted a series of 41 unstructured, narrative, in-depth interviews among adult Swiss patients with a long-term dependent use of benzodiazepines in doses equivalent to more than 40 mg diazepam per day and/or otherwise problematic use (mixing benzodiazepines, escalating dosage, recreational use or illegal purchase). Mayring's qualitative content analysis was used to evaluate findings. These high-dose benzodiazepine-dependent patients decision to change consumption patterns were affected by health concerns, the feeling of being addicted and social factors. Discontinuation attempts were frequent and not very successful with fast relapse. Withdrawal was perceived to be a difficult, complicated, and highly unpredictable process. The first attempt at withdrawal occurred at home and typically felt better than at the clinic. Inpatient treatment was believed to be more effective with long term treatment (approaches) than short term. Patients preferred gradual reduction of usage to abrupt cessation (and had experienced both). While no clear preferences for withdrawal were found for benzodiazepines with specific pharmacokinetic properties, participants

  15. Neutropenia induced by high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin in treating neurosyphilis: Does it really matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Qi, Tengfei; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Lu, Haikong; Long, Fuquan; Gao, Zixiao; Zhang, Sufang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Prompt therapy with high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin for a prolonged period is critical for neurosyphilis patients to avoid irreversible sequelae. However, life-threatening neutropenia has been reported as a complication of prolonged therapy with high doses of benzylpenicillin when treating other diseases. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, presentation, management and prognosis of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia in treating neurosyphilis based on a large sample of syphilis patients in Shanghai. Methodology/Principal findings Between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2015, 1367 patients with neurosyphilis were treated with benzylpenicillin, 578 of whom were eligible for recruitment to this study. Among patients without medical co-morbidities, the total incidence of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia and severe neutropenia was 2.42% (95% CI: 1.38–4.13%) and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.06–1.39%), respectively. The treatment duration before onset of neutropenia ranged from 10 to 14 days, with a total cumulative dose of between 240 and 324 megaunits of benzylpenicillin. Neutropenia was accompanied by symptoms of chills and fever (5 patients), fatigue (2 patients), cough (1 patient), sore throat (1 patient), diarrhea (1 patient) and erythematous rash (1 patient). The severity of neutropenia was not associated with age, gender or type of neurosyphilis (p>0.05). Neutropenia, even when severe, was often tolerated and normalized within one week. A more serious neutropenia did not occur when reinstituting benzylpenicillin in patients with mild or moderate neutropenia nor when ceftriaxone was used three months after patients had previously experienced severe neutropenia. Conclusions/Significance Benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia was uncommon in our cohort of patients. Continuation of therapy was possible with intensive surveillance for those with mild or moderate neutropenia. For severe neutropenia, it is not essential to aggressively use

  16. High dose intravenous immunoglobulin in atopic dermatitis and hyper-IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wakim, M; Alazard, M; Yajima, A; Speights, D; Saxon, A; Stiehm, E R

    1998-08-01

    High dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that might benefit illnesses with exaggerated IgE responses including atopic dermatitis and hyper-IgE immunodeficiency syndrome. To determine if high-dose IVIG would be of benefit to patients with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hyper-IgE syndrome using serial clinical, pulmonary, and laboratory studies for evaluation. This was an open label study in which we gave patients with hyper-IgE syndrome (n = 1) or severe atopic dermatitis (n = 9) IVIG as a 10% solution (Venoglobulin I-Alpha Therapeutic Corporation, Los Angeles, CA) at a dose of 2 g/kg every 30 days for seven infusions. Therapy was completed in nine of the ten patients. Skin disease improved slightly in six patients, remained unchanged in two patients, and worsened slightly in one patient. The average daily prednisone dosage was 6.8 mg/day prior to treatment and 5.1 mg/day during IVIG therapy (P = .1250). The three patients with abnormal pulmonary function showed very mild improvement of pulmonary function during treatment, but returned to baseline during follow-up. Flow cytometric studies showed no consistent pattern of change. IgA and IgM levels were unchanged. The mean serum IgE levels went from 3221+/-2454 IU/mL (SD) before IVIG to 2944+/-2491 IU/mL (P = .4609) during IVIG and then to 2321+/-2229 IU/mL (P = .1484) during the 6-month follow-up period. In vitro IgE production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following IL-4 and anti-CD40 stimulation before IVIG was 6.6+/-3.1 ng/mL (SD) and 4.3+/-3.1 ng/mL (P = .1641) after six IVIG treatments. There were no significant trends in lymphocyte proliferative responses to PHA (phytohemaglutinin), Candida, tetanus, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) testing showed no clear changes from positivity to negativity. We conclude that IVIG was of no clear clinical benefit in these nine patients and did not significantly decrease Ig

  17. A chromogranin A ELISA absent of an apparent high-dose hook effect observed in other chromogranin A ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J Alan; Grenache, David G

    2016-01-15

    Routine testing for chromogranin A (CgA) using an established commercial ELISA revealed an apparent high-dose hook effect in approximately 15% of specimens. Investigations found the same effect in two additional ELISAs. We hypothesized that a CgA derived peptide(s) at high concentrations was responsible but experiments were inconclusive. Here we describe the analytical performance characteristics of the Chromoa™ CgA ELISA that did not display the apparent high-dose hook effect. Performance characteristics of the Chromoa ELISA were assessed. The reference interval was established utilizing healthy volunteers. Specimens producing the apparent high-dose hook effect in other assays were evaluated using the Chromoa ELISA. The limit of detection was 8ng/ml. Linearity was acceptable (slope=1.04, intercept=18.1 and r(2)=0.997). CVs were ≤4.6 and ≤9.3% for repeatability and within-laboratory imprecision, respectively. CgA was stable at ambient and refrigerated temperatures for a minimum of two and 14days, respectively. An upper reference interval limit of 95ng/ml was established. Specimens demonstrating the apparent high-dose hook effect in other ELISAs did not exhibit the phenomenon using the Chromoa ELISA. The Chromoa ELISA demonstrates acceptable performance for quantifying serum CgA. The apparent high-dose hook effect exhibited in other ELISAs was absent using the Chromoa assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modified Uterine Allotransplantation and Immunosuppression Procedure in the Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Zhao, Guang-Yue; Zhang, Geng; Lu, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Liang, Sheng-Ru; Yang, Fang; Chen, Bi-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. Methods In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. Conclusion We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research. PMID:24278415

  19. Future immunosuppressive agents in solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Cerio, Jeffrey

    2004-06-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720. Clinical trials and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium, everolimus, and FTY720 in solid-organ transplantation were considered for evaluation. English-language studies and published abstracts were selected for inclusion. Mycophenolate sodium has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Adminstration for marketing in the United States; everolimus and FTY720 are immunosuppressive agents that may soon be available in the United States. These agents have proven efficacy in reducing the incidence of acute rejection in solid-organ transplantation. Clinical trials have shown that these newer agents are relatively well tolerated. The most common adverse events associated with these agents were gastrointestinal and hematologic effects (mycophenolate sodium); hyperlipidemia, increased serum creatinine, and hematologic effects (everolimus): and gastrointestinal effects, headache, and bradycardia (FTY720). Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in some European countries and the United States. Everolimus has been approved in some European countries and a new drug application has been submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. FTY720 is currently in phase III clinical trials and submission to the Food and Drug Administration for approval is a few years away. The approval of these agents will furnish the transplant practitioner with even more options for immunosuppression.

