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Sample records for early human history

  1. An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shou-He

    2013-09-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer.

  2. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  3. Humanizing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    History as a social science does not need to be dull. A method which has had great success in a survey course of modern American history has been the use of oral history techniques in studying the Depression. Students responded enthusiastically and their projects formed a valuable nucleus of the school's oral history project. (Author/JDS)

  4. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as amore » researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.« less

  6. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  7. A Humanities Approach to Early National U.S. History: Activities and Resources for the Junior High School Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, James R., Ed.; Parisi, Lynn S., Ed.

    This volume presents a framework for teaching eighth grade U.S. history up to 1830 using an integrated humanities perspective that includes art, architecture, literature, religion, music, and dance as applied to everyday colonial life. The 28 activities are presented in standard format, including a brief introduction, list of objectives, time…

  8. [The early history of "Ecstasy"].

    PubMed

    Benzenhöfer, U; Passie, T

    2006-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature regarding the early history of MDMA (Methylendioxymethamphetamine, so-called "Ecstasy"). Various authors credit the first synthesis of MDMA to the German chemist Fritz Haber, but it appears neither in his doctoral thesis (Berlin 1891) nor in his accompanying articles. The man who first synthesized MDMA was the chemist Dr. Anton Köllisch, who worked for the German pharmaceutical company Merck. He created MDMA as a by-product while trying to synthesize hydrastinin, a styptic substance. In 1912, Merck filed to patent the applied method of preparation. The patent was issued in 1914, yet no pharmaceutical testing followed at that time.

  9. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  10. History of human parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cox, F E G

    2002-10-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.

  11. Early history of Neanderthals and Denisovans

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Ryan J.; Huff, Chad D.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive DNA sequence data have made it possible to reconstruct human evolutionary history in unprecedented detail. We introduce a method to study the past several hundred thousand years. Our results show that (i) the Neanderthal–Denisovan lineage declined to a small size just after separating from the modern lineage, (ii) Neanderthals and Denisovans separated soon thereafter, and (iii) the subsequent Neanderthal population was large and deeply subdivided. They also (iv) support previous estimates of gene flow from Neanderthals into modern Eurasians. These results suggest an archaic human diaspora early in the Middle Pleistocene. PMID:28784789

  12. Human Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biochemist John Randolph Totter, Ph.D., January 23, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is a transcript of an interview of Dr. John Randolph Tottler by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Tottler was selected for this interview because of his career with the Atomic Energy Commission Division of Biology and Medicine (DBM), particularly as its director from 1967 to 1972. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Tottler discusses his remembrances on a wide range topics including nucleic acid and leukemia research at Oak Ridge, AEC biochemistry training in South America, DBM`s research focus on radiation effects, early leadership of DBM, relations with the US Public Healthmore » Service, controversies on low-level radiation, iodine from fallout, on John Gofman, and Project Plowshare, funding for AEC Research Programs and for international research, testicular irradiation of prisoners in Washington State and Oregon, Plutonium injections, ethics of government radiation research, and opinions of public misperceptions about radiation and cancer.« less

  14. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    ago, for the most part the planet was peaceful. Even the most active volcanoes are mostly quiet; meteorites large enough to extinguish all dinosaurs may have hit as often as every few thousand years, but this is not enough to be a nuisance to a bacterium (except when the impact boiled the ocean); while to the photosynthesizer long-term shifts in the solar spectrum may be less of a problem than cloudy hazy days. Though, admittedly, green is junk light to biology, the excretion from the photosynthetic antennae, nevertheless even a green sky would have had other wavelengths also in its spectrum.Most important of all, like all good houses, this planet had location: Earth was just in the right spot. Not too far from the faint young Sun (Sagan and Chyba, 1997), it was also far enough away still to be in the comfort zone ( Kasting et al., 1993) when the mature Sun brightened. As many have pointed out, when Goldilocks arrived, she found everything just right. But what is less obvious is that as she grew and changed, and the room changed too, she commenced to rearrange the furniture to make it ever righter for her. Thus far, the bears have not arrived, though they may have reclaimed Mars from Goldilocks's sister see ( Figure 1). (3K)Figure 1. The habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Too close to the Sun, a planet's surface is too hot to be habitable; too far, it is too cold. Early in the history of the solar system, the Sun was faint and the habitable zone was relatively close; 4.5 Ga later, with a brighter Sun, planets formerly habitable are now too hot, and the habitable zone has shifted out. Note that boundaries can shift. By changing its albedo and by altering the greenhouse gas content of the air, the planet can significantly widen the bounds of the habitable zone (Lovelock, 1979, 1988).

  15. Human Dignity Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlie, Arthur L.

    A major educational need, as assessed by a committee of teachers, students, and community members, is to recognize acceptance of human dignity as the ultimate value in decision making. This concept provides a basis for the elementary and secondary social studies program. Although the concept of human dignity was promoted with the signing of the…

  16. Alchemy--A History of Early Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of alchemy including personalities and methods. Discusses the philosophy associated with various early chemists and alchemists. Attempts to show that it was not unreasonable for ancient alchemists to believe in the possibility of transmutation. (CW)

  17. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  18. Volcanoes and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Giordano, G.

    2008-10-01

    The study of volcanic hazards leads inevitably to questions of how past cultures have lived in volcanically active regions of the world. Here we summarize linkages between volcanological, archaeological and anthropological studies of historic and prehistoric volcanic eruptions, with the goal of evaluating the impact of past eruptions on human populations to better prepare for future events. We use examples from papers collected in this volume to illustrate ways in which volcanological studies aid archaeological investigations by providing basic stratigraphic markers and information about the nature and timing of specific volcanic events. We then turn to archaeological perspectives, which provide physical evidence of the direct impacts of volcanic eruptions, such as site abandonment and human migration, as well as indirect impacts on local cultures as reflected in human artifacts. Finally we review anthropological studies of societal responses to past and recent volcanic eruptions. We pay particular attention to both the psychological impact of catastrophic events and records of these impacts encoded within oral traditions. Taken together these studies record drastic short-term eruption impacts but adaptation to volcanic activity over the longer term, largely through strategies of adaptive land use.

  19. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D., January 16, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Cornelius A. Tobias was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). He was chosen for this interview because of his extensive biophysics and medical physics research activities while he was employed by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco and at the Donner Laboratory. He discusses his involvement in wartime studies of effects of high altitude on aviators, carbon monoxide with radioactive tracers, blood studies with radioactive iron, human use committees, heavy-ion research with the Bevatron, boron isotope research, classified research involving human subjects, heavy-particle radiography, heavy- particle beams and medical research, andmore » pituitary irradiation studies,.« less

  20. The Early History of Bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    Energy is most commonly defined as the potential to do work. The maintenance of the living state requires a constant flow of energy through the system. The concept of energy is not easily implemented in computational models of life and is therefore often ignored in artificial life models. Some models even regard as irrelevant the energetic problematic (dissipation, irreversibility, couplings, energy currencies), in the physical realization of a biological system" (Ruiz-Mirazo et al. 1998). Examples of such models are Rosen's (M,R)-system, Varela's autopoietic models, Kauffman's autocatalytic set, and Fontana's algorithmic chemistry (see Appendix A). However, many origin-of-life theories maintain the primordial importance of energy for early life. Although everyone accepts that energetic constraints are important when describing material-based living systems, a problem arises when we have to consider whether or not they affect the very logic of the organization (Morán et al. 1999). It is argued here that energy considerations are not only primordial, but intimately related to the essence of life as well.

  1. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs weremore » discussed.« less

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera.

  3. Byler disease: early natural history.

    PubMed

    Morris, Amy L; Bukauskas, Kathryn; Sada, Rachel E; Shneider, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Byler disease, originally described in Amish kindred, results from mutations in ATPase Class I Type 8b Member 1 (ATP8b1). Specific clinical reports of Amish Byler disease were last published 40 years ago. These investigations were directed at the present detailed clinical understanding of the early course of hepatic manifestations of Byler disease. This study analyzed routine clinical practice and outcomes of children with Byler disease (defined by homozygous c.923G>T mutation in ATP8b1), who initially presented to Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC between January 2007 and October 2014. Data were analyzed to the earlier of 24 months of age or partial external biliary diversion. Six children presented between 1 and 135 days of life: 2 presented with newborn direct hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had complications of coagulopathy, 1 had failure to thrive and rickets, and 1 sibling was identified by newborn genetic testing. Intensive fat-soluble vitamin supplementation was required to prevent insufficiencies in vitamins D, E, and K. Hyperbilirubinemia was variable both over time and between children. Serum bile acid levels were elevated, whereas γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were low normal. Scratching behavior (pruritus) was intractable in 4 of 6 children with onset between 6 and 12 months of age. Features of portal hypertension were not observed. Partial external biliary diversion was used during the second year of life in 4 children. Detailed analysis of Byler disease revealed varied disease presentation and course. Nutritional issues and pruritus dominated the clinical picture in the first 2 years of life.

  4. Reconstructing life history of hominids and humans.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E; Gerber, Linda M

    2003-06-01

    Aspects of life history, such as processes and timing of development, age at maturation, and life span are consistently associated with one another across the animal kingdom. Species that develop rapidly tend to mature and reproduce early, have many offspring, and exhibit shorter life spans (r-selection) than those that develop slowly, have extended periods of premature growth, mature later in life, reproduce later and less frequently, have few offspring and/or single births, and exhibit extended life spans (K-selection). In general, primates are among the most K-selected of species. A suite of highly derived life history traits characterizes humans. Among these are physically immature neonates, slowed somatic development both in utero and post-natally, late attainment of reproductive maturity and first birth, and extended post-mature survival. Exactly when, why, and through what types of evolutionary interactions this suite arose is currently the subject of much conjecture and debate. Humankind's biocultural adaptations have helped to structure human life history evolution in unique ways not seen in other animal species. Among all species, life history traits may respond rapidly to alterations in selective pressures through hormonal processes. Selective pressures on life history likely varied widely among hominids and humans over their evolutionary history. This suggests that current patterns of human growth, development, maturation, reproduction, and post-mature survival may be of recent genesis, rather then long-standing adaptations. Thus, life history patterns observed among contemporary human and chimpanzee populations may provide little insight to those that existed earlier in hominid/human evolution.

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Oncologist Helen Vodopick, M.D., December 28, 1994

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview with Dr. Helen Vodopick by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Vodopick was chosen for this interview because of her involvement with the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS) and Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) experimental cancer-therapy program involving total-body irradiation. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Vodopick relates her remembrances of the Medium-Exposure-Rate Total Body Irradiator (METBI), ORINS radioisotope tracer studies, treatment of cancer patients with the METBI, radiation treatment for leukemia patients, bone marrow treatment of leukemia, the Low-Exposure-Rate Total Body Irradiation (LETBI), treatmentmore » of radiation accident victims at ORAU, research with radioactive phosphorus and sulfur, and public opinion issues.« less

  6. Archaic admixture in human history.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yoshihara Caldeira Brandt, Debora

    2016-12-01

    Modern humans evolved in Southern or Eastern Africa, and spread from there across the rest of the world. As they expanded across Africa and Eurasia, they encountered other hominin groups. The extent to which modern and 'archaic' human groups interbred is an area of active research, and while we know that modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, there is not yet agreement on how many admixture events there were or on how much Neanderthal or Denisovan DNA can be found in contemporary genomes. Here we review what is known about archaic admixture in human history, with a focus on what has been discovered in the past 2 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early fire history near Papineau lake, Ontario

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    Research that defines the role of fire in upland red oak-pine ecosystems in central Ontario is being conducted by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Silviculture program. Site-specific fire histories are being developed that document fire frequency, fire behavior, fire effects on forest regeneration and grwoth, and the influnce of human activites on fire disturbances. This...