  20. Age-dependent metabolic and immunosuppressive effects of Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Krenzien, Felix; Quante, Markus; Heinbokel, Timm; Seyda, Midas; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirohito; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Schuitenmaker, Jeroen M.; Gabardi, Steven; Splith, Katrin; Schmelzle, Moritz; Petrides, Athena K.; Azuma, Haruhito; Pratschke, Johann; Li, Xian C.; ElKhal, Abdallah; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T-cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival when compared to young animals following TAC administration. More importantly, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce pro-inflammatory IFN-γ cytokine production and promote IL-10 production in old CD4+ T-cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased IL-2 secretion in old CD4+ T-cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in old mice. Both, TAC treated murine and human CD4+ T-cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca2+-influx, two critical pathways in T-cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8+ T-cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4+ T-cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4+ T-cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca2+-influx in both, old murine and human T-cells emphasizes on the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when utilizing TAC. PMID:27754593

  1. Age-Dependent Metabolic and Immunosuppressive Effects of Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, F; Quante, M; Heinbokel, T; Seyda, M; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Biefer, H R C; Schuitenmaker, J M; Gabardi, S; Splith, K; Schmelzle, M; Petrides, A K; Azuma, H; Pratschke, J; Li, X C; ElKhal, A; Tullius, S G

    2017-05-01

    Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival compared with young animals after TAC administration. More important, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce proinflammatory interferon-γ cytokine production and promote interleukin-10 production in old CD4 + T cells. In addition, TAC administration decreased interleukin-2 secretion in old CD4 + T cells more effectively while inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells in old mice. Both TAC-treated murine and human CD4 + T cells demonstrated an age-specific suppression of intracellular calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx, two critical pathways in T cell activation. Of note, depletion of CD8 + T cells did not alter allograft survival outcome in old TAC-treated mice, suggesting that TAC age-specific effects were mainly CD4 + T cell mediated. Collectively, our study demonstrates age-specific immunosuppressive capacities of TAC that are CD4 + T cell mediated. The suppression of calcineurin levels and Ca 2+ influx in both old murine and human T cells emphasizes the clinical relevance of age-specific effects when using TAC. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. [Special considerations in generic substitution of immunosuppressive drugs in transplantation].

    PubMed

    Remport, Adám; Dankó, Dávid; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Czebe, Krisztina; Kiss, István

    2012-08-26

    Long-term success in solid organ transplantation strongly depends on the optimal use of maintenance immunosuppressive treatment. Cyclosporin and tacrolimus are the most frequently administered immunosuppressants and they are designed to narrow therapeutic index drugs. The substitution of the branded formulation by their generic counterparts may lead to economic benefit only if equivalent clinical outcomes can be achieved. There is no published evidence to date on the guarantee of their long-term therapeutic equivalence and cases of therapeutic failures have been reported due to inadvertent drug conversion. The disadvantageous clinical consequences of a non medical, mechanistic forced switch from the original to generic formulation of tacrolimus and the estimated loss of the payer's presumed savings are presented in a kidney transplant recipient population. Special problems related to pediatric patients, drug interactions with concurrent medications and the burden of additional therapeutic drug monitoring and follow up visits are also discussed. The authors are convinced that the implementation of the European Society of Organ Transplantation guidelines on generic substitution may provide a safe way for patients and healthcare payers.

  3. [Mechanisms of retroviral immunosuppressive domain-induced immune modulation].

    PubMed

    Blinov, V M; Krasnov, G S; Shargunov, A V; Shurdov, M A; Zverev, V V

    2013-01-01

    Immunosuppressive domains (ISD) of viral envelope glycoproteins provide highly pathogenic phenotypes of various retroviruses. ISD interaction with immune cells leads to an inhibition of a response. In the 1980s it was shown that the fragment of ISD comprising of 17 amino acids (named CKS-17) is carrying out such immune modulation. However the underlying mechanisms were not known. The years of thorough research allowed to identify the regulation of Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR cellular pathways as a result of ISD interaction with immune cells. By the way, this leads to decrease of secretion of stimulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12) and increase of inhibitory, anti-inflammatory ones (e.g., IL-10). One of the receptor tyrosine kinases inducing signal in these pathways acts as the primary target of ISD while other key regulators--cAMP and diacylglycerol (DAG), act as secondary messengers of signal transduction. Immunosuppressive-like domains can be found not only in retroviruses; the presence of ISD within Ebola viral envelope glycoproteins caused extremely hard clinical course of virus-induced hemorrhagic fever. A number of retroviral-origin fragments encoding ISD can be found in the human genome. These regions are expressed in the placenta within genes of syncytins providing a tolerance of mother's immune system to an embryo. The present review is devoted to molecular aspects of retroviral ISD-induced modulation of host immune system.

  4. Immunosuppressive therapy for transplant-ineligible aplastic anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Körper, Sixten; Höchsmann, Britta

    2015-02-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare life-threatening bone marrow failure that is characterized by bicytopenia or pancytopenia in the peripheral blood and a hypoplastic or aplastic bone marrow. The patients are at risk of infection and hemorrhage due to neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and suffer from symptoms of anemia. The main treatment approaches are allogeneic stem cell transplantation and immunosuppression. Here, we review current standard immunosuppression and the attempts that have been made in the past two decades to improve results: review of recent developments also reveals that sometimes not only the advent of new drugs, good ideas and well-designed clinical trials decide the progress in the field but also marketing considerations of pharmaceutical companies. Aplastic anemia experts unfortunately had to face the situation that efficient drugs were withdrawn simply for marketing considerations. We will discuss the current options and challenges in first-line treatment and management of relapsing and refractory patients with an emphasis on adult patients. Some promising new approaches are currently under investigation in prospective, randomized trials.

  5. Immunosuppression induced by talc granulomatosis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Radić, I; Vucak, I; Milosević, J; Marusić, A; Vukicević, S; Marusić, M

    1988-01-01

    Granulomatosis caused by four subcutaneous talc powder-suspension injections induced strong immunosuppression in rats. The disturbance included reduction of mononuclear white blood cell count in the peripheral blood, atrophy of the thymic cortex, spleen enlargement with predominance of red over the white pulp, increase in the number of lymph node germinal centres and a significant delay of the first-set and second-set allograft rejection. Neither phagocytic function of reticuloendothelial system nor erythrocyte count and humoral immune response were found to be altered. Indomethacin suppression of prostaglandin production did not normalize the allograft rejection dynamics. In contrast, splenectomy completely abolished the immunosuppressive effects of granulomatosis. In splenectomized, talc-treated animals WBC counts were not altered and the rejection of allografts was not delayed. Suppression of immune response to alloantigens was transferred to normal and splenectomized recipients by both serum and spleen cells of talc-injected animals. Also, in a cell mixture-transfer experiment, spleen cells from talc-granulomatosis-bearing donors suppressed the immune response induced by lymph node cells from immune donors in T cell-deficient rats. The inability of serum from splenectomized talc-injected rats to transfer the suppression suggested the crucial role of the spleen in the mechanisms leading to suppression in rats bearing talc-granulomatosis. PMID:3052948

  6. Polyamine-Blocking Therapy Reverses Immunosuppression in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Candace S.; Shicora, Allyson C.; Keough, Martin P.; Snook, Adam E.; Burns, Mark R.; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Correcting T cell immunosuppression may unleash powerful antitumor responses, however, knowledge about the mechanisms and modifiers that may be targeted to improve therapy remains incomplete. Here we report that polyamine elevation in cancer, a common metabolic aberration in aggressive lesions, contributes significantly to tumor immunosuppression and that a polyamine depletion strategy can exert antitumor effects that may also promote immunity. A polyamine-blocking therapy (PBT) that combines the well-characterized ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) with AMXT1501, a novel inhibitor of the polyamine transport system, blocked tumor growth in immunocompetent mice but not in athymic nude mice lacking T cells. PBT had little effect on the proliferation of epithelial tumor cells but it increased the number of apoptotic cells. Analysis of CD45+ tumor immune infiltrates revealed that PBT decreased levels of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid suppressor cells and increased CD3+ T cells. Strikingly, in a model of neoadjuvant therapy, mice administered PBT one week before surgical resection of engrafted mammary tumors exhibited resistance to subsequent tumor re-challenge. Collectively, our results indicate that therapies targeting polyamine metabolism do not act exclusively as anti-proliferative agents, but also act strongly to prevent immune escape by the tumor. PBT may offer a general approach to heighten immune responses in cancer. PMID:24778323

  7. Targeting interlukin-6 to relieve immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Yu, Shengnan; Li, Anping; Xu, Hanxiao; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Immunotolerance is one of the hallmarks of malignant tumors. Tumor cells escape from host immune surveillance through various mechanisms resulting in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Interlukin-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in many physiological and pathological processes by integrating with multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Aberrant expression of interlukin-6 is associated with the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic resistance in a wide range of cancers. Interlukin-6 exerts immunosuppressive capacity mostly by stimulating the infiltrations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated neutrophils, and cancer stem-like cells via Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in tumor microenvironment. On this foundation, blockage of interlukin-6 signal may provide potential approaches to novel therapies. In this review, we introduced interlukin-6 pathways and summarized molecular mechanisms related to interlukin-6-induced immunosuppression of tumor cell. We also concluded recent clinical studies targeting interlukin-6 as an immune-based therapeutic intervention in patients with cancer.

  8. Immunosuppressive therapy reduces axonal damage in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Markus; Malmeström, Clas; Gunnarsson, Martin; Zetterberg, Henrik; Sundström, Peter; Lycke, Jan; Svenningsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), disease-modifying therapies have not been shown to reduce disability progression. The impact from immunosuppressive therapy in PMS was explored by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of axonal damage (neurofilament light protein, NFL), astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), and B-cell regulation (CXCL13). CSF was obtained from 35 patients with PMS before and after 12-24 months of mitoxantrone (n=30) or rituximab (n=5) treatment, and from 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. The levels of NFL, GFAP, and CXCL13 were determined by immunoassays. The mean NFL level decreased by 51% (1781 ng/l, SD 2018 vs. 874 ng/l, SD 694, p=0.007), the mean CXCL13 reduction was 55% (9.71 pg/ml, SD 16.08, vs. 4.37 pg/ml, SD 1.94, p=0.008), while GFAP levels remained unaffected. Subgroup analysis showed that the NFL reduction was confined to previously untreated patients (n=20) and patients with Gd-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (n=12) prior to study baseline. Our data imply that 12-24 months of immunosuppressive therapy reduces axonal damage in PMS, particularly in patients with ongoing disease activity. Determination of NFL levels in CSF is a potential surrogate marker for treatment efficacy and as endpoint in phase II trials of MS.

  9. Differential effects of immunosuppressive drugs on T-cell motility.

    PubMed

    Datta, A; David, R; Glennie, S; Scott, D; Cernuda-Morollon, E; Lechler, R I; Ridley, A J; Marelli-Berg, F M

    2006-12-01

    The best-characterized mechanism of the action of immunosuppressive drugs is to prevent T-cell clonal expansion, thus containing the magnitude of the ensuing immune response. As T-cell recruitment to the inflammatory site is another key step in the development of T-cell-mediated inflammation, we analyzed and compared the effects of two commonly used immunosuppressants, cyclosporin A (CsA) and the rapamycin-related compound SDZ-RAD, on the motility of human CD4+ T cells. We show that CsA, but not SDZ-RAD, inhibits T-cell transendothelial migration in vitro. CsA selectively impaired chemokine-induced T-cell chemotaxis while integrin-mediated migration was unaffected. The inhibition of T-cell chemotaxis correlated with reduced AKT/PKB but not ERK activation following exposure to the chemokine CXCL-12/SDF-1. In addition, CsA, but not SDZ-RAD, prevents some T-cell receptor-mediated effects on T-cell motility. Finally, we show that CsA, but not SDZ-RAD inhibits tissue infiltration by T cells in vivo. Our data suggest a prominent antiinflammatory role for CsA in T-cell-mediated tissue damage, by inhibiting T-cell trafficking into tissues in addition to containing clonal expansion.

  10. After low and high dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy followed by IMRT radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Murakami, Naoya; Inaba, Koji; Wakita, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Takahashi, Kana; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Umezawa, Rei; Morota, Madoka; Sumi, Minako; Igaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Itami, Jun

    2016-05-03

    The study aimed to compare urinary symptoms in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after a combination of either low-dose-rate or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy along with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (LDR-ISBT + IMRT or HDR-ISBT + IMRT). From June 2009 to April 2014, 16 and 22 patients were treated with LDR-ISBT + IMRT and HDR-ISBT + IMRT, respectively. No patient from these groups was excluded from this study. The prescribed dose of LDR-ISBT, HDR-ISBT, and IMRT was 115 Gy, 20 Gy in 2 fractions, and 46 Gy in 23 fractions, respectively. Obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms were assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) examined before and after treatments. After ISBT, IPSS was evaluated in the 1st and 4th weeks, then every 2-3 months for the 1st year, and every 6 months thereafter. The median follow-up of the patients treated with LDR-ISBT + IMRT and HDR-ISBT + IMRT was 1070.5 days and 1048.5 days, respectively (p = 0.321). The IPSS-increment in the LDR-ISBT + IMRT group was greater than that in the HDR-ISBT + IMRT between 91 and 180 days after ISBT (p = 0.015). In the LDR-ISBT + IMRT group, the IPSS took longer time to return to the initial level than in the HDR-ISBT + IMRT group (in LDR-ISBT + IMRT group, the recovery time was 90 days later). The dose to urethra showed a statistically significant association with the IPSS-increment in the irritative urinary symptoms (p = 0.011). Clinical outcomes were comparable between both the groups. Both therapeutic modalities are safe and well suited for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer; however, it took patients longer to recover from LDR-ISBT + IMRT than from HDR-ISBT + IMRT. It is possible that fast dose delivery induced early symptoms and early recovery, while gradual dose delivery induced late symptoms and late recovery. Urethral dose reductions were associated with small increments in IPSS.