  8. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Impaired View of Earth's Early History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Kemp, A. I.; Bauer, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Fisher, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Hf and Nd isotope records of Earth's early history are sparse, difficult to interpret, and controversial, much like the few remnants of crust older than 4 Ga. New analytical techniques have been brought to bear on this problem but despite this recent work­-or, perhaps, because of it-the record is no clearer than it was 15 years ago. Several studies, based on highly variable calculated initial isotopic compositions, have argued for highly heterogeneous crust and mantle reservoirs in the early Earth1,2 and an ultra-depleted Eoarchean mantle3. These data come mostly from two sources: Hf-Nd isotope analyses of ultramafic rocks and Hf isotope analyses of zircons by solution or laser ablation. An important question for understanding the chemical evolution of the early Earth is: Do these data offer a unique window into the early Earth or are they artefacts not representative of crust/mantle evolution, giving an impaired view of the Earth's early history? In complex samples, measured isotopic compositions can result from open-system behavior in easily altered ultramafic compositions, in multicomponent, polymetamorphic gneisses, or in zircons with multiple generations of growth. Perhaps most importantly, accurate age assignment is often lacking, compromised, or impossible in these rocks, making calculation of initial epsilon Hf and Nd values ambiguous at best. In order to gain insight into crust mantle evolution in the early Earth we need, above all, a robust and unambiguous isotopic record to work with. This can be achieved by integrating zircon U-Pb and Hf and whole-rock Hf and Nd isotope compositions in relatively undisturbed igneous rocks with well-constrained ages. When this approach is used apparent isotopic heterogeneity decreases and a simpler model for crust-mantle evolution in the early Earth emerges. Careful screening of geological relationships, petrology, and geochemistry of samples from the early Earth should be done before interpreting isotopic data

  10. History in the Early Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    At the turn of the nineteenth century, at its headquarters in the City of London, the Honourable East India Company established a new museum and library. By midcentury this museum would contain one of Europe’s most extensive collections of the natural history, arts, and sciences of Asia. This essay uses the early history of the company’s museum, focusing in particular on its natural history collections, to explore the material relationship between scientific practice and the imperial political economy. Much of the collections had been gathered in the wake of military campaigns, trade missions, or administrative surveys. Once specimens and reports arrived in Leadenhall Street and passed through the museum storage areas, this plunder would become the stuff of science, going on to feed the growth of disciplines, societies, and projects in Britain and beyond. In this way, the East India Company was integral to the information and communication infrastructures within which many sciences then operated. Collections-based disciplines and societies flourished in this period; their growth, it is argued, was coextensive with administrative and political economic change at institutions like the East India Company. The essay first explores the company’s practices and patterns of collecting and then considers the consequences of this accumulation for aspects of scientific practice—particularly the growth of scientific societies—in both London and Calcutta.

  11. Fermilab History and Archives Project | Golden Books - The Early History of

    Fermilab History and Archives Project Home About the Archives History and Archives Online Request Contact ; - The Early History of URA and Fermilab Fermilab Golden Book Collection main page Click on Image for Larger View The Early History of URA and Fermilab Viewpoint of a URA President (1966-1981) Norman F

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan`s work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL.

  13. History of the DOE Human Genome Program

    History of the DOE Human Genome Program The following history is taken from the U.S. Department of Energy 1991-91 Human Genome Program Report (June 1992). This is an archived item. A brief history of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Genome Program will be useful in a discussion of the objectives

  14. A brief history of early neuroanesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh; Friedlander, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Two key discoveries in the 19th century--infection control and the development of general anesthesia--provided an impetus for the rapid advancement of surgery, especially within the field of neurosurgery. Improvements in anesthesia and perioperative care, in particular, fostered the development of meticulous surgical technique conducive to the refinement of neuroanatomical understanding and optimization of neurosurgical procedures and outcomes. Yet, even dating back to the earliest times, some form of anesthesia or perioperative pain management was used during neurosurgical procedures. Despite a few reports on anesthesia published around the time of William Morton's now-famous public demonstration of ether anesthesia in 1846, relatively little is known or written of early anesthetics in neurosurgery. In the present article the authors discuss the history of anesthesia pertaining to neurosurgical procedures and draw parallels between the refinements and developments in anesthesia care over time with some of the concomitant advances in neurosurgery.

  15. History and early development of INCAP.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2010-02-01

    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  16. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  17. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  18. Telomere biology in aging and cancer: early history and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto T

    2018-01-20

    The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer.

  19. Impact melting early in lunar history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The total amount of impact melt produced during early lunar history is examined in light of theoretically and experimentally determined relations between crater diameter (D) and impact melt volume. The time dependence of the melt production is given by the time dependent impact rate as derived from cratering statistics for two different crater-size classes. Results show that small scale cratering (D less than or equal to 30 km) leads to melt volumes which fit selected observations specifying the amount of impact melt contained in the lunar regolith and in craters with diameters less than 10 km. Larger craters (D greater than 30 km) are capable of forming the abundant impact melt breccias found on the lunar surface. The group of large craters (D greater than 30 km) produces nearly 10 times as much impact melt as all the smaller craters, and thus, the large impacts dominate the modification of the lunar surface. A contradiction between the distribution of radiometric rock ages and a model of exponentially decreasing cratering rate going back to 4.5 b.y. is reflected in uncertainty in the distribution of impact melt as a function of time on the moon.

  20. Early volcanic history of the Rabaul area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Chris O.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2016-04-01

    We conducted an extensive program of 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on a suite of 27 volcanic rock samples from key stratigraphic units at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea in order to improve understanding of the early eruption history of the multiple volcanic systems present in the area. Analyses of whole rock, plagioclase and groundmass separates yielded statistically significant ages for 24 samples. Replicate analyses (groundmass, plagioclase) for 17 of the samples provided concordant ages. The oldest systems in the Rabaul area (>1 Ma to ≈300 ka) are in the south, associated with the caldera-like Varzin Depression, and in the north, at the stratovolcanoes Watom and Tovanumbatir. The earliest known activity of the Rabaul system occurred between about 330 and 200 ka and involved emplacement of lava flows and scoria deposits. Major explosive activity at the Rabaul system commenced at about 200 ka and produced a sequence of dacitic ignimbrites that culminated with the emplacement of the large-volume Malaguna Pyroclastics at about 160 ka. Calderas may have been formed as a consequence of the large volumes of tephra produced during some of these eruptions. Products of the early activity are found in the northern and northeastern walls of Rabaul Caldera and on the northeastern flank of Tovanumbatir. This leads to the conclusion that the source of the early activity at Rabaul probably was located in the northern part of the present caldera complex. A shift in the focus of activity at the Rabaul system took place between about 160 and 125 ka. All of the younger (<125 ka) major pyroclastic formations, including the Karavia Welded Tuff, the Barge Tunnel Ignimbrite and the Latlat Pyroclastics, which make up the bulk of the exposure in the southern and western walls of Rabaul Caldera, were erupted from a source or sources in the south-central part of the complex. The stratovolcanoes Palangiangia and Kabiu, which flank the northeastern part of the complex, had commenced activity by

  1. Early History of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 1808-1980.

    PubMed

    Watson, R Ann; Pride, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    COPD has become a more popular research area in the last 3 decades, yet the first clear descriptions of acute and chronic bronchitis were in 1808. This brief history, comprehensively referenced, leads us through the early developments in respiratory physiology and their applications. It emphasises the early history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, long before the dominant effects of cigarette smoking emerged. This remains relevant to developing countries today.

  2. The human genetic history of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Partha P

    2010-02-23

    South Asia--comprising India, Pakistan, countries in the sub-Himalayan region and Myanmar--was one of the first geographical regions to have been peopled by modern humans. This region has served as a major route of dispersal to other geographical regions, including southeast Asia. The Indian society comprises tribal, ranked caste, and other populations that are largely endogamous. As a result of evolutionary antiquity and endogamy, populations of India show high genetic differentiation and extensive structuring. Linguistic differences of populations provide the best explanation of genetic differences observed in this region of the world. Within India, consistent with social history, extant populations inhabiting northern regions show closer affinities with Indo-European speaking populations of central Asia that those inhabiting southern regions. Extant southern Indian populations may have been derived from early colonizers arriving from Africa along the southern exit route. The higher-ranked caste populations, who were the torch-bearers of Hindu rituals, show closer affinities with central Asian, Indo-European speaking, populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early fire history near Seguin Falls, Ontario

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    This report is one of a series of site-specfic fire histories being developed for red oak (Quercus rubra L.)-pine ecosystems in central Ontario. Collectively, these studies documents the role of fire in upland oak forests. this information also provides an ecological basis for developing silviculture prescriptions that use prescribed burning to...

  4. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the early Roman empire)].

    PubMed

    Tesařová, Drahomíra

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of pharmacology in the early Roman empire. It contains texts mainly written in Latin: the works of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Scribonius Largus and Plinius Maior (Pliny the Elder). It describes their structure and contributions to the history of medicine and gives examples of some prescriptions and drugs in the original language and in Czech.

  5. Dinetah: An Early History of the Navajo People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Lawrence D.

    Originally written for Navajo elementary school students, this book chronicles the history of the Navajo people from prehistory to 1868. The book presents a sympathetic history of a people who depended on their tenacity and creative adaptability to survive troubled times. Chapters examine how Navajo culture changed from that of an early hunting…

  6. Grandmothering life histories and human pair bonding.

    PubMed

    Coxworth, James E; Kim, Peter S; McQueen, John S; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-09-22

    The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. We simulate an agent-based model of the grandmother hypothesis, compare simulated sex ratios to data on great apes and human hunter-gatherers, and note associations between a preponderance of males and mate guarding across taxa. Then we explore a recent model that highlights the importance of mating sex ratios for differences between birds and mammals and conclude that lessons for human evolution cannot ignore mammalian reproductive constraints. In contradiction to our claim that male-biased sex ratios are characteristically human, female-biased ratios are reported in some populations. We consider the likelihood that fertile men are undercounted and conclude that the mate-guarding hypothesis for human pair bonds gains strength from explicit links with our grandmothering life history.

  7. Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Prehistory and Early History, Los Angeles County, California,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    H - R136 656 LOS ANGELES-LONG BEACH HARBOR ARE AS PREHISTORY AND I/i EARLY HISTORY LO S ANGELES COUNTY CALIFORNIA(U) ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT LOS...world. The The Early Systems Period (50,000? to 7,000 creation of this megalopolis, unfortunately, years ago) had severe impacts on the natural...called amino acid dating. Using this of early occupation. There is data which system , archeologists determined that human suggests that some of the

  8. The impact of mycotoxicoses on human history.

    PubMed

    Peraica, Maja; Rašić, Dubravka

    2012-12-01

    Mycotoxicoses are acute or chronic diseases of humans and animals caused by mycotoxins, toxic compounds produced by moulds. Of about 400 known mycotoxins only a small number are known to cause mycotoxicoses in humans. Organs that are most targeted are those in which mycotoxins are metabolised, that is, the liver and kidneys, but the lesions may affect the neurological, respiratory, digestive, haematological, endocrine, and immune systems as well. The epidemics of mycotoxicoses are often connected with times of famine, when population consumes food that would not be consumed in normal circumstances. Mycotoxicoses have influenced human history, causing demographic changes, migrations, or even influencing the outcomes of wars. Fortunately, epidemics affecting so many persons and with so many fatalities belong to the past. Today they only appear in small communities such as schools and factory canteens. This paper presents epidemics and pandemics of mycotoxicoses that influenced human history.

  9. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  10. The Littlest Historians: Early Years Programming in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…

  11. ["Human races": history of a dangerous illusion].

    PubMed

    Louryan, S

    2014-01-01

    The multiplication of offences prompted by racism and the increase of complaints for racism leads us to consider the illusory concept of "human races". This idea crossed the history, and was reinforced by the discovery of remote tribes and human fossils, and by the development of sociobiology and quantitative psychology. Deprived of scientific base, the theory of the "races" must bow before the notions of genetic variation and unicity of mankind.

  12. Human reproduction in art: from myths to history.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Felice; Bettini, Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Conception, gestation, and birth, including maternal-fetal health, have been the subject of narrative and art since early human history. Myth and histories related to pregnancy were represented by sculptors and painters as well as the subject of several operas: the mystery of reproduction was always a fascinating theme. This mystery was commonly represented across cultures and time, in the old world, from Egypt to India, to Greece and Rome continuing until the Renaissance and the Modern period. To be an artist meant also to be a scientist in several societies. The current paper reports 12 examples of the fusion of art and reproductive science.

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the studymore » of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.« less

  14. A genetic atlas of human admixture history.

    PubMed

    Hellenthal, Garrett; Busby, George B J; Band, Gavin; Wilson, James F; Capelli, Cristian; Falush, Daniel; Myers, Simon

    2014-02-14

    Modern genetic data combined with appropriate statistical methods have the potential to contribute substantially to our understanding of human history. We have developed an approach that exploits the genomic structure of admixed populations to date and characterize historical mixture events at fine scales. We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed by using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4000 years. We identified events whose dates and participants suggest they describe genetic impacts of the Mongol empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansion, first millennium CE migrations in Eastern Europe, and European colonialism, as well as unrecorded events, revealing admixture to be an almost universal force shaping human populations.

  15. A genetic atlas of human admixture history

    PubMed Central

    Hellenthal, Garrett; Busby, George B.J.; Band, Gavin; Wilson, James F.; Capelli, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Modern genetic data combined with appropriate statistical methods have the potential to contribute substantially to our understanding of human history. We have developed an approach that exploits the genomic structure of admixed populations to date and characterize historical mixture events at fine scales. We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4,000 years. We identify events whose dates and participants suggest they describe genetic impacts of the Mongol Empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansion, first millennium CE migrations in eastern Europe, and European colonialism, as well as unrecorded events, revealing admixture to be an almost universal force shaping human populations. PMID:24531965

  16. Early History of the Moon: Zircon Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, M.L.; Nemchin, A.A.; Pidgeon, R.T.; Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon is believed to have formed from debris produced by a giant impact of a Mars sized body with the Earth (at around 4.51 Ga), forming a primitive body with a thick global layer of melt referred to as the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO). The crystallization of LMO created internal stratification of the Moon forming main geochemical reservoirs. The surface features on the Moon were shaped by the subsequent collision with several large impactors during a short period of time (3.9-4.0 Ga). This process known as the Late Heavy Bombardment is supported by models of planetary motion, suggesting that rapid migration of giant planets could have triggered a massive delivery of planetesimals from the asteroid belt into the inner Solar System at about 3.9 Ga. Although, general chronology of LMO and LHB is well established using both long lived (U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-147-Nd-143 and Ar-Ar) and extinct (Hf-182-W-182 and 146Sm-142Nd) isotope systems, some of these systems such as Ar-Ar are known to reset easily during secondary thermal overprints. As a result important details in the timing of LMO and LHB remain unresolved. In addition, the relative weakness of these systems under high T conditions can potentially bias the chronological information towards later events in the history of the Moon.

  17. Early history of the concept of autogynephilia.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2005-08-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, clinical observers have described the propensity of certain males to be erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women. Because there was no specific term to denote this phenomenon, clinicians' references to it were generally oblique or periphrastic. The closest available word was transvestism. The definition of transvestism accepted by the end of the twentieth century, however, did not just fail to capture the wide range of erotically arousing cross-gender behaviors and fantasies in which women's garments per seplay a small role or none at all; it actually directed attention away from them. The absence of an adequate terminology became acute in the writer's research on the taxonomy of gender identity disorders in biological males. This had suggested that heterosexual, asexual, and bisexual transsexuals are more similar to each other-and to transvestites-than any of them is to the homosexual type, and that the common feature in transvestites and the three types of non-homosexual transsexuals is a history of erotic arousal in association with the thought or image of themselves as women. At the same time, the writer was becoming aware of male patients who are sexually aroused only by the idea of having a woman's body and not at all by the idea of wearing women's clothes. To fill this terminological and conceptual gap, the writer introduced the term autogynephilia(love of oneself as a woman).

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller`s involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller`s remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages.

  19. The history of human-induced soil erosion: Geomorphic legacies, early descriptions and research, and the development of soil conservation—A global synopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a global synopsis about the geomorphic evidence of soil erosion in humid and semihumid areas since the beginning of agriculture. Historical documents, starting from ancient records to data from the mid-twentieth century and numerous literature reviews form an extensive assortment of examples that show how soil erosion has been perceived previously by scholars, land surveyors, farmers, land owners, researchers, and policy makers. Examples have been selected from ancient Greek and Roman Times and from central Europe, southern Africa, North America, the Chinese Loess Plateau, Australia, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Furthermore, a comprehensive collection on the development of soil erosion research and soil conservation has been provided, with a particular focus on Germany and the USA. Geomorphic evidence shows that most of the agriculturally used slopes in the Old and New Worlds had already been affected by soil erosion in earlier, prehistoric times. Early descriptions of soil erosion are often very vague. With regard to the Roman Times, geomorphic evidence shows seemingly opposing results, ranging from massive devastation to landscapes remaining stable for centuries. Unfortunately, historical documentation is lacking. In the following centuries, historical records become more frequent and more precise and observations on extreme soil erosion events are prominent. Sometimes they can be clearly linked to geomorphic evidence in the field. The advent of professional soil conservation took place in the late eighteenth century. The first extensive essay on soil conservation known to the Western world was published in Germany in 1815. The rise of professional soil conservation occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Soil remediation and flood prevention programs were initiated, but the long-term success of these actions remains controversial. In recent years, increasing interest is to recover any traditional knowledge of soil

  20. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboe, Asger

    The author does not attempt to give a general survey of early astronomy; rather, he chooses to present a few "episodes" and treats them in detail. However, first he provides the necessary astronomical background in his descriptive account of what you can see when you look at the sky with the naked eye, unblinkered by received knowledge, but with curiosity and wit. Chapter 1 deals with the arithmetical astronomy of ancient Mesopotamia where astronomy first was made an exact science. Next are treated Greek geometrical models for planetary motion, culminating in Ptolemy's equant models in his Almagest. Ptolemy does not assign them absolute size in this work, but, as is shown here, if we scale the models properly, they will yield good values, not only of the directions to the planets, but of the distances to them, as well. Thus one can immediately find the dimensions of the Copernican System from parameters in the Almagest - we have evidence that Copernicus did just that. Further, Islamic astronomers' modifications of Ptolemy's models by devices using only uniform circular motion are discussed, as are Copernicus's adoption of some of them. finally, it is made precise which bothersome problem was resolved by the heliocentric hypothesis, as it was by the Tychonic arrangement. Next, the Ptolemaic System, the first cosmological scheme to incorporate quantitative models, is described as Ptolemy himself did it in a recenlty recovered passage from his Planetary Hypotheses. Here he does assign absolute size to his models in order to fit them into the snugly nested spherical shells that made up his universe. This much maligned system was, in fact, a harmonious construct that remained the basis for how educated people thought of their world for a millennium and a half. Finally, after a brief review of the geometry of the ellipse, the author gives an elementary derivation of Kepler's equation, and shows how Kepler solved it, and further proves that a planet moves very nearly

  1. The early history of the placebo.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2013-04-01

    In the late 18th century the term "placebo" became part of medical jargon. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that it was the Scottish physician and pharmacologist William Cullen (1710-1790) who introduced this expression into medical language in 1772, the credit must be given to another English physician, Alexander Sutherland (born before 1730 - died after 1773). The main reason for administering placebos in late 18th-century medical practice was to satisfy the patient's demand and his expectations. Another reason was obstinancy of the patient: the motivation behind such prescriptions may be summarized as prescribing inert drugs for the satisfaction of the patient's mind, and not with the view of producing any direct remedial effect. In most cases these 18th century physicians did not administer "pure" placebos but resorted to any kind of medicine which they thought simple, feeble, or altogether powerless, non-perturbing medicines. Today we make the distinction between pure placebos (substances with no pharmacological effect, e.g. sugar pills) and impure placebos (substances with pharmacological effect but not on the condition being treated). In the 18th century those physicians who prescribed placebo usually thought of drugs which were considered not very effective in the particular case, e.g. a mild ointment. At the same time, only very few brilliant minds came up with the ingenious idea of using inert substances as placebo. An alternative to milk sugar used as placebo in homeopathy was breadpills. Recent research suggests that expectancy is an integral part of the placebo effect. As early as 1775 the English bishop John Douglas (1721-1807) anticipated the findings of modern research on the placebo effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Transuranium Elements: Early History (Nobel Lecture)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    McMillan, E. M.

    1951-12-12

    In this talk the author tells of the circumstances that led to the discovery of neptunium, the first element beyond uranium, and the partial identification of plutonium, the next one beyond that. The part of the story that lies before 1939 has already been recounted here in the Nobel lectures of Fermi and Hahn. Rather the author starts with the discovery of fission by Hahn and Strassmann. News of this momentous discovery reached Berkeley early in 1939. The staff of the Radiation Laboratory was put into a state of great excitement and several experiments of a nature designed to check and extend the announced results were started, using ionization chambers and pulse amplifiers, cloud chambers, chemical methods, and so forth. The author decided to do an experiment of a very simple kind. When a nucleus of uranium absorbs a neutron and fission takes place, the two resulting fragments fly apart with great violence, sufficient to propel them through air or other matter for some distance. This distance, called the "range", is quantity of some interest, and the author undertook to measure it by observing the depth of penetration of the fission fragments in a stack of thin aluminum foils. The fission fragments came from a thin layer of uranium oxide spread on a sheet of paper, and exposed to neutrons from a beryllium target bombarded by 8 Mev deuterons in the 37-inch cyclotron. The aluminum foils, each with a thickness of about half a milligram per square centimeter, were stacked like the pages of a book in immediate contact with the layer of uranium oxide. After exposure to the neutrons, the sheets of aluminum were separated and examined for radioactivity by means of an ionization chamber. The fission fragments of course are radioactive atoms, and their activity is found where they stop.

  3. Asperger's syndrome and autism: comparison of early history and outcome.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, P; Bartolucci, G; Bremner, R

    1989-12-01

    The authors compared children with Asperger syndrome (AS) with high-functioning autistic children and psychiatric outpatient controls on measures of early history and outcome. In terms of their early history, the autistic probands showed more social impairment, a higher frequency of echolalia and pronoun reversal, and a more restricted range of activities than the AS group. Cluster analysis suggested refinements to the diagnostic criteria, which resulted in larger differences between the groups on these early history measures. In terms of their outcome, the autistic probands spent more time in special education classes but developed fewer accessory psychiatric symptoms than the AS children. It was clear, however, that there were no substantive, qualitative differences between the AS and autistic groups, indicating that AS should be considered a mild form of high-functioning autism. The inclusion of AS among the autistic spectrum of disorders has implications both for aetiological studies and for prevalence estimates of the pervasive developmental disorders.

  4. The early history of polyamine research.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Uriel

    2010-07-01

    In 1678 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek identified crystalline substances in human semen. The structure of these crystals, named "spermine", was not elucidated by Rosenheim until 250 years later. Subsequently a triamine (spermidine) and a diamine (putrescine; 1,4-diaminobutane) were isolated from prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Soon it became apparent that polyamines can promote the growth of fastidious bacteria. Subsequently a group in Helsinki studied the accumulation of polyamines in regenerating rat liver, while Caldarera and his group studied polyamine synthesis in the developing chick embryo. These investigations led to metabolic studies. Ornithine decarboxylase was identified as a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, while polyamine and diamine oxidations were studied by Mondovì. alpha-Diflouromethylornithine (DFMO) was synthesized by Merrell-Dow and became a potent inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. The findings of Russell that polyamines are excreted in the urine of cancer patients drew the attention of oncologists, who attempted the use new technologies for the detection of cancer and improving therapy. With the advance of molecular biology the structure of polyamine-biosynthetic enzymes was elaborated. Plants served as another important tool to study the physiological functions of polyamines. Bagni and his group at Bologna were pioneers in that field and for more than forty-six years set the foundation of a most interesting discipline. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. The Early History of Psychoanalysis in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Benveniste, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The early history of psychoanalysis in San Francisco begins in 1918 and ends in 1953. During those 35 years the San Francisco Bay Area witnessed the awakening of interest in psychoanalysis, the arrival of the European émigré analysts and the emergence of individuals and groups engaging in extraordinarily creative work and doing so in an ecumenical spirit and with a social commitment. This article provides an overview of this illustrious history and the people who participated in it.

  7. Adaptable history biases in human perceptual decisions.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Arman; Silva, Laura Luz; Dakin, Steven C; Carandini, Matteo; Gardner, Justin L

    2016-06-21

    When making choices under conditions of perceptual uncertainty, past experience can play a vital role. However, it can also lead to biases that worsen decisions. Consistent with previous observations, we found that human choices are influenced by the success or failure of past choices even in a standard two-alternative detection task, where choice history is irrelevant. The typical bias was one that made the subject switch choices after a failure. These choice history biases led to poorer performance and were similar for observers in different countries. They were well captured by a simple logistic regression model that had been previously applied to describe psychophysical performance in mice. Such irrational biases seem at odds with the principles of reinforcement learning, which would predict exquisite adaptability to choice history. We therefore asked whether subjects could adapt their irrational biases following changes in trial order statistics. Adaptability was strong in the direction that confirmed a subject's default biases, but weaker in the opposite direction, so that existing biases could not be eradicated. We conclude that humans can adapt choice history biases, but cannot easily overcome existing biases even if irrational in the current context: adaptation is more sensitive to confirmatory than contradictory statistics.

  8. [When history meets molecular medicine: molecular history of human tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Falchetti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis represents one of the humankind's most socially devastating diseases. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective therapies, this disease remains a global health danger even in the 21st century. Tuberculosis may cause death but infected people with effective immunity may remain healthy for years, suggesting long-term host-pathogen co-existence. Because of its antiquity, a supposed association with human settlements and the tendency to leave typical lesions on skeletal and mummified remains, tuberculosis has been the object of intensive multidisciplinary studies, including paleo-pathological research. During the past 10 years molecular paleo-pathology developed as a new scientific discipline allowing the study of ancient pathogens by direct detection of their DNA. In this work, we reviewed evidences for tuberculosis in ancient human remains, current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA and explored current theories of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolution and their implications in the global development of tuberculosis looking into the past and present at the same time.

  9. A brief history of human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Farhud, Dariush D; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed.

  10. Impact Constraints on Major Events in Early Mars History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. Thus there appears to have been a northern lowland throughout nearly all of martian history, predating the last of the really large impacts (Hellas, Argyre and Isidis) and their likely very significant environmental consequences.