  11. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradation to high doses

    SciT

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman

    2013-08-03

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)–12%Cr–1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiationinduced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature 430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3–148 dpa at 378–504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has beenmore » established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 3 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.« less

  12. Novel use of the Contura for high dose rate cranial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Scanderbeg, Daniel J; Alksne, John F; Lawson, Joshua D; Murphy, Kevin T

    2011-01-01

    A popular choice for treatment of recurrent gliomas was cranial brachytherapy using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System. However, this device was taken off the market in late 2008, thus leaving a treatment void. This case study presents our experience treating a cranial lesion for the first time using a Contura multilumen, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy balloon applicator. The patient was a 47-year-old male who was diagnosed with a recurrent right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Previous radiosurgery made him a good candidate for brachytherapy. An intracavitary HDR balloon brachytherapy device (Contura) was placed in the resection cavity and treated with a single fraction of 20 Gy. The implant, treatment, and removal of the device were all completed without incident. Dosimetry of the device was excellent because the dose conformed very well to the target. V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 98.9%, 95.7%, 27.2, and 8.8 cc, respectively. This patient was treated successfully using the Contura multilumen balloon. Contura was originally designed for deployment in a postlumpectomy breast for treatment by accelerated partial breast irradiation. Being an intracavitary balloon device, its similarity to the GliaSite system makes it a viable replacement candidate. Multiple lumens in the device also make it possible to shape the dose delivered to the target, something not possible before with the GliaSite applicator. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Current situation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogério Matias Vidal; Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado; Macedo, Luiz Eduardo Andrade; Souza, Divanízia do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the current situation of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix in Brazil, regarding apparatuses, planning methods, prescription, fractionation schedule and evaluation of dose in organs at risk. Materials and Methods In the period between March/2012 and May/2013, a multiple choice questionnaire was developed and sent to 89 Brazilian hospitals which perform HDR brachytherapy. Results Sixty-one services answered the questionnaire. All regions of the country experienced a sharp increase in the number of HDR brachytherapy services in the period from 2001 to 2013. As regards planning, although a three-dimensional planning software was available in 91% of the centers, conventional radiography was mentioned by 92% of the respondents as their routine imaging method for such a purpose. Approximately 35% of respondents said that brachytherapy sessions are performed after teletherapy. The scheme of four 7 Gy intracavitary insertions was mentioned as the most frequently practiced. Conclusion The authors observed that professionals have difficulty accessing adjuvant three-dimensional planning tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25741073

  14. On the impact of improved dosimetric accuracy on head and neck high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Peppa, Vasiliki; Pappas, Eleftherios; Major, Tibor; Takácsi-Nagy, Zoltán; Pantelis, Evaggelos; Papagiannis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    To study the effect of finite patient dimensions and tissue heterogeneities in head and neck high dose rate brachytherapy. The current practice of TG-43 dosimetry was compared to patient specific dosimetry obtained using Monte Carlo simulation for a sample of 22 patient plans. The dose distributions were compared in terms of percentage dose differences as well as differences in dose volume histogram and radiobiological indices for the target and organs at risk (mandible, parotids, skin, and spinal cord). Noticeable percentage differences exist between TG-43 and patient specific dosimetry, mainly at low dose points. Expressed as fractions of the planning aim dose, percentage differences are within 2% with a general TG-43 overestimation except for the spine. These differences are consistent resulting in statistically significant differences of dose volume histogram and radiobiology indices. Absolute differences of these indices are however small to warrant clinical importance in terms of tumor control or complication probabilities. The introduction of dosimetry methods characterized by improved accuracy is a valuable advancement. It does not appear however to influence dose prescription or call for amendment of clinical recommendations for the mobile tongue, base of tongue, and floor of mouth patient cohort of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GDF3 is a BMP inhibitor that can activate Nodal signaling only at very high doses

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ariel J.; Levine, Zachary J.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the TGF-β superfamily, there are approximately forty ligands divided into two major branches: the TGF-β/Activin/Nodal ligands and the BMP/GDF ligands. We studied the ligand GDF3 and found that it inhibits signaling by its co-family members, the BMPs; however, GDF3 has been described by others to have Nodal-like activity. Here, we show that GDF3 can activate Nodal signaling, but only at very high doses and only upon mRNA over-expression. In contrast, GDF3 inhibits BMP signaling upon over-expression of GDF3 mRNA, as recombinant protein, and regardless of its dose. We therefore further characterized the mechanism through which GDF3 protein acts as a specific BMP inhibitor and found that the BMP inhibitory activity of GDF3 resides redundantly in the unprocessed, predominant form and in the mature form of the protein. These results confirm and extend the activity that we described for GDF3 and illuminate the experimental basis for the different observations of others. We suggest that GDF3 is either a bi-functional TGF-β ligand, or, more likely, that it is a BMP inhibitor that can artificially activate Nodal signaling under non-physiological conditions. PMID:18823971

  16. Colour removal and carbonyl by-production in high dose ozonation for effluent polishing.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, V; Fornaroli, R; Canobbio, S; Zoia, L; Orlandi, M

    2013-04-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the efficiency and the by-product generation of high dose ozonation (10-60 mg O3 L(-1)) for complete colour removal from a treated effluent with an important component of textile dyeing wastewater. The effluent is discharged into an effluent-dominated stream where no dilution takes place, and, thus, the quality requirement for the effluents is particularly strict. 30, 60 and 90 min contact times were adopted. Colour was measured as absorbance at 426, 558 and 660 nm wavelengths. pH was monitored throughout the experiments. The experimental work showed that at 50 mg L(-1) colour removal was complete and at 60 mg O3 L(-1) the final aldehyde concentration ranged between 0.72 and 1.02 mg L(-1). Glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were directly related to colour removal, whereas formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acrolein were not. Thus, the extent of colour removal can be used to predict the increase in glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations. As colour removal can be assessed by a simple absorbance measurement, in contrast to the analysis of specific carbonyl compounds, which is much longer and complex, the possibility of using colour removal as an indicator for predicting the toxic potential of ozone by-products for textile effluents is of great value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experience using high-dose glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Slob, Elise M A; Shulman, Rob; Singer, Mervyn

    2017-10-01

    To audit the use of GIK in terms of safety, haemodynamic effects, and impact on catecholamine dosage. A retrospective, descriptive, evaluative audit of GIK use within the adult ICU of a London teaching hospital was conducted. Rescue therapy of GIK (up to 1.0Unitsinsulin/kg/h) was administered to improve cardiac function. Outcomes were ICU survival, change in cardiac index (CI) and blood lactate levels, events of hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia, and discontinuation time of catecholamine inotropes. Of 85 patients treated with GIK, 13 (15.3%) survived their ICU stay and 9 (10.5%) were discharged home. In patients surviving until 72h, a trend of improved CI and lactate levels was seen, often with reductions in catecholamine dosing. Inotropes were discontinued in 35 (54%) patients. Severe hypoglycaemia (<2mmol/l), hyperglycaemia (>20mmol/l), hypokalaemia (<2.5mmol/l) and hyperkalaemia (>7mmol/l) during GIK affected 1, 6, 8 and 1 patients, respectively. These abnormalities were quickly identified. No measurable harm was noted. High-dose GIK can be safely used in critically ill patients, though blood glucose and potassium levels must be monitored frequently. GIK was associated with improved CI and blood lactate levels. Impact on survival requires prospective evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Increased thermal pain sensitivity in animals exposed to chronic high dose Vicodin but not pure hydrocodone.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Thomas F; Carpenter, Patrick S; Caballero, Nadia; Putnam, Andrew J; Steere, Joshua T; Matz, Gregory J; Foecking, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    Vicodin, the combination drug of acetaminophen and the opioid hydrocodone, is one of the most prescribed drugs on the market today. Opioids have demonstrated the ability to paradoxically cause increased pain sensitivity to users in a phenomena called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While selected opioids have been shown to produce OIH symptoms in an animal model, hydrocodone and the combination drug Vicodin have yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of exposure to chronic high dose Vicodin or its components on the sensitivity to both thermal and mechanical pain. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, Vicodin, acetaminophen, hydrocodone, or vehicle control, and administered the drug daily for 120 days. Rats were subsequently tested for thermal and mechanical sensitivity. The rats in the Vicodin group displayed a significant decrease in withdrawal time to thermal pain. The rats receiving acetaminophen, hydrocodone, and vehicle showed no statistically significant hypersensitivity in thermal testing. None of the groups demonstrated statistically significant hypersensitivity to mechanical testing. The data suggests Vicodin produces signs of OIH in a rodent model. However, increased pain sensitivity was only noted in the thermal pathway and the hypersensitivity was only seen with the opioid combination drug, not the opioid alone. The results of this study both support the results of previous rodent opioid studies while generating further questions about the specific properties of Vicodin that contribute to pain hypersensitivity. The growing use of Vicodin to treat chronic pain necessitates further research looking into this paradoxical pain response.