  11. Human-environment interaction during the Mesolithic- Neolithic transition in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Vegetation history, climate change and human impact during the Early-Middle Holocene in the Eastern Pre-Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelles, J.; Burjachs, F.; Palomo, A.; Piqué, R.; Iriarte, E.; Pérez-Obiol, R.; Terradas, X.

    2018-03-01

    The synthetic analysis of several pollen records from sub-Mediterranean lowland Pre-Pyrenean regions evidences expansion of forests during the Early Holocene in Northeastern Iberia and the establishment of dense deciduous broadleaf forests during the Holocene Climate Optimum. Pollen records show the broadleaf deciduous forests resilience against cooling phases during the Mid-Holocene period, with slight regressions of oak woodlands and expansion of conifers or xerophytic taxa contemporary to some cooling episodes (i.e. 8.2 and 7.2 kyr cal. BP). Major vegetation changes influenced by climate change occurred in the transition to the Late Holocene, in terms of the start of a succession from broadleaf deciduous forests to evergreen sclerophyllous woodlands. The lack of evidence of previous occupation seems to support the Neolithisation of the NE Iberian Peninsula as a result of a process of migration of farming populations to uninhabited or sparsely inhabited territories. In that context, remarkable changes in vegetation were recorded from 7.3 kyr cal. BP onwards in the Lake Banyoles area, where the establishment of permanent farming settlements caused the deforestation of oak woodlands. In La Garrotxa region, short deforestation episodes affecting broadleaf deciduous forests, together with expansion of grasslands and presence of Cerealia-t were documented in the period 7.4-6.0 kyr cal. BP. Finally, in the coastal area, where less evidence of Early Neolithic occupations is recorded, evidence of Neolithic impact is reflected in the presence of Cerealia-t in 6.5-6.2 kyr cal. BP, but no strong human transformation of landscape was carried out until more recent chronologies.

  12. Genomics and the Ark: an ecocentric perspective on human history.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub; Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Views of ourselves in relationship to the rest of the biosphere are changing. Theocentric and anthropocentric perspectives are giving way to more ecocentric views on the history, present, and future of humankind. Novel sciences, such as genomics, have deepened and broadened our understanding of the process of anthropogenesis, the coming into being of humans. Genomics suggests that early human history must be regarded as a complex narrative of evolving ecosystems, in which human evolution both influenced and was influenced by the evolution of companion species. During the agricultural revolution, human beings designed small-scale artificial ecosystems or evolutionary "Arks," in which networks of plants, animals, and microorganisms coevolved. Currently, our attitude towards this process seems subject to a paradoxical reversal. The boundaries of the Ark have dramatically broadened, and genomics is not only being used to increase our understanding of our ecological past, but may also help us to conserve, reconstruct, or even revivify species and ecosystems to whose degradation or (near) extinction we have contributed. This article explores the role of genomics in the elaboration of a more ecocentric view of ourselves with the help of two examples, namely the renaissance of Paleolithic diets and of Pleistocene parks. It argues that an understanding of the world in ecocentric terms requires new partnerships and mutually beneficial forms of collaboration and convergence between life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities.

  13. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  14. [Hepatitis: a longstanding companion in human history].

    PubMed

    Craxi, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis has gone along with human history since its origins, due to its prompt identifiability linked to jaundice as a symptom. Written evidence of outbreaks of epidemic jaundice can be tracked back a few millenniums before Christ. Unavoidable confusion arises due to the overlap of different sources possibly linked to different aetiologies, identified over time as epidemic jaundice (HAV or HEV hepatitis?) and serum hepatitis (HBV or HCV hepatitis?). The journey that brought to recognize viruses as the main cause of jaundice was long and started midway during the last century, when the infectious hypothesis, which had taken place step by step, was finally confirmed by epidemiological investigations of an outbreak occurring in the US army in 1942, after a yellow fever immunization campaign. Further research identified two clinically different types of hepatitis, called for the first time hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  15. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    SciT

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre- mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method hasmore » been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon. (STAR)« less

  16. Notes on the Early History of Technical Higher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Horia Nicolai

    We perform a brief analysis of the economical and political context of establishing the first technical higher school in Romania. We urge for a revision of the current point of view on the educational level in Yashi (Iaši) and Bucharest at the epoch, highlighting that these were, at the time, important academic centers we may not recognize or may not be aware of today. We also plead for a long due serious approach about the history of early modern education in Romania.

  17. Tidal friction and the early history of the moon's orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The present work investigates the consequences implied by various rheological models of the early earth for the orbital history of the moon subsequent to its formation. Models of the earth that yield small tidal angles, such as low-viscosity models, imply that the moon never orbited in the earth's equatorial plane, thereby ruling out an equatorial origin for the moon. A high-viscosity model is shown to permit the moon to originate in the equatorial plane and still account for the present-day characteristics of the moon's orbit.

  18. Structural History of Human SRGAP2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sporny, Michael; Guez-Haddad, Julia; Kreusch, Annett; Shakartzi, Sivan; Neznansky, Avi; Cross, Alice; Isupov, Michail N.; Qualmann, Britta; Kessels, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the development of the human brain, human-specific genes are considered to play key roles, conferring its unique advantages and vulnerabilities. At the time of Homo lineage divergence from Australopithecus, SRGAP2C gradually emerged through a process of serial duplications and mutagenesis from ancestral SRGAP2A (3.4–2.4 Ma). Remarkably, ectopic expression of SRGAP2C endows cultured mouse brain cells, with human-like characteristics, specifically, increased dendritic spine length and density. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this change in neuronal morphology, we determined the structure of SRGAP2A and studied the interplay between SRGAP2A and SRGAP2C. We found that: 1) SRGAP2A homo-dimerizes through a large interface that includes an F-BAR domain, a newly identified F-BAR extension (Fx), and RhoGAP-SH3 domains. 2) SRGAP2A has an unusual inverse geometry, enabling associations with lamellipodia and dendritic spine heads in vivo, and scaffolding of membrane protrusions in cell culture. 3) As a result of the initial partial duplication event (∼3.4 Ma), SRGAP2C carries a defective Fx-domain that severely compromises its solubility and membrane-scaffolding ability. Consistently, SRGAP2A:SRAGP2C hetero-dimers form, but are insoluble, inhibiting SRGAP2A activity. 4) Inactivation of SRGAP2A is sensitive to the level of hetero-dimerization with SRGAP2C. 5) The primal form of SRGAP2C (P-SRGAP2C, existing between ∼3.4 and 2.4 Ma) is less effective in hetero-dimerizing with SRGAP2A than the modern SRGAP2C, which carries several substitutions (from ∼2.4 Ma). Thus, the genetic mutagenesis phase contributed to modulation of SRGAP2A’s inhibition of neuronal expansion, by introducing and improving the formation of inactive SRGAP2A:SRGAP2C hetero-dimers, indicating a stepwise involvement of SRGAP2C in human evolutionary history. PMID:28333212

  19. Early history of the pre-excitation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanon, Sam; Shapiro, Michael; Schweitzer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This brief review discusses the interesting early history of the pre-excitation syndrome. In 1913 Cohn and Fraser published the first patient with a short P-R interval, wide QRS complexes, and paroxysmal tachycardia. This was followed by other cases of pre-excitation syndrome, all of which were considered to be due to bundle branch blocks. In 1930 Wolff, Parkinson, and White reported 11 patients with the syndrome, which came to bear their name. Two years later, Holzmann and Scherf suggested bypass tracts as the most likely mechanism of pre-excitation syndrome. In 1942, Wood et al. documented the first accessory connection at autopsy. Despite these early studies supporting the bypass theory, the quest for alternative mechanisms continued until the 1970s when electrophysiological studies and surgical therapy confirmed accessory connections as the mechanism of pre-excitation syndrome.

  20. An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Golstein, Pierre; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2018-04-16

    After 60 years of intense fundamental research into T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we have gained a detailed knowledge of the cells involved, specific recognition mechanisms and post-recognition perforin-granzyme-based and FAS-based molecular mechanisms. What could not be anticipated at the outset was how discovery of the mechanisms regulating the activation and function of cytotoxic T cells would lead to new developments in cancer immunotherapy. Given the profound recent interest in therapeutic manipulation of cytotoxic T cell responses, it is an opportune time to look back on the early history of the field. This Timeline describes how the early findings occurred and eventually led to current therapeutic applications.

  1. The "Starch Wars" and the Early History of DNA Profiling.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J D

    2006-01-01

    Just as the movie Star Wars had a prequel, so did the "DNA Wars"-the series of legal, scientific, and personal battles that took place over the admissibility of forensic DNA evidence from 1989 to 1994. Between the late 1970s and the mid-1980s, another forensic identification technique became mired in controversy: electrophoresis-based blood protein analysis. Although the debates over blood analysis were every bit as rancorous and frustrating to almost everybody involved - so much so that they became known as the "Starch Wars" - their importance has not been adequately appreciated in the recent history of forensic science. After reviewing the early history of blood typing, I will describe the development of the Multi-System approach to blood protein analysis that took place in California from 1977 to 1978. I will then elucidate the history of the Starch Wars, and demonstrate the ways that they shaped subsequent disputes over DNA evidence, especially in California. I will show that: (a) many of the forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, and lawyers who became prominent players in the DNA Wars were deeply involved in the court cases involving protein electrophoresis; and (b) many of the issues that became controversial in the disputes over DNA evidence first emerged in the Starch Wars. In the conclusion, I will suggest various ways to improve the quality of forensic science based on my analysis of the Starch Wars. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  2. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extralunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. There is a twofold to fourfold contrast in the integral impact flux between the Apollo 14 and 16 sites and the older mare surfaces. This is judged insufficient to account for the contrasting lithology between these two sites: basalts and soil breccias in the maria, annealed breccias and impact melts in the highlands. Therefore, these rocks and their ages (3.9-4.0 b.y.) are thought to predate the surfaces in which they are found. Estimation of the flux needed to produce these lithologies, and difficulties associated with extrapolating this further back in lunar history give support to the "cataclysm" hypothesis of Tera, Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the "normal" flux during the first 600 million years of lunar history and the "peak" that apparently occurred 4.0 billion years ago. The most likely sources for the normal flux are comets from the vicinity of Uranus and Neptune. The most promising source for the peak is tidal disruption by Earth or Venus of a Ceres-size asteroid initially in a Mars-crossing orbit. Alternative possibilities are suggested.

  3. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania

    Patrick H. Brose; Richard P. Guyette; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2015-01-01

    Fire history studies are important tools for understanding past fire regimes and the roles humans played in those regimes. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a fire history study in the Pine Creek Gorge area of north-central Pennsylvania to ascertain the number of fires and fire-free intervals, their variability through time, and the role of human influences. We collected...

  4. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    The intergalactic medium—the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies—is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  5. Humans to Mars: The Greatest Adventure in Human History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Schild,Rudy

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for a human mission to Mars are many and include (1) World technological leadership, (2) Enhanced national security, (3) Enhanced economic vitality, (4) The human urge to explore new and distant frontiers, (5) Scientific discovery (how did Mars evolve from an early Earth-like, hospitable planet to its present inhospitable state? Is there life on Mars?) (6) Inspiring the American public and the next generation of scientists and engineers (following the launch of Sputnik I by the USSR on October 4, 1957, the U. S. and the rest of the world witnessed a significant increase in the number of students going into science and engineering), (7) Develop new technologies for potential non-space spin-off applications, and, (8) Enhanced national prestige, etc. Other reasons for colonizing the Red Planet are more catastrophic in nature, including Mars as a safe haven for the survival of the human species in the event of an impact with a large asteroid (remember the demise of the dinosaurs 65-million years as a result of an asteroid impact!). Some have also suggested that the colonization of Mars may be a solution to the global exponential population explosion on our planet! A human mission to and the colonization of the Red Planet requires multi-disciplined expertise in many areas including engineering, technology, science, human health and medicine and the human psychological and behavior. To capture the relevant areas of needed expertise, we have invited a group of more than 70 U. S. and foreign experts in these areas, including astronauts, scientists, engineers, technologists, medical doctors, psychologists and economists to share their views and thoughts on a human mission to Mars.

  6. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Chao; Li, Hui

    2013-06-03

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history.

  7. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  8. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  9. The quantum defect: Early history and recent developments

    SciT

    Rau, A.R.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-03-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term {open_quotes}quantum defect{close_quotes} does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schr{umlt o}dinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. We present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments. {copyright}more » {ital 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers.}« less

  10. An early history of the Gestalt factors of organisation.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M; Giora, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Wertheimer's (1923, Psychologische Forschung 4 301 - 350) idea that the perceptual world is articulated according to factors of organisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most original contributions of Gestalt psychology and stands as a milestone in the history of vision research. An inquiry focused on the forerunners of some of Wertheimer's factors of perceptual organisation is documented here. In fact, in 1900 Schumann described grouping by proximity and by vertical symmetry, and in 1903 G E Müller identified the factors of sameness/similarity and contour. Other authors contributed to the early description of these factors, such as Rubin, who in 1922 originally illustrated grouping by similarity. Even though Wertheimer himself granted these authors due recognition, later psychologists have paid little attention to their contributions. Some possible reasons for this negligence are briefly discussed.

  11. The early history of the synapse: from Plato to Sherrington.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M R

    1999-09-15

    One hundred years ago, in 1897, Sherrington adopted the name synapse. However, the concept of the synapse emerged from considerations of how muscles are contracted and so locomotion affected over a period of 2400 years, from the time of Plato and Aristotle in the 4th century BC to the early part of the 20th century. This early history is considered in the present review. In terms of duration of influence, the early history was dominated by Aristotle's concept of vital pneuma. This was derived from the ether which filled all space, taken in by the lungs, transformed to vital pneuma in the heart, and then conducted in the blood stream to be transmitted to muscles. The vital pneuma then initiated the final phase of the muscle's psyche, that is, its contraction leading to locomotion. Aristotle's ideas had to be modified with the discovery by Galen and his students in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD that nerves arising from the brain and spinal cord are necessary for the initiation of muscle contraction. They modified the Aristotlean account so that the vital pneuma delivered by blood vessels to the brain was converted there to psychic pneuma, from whence it was conducted along nerves to be transmitted to muscle, so allowing the muscle to contract. There matters rested for about 1300 years until Descartes. Descartes rejected the idea of organs and muscles possessing a psyche with a final cause that was released by the conduction and transmission of psychic pneuma in nerves, emphasising that mechanical explanations must be sought when determining the function of an organ or muscle. He argued in his corpuscular theory that fine particles derived from the blood in the brain, which he gave the unfortunate name of animal spirits, were conducted and transmitted along nerves to enter muscle during transmission, so leading to the increase in width of the muscle fibres, their shortening and contraction. This description was elaborated on in great detail by Descartes, and by his

  12. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  13. The history of human cytogenetics in India-A review.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Usha R

    2016-09-10

    It is 60years since the discovery of the correct number of chromosomes in 1956; the field of cytogenetics had evolved. The late evolution of this field with respect to other fields is primarily due to the underdevelopment of lenses and imaging techniques. With the advent of the new technologies, especially automation and evolution of advanced compound microscopes, cytogenetics drastically leaped further to greater heights. This review describes the historic events that had led to the development of human cytogenetics with a special attention about the history of cytogenetics in India, its present status, and future. Apparently, this review provides a brief account into the insights of the early laboratory establishments, funding, and the German collaborations. The details of the Indian cytogeneticists establishing their labs, promoting the field, and offering the chromosomal diagnostic services are described. The detailed study of chromosomes helps in increasing the knowledge of the chromosome structure and function. The delineation of the chromosomal rearrangements using cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetic techniques pays way in identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in the chromosomal rearrangement. Although molecular cytogenetics is greatly developing, the conventional cytogenetics still remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of various numerical chromosomal aberrations and a few structural aberrations. The history of cytogenetics and its importance even in the era of molecular cytogenetics are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855

  16. Literature, history and the humanization of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers the disciplines of literature and history and the contributions each makes to the discourse of bioethics. In each case I note the pedagogic ends that can be enacted though the appropriate use of the each of these disciplines in the sphere of medical education, particularly in the medical ethics classroom.(1) I then explore the contribution that both these disciplines and their respective methodologies can and do bring to the academic field of bioethics. I conclude with a brief consideration of the relations between literature and history with particular attention to the possibilities for a future bioethics informed by history and literature after the empirical turn. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Civilization, Big History, and Human Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Barry H.

    2010-01-01

    A problem that history teachers in the United States face is that they lack an appropriate reference point from which to address many of today's global issues. The source of this problem is an antiquated model of society, still taught in the universities, that largely reflects the society that existed a century ago. For the last decade, the author…

  18. The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

  19. Visual Culture, Art History and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    This essay will discuss the need for the humanities to address visual culture studies as part of its interdisciplinary mission in today's university. Although mostly unnoticed in recent debates in the humanities over historical and theoretical frameworks, the relatively new field of visual culture has emerged as a corrective to a growing…

  20. The Unfortunate Human Factor: A Selective History of Human Factors for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews moments in the history of human factors that are especially relevant to the field of technical communications. Discusses human factors research that is applicable to technical communications. Focuses on qualitative usability research, minimalism, and human activity interface design. (HB)

  1. Tempo and mode of genomic mutations unveil human evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that have occurred in human genomes provide insight into various aspects of evolutionary history such as speciation events and degrees of natural selection. Comparing genome sequences between human and great apes or among humans is a feasible approach for inferring human evolutionary history. Recent advances in high-throughput or so-called 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of thousands of individual human genomes, as well as a variety of reference genomes of hominids, many of which are publicly available. These sequence data can help to unveil the detailed demographic history of the lineage leading to humans as well as the explosion of modern human population size in the last several thousand years. In addition, high-throughput sequencing illustrates the tempo and mode of de novo mutations, which are producing human genetic variation at this moment. Pedigree-based human genome sequencing has shown that mutation rates vary significantly across the human genome. These studies have also provided an improved timescale of human evolution, because the mutation rate estimated from pedigree analysis is half that estimated from traditional analyses based on molecular phylogeny. Because of the dramatic reduction in sequencing cost, sequencing on-demand samples designed for specific studies is now also becoming popular. To produce data of sufficient quality to meet the requirements of the study, it is necessary to set an explicit sequencing plan that includes the choice of sample collection methods, sequencing platforms, and number of sequence reads.

  2. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Wilton, Alan; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  3. Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  4. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  5. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciT

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  6. The Invention and Early History of the N-Localizer for Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Nearly four decades after the invention of the N-localizer, its origin and history remain misunderstood. Some are unaware that a third-year medical student invented this technology. The following conspectus accurately chronicles the origin of the N-localizer, presents recently discovered evidence that documents its history, and corrects misconceptions related to its origin and early history. PMID:27462476

  7. Mapping Early American History: Beyond What Happened Where

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    American history demands to be mapped. The stories of exploration, the colonies, the Louisiana Purchase, and so on are incomplete without maps to locate historical places, events, and conflicts. Yet maps can do more for the history teacher than simply illustrating what happened where or what territory was acquired when. Maps also provide clues…

  8. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  9. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  10. Paul Ehrlich and the Early History of Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Kay, A Barry

    2016-08-01

    Paul Ehrlich's techniques, published between 1879 and 1880, for staining blood films using coal tar dyes, and his method of differential blood cell counting, ended years of speculation regarding the classification of white cells. Acidic and basic dyes had allowed him to recognize eosinophil and basophil granules, respectively, work that was a direct continuation of his discovery of the tissue mast cell described in his doctoral thesis. Ehrlich went on to develop neutral dyes that identified epsilon granules in neutrophils ("cells with polymorphous nuclei"). He also speculated, for the most part correctly, on the formation, function, and fate of blood neutrophils and eosinophils. Before Ehrlich, a number of important observations had been made on white cells and their role in health and disease. Among the most notable were William Hewson's studies of blood and lymph; the early descriptions of leukemia by Alfred Donné, John Hughes Bennett, Rudolf Virchow, and others; as well as seminal observations on inflammation by William Addison, Friedrich von Recklinghausen, and Julius Cohnheim. Eosinophils were almost certainly recognized previously by others. In 1846, Thomas Wharton Jones (1808-1891) described "granule blood-cells" in several species including humans. The term "granule cell" had also been used by Julius Vogel (1814-1880), who had previously observed similar cells in inflammatory exudates. Vogel, in turn, was aware of the work of Gottlieb Gluge (1812-1898), who had observed "compound inflammatory globules" in pus and serum that resembled eosinophils. Almost 20 years before Ehrlich developed his staining methods, Max Johann Schultze (1825-1874) performed functional experiments on fine and coarse granular cells using a warm stage microscopic technique and showed they had amoeboid movement and phagocytic abilities. Despite these earlier observations, it was Ehrlich's use of stains that heralded the modern era of studies of leukocyte biology and pathology.

  11. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  12. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  13. Still Missing? History Chapters in Introductory Early Childhood Education Textbooks From the 1990s to the 2010s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry; Woitte, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    This article compares history chapters in recent introductory early childhood education textbooks with those from an earlier study, reviewing history chapters on four dimensions: the rationale for the study of history, the dominant story of the history, the facts of the history, and the image of the history. Ten textbooks are reviewed, including…

  14. Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes.

    PubMed

    Stoneking, Mark; Krause, Johannes

    2011-08-18

    Genome-wide data, both from SNP arrays and from complete genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly abundant and are now even available from extinct hominins. These data are providing new insights into population history; in particular, when combined with model-based analytical approaches, genome-wide data allow direct testing of hypotheses about population history. For example, genome-wide data from both contemporary populations and extinct hominins strongly support a single dispersal of modern humans from Africa, followed by two archaic admixture events: one with Neanderthals somewhere outside Africa and a second with Denisovans that (so far) has only been detected in New Guinea. These new developments promise to reveal new stories about human population history, without having to resort to storytelling.

  15. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  16. Humanize Your Classroom with the History of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, James K.

    1993-01-01

    History humanizes mathematics and explains the "whys" by showing its logical development. Communicating, connecting, and valuing of mathematics can be effected by interjecting historical moments, reading biographies, creating displays for the classroom, and tracing historically accurate developments of topics in class. (Contains 26…

  17. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  18. Cadmium contamination of early human milk.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, R; Paszkowski, T; Radomański, T; Szkoda, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of cadmium was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in colostrum samples obtained from 110 women on the 4th postpartum day. Detectable amounts of cadmium were found in 95% of the examined samples and the geometric mean of the determined values was 0.002 mg/kg. In 3 cases (2.7%, the examined neonates received via mother's milk an amount of cadmium exceeding the maximum daily intake level for this metal. Maternal age, parity and place of residence did not affect the determined cadmium levels of milk. Cadmium content in the early human milk of current smokers did not differ significantly from that of nonsmoking mothers.

  19. Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Levin, Bruce R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; McLean, Angela R

    2017-07-29

    A bacterium was once a component of the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells, and much of the human genome originated in microorganisms. Today, all vertebrates harbour large communities of microorganisms (microbiota), particularly in the gut, and at least 20% of the small molecules in human blood are products of the microbiota. Changing human lifestyles and medical practices are disturbing the content and diversity of the microbiota, while simultaneously reducing our exposures to the so-called old infections and to organisms from the natural environment with which human beings co-evolved. Meanwhile, population growth is increasing the exposure of human beings to novel pathogens, particularly the crowd infections that were not part of our evolutionary history. Thus some microbes have co-evolved with human beings and play crucial roles in our physiology and metabolism, whereas others are entirely intrusive. Human metabolism is therefore a tug-of-war between managing beneficial microbes, excluding detrimental ones, and channelling as much energy as is available into other essential functions (eg, growth, maintenance, reproduction). This tug-of-war shapes the passage of each individual through life history decision nodes (eg, how fast to grow, when to mature, and how long to live). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  1. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  2. Zircons as a Probe of Early Luanr History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, C. A.; McKeegan, K. D.; Gilmour, J. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Talor, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    Zircons are ideal for investigating the early lunar bombardment because we can measure both U-Pb crystallization ages and fissiongenic Xe degassing ages for the same crystal. We report U-Pb, Pb-Pb and U-Xe ages for three lunar zircons.

  3. Zircons as a Probe of Early Lunar Impact History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, C. A.; McKeegan, K. D.; Gilmour, J. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Taylor, D. J.

    2013-08-01

    Zircons are ideal for investigating the early lunar bombardment because we can measure both U-Pb crystallization ages and fissiongenic Xe degassing ages for the same crystal. We report U-Pb, Pb-Pb and U-Xe ages for two lunar zircons.

  4. Early history of tree seedling nurseries in the South

    James P. Barnett

    2013-01-01

    The forests in the South were devastated by aggressive harvesting that began following the Civil War. By the early in the 20th century, many millions of acres of land needed reforestation. Foresighted individuals began a committed effort to restore this land to a productive condition. This effort required dedication, innovation, cooperation, and leadership. The...

  5. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  6. Contemporary divergence in early life history in grayling (Thymallus thymallus).

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Gaute; Barson, Nicola J; Haugen, Thrond O; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-12-13

    Following colonization of new habitats and subsequent selection, adaptation to environmental conditions might be expected to be rapid. In a mountain lake in Norway, Lesjaskogsvatnet, more than 20 distinct spawning demes of grayling have been established since the lake was colonized, some 20-25 generations ago. The demes spawn in tributaries consistently exhibiting either colder or warmer temperature conditions during spawning in spring and subsequent early development during early summer. In order to explore the degree of temperature-related divergence in early development, a multi-temperature common-garden experiment was performed on embryos from four different demes experiencing different spring temperatures. Early developmental characters were measured to test if individuals from the four demes respond differently to the treatment temperatures. There was clear evidence of among-deme differences (genotype - environment interactions) in larval growth and yolk-to-body-size conversion efficiency. Under the cold treatment regime, larval growth rates were highest for individuals belonging to cold streams. Individuals from warm streams had the highest yolk-consumption rate under cold conditions. As a consequence, yolk-to-body-mass conversion efficiency was highest for cold-deme individuals under cold conditions. As we observed response parallelism between individuals from demes belonging to similar thermal groups for these traits, some of the differentiation seems likely to result from local adaptation The observed differences in length at age during early larval development most likely have a genetic component, even though both directional and random processes are likely to have influenced evolutionary change in the demes under study.