  19. Treatment of relapsed or refractory acute leukemia in childhood with bisantrene combined with high dose aracytine.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, T; Deméocq, F; Leverger, G; Baruchel, A; Lemerle, S; Vannier, J P; Nelken, B; Guillot, T; Schaison, G

    1994-01-01

    Bisantrene is an anthracene derivative which has demonstrated activity in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and in lymphoma. The present study was designed to assess the reinduction rate and toxicity of bisantrene (250 mg/m2/d x 5) associated with aracytine (100 mg/m2 twice a day x 5) in refractory and relapsed acute childhood leukemia. Patients who relapsed after bone marrow transplantation were eligible. Twenty-six children were included. Diagnoses were as follows: 13 AML, 9 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 4 undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). All patients had been very highly pretreated, especially with anthracyclines, and most of them were of poor prognosis. The overall response rate was 46% with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 27-65%. According to diagnosis, complete remission (CR) rates are: AML: 5/13, ALL: 5/9, and AUL: 2/4. Four children died, three from infection and one from acute lysis syndrome. The major toxicity was infection with grade 3 and 4 episodes occurring in 42% of patients. No significant cardiac toxicity was noted. Hepatic and renal toxicity was noted. Hepatic and renal toxicity were limited and transient. Bisantrene in association with aracytine is effective in both AML and ALL of childhood. Bisantrene should be evaluated with a five-day schedule in other pediatric malignancies. In children with acute leukemia previously treated with high dose aracytine, new combination regimen is warranted.

  20. On the use of particle filters for electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Götz, Th I; Lahmer, G; Brandt, T; Kallis, K; Strnad, V; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B; Tomé, A M; Lang, E W

    2017-09-12

    Modern radiotherapy of female breast cancers often employs high dose rate brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is moved inside catheters, implanted in the female breast, according to a prescribed treatment plan. Source localization relative to the patient's anatomy is determined with solenoid sensors whose spatial positions are measured with an electromagnetic tracking system. Precise sensor dwell position determination is of utmost importance to assure irradiation of the cancerous tissue according to the treatment plan. We present a hybrid data analysis system which combines multi-dimensional scaling with particle filters to precisely determine sensor dwell positions in the catheters during subsequent radiation treatment sessions. Both techniques are complemented with empirical mode decomposition for the removal of superimposed breathing artifacts. We show that the hybrid model robustly and reliably determines the spatial positions of all catheters used during the treatment and precisely determines any deviations of actual sensor dwell positions from the treatment plan. The hybrid system only relies on sensor positions measured with an EMT system and relates them to the spatial positions of the implanted catheters as initially determined with a computed x-ray tomography.

  1. Benign course after acute high dose levothyroxine intoxication in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Stan; Noordam, Kees; Maseland, Machiel; van Setten, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Acute ingestion of thyroid hormone preparations is a common intoxication, with 181 cases in children <12 yr in 2009 in the Netherlands, but generally has a mild course. However, some reports show that even low dosages may cause serious events such as seizures, thyroid storm and coma. We report a 3 yr old boy case with an acute intoxication with high dose levothyroxine (0.5 mg/kg). We describe the proper management of levothyroxine intoxication in children. A 3-year-old boy with no notable medical history ingested sixty tablets of levothyroxine 150 µg. His vital-signs were normal and the only symptom during admission was a tachycardia the following day. Laboratory data showed elevated T3, fT3 and fT4 levels; and decrease TSH levels. He was treated prophylactically and therapeutically with activated charcoal and propranolol. Despite very high levels, his clinical symptoms were relatively mild. After clinical follow-up for 3 d he was discharged. We propose that children with thyroid hormone intoxication with either a levothyroxine dose >0.1 g/kg, a short interval since ingestion, symptomatic presentation, and/or a fT4 >100 pmol/l should be monitored in the hospital during at least 48-72 h post-ingestion and on an outpatient basis for 14 d.

  2. High-Dose Neutron Detector Development Using 10B Coated Cells

    SciT

    Menlove, Howard Olsen; Henzlova, Daniela

    2016-11-08

    During FY16 the boron-lined parallel-plate technology was optimized to fully benefit from its fast timing characteristics in order to enhance its high count rate capability. To facilitate high count rate capability, a novel fast amplifier with timing and operating properties matched to the detector characteristics was developed and implemented in the 8” boron plate detector that was purchased from PDT. Each of the 6 sealed-cells was connected to a fast amplifier with corresponding List mode readout from each amplifier. The FY16 work focused on improvements in the boron-10 coating materials and procedures at PDT to significantly improve the neutron detectionmore » efficiency. An improvement in the efficiency of a factor of 1.5 was achieved without increasing the metal backing area for the boron coating. This improvement has allowed us to operate the detector in gamma-ray backgrounds that are four orders of magnitude higher than was previously possible while maintaining a relatively high counting efficiency for neutrons. This improvement in the gamma-ray rejection is a key factor in the development of the high dose neutron detector.« less

  3. Towards enabling ultrasound guidance in cervical cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Adrian; Sojoudia, Samira; Gaudet, Marc; Yap, Wan Wan; Chang, Silvia D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Moradi, Mehdi

    2014-03-01

    MRI and Computed Tomography (CT) are used in image-based solutions for guiding High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of cervical cancer. MRI is costly and CT exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Ultrasound, on the other hand, is affordable and safe. The long-term goal of our work is to enable the use of multiparametric ultrasound imaging in image-guided HDR for cervical cancer. In this paper, we report the development of enabling technology for ultrasound guidance and tissue typing. We report a system to obtain the 3D freehand transabdominal ultrasound RF signals and B-mode images of the uterus, and a method for registration of ultrasound to MRI. MRI and 3D ultrasound images of the female pelvis were registered by contouring the uterus in the two modalities, creating a surface model, followed by rigid and B-spline deformable registration. The resulting transformation was used to map the location of the tumor from the T2-weighted MRI to ultrasound images and to determine cancerous and normal areas in ultrasound. B-mode images show a contrast for cancer vs. normal tissue. Our study shows the potential and the challenges of ultrasound imaging in guiding cervical cancer treatments.