  7. Early Complementopathy after Multiple Injuries in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Anne-Maud; Martin, Myriam; Flierl, Michael A.; Rittirsch, Daniel; Helm, Matthias; Lampl, Lorenz; Bruckner, Uwe; Stahl, Gregory L.; Blom, Anna M.; Perl, Mario; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After severe tissue injury, innate immunity mounts a robust systemic inflammatory response. However, little is known about the immediate impact of multiple trauma on early complement function in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that multiple trauma results in immediate activation, consumption and dysfunction of the complement cascade and that the resulting severe “complementopathy” may be associated with morbidity and mortality. Therefore a prospective multicenter study with 25 healthy volunteers and 40 polytrauma patients (mean injury severity score [ISS] = 30.3 ± 2.9) was performed. After polytrauma serum was collected as early as possible at the scene, upon admission to the emergency room and 4, 12, 24, 120 and 240 hours post trauma and analysed for the complement profile. Complement hemolytic activity (CH-50) was massively reduced within the first 24 h after injury, recovered only 5 days after trauma and discriminated between lethal and non-lethal 28-day outcome. Serum levels of the complement activation products C3a and C5a were significantly elevated throughout the entire observation period and correlated with the severity of traumatic brain injury and survival. The soluble terminal complement complex SC5b-9 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) showed a biphasic response after trauma. Key fluid phase inhibitors of complement, such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and factor I, were significantly diminished early after trauma. The present data indicate an almost synchronically rapid activation and dysfunction of complement suggesting a trauma-induced “complementopathy” early after injury. These events may participate to the impairment of the innate immune response observed after severe trauma. PMID:22258234

  8. Lived spaces in history: a study in human geography in the context of Sangam texts.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, K N

    2010-01-01

    There has been considerable research work on early South India, particularly early Tamilakam, using archaeological, epigraphical and literary sources. Earlier, studies on early Tamilakam was almost exclusively based on the early Tamil texts, called as heroic or bardic poetry. However, a wealth of material has been generated by archaeological exploration, that have unearthed a mass of material from paleolithic, mesolithic, neolithic and the iron age megalithic, bordering on the early historic ages. A number of Tamil Brahmi label inscriptions have also been discovered. However, the largest number of archaeological finds have been megalithic burial sites and habitation sites are only in the process of being discovered. There are also difficulties in corroborating archaeological and epigraphic material with the enormous corpus of early Tamil texts. As a result, there is a tendency to dismiss the early Tamil texts as not conducive to historical analysis. The present article argues that we will still be able to use the material of the early Tamil texts using the tools provided by human geography, and suggests a methodology for making use of the literary material for further explorations in the early history of Tamilakam.

  9. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    PubMed

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  10. Social Confidence in Early Adulthood among Young People with and without a History of Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method: Participants were young people with a…

  11. Early Childhood Education and Care for Native Hawaiian Children in Hawai'i: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Donna J.; Ku'ulei Serna, Alethea

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a brief overview of the history of early childhood education and care for Native Hawaiian children in Hawai'i. Data sources include a literature review, examination of archival documents, and interviews with a sample of Native Hawaiian parents and community members. We trace the emergence of outside-the-home early childhood…

  12. Early History of BELL'S Theorem Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, John F.

    Before 1980 it was unfashionable for a physicist to admit that he either did not understand and/or doubted the Truth and/or Orthodoxy of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Contemporary wisdom deemed it impossible that it may lead to incorrect predictions. Thus, it was foolish to suggest that it warranted further testing. Said wisdom proclaimed that nothing would ever be gained by any such pursuit. Bohr had won his debates with Einstein. Von Neumann had proven all other interpretations wrong. That was the end to it! Only an iconoclast dared think otherwise. Here I provide a brief history of some of my encounters with a few fellow iconoclasts, past denizens of a QM doubter's subculture.

  13. Early history of neutron scattering at oak ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M. K.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the early development of neutron scattering techniques utilizing reactor neutrons occurred at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the years immediately following World War II. C.G. Shull, E.O. Wollan, and their associates systematically established neutron diffraction as a quantitative research tool and then applied this technique to important problems in nuclear physics, chemical crystallography, and magnetism. This article briefly summarizes the very important research at ORNL during this period, which laid the foundation for the establishment of neutron scattering programs throughout the world.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Surface Dynamics and Early History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, submitted as part of this proposal renewal represents the Final Report required by NASA for Grant NAGS-9442. It should be emphasized that, while this work statement in the original proposal outlined anticipated directions of our research, the specific activities we carried out during this period differed slightly from those proposed, capitalizing on new unexpected results and new advances in analytical capability. The thrust of all the work we completed were completely within the stated research goals of the proposal and significantly advanced our knowledge of planetary processes and our understanding of the early solar system. The following summary outlines our achievements in the different areas of research. These include: A) Early solar system processes and time scales using I-Xe chronometry; B) The Active Capture of Volatiles: A new mechanism for the capture of heavy noble gases, possible implications for phase Q and planetary heavy noble gases; C) Separation of Xe-L from Xe-H: Physically selective experiments; D) Abundances of Presolar grains; E) Studies of Neon and Helium from single interstellar SiC and graphite grains; F) Pre-compaction exposure of meteoritic grains and chondrules; G) Geochemically Measured Half-Lives: Double beta-decay of Te and Ba isotopes; H) Noble gases in stratospheric interplanetary dust particles; I) New Analytical Instrument.

  15. The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in humans have shown that adverse experience in early life is associated with accelerated reproductive timing, and there is comparative evidence for similar effects in other animals. There are two different classes of adaptive explanation for associations between early-life adversity and accelerated reproduction, both based on the idea of predictive adaptive responses (PARs). According to external PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity provides a ‘weather forecast’ of the environmental conditions into which the individual will mature, and it is adaptive for the individual to develop an appropriate phenotype for this anticipated environment. In internal PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity has a lasting negative impact on the individual's somatic state, such that her health is likely to fail more rapidly as she gets older, and there is an advantage to adjusting her reproductive schedule accordingly. We use a model of fluctuating environments to derive evolveability conditions for acceleration of reproductive timing in response to early-life adversity in a long-lived organism. For acceleration to evolve via the external PAR process, early-life cues must have a high degree of validity and the level of annual autocorrelation in the individual's environment must be almost perfect. For acceleration to evolve via the internal PAR process requires that early-life experience must determine a significant fraction of the variance in survival prospects in adulthood. The two processes are not mutually exclusive, and mechanisms for calibrating reproductive timing on the basis of early experience could evolve through a combination of the predictive value of early-life adversity for the later environment and its negative impact on somatic state. PMID:23843395

  16. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  17. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    PubMed

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  18. The origins and early history of the National Chiropractic Association

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S

    1993-01-01

    Early organization in chiropractic was prompted by the profession’s need to promote itself and to defend against the onslaught of political medicine and organized osteopathy. The first priorities were legal defense against prosecution for unlicensed practice and malpractice insurance. The Universal Chiropractors’ Association (UCA), organized at the Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) in 1906, sought to meet these needs by insuring its members and by developing a legal department under the supervision of attorney Tom Morris, one time lieutenant governor of Wisconsin. The public relations and marketing needs of chiropractors were largely served by the PSC and its legendary leader. However, as chiropractors increasingly sought to avoid prosecution by passage of chiropractic laws, Palmer’s efforts to direct this legislation so as to limit chiropractors’ scope of practice increasingly alienated many in the profession. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) was founded in 1922 to provide a broadscope alternative to BJ’s UCA. With Palmer’s departure from the UCA following the neurocalometer debacle, ACA and UCA sought amalgamation. Simultaneously, organized medicine renewed its attack on the profession by introducing basic science legislation, which prompted chiropractors to try to upgrade and standardize chiropractic education. Early efforts to bring about the needed consensus were centered in the International Chiropractic Congress (ICC), particularly its division of state examining boards. In 1930 the ACA and UCA combined to form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA), and by 1934 the ICC had merged with the NCA to form part of its council structure. With this modicum of solidarity the NCA began the process of educational boot-strapping at its 1935 convention in Los Angeles, when its Committee on Education, a forerunner of today’s Council on Chiropractic Education, was proposed by C.O. Watkins of Montana. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  19. Endermatic, epidermatic, enepidermatic-the early history of penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-09-15

    Already at the end of the 18th century, attempts were made to administer drugs transdermally. Several techniques were applied, including rubbing drug substances into the intact or wounded skin. Penetration enhancers were investigated as well, including human and animal body fluids, in particular gastric juice and saliva. In the 19th century, lipophilic solubilizers like chloroform and ether were tried. Although the experiments were mostly done against a pre-rational background some may be worth to be judged under scientific premises. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Early Geological History of Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Thomas, E.

    2005-12-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS), an urban estuary on the east coast of the USA, formed when terminal moraines created Long Island (NY) during the last glaciation. During early deglaciation, a periglacial lake developed behind this moraine (Glacial Lake Connecticut), which was rapidly filled with red, varved lake clays. Glacial Lake Connecticut drained when a barrier at its eastern end towards the Atlantic Ocean failed, at about 18 (calibrated) ka. The LIS basin then dried out, and a fluvial drainage pattern was carved into the lake beds (Lewis and Stone, 1991). With ongoing rise in global sea level, the sea entered LIS from the east and a marine-estuarine sediment sequence was deposited on the partially eroded varved clays. Lake Hitchcock formed behind the rapidly retreating Laurentide ice sheet in eastern New England, drained (possibly catastrophically) around 14 (calibrated) ka (Brigham-Grette, 2001), and created a coarse deltaic structure in LIS. Radiocarbon dates on bulk organic matter from the varved lake clays and marine silts indicate a time frame for Glacial Lake Connecticut between 18 and 16 ka, with the marine transgression possibly occurring around 15 ka (Lewis and DiGiacomo-Cohen, 2000). We dated organic carbon (hand picked terrestrial plant fragments) and mollusk fragments from core samples. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from organic material (ours and existing dates) do not show a clear relationship between age and depth-in-core. Radiocarbon dates show consistently older dates of organic matter than mollusk fragments from the same samples, with differences of up to 3000 years. We infer that the plant remains were stored on land for extensive periods of time before being deposited in LIS. The radiocarbon ages from mollusks show a curvi-linear relationship with depth, and suggest an age of about 10 (calibrated) ka for the marine transgression at the location of core LISAT 12 (in eastern LIS off the coast near Orient Point, Long Island). This new time frame

  1. Developmental history and application of CRISPR in human disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Puping; Zhang, Xiya; Chen, Yuxi; Huang, Junjiu

    2017-06-01

    Genome-editing tools are programmable artificial nucleases, mainly including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR). By recognizing and cleaving specific DNA sequences, genome-editing tools make it possible to generate site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the genome. DSBs will then be repaired by either error-prone nonhomologous end joining or high-fidelity homologous recombination mechanisms. Through these two different mechanisms, endogenous genes can be knocked out or precisely repaired/modified. Rapid developments in genome-editing tools, especially CRISPR, have revolutionized human disease models generation, for example, various zebrafish, mouse, rat, pig, monkey and human cell lines have been constructed. Here, we review the developmental history of CRISPR and its application in studies of human diseases. In addition, we also briefly discussed the therapeutic application of CRISPR in the near future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  3. Tracking modern human population history from linguistic and cranial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Harvati, Katerina; Jäger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Languages and genes arguably follow parallel evolutionary trajectories, descending from a common source and subsequently differentiating. However, although common ancestry is established within language families, it remains controversial whether language preserves a deep historical signal. To address this question, we evaluate the association between linguistic and geographic distances across 265 language families, as well as between linguistic, geographic, and cranial distances among eleven populations from Africa, Asia, and Australia. We take advantage of differential population history signals reflected by human cranial anatomy, where temporal bone shape reliably tracks deep population history and neutral genetic changes, while facial shape is more strongly associated with recent environmental effects. We show that linguistic distances are strongly geographically patterned, even within widely dispersed groups. However, they are correlated predominantly with facial, rather than temporal bone, morphology, suggesting that variation in vocabulary likely tracks relatively recent events and possibly population contact. PMID:27833101

  4. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    PubMed

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Conversational Language Use as a Predictor of Early Reading Development: Language History as a Moderating Variable

    PubMed Central

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Petrill, Stephen A.; Schatschneider, Chris; Cutting, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined the nature of concurrent and predictive associations between conversational language use and reading development during early school-age years. Method Language and reading data from 380 twins in the Western Reserve Reading Project were examined via phenotypic correlations and multilevel modeling on exploratory latent factors. Results In the concurrent prediction of children’s early reading abilities, a significant interaction emerged between children’s conversational language abilities and their history of reported language difficulties. Specifically, conversational language concurrently predicted reading development above and beyond variance accounted for by formal vocabulary scores, but only in children with a history of reported language difficulties. A similar trend was noted in predicting reading skills 1 year later, but the interaction was not statistically significant. Conclusions Findings suggest a more nuanced view of the association between spoken language and early reading than is commonly proposed. One possibility is that children with and without a history of reported language difficulties rely on different skills, or the same skills to differing degrees, when completing early reading-related tasks. Future studies should examine the causal link between conversational language and early reading specifically in children with a history of reported language difficulties. PMID:20150410

  6. Evolution of CO2 and H2O on Mars: A cold Early History?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The martian climate has long been thought to have evolved substantially through history from a warm and wet period to the current cold and dry conditions on the martian surface. This view has been challenged based primarily on evidence that the early Sun had a substantially reduced luminosity and that a greenhouse atmosphere would be difficult to sustain on Mars for long periods of time. In addition, the evidence for a warm, wet period of martian history is far from conclusive with many of the salient features capable of being explained by an early cold climate. An important test of the warm, wet early Mars hypothesis is the abundance of carbonates in the crust [1]. Recent high precision isotopic measurements of the martian atmosphere and discoveries of carbonates on the martian surface provide new constraints on the evolution of the martian atmosphere. This work seeks to apply these constraints to test the feasibility of the cold early scenario

  7. History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Thèves, Catherine; Crubézy, Eric; Biagini, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns.Paleomicrobiology dedicated to variola virus is restricted to few studies, most unsuccessful, involving ancient material. Only one recent approach allowed the identification of viral DNA fragments from lung tissue of a 300-year-old body excavated from permafrost in Eastern Siberia; phylogenetic analysis revealed that this ancient strain was distinct from those described during the 20th century.

  8. Evolutionary demography and the population history of the European early Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Shennan, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I propose that evolutionary demography and associated theory from human behavioral ecology provide a strong basis for explaining the available evidence for the patterns observed in the first agricultural settlement of Europe in the 7th-5th millennium cal. BC, linking together a variety of what have previously been disconnected observations and casting doubt on some long-standing existing models. An outline of relevant aspects of life history theory, which provides the foundation for understanding demography, is followed by a review of large-scale demographic patterns in the early Neolithic, which point to rapid population increase and a process of demic diffusion. More localized socioeconomic and demographic patterns suggesting rapid expansion to local carrying capacities and an associated growth of inequality in the earliest farming communities of central Europe (the Linear Pottery Culture, or LBK) are then outlined and shown to correspond to predictions of spatial population ecology and reproductive skew theory. Existing models of why it took so long for farming to spread to northern and northwest Europe, which explain the spread in terms of the gradual disruption of hunter-gatherer ways of life, are then questioned in light of evidence for population collapse at the end of the LBK. Finally, some broader implications of the study are presented, including the suggestion that the pattern of an initial agricultural boom followed by a bust may be relevant in other parts of the world.

  9. Building an Evidence-Based Mental Health Program for Children with History of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupina, Maria; Vermeulen, Marlous; Moberg, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is a major intervention in a child's life, however internationally adopted (IA) children remain at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental and mental health issues due to the fact that most of them have a history of early adversity prior to their adoption. In the last 20 years, extensive research with this population has increased the…

  10. History Of Self-Disclosure In Females And Early Defection From Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Late adolescent girls who would more likely defect from psychotherapy early had a self-rated history of greater self-disclosure than did girls who would more likely continue. This difference was especially clear with male targets. The second experimental study revealed a similar finding; terminators are higher self-disclosers to males whereas…

  11. Tensions in Constructions of Quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In pronouncements of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy the importance of quality appears as a seemingly irrefutable concept. Yet, attention to ECEC policy history reveals tensions between discourses that construct quality in ways that endure whereas other ways are ostensibly forgotten. Drawing on a Foucauldian-influenced…

  12. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  13. A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    Clark, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

  14. Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

  15. A qualitative study of early family histories and transitions of homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2006-10-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories of many youth. Leaving home because of either running away or being removed by child protective services often resulted in multiple transitions, which regularly included moving from foster care homes to a group home, back to their parents, and then again returning to the streets. Although having experienced family disorganization set youth on trajectories for early independence, there were many unique paths that youth traveled prior to ending up on the streets.

  16. Inferring Admixture Histories of Human Populations Using Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Reich, David; Berger, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Long-range migrations and the resulting admixtures between populations have been important forces shaping human genetic diversity. Most existing methods for detecting and reconstructing historical admixture events are based on allele frequency divergences or patterns of ancestry segments in chromosomes of admixed individuals. An emerging new approach harnesses the exponential decay of admixture-induced linkage disequilibrium (LD) as a function of genetic distance. Here, we comprehensively develop LD-based inference into a versatile tool for investigating admixture. We present a new weighted LD statistic that can be used to infer mixture proportions as well as dates with fewer constraints on reference populations than previous methods. We define an LD-based three-population test for admixture and identify scenarios in which it can detect admixture events that previous formal tests cannot. We further show that we can uncover phylogenetic relationships among populations by comparing weighted LD curves obtained using a suite of references. Finally, we describe several improvements to the computation and fitting of weighted LD curves that greatly increase the robustness and speed of the calculations. We implement all of these advances in a software package, ALDER, which we validate in simulations and apply to test for admixture among all populations from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), highlighting insights into the admixture history of Central African Pygmies, Sardinians, and Japanese. PMID:23410830

  17. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  18. Surgical management of early pregnancy failure: history, politics, and safe, cost-effective care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-05-01

    Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.

  19. A Third Note: Helmholtz, Palestrina, and the Early History of Musicology.

    PubMed

    Kursell, Julia

    2015-06-01

    This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz's work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked with nineteenth-century aesthetic and scholarly ideals. His eagerness to use the latest products of historical scholarship in early music reveals a specific view of music history. Historical documents of music provide the opportunity for the discovery of new experimental research topics and thereby also reveal insights into hearing under different conditions. The essay argues that this work occupies a peculiar position in the history of musicology; it falls under the header of "systematic musicology," which eventually emerged as a discipline of musicology at the end of the nineteenth century. That this discipline has a history at all is easily overlooked, as many of its contributors were scientists with an interest in music. A history of musicology therefore must consider at least the following two caveats: parts of it take place outside the institutionalized field of musicology, and any history of musicology must, in the last instance, be embedded in a history of music.

  20. Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Constrains on early events in Martian history are derived using the planet's cratering record. Variations in the shapes of the crater size-frequency distribution curves are interpreted as indicative of the size-frequency distribution of the production populations, thus providing information about the age of the unit relative to the end of the heavy bombardment period. Results from the analysis of craters superposed on heavily cratered units across the Martian surface provide constraints on the hemispheric dichotomy and the early erosional conditions on Mars.

  1. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years.

  2. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years. PMID:28257470

  3. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  4. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  5. Prospective audit of 106 consecutive human bite injuries: the importance of history taking

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, C; Robertson, C

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Patients with cutaneous wounds who did not present with a history of human bite were asked a follow up question. Those who then gave a history of human bite were noted. Results: Certain groups of patients with human bites were significantly more likely to provide a factitious history and/or delay presentation. Conclusion: Follow up questioning dramatically increased the case-detection rate, prompting specific management. PMID:16299201

  6. Teleoperation support for early human planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Giancarlo; Perino, Maria Antonietta

    2005-12-01

    A renewed interest in human exploration is flourishing among all the major spacefaring nations. In fact, in the complex scene of planned future space activities, the development of a Moon base and the human exploration of Mars might have the potential to renew the enthusiasm in expanding the human presence beyond the boundaries of Earth. Various initiatives have been undertaken to define scenarios and identify the required infrastructures and related technology innovations. The typical proposed approach follows a multistep strategy, starting with a series of precursor robotic missions to acquire further knowledge of the planet and to select the best potential landing sites, and evolving toward more demanding missions for the development of a surface infrastructure necessary to sustain human presence. The technologies involved in such a demanding enterprise range from typical space technologies, like transportation and propulsion, automation and robotics, rendezvous and docking, entry/reentry, aero-braking, navigation, and deep space communications, to human-specific issues like physiology, psychology, behavioral aspects, and nutritional science for long-duration exposure, that go beyond the traditional boundaries of space activities. Among the required elements to support planetary exploration, both for the precursor robotic missions and to sustain human exploration, rovers and trucks play a key role. A robust level of autonomy will need to be secured to perform preplanned operations, particularly for the surface infrastructure development, and a teleoperated support, either from Earth or from a local base, will enhance the in situ field exploration capability.

  7. Holocene river history of the Danube: human-environment interactions on its islands in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viczián, István; Balogh, János; Kis, Éva; Szeberényi, József

    2016-04-01

    A change in the frequency and magnitude of floods is the main response of river systems to climatic change. Natural floods are highly sensitive to even modest changes of climate. The discharge and the characteristics of floods basically determine the floodplain evolution and the feasibility of human land use and inhabitation on the islands and floodplains. The study revealed that those small islands of large rivers which have the surface rising only some meters above the river are particularly suitable research objects of Holocene climate variability as they are exposed to floods, react sensitively to environmental changes and their evolution may be paralleled with human history. The research area covers the islands of the Danube along the river between Komárom and Paks in Hungary, which is about 250 km, includes more than 50 smaller or formerly existing islands and two extensive islands: the Szentendre Island and Csepel Island. Data gathered from 570 archaeological sites of those islands from Neolithic to Modern Ages were analysed and interpreted in accordance with climate history and floodplain evolution. Nevertheless, the study is not only about river and its environmental history but it demonstrates the role of river and climatic variability in the history of mankind. The environment of the floodplain, the river hydrology, the sedimentation, the formation of islands and the incision and aggradation of surrounding riverbeds, the frequency of devastating floods have significantly changed through the historical time periods, which is reflected in the number and locations of archaeological sites on the islands. Their occupation history reflects the changes in discharge, climate, geomorphology, floods and human impacts and indicates historical periods with low or high probability of inundation. The most favourable periods for an island's occupation concerning the flood risk of its surfaces - and consequently of the banks along the river - are the first parts of a

  8. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex. PMID:26804633

  9. Domestication and human demographic history in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, S Ivan; Postillone, María Bárbara; Rindel, Diego

    2017-05-01

    The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America. We employ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), radiocarbon data and Bayesian methods to estimate differences in population size, human occupation and explore the demographic changes of human populations in three regions (i.e., South-Central Andes, Northwest, and South Patagonia). We also use archaeological evidence to infer the main diet changes in these regions. The absolute population size during the later Late Holocene was fifteen times larger in the South-Central Andes than in Northwest Patagonia, and two times larger in the latter region than in South Patagonia. The South-Central Andes display the earlier and more abrupt population growth, beginning about 9000 years BP, whereas Northwest Patagonia exhibits a more slow growth, beginning about 7000-7500 years BP. South Patagonia represents a later and slower population increase. In this work we uncovered a well-supported pattern of the demographic change in the populations from South-Central Andes and Patagonia, obtained on the basis of different data and quantitative approaches, which suggests that the incorporation of domestic resources was paramount for the demographic expansion of these populations during the Holocene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  11. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  12. Character complexity and redundancy in writing systems over human history.

    PubMed

    Changizi, Mark A; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-02-07

    A writing system is a visual notation system wherein a repertoire of marks, or strokes, is used to build a repertoire of characters. Are there any commonalities across writing systems concerning the rules governing how strokes combine into characters; commonalities that might help us identify selection pressures on the development of written language? In an effort to answer this question we examined how strokes combine to make characters in more than 100 writing systems over human history, ranging from about 10 to 200 characters,and including numerals, abjads, abugidas, alphabets and syllabaries from five major taxa: Ancient Near-Eastern, European, Middle Eastern, South Asian, Southeast Asian. We discovered underlying similarities in two fundamental respects. (i) The number of strokes per characters is approximately three, independent of the number of characters in the writing system; numeral systems are the exception, having on average only two strokes per character. (ii) Characters are ca. 50% redundant, independent of writing system size; intuitively, this means that acharacter's identity can be determined even when half of its strokes are removed. Because writing systems are under selective pressure to have characters that are easy for the visual system to recognize and for the motor system to write, these fundamental commonalities may be a fingerprint of mechanisms underlying the visuo-motor system.