  4. High-dose aspirin for Kawasaki disease: outdated myth or effective aid?

    PubMed

    Amarilyo, Gil; Koren, Yael; Brik Simon, Dafna; Bar-Meir, Maskit; Bahat, Hilla; Helou, Mona Hanna; Mendelson, Amir; Hezkelo, Nofar; Chodick, Gabriel; Berkun, Yackov; Eisenstein, Eli; Butbul Aviel, Yonatan; Barkai, Galia; Bolkier, Yoav; Padeh, Shai; Brik, Riva; Hashkes, Phillip J; Harel, Liora; Uziel, Yosef

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) plus high-dose aspirin (HDA) vs. IVIG plus low-dose aspirin (LDA) for the treatment of Kawasaki disease, with an emphasis on coronary artery outcomes. This study was a retrospective, medical record review of paediatric patients with Kawasaki disease comparing 6 centres that routinely used HAD for initial treatment and 2 that used LDA in 2004-2013. Treatment response and adverse events were compared. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of coronary aneurysm at the subacute or convalescent stage. The cohort included 358 patients, of whom 315 were initially treated with adjunctive HDA and 43 with LDA. There were no demographic differences between the groups. Coronary aneurysms occurred in 10% (20/196) of the HDA group and 4% (1/24) of the LDA group (p=0.34). Equivalence tests indicate it is unlikely that the risk of coronary aneurysm in LDA exceeds HDA by more than 3.5%. There were no significant between-group differences in the need for glucocorticoid pulse therapy or disease recurrence. Coronary ectasia rate and hospitalisation time were significantly greater in the HDA group. Adverse events were similar in the two groups. We found no significant clinical benefit in using IVIG+HDA in Kawasaki disease compared to IVIG+LDA. The use of adjunctive HDA in this setting should be reconsidered.

  5. In vivo urethral dose measurements: a method to verify high dose rate prostate treatments.

    PubMed

    Brezovich, I A; Duan, J; Pareek, P N; Fiveash, J; Ezekiel, M

    2000-10-01

    Radiation doses delivered in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy are susceptible to many inaccuracies and errors, including imaging, planning and delivery. Consequently, the dose delivered to the patient may deviate substantially from the treatment plan. We investigated the feasibility of using TLD measurements in the urethra to estimate the discrepancy in treatments for prostate cancer. The dose response of the 1 mm diam, 6 mm long LiF rods that we used for the in vivo measurements was calibrated with the 192Ir HDR source, as well as a 60Co teletherapy unit. A train of 20 rods contained in a sterile plastic tube was inserted into the urethral (Foley) catheter for the duration of a treatment fraction, and the measured doses were compared to the treatment plan. Initial results from a total of seven treatments in four patients show good agreement between theory and experiment. Analysis of any one treatment showed agreement within 11.7% +/- 6.2% for the highest dose encountered in the central prostatic urethra, and within 10.4% +/- 4.4% for the mean dose. Taking the average over all seven treatments shows agreement within 1.7% for the maximum urethral dose, and within 1.5% for the mean urethral dose. Based on these initial findings it seems that planned prostate doses can be accurately reproduced in the clinic.

  6. High dose gamma ray exposure effect on the properties of CdSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Chetna; Chauhan, R. P.

    2018-03-01

    We report high dose gamma-ray (γ-ray) induced modifications incurred by polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanowires of 80 nm diameter. The nanowires have been synthesized using polycarbonate template assisted electro-deposition technique. The samples were irradiated with 60Co γ-radiation at a dose rate of 4.533 kGy/h for different time intervals with doses varying from 0 to 400 kGy. The effects of γ rays on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of nanowires are discussed. XRD patterns of as-synthesized and gamma irradiated CdSe nanowires did not show any phase transformations but the variation in relative intensity was observed. The crystallite size evaluated using Scherrer's formula was found to vary. The optical parameters were obtained using UV-vis spectrometer measurements of absorption. Band gap was found to decrease with γ irradiation up to a dose of 300 kGy after which it was seen to increase. Refractive index and optical dielectric constants were also evaluated. Subjection of γ-radiation also brings about key changes in the electrical properties of CdSe nanowires. The attained data shows that the electrical conductivity varies with absorbed dose. The variations in the properties of CdSe nanowires can be considered as a consequence of ionization process, defect production and its annihilation.

  7. High dose rate 192Ir source calibration: A single institution experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, R.; Abdullah, N. H.; Mohamed, M.; Idris, N. R. N.; Yusoff, A. L.; Chen, S. C.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-05-01

    Measurement of source strength of new high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir supplied by the manufacturer is part of quality assurance recommended by Radiation Safety Section, Ministry of Health of Malaysia. The source strength is determined in reference air kerma rate (RAKR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate RAKR measurement of 192Ir using well-type ionisation chamber with RAKR stated in the certificate provided by the manufacturer. A retrospective study on 19 MicroSelectron HDR 192Ir Classic from 2001 to 2009 and 12 MicroSelectron HDR 192Ir V2 sources from 2009 to 2016 supplied by manufacturer were compared. From the study, the agreement between measured RAKR and RAKR stated in the certificate by manufacturer for all 32 sources supplied were within ±2.5%. As a conclusion, a threshold level of ±2.5% can be used as suitable indicator to spot problems of the brachytherapy system in Department of Nuclear Medicine Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital USM.

  8. Childhood mortality after a high dose of vitamin A in a high risk population.

    PubMed Central

    Daulaire, N. M.; Starbuck, E. S.; Houston, R. M.; Church, M. S.; Stukel, T. A.; Pandey, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether a single high dose of vitamin A given to all children in communities with high mortality and malnutrition could affect mortality and to assess whether periodic community wide supplementation could be readily incorporated into an ongoing primary health programme. DESIGN--Opportunistic controlled trial. SETTING--Jumla district, Nepal. SUBJECTS--All children aged under 5 years; 3786 in eight subdistricts given single dose of vitamin A and 3411 in remaining eight subdistricts given no supplementation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality and cause of death in the five months after supplementation. RESULTS--Risk of death for children aged 1-59 months in supplemented communities was 26% lower (relative risk 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.99) than in unsupplemented communities. The reduction in mortality was greatest among children aged 6-11 months: death rate (deaths/1000 child years at risk) was 133.8 in supplemented children and 260.8 in unsupplemented children (relative risk 0.51, 0.30 to 0.89). The death rate from diarrhoea was also reduced (63.5 supplemented v 97.5 unsupplemented; relative risk 0.65, 0.44 to 0.95). The extra cost per death averted was about $11. CONCLUSION--The results support a role for Vitamin A in increasing child survival. The supplementation programme was readily integrated with the ongoing community health programme at little extra cost. PMID:1739794

  9. High doses of gamma radiation suppress allergic effect induced by food lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Antônio F. M.; Souza, Marthyna P.; Vieira, Leucio D.; Aguiar, Jaciana S.; Silva, Teresinha G.; Medeiros, Paloma L.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A.; Santana, Lucimeire A.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Perez, Katia R.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Correia, Maria T. S.

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in the development of effective methods to reduce or eliminate food allergenicity, but few reports have summarized information concerning the progress made with food irradiation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between allergenicity and molecular structure of a food allergen after gamma irradiation and evaluate the profile of the allergic response to irradiated allergens. Cramoll, a lectin isolated from a bean and used as a food allergen, was irradiated and the possible structural changes were accompanied by spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism and microcalorimetry. Subsequently, sensitized animals subjected to intragastric administration of non-irradiated and irradiated Cramoll were treated for 7 days. Then, body weight, leukocytes, cytokine profiles and histological parameters were also determined. Cramoll showed complete inhibition of intrinsic activity after high radiation doses. Changes in fluorescence and CD spectra with a simultaneous collapse of the tertiary structure followed by a pronounced decrease of native secondary structure were observed after irradiation. After oral challenge, sensitized mice demonstrate an association between Cramoll intake, body weight loss, eosinophilia, lymphocytic infiltrate in the gut and Eotaxin secretion. Irradiation significantly reduces, according to the dose, the effects observed by non-irradiated food allergens. We confirm that high-dose radiation may render protein food allergens innocuous by irreversibly compromising their molecular structure.

  10. Escalation to High-Dose Defibrotide in Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Brandon M; Kuttab, Hani I; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy regimens, such as those used in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Defibrotide is considered a safe and effective treatment when dosed at 25 mg/kg/day. However, patients who develop VOD still have increased mortality despite the use of defibrotide. Data are limited on the use of doses above 60 mg/kg/day for persistent VOD. In this prospective clinical trial 34 patients received escalating doses of defibrotide. For patients with persistent VOD despite doses of 60 mg/kg/day, doses were increased to a maximum of 110 mg/kg/day. Increased toxicity was not observed until doses rose beyond 100 mg/kg/day. Patients receiving doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg/day experienced an average of 3 bleeding episodes per 100 days of treatment, whereas those receiving doses >100 mg/kg/day experienced 13.2 bleeding episodes per 100 days (P = .008). Moreover, dose reductions due to toxicity were needed at doses of 110 mg/kg/day more often than at lower doses. Defibrotide may be safely escalated to doses well above the current standard without an increase in bleeding risk. However, the efficacy of this dose-escalation strategy remains unclear, because outcomes were similar to published cohorts of patients receiving standard doses of defibrotide for VOD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Escalation to High Dose Defibrotide in Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Brandon M.; Kuttab, Hani I.; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy regimens, such as those utilized in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Defibrotide is considered a safe and effective treatment when dosed at 25 mg/kg/day. However, patients who develop VOD still have increased mortality despite the use of defibrotide. Data are limited on the use of doses above 60 mg/kg/day for persistent VOD. In this prospective clinical trial, 34 patients received escalating doses of defibrotide. For patients with persistent VOD despite doses of 60 mg/kg/day, doses were increased to a maximum of 110 mg/kg/day. There was no observed increase in toxicity until doses rose beyond 100 mg/kg/day. Patients receiving doses between 10–100 mg/kg/day experienced an average of 3 bleeding episodes per 100 days of treatment, while those receiving doses >100 mg/kg/day experienced 13.2 bleeding episodes per 100 days (p=0.008). Moreover, dose reductions due to toxicity were needed at doses of 110 mg/kg/day more often than at lower doses. Defibrotide may be safely escalated to doses well above the current standard without an increase in bleeding risk. However, the efficacy of this dose escalation strategy remains unclear, as outcomes were similar to published cohorts of patients receiving standard doses of defibrotide for VOD. PMID:26278046

  12. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >109 Gy s-1may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. Methods The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. Results At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. Conclusions At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly. PMID:22008289

  13. [High dose L-dopa infusion during general anesthesia for gastrectomy in a patient with parkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Horai, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Hirotoshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    A 68-year-old man with parkinsonism was scheduled for gastrectomy. Levodopa 1400 mg, droxidopa 300 mg and bromocriptine-mesylate 7.5 mg had been administered orally per day to control the symptom before surgery. On the day before surgery, oral medication was stopped and intravenous infusion of levodopa 100 mg.h-1 was started. Without any premedication but with levodopa infusion, anesthesia was induced with thiopental 175 mg and fentanyl 0.05 mg. Tracheal intubation was facilitated with vecuronium 6 mg and an epidural catheter was inserted. Anesthesia was maintained with O2, N2O and sevoflurane, combined with epidural block using mepivacaine. When blood pressure decreased, phenylephrine but not ephedrine was effective to increase blood pressure. Intravenous infusion of levodopa was continued for 19 days with decreasing doses from 8th postoperative day when injection of levodopa into the intestinal tube was started. On the 53rd day, he left the hospital without any complications. Serum concentrations of levodopa during and after surgery were 50 to 100 times higher than the therapeutic levels. However, he developed no complications, which suggests a wide safety range of levodopa. In conclusion, high dose levodopa infusion was effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinsonism during general anesthesia.

  14. Dosimetric study of GZP6 60 Co high dose rate brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qin; Xu, Anjian; Gou, Chengjun; Wen, Yumei; He, Donglin; Wu, Junxiang; Hou, Qing; Wu, Zhangwen

    2018-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to obtain dosimetric parameters of GZP6 60 Co brachytherapy source number 3. The Geant4 MC code has been used to obtain the dose rate distribution following the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43U1 dosimetric formalism. In the simulation, the source was centered in a 50 cm radius water phantom. The cylindrical ring voxels were 0.1 mm thick for r ≤ 1 cm, 0.5 mm for 1 cm < r ≤ 5 cm, and 1 mm for r > 5 cm. The kerma-dose approximation was performed for r > 0.75 cm to increase the simulation efficiency. Based on the numerical results, the dosimetric datasets were obtained. These results were compared with the available data of the similar 60 Co high dose rate sources and the detailed dosimetric characterization was discussed. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. [A Quality Assurance (QA) System with a Web Camera for High-dose-rate Brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Asako; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Oohira, Shingo; Isono, Masaru; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Inui, Shouki; Masaoka, Akira; Taniguchi, Makoto; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-03-01

    The quality assurance (QA) system that simultaneously quantifies the position and duration of an (192)Ir source (dwell position and time) was developed and the performance of this system was evaluated in high-dose-rate brachytherapy. This QA system has two functions to verify and quantify dwell position and time by using a web camera. The web camera records 30 images per second in a range from 1,425 mm to 1,505 mm. A user verifies the source position from the web camera at real time. The source position and duration were quantified with the movie using in-house software which was applied with a template-matching technique. This QA system allowed verification of the absolute position in real time and quantification of dwell position and time simultaneously. It was evident from the verification of the system that the mean of step size errors was 0.31±0.1 mm and that of dwell time errors 0.1±0.0 s. Absolute position errors can be determined with an accuracy of 1.0 mm at all dwell points in three step sizes and dwell time errors with an accuracy of 0.1% in more than 10.0 s of the planned time. This system is to provide quick verification and quantification of the dwell position and time with high accuracy at various dwell positions without depending on the step size.

  16. High risk of streptococcal septicemia after high dose cytosine arabinoside treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kern, W; Kurrle, E; Vanek, E

    1987-08-17

    Twenty-nine adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia AML who received 40 treatment courses with high dose cytosine arabinoside (HD-A), alone or combined with other cytotoxic drugs, for remission induction (RI) or postremission intensive consolidation (IC) were retrospectively analysed for types and severity of infectious complications. In this paper, we report the unusually high rate of streptococcal septicemia in our patients. Of 13 bacteremic infections in a total of 45 infectious episodes, 10 were caused by streptococci (9 viridans streptococci, 1 group B hemolytic streptococcus). Three of them were lethal. After reviewing all documented cases of streptococcal septicemia in the same study period, four additional cases among adult patients with AML were identified. Three of them have had antileukemic chemotherapy without HD-A, while one have had HD-A as a conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Only three cases were documented to occur in adult patients with AML. Patients treated with HD-A for RI or IC had a significantly lower risk of streptococcal septicemia during previous chemotherapy-associated febrile neutropenic episodes (1/55 vs 10/45; P = 0.01). Neither prophylactic regimens including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nor those without it were effective in preventing streptococcal septicemia. Further studies are needed to confirm these data before the value of additional or alternative prophylactic antibiotics is proven necessary.

  17. High dose naloxone does not improve cerebral or myocardial blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gervais, H W; Eberle, B; Hennes, H J; Grimm, W; Kilian, A; Konietzke, D; Massing, C; Dick, W

    1997-06-01

    In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial we tested the hypothesis that naloxone given during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) enhances cerebral and myocardial blood flow. Twenty-one anesthetized, normoventilated pigs were instrumented for measurements of right atrial and aortic pressures, and regional organ blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres). After 5 min of untreated fibrillatory arrest, CPR was commenced using a pneumatic chest compressor/ventilator. With onset of CPR, an i.v. bolus of 40 micrograms/kg b.w. of epinephrine was given, followed by an infusion of 0.4 micrograms/kg per min. After 5 min of CPR, either naloxone, 10 mg/kg b.w. (group N, n = 11) or normal saline (group S, n = 10) was given i.v. Prior to, and after 1, 15, and 30 min of CPR, hemodynamic and blood flow measurements were obtained. After 30 min of CPR, mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in group N (26 +/- 5 vs. 13 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05). Groups did not differ with respect to myocardial perfusion pressure or arterial blood gases at any time during the observation period. Regional brain and heart blood flows were not different between N and S at any point of measurement. We conclude that high-dose naloxone does not augment cerebral or myocardial blood flow during prolonged closed-chest CPR.

  18. On the use of particle filters for electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Th I.; Lahmer, G.; Brandt, T.; Kallis, K.; Strnad, V.; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B.; Tomé, A. M.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    Modern radiotherapy of female breast cancers often employs high dose rate brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is moved inside catheters, implanted in the female breast, according to a prescribed treatment plan. Source localization relative to the patient’s anatomy is determined with solenoid sensors whose spatial positions are measured with an electromagnetic tracking system. Precise sensor dwell position determination is of utmost importance to assure irradiation of the cancerous tissue according to the treatment plan. We present a hybrid data analysis system which combines multi-dimensional scaling with particle filters to precisely determine sensor dwell positions in the catheters during subsequent radiation treatment sessions. Both techniques are complemented with empirical mode decomposition for the removal of superimposed breathing artifacts. We show that the hybrid model robustly and reliably determines the spatial positions of all catheters used during the treatment and precisely determines any deviations of actual sensor dwell positions from the treatment plan. The hybrid system only relies on sensor positions measured with an EMT system and relates them to the spatial positions of the implanted catheters as initially determined with a computed x-ray tomography.

  19. Effects of high doses of oxytetracycline on metacarpophalangeal joint kinematics in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Kasper, C A; Clayton, H M; Wright, A K; Skuba, E V; Petrie, L

    1995-07-01

    Thirteen clinically normal Belgian-type foals were used to study the effects of high doses of oxytetracycline on metacarpophalangeal joint kinematics. Seven foals (treatment group) received 2 doses of oxytetracycline (3 g, IV). The first dose was given when foals were 4 days old; the second dose was given 24 hours later. Six foals (control group) received 2 doses of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (15 ml, IV) at equivalent time periods. All foals were videotaped at a walk twice: immediately prior to the first treatment and 24 hours after the second treatment. The tapes were digitized, and metacarpophalangeal joint angle was measured along the palmar surface of the limb during 3 strides. The angular data were normalized for time, and data from the 3 strides were averaged to describe a representative stride. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences between groups and within groups over time. Values for stride duration, stance phase percentage, and minimum metacarpophalangeal joint angle obtained before treatment were not significantly different from values obtained after treatment. Maximum metacarpophalangeal joint angle, which occurred during the stance phase of the stride, and range of joint motion were significantly increased for foals in the treatment group, compared with foals in the control group.

  20. Fractional model for pharmacokinetics of high dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Jovan K.; Spasić, Dragan T.; Tošić, Jela; Kolarović, Jovanka L.; Malti, Rachid; Mitić, Igor M.; Pilipović, Stevan; Atanacković, Teodor M.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to promote a model based on the fractional differential calculus related to the pharmacokinetic individualization of high dose methotrexate treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, especially in high risk patients. We applied two-compartment fractional model on 8 selected cases with the largest number (4-19) of measured concentrations, among 43 pediatric patients received 24-h methotrexate 2-5 g/m2 infusions. The plasma concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Our mathematical procedure, designed by combining Post's and Newton's method, was coded in Mathematica 8.0 and performed on Fujicu Celsius M470-2 PC. Experimental data show that most of the measured values of methotrexate were in decreasing order. However, in certain treatments local maximums were detected. On the other hand, integer order compartmental models do not give values which fit well with the observed data. By the use of our model, we obtained better results, since it gives more accurate behavior of the transmission, as well as the local maximums which were recognized in methotrexate monitoring. It follows from our method that an additional test with a small methotrexate dose can be suggested for the fractional system parameter identification and the prediction of a possible pattern with a full dose in the case of high risk patients. A special feature of the fractional model is that it can also recognize and better fit an observed non-monotonic behavior. A new parameter determination procedure can be successfully used.

  1. Effect of ceftriaxone and cefepime on high-dose methotrexate clearance.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hieu X; Herrington, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    Numerous drug interactions with methotrexate have been identified, which can lead to serious life-threatening effects. Up to 90% of methotrexate is excreted unchanged in the urine with primary excretion dependent on organic anion transport in the renal proximal tubule. The two pathways responsible for methotrexate secretion are organic anion transport 1 and primarily organic anion transport 3. Penicillins undergo tubular secretion via organic anion transport, and cephalosporins are believed to also possess a similar risk when administered with methotrexate; however, there are no human studies observing this interaction with cephalosporins and methotrexate. Ceftriaxone undergoes biliary clearance and has low affinity for the same organic anion transports as methotrexate; therefore, ceftriaxone has a low potential to interact with methotrexate. Cefepime is primarily secreted by organic cation transport N2, and also has a low potential to interact with methotrexate. This case report describes the pharmacokinetic effect of concomitant beta-lactam therapy in a patient receiving high-dose methotrexate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Once-daily high-dose pindolol for SSRI-refractory depression.

    PubMed

    Sokolski, Kenneth N; Conney, Janet C; Brown, Brenda J; DeMet, Edward M

    2004-02-15

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) augmentation with the 5-HT1A antagonist pindolol has met with mixed results. Recent studies using positron emission tomography (PET) suggest that pindolol doses used in these studies were too low to effect 5-HT1A autoreceptor blockade. To test the hypothesis that a single higher dose of pindolol would effectively augment antidepressant responses in SSRI-refractory patients, nine subjects with major depression unresponsive to paroxetine 40 mg/day given for 2 months or more were randomized to AM pindolol 7.5 mg (n=4) or placebo (n=5). Subjects were administered the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale, and the Zung Depression Inventory at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. Subjects receiving pindolol exhibited significant improvements in all ratings beginning at week 2 which continued through week 4. Aside from transient dizziness and a five-point decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure associated with pindolol, no adverse effects were reported. Although results must be verified in a larger sample, these findings support previous studies indicating that pindolol can accelerate antidepressant responses during SSRI therapy. In addition, results reported here suggest that a single high dose of pindolol (7.5 mg) is a more effective augmentation strategy in SSRI-refractory patients compared with the same total dose given at 2.5 mg tid.

  3. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, H. A.; Allison, R. R.; Downie, G. H.; Mota, H. C.; Austerlitz, C.; Jenkins, T.; Sibata, C. H.

    2007-06-01

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed.

  4. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  5. Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses

    SciT

    Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2007-04-15

    We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciablemore » levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.« less

  6. High Dose Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Refractory Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Soon Hyun; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2016-08-01

    Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) is the first choice of treatment for age-related macular degeneration. However, quite a few eyes treated using conventional dose anti-VEGF (CDAV) have persistent pigment epithelial detachment (PED) on optical coherence tomography. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of high dose anti-VEGF (HDAV) for refractory PED. In this retrospective study,