  13. Character complexity and redundancy in writing systems over human history

    PubMed Central

    Changizi, Mark A.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    A writing system is a visual notation system wherein a repertoire of marks, or strokes, is used to build a repertoire of characters. Are there any commonalities across writing systems concerning the rules governing how strokes combine into characters; commonalities that might help us identify selection pressures on the development of written language? In an effort to answer this question we examined how strokes combine to make characters in more than 100 writing systems over human history, ranging from about 10 to 200 characters, and including numerals, abjads, abugidas, alphabets and syllabaries from five major taxa: Ancient Near-Eastern, European, Middle Eastern, South Asian, Southeast Asian. We discovered underlying similarities in two fundamental respects.The number of strokes per characters is approximately three, independent of the number of characters in the writing system; numeral systems are the exception, having on average only two strokes per character.Characters are ca. 50% redundant, independent of writing system size; intuitively, this means that a character’s identity can be determined even when half of its strokes are removed.Because writing systems are under selective pressure to have characters that are easy for the visual system to recognize and for the motor system to write, these fundamental commonalities may be a fingerprint of mechanisms underlying the visuo–motor system. PMID:15705551

  14. Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  15. AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

  16. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The fascinating early history of optics! Archaeological optics 2009: our knowledge of the early history of lenses, mirrors, and artificial eyes!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    2009-08-01

    The early history of optics and vision science (older term: physiological optics) is indeed fascinating. The earliest known true lenses have been found in "eyes" of Egyptian statues which contain superb, complex, and well-polished eye-lens units. The oldest ones known are dated circa 2575 BCE = BC, Dynasty IV, Old Kingdom. These eye-lens units induce a fascinating and powerful visual illusion, but they are just too good to have been the first lenses, or even the first lenses of this design! So saying, no earlier dateable lenses have been found in Egypt or elsewhere. Recently, at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the writer noted a previously undetected lens in this series (a first in the Western Hemisphere). Oddly, dateable simpler magnifying lenses and burning glasses seem to have appeared later in time (?)! Manufactured mirrors are quite a bit older, dating from circa 6000 BCE in atal Hyk, located in south-central modern-day Turkey. Using these ancient mirrors, the image quality obtained is remarkable! Recently discovered ancient artificial eyes, located, in situ, in exhumed corpses, have been dated circa 3000 BCE (one discovered in Iran) 5000 BCE (one found in Spain). On the 3000 BCE artificial eye, there are drawn light rays (the writer believes these to be the oldest known depiction of light rays!) spreading out from (or passing into) the iris/ pupil border! Added interesting aspects associated with the early development of light-rays are considered. Thus, early optics can be readily traced back to the Neolithic era (the new stone age), and in some cases before that time period. We have deep roots indeed!

  18. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  19. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno R.; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A.; Baele, Guy; Bedford, Trevor; Ward, Melissa J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Sousa, João D.; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Pépin, Jacques; Posada, David; Peeters, Martine; Pybus, Oliver G.; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. PMID:25278604

  20. HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations.

    PubMed

    Faria, Nuno R; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Baele, Guy; Bedford, Trevor; Ward, Melissa J; Tatem, Andrew J; Sousa, João D; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Pépin, Jacques; Posada, David; Peeters, Martine; Pybus, Oliver G; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-10-03

    Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  2. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Lake, Sarah L.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11 to 15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n=136; 52.9% female) and without (n=75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual’s own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants’ behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use. PMID:25788123

  3. Social Confidence in Early Adulthood Among Young People With and Without a History of Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method Participants were young people with a history of LI and a comparison group of age-matched peers. Both groups were tested at ages 17 and 24 years. Participants completed measures of language ability, nonverbal IQ, shyness, global self-esteem, and (at age 24 years only) social self-efficacy. Results Young adults with LI scored lower than age-matched peers on self-esteem, higher on shyness, and lower on social self-efficacy (medium to large effect sizes). In line with expectations, in the group with LI, language ability in adolescence predicted shyness in young adulthood, which, in turn, was negatively associated with self-esteem. There was also a direct association between language ability in adolescence and self-esteem in young adulthood. Conclusions Young people with a history of LI are likely to be entering adulthood less socially confident than their peers. Interventions may be desirable for young adults with LI, and the present findings indicate social self-efficacy as a key area of social confidence that calls for practitioners' attention. PMID:28586830

  4. A Brief History of Experimentation on Condemned and Executed Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kevorkian, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Experimentation on condemned men is assumed to have been a common practice in ancient Alexandria, but disappeared in Rome and during the Middle Ages. Sporadic cases were documented in the Renaissance and afterward, involving experiments both before and immediately after execution. The advent of the guillotine raised the question of possible persistence of consciousness after execution and that spurred much electrophysiological study of freshly decapitated heads and bodies. In 19th-century Europe, interest focused on cardiac function immediately after beheading. In the early 20th century, many condemned men in the Philippines were used by American physicians for their research on plague and beriberi. Briefly discussed is the relevance of the practice of human sacrifice in Homeric Greece and Mayan Yucatan, as well as experiments on black slaves in America. The Nazi medical crimes of World War II encompass a totally different morality, and are not really comparable to the matter at hand. They have, however, so stirred emotions as to discredit the general concept of experimentation associated with capital punishment. Even within the framework of our system of jurisprudence, the altruistic desires of many now languishing on death row are being ignored. PMID:3884824

  5. An Exploration of Remote History Effects in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2007-01-01

    One group of undergraduates responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 25 schedule and a second group responded under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 5-s schedule (first history phase). Both groups of subjects were then exposed to a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) 5-s schedule (second history phase), and finally to…

  6. Early reproductive maturity among Pumé foragers: Implications of a pooled energy model to fast life histories.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Life history theory places central importance on relationships between ontogeny, reproduction, and mortality. Fast human life histories have been theoretically and empirically associated with high mortality regimes. This relationship, however, poses an unanswered question about energy allocation. In epidemiologically stressful environments, a greater proportion of energy is allocated to immune function. If growth and maintenance are competing energetic expenditures, less energy should be available for growth, and the mechanism to sustain rapid maturation remains unclear. The human pattern of extended juvenile provisioning and resource sharing may provide an important source of variation in energy availability not predicted by tradeoff models that assume independence at weaning. We consider a group of South American foragers to evaluate the effects that pooled energy budgets may have on early reproduction. Despite growing up in an environment with distinct seasonal under-nutrition, harsh epidemiological conditions, and no health care, Pumé girls mature quickly and initiate childbearing in their midteens. Pooled energy budgets compensate for the low productivity of girls not only through direct food transfers but importantly by reducing energy they would otherwise expend in foraging activities to meet metabolic requirements. We suggest that pooled energy budgets affect energy availability at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels. Because energy budgets are pooled, Pumé girls and young women are buffered from environmental downturns and can maximize energy allocated to growth completion and initiate reproduction earlier than a traditional bound-energy model would predict. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  8. Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2016-09-09

    Palmitic acid (16:0) is a saturated fatty acid present in the diet and synthesized endogenously. Although often considered to have adverse effects on chronic disease in adults, 16:0 is an essential component of membrane, secretory, and transport lipids, with crucial roles in protein palmitoylation and signal molecules. At birth, the term infant is 13-15% body fat, with 45-50% 16:0, much of which is derived from endogenous synthesis in the fetus. After birth, the infant accumulates adipose tissue at high rates, reaching 25% body weight as fat by 4-5 months age. Over this time, human milk provides 10% dietary energy as 16:0, but in unusual triglycerides with 16:0 on the glycerol center carbon. This paper reviews the synthesis and oxidation of 16:0 and possible reasons why the infant is endowed with large amounts of fat and 16:0. The marked deviations in tissues with displacement of 16:0 that can occur in infants fed vegetable oil formulas is introduced. Assuming fetal fatty acid synthesis and the unusual delivery of 16:0 in human milk evolved to afford survival advantage to the neonate, it is timely to question if 16:0 is an essential component of tissue lipids whereby both deficiency and excess are detrimental.

  9. Human fertility and differential birth rates in American eugenics and genetics: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Cooke, K J

    1998-05-01

    Eugenics is a broad term used to describe a variety of social and state-sponsored reform movements. Although we usually think of Nazi atrocities when we hear the word "eugenics," in this article I discuss the manifestations of hereditary reform worldwide. In particular, I consider the history of eugenics in America, focusing on concerns about the differences in birth rates between various racial, ethnic, and educational groups. In the early twentieth century, the social and cultural expectations that surrounded the growing knowledge in genetics implied an ethical imperative for physicians. Physicians were expected to use their knowledge about genetics to help them decide what sort of advice and assistance should be given to those who wanted knowledge about birth control, or help in resolving problems concerning sterility and infertility. Today, with growing knowledge about human genetics, physicians are subject to increasing pressure to make similar judgments.

  10. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra

    PubMed Central

    Emerling, Christopher A.; Springer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution. PMID:25540280

  11. A review of noble gas geochemistry in relation to early Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most fundamental noble gas constraints on early Earth history is derived from isotopic differences in (129)Xe/(130)Xe between various terrestrial materials. The short half life (17 m.y.) of extinct (129I, parent of (129)Xe, means that these differences must have been produced within the first 100 m.y. after terrestrial accretion. The identification of large anomalies in (129)Xe/(130)Xe in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), with respect to atmospheric xenon, suggests that the atmosphere and upper mantle have remained separate since that time. This alone is a very strong argument for early catastrophic degassing, which would be consistent with an early fractionation resulting in core formation. However, noble gas isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts show that the mantle cannot necessarily be regarded as a homogeneous system, since there are significant variations in (3)He/(4)He, (40)Ar/(36)Ar, and (129)Xe/(130)Xe. Therefore, the early degassing cannot be considered to have acted on the whole mantle. The specific mechanisms of degassing, in particular the thickness and growth of the early crust, is an important variable in understanding present day noble gas inventories. Another constraint can be obtained from rocks that are thought to be derived from near the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary: ultramafic xenoliths.

  12. Outcomes of patients with a pretransplant history of early-stage melanoma.

    PubMed

    Puza, Charles J; Barbas, Andrew S; Mosca, Paul J

    2018-06-25

    A history of melanoma within the preceding 5 years is commonly considered a contraindication to solid organ transplantation. We investigated how a pretransplant history of melanoma impacts patient survival and melanoma recurrence. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, and Duke's retrospective database was used to identify 4552 patients who underwent a solid organ transplant at Duke University from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2016. Data with regard to the transplant, melanoma characteristics, rejection episodes, and survival were recorded. Of 4552 patients who underwent a solid organ transplant, 12 (0.3%) had a history of melanoma before transplant (six with melanoma in situ and six with stage I disease). The median time between melanoma diagnosis and transplant was 4.13 years (range: 1.1-13.3 years). The study cohort consisted of four liver transplants, four lung transplants, one kidney transplant, one heart transplant, one small bowel transplant, and one multivisceral transplant. At the median follow-up time of 2.8 years, 10 (83.3%) patients were alive. In nonmelanoma cohorts, the 3-year survival is 70% for thoracic transplants, 78% for liver transplants, and 88% for kidney transplants. In well-selected patients with a history of early-stage melanoma and an appropriate time interval between melanoma treatment and transplant, post-transplant outcomes are favorable.

  13. The History of Parkinson's Disease: Early Clinical Descriptions and Neurological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Although components of possible Parkinson's disease can be found in very early documents, the first clear medical description was written in 1817 by James Parkinson. In the mid-1800s, Jean-Martin Charcot was particularly influential in refining and expanding this early description and in disseminating information internationally about Parkinson's disease. He separated Parkinson's disease from multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by tremor, and he recognized cases that later would likely be classified among the Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Early treatments of Parkinson's disease were based on empirical observation, and anticholinergic drugs were used as early as the nineteenth century. The discovery of dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson's disease and the synthetic pathway of dopamine led to the first human trials of levodopa. Further historically important anatomical, biochemical, and physiological studies identified additional pharmacological and neurosurgical targets for Parkinson's disease and allow modern clinicians to offer an array of therapies aimed at improving function in this still incurable disease. PMID:22229124

  14. [Evaluation of quality of life in school children with a history of early severe malnutrition].

    PubMed

    De Grandis, E S; Armelini, P A; Cuestas, E

    2014-12-01

    Severe malnutrition in young children may lead to long-term complications, in particular learning and psychosocial disorders linked to health related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQOL in children whit a history of severe malnutrition before 2 years of life, expecting to find lower scores in these patients. A comparative study was performed on schoolchildren between 5 and 12 years with a history of early severe malnutrition, excluding those with chronic diseases. The Controls were healthy siblings of patients. The sample size was estimated as 26 subjects per group (Total=52). Sociodemographic variables were recorded and the HRQOL was assessed with PedsQL4.0. Chi square and Student t test were applied. Significance level: P<.05. A total of 25 patients and 28 controls were studied. The HRQOL scores obtained from PedsQL for children with history of malnutrition, compared with their healthy siblings, were: Total: 80.82±1.94 vs 89.18±1.84 P<.0001), physical health/dimension: 87.75±3.37 vs 94.75±1.87 (P<.0001), psychosocial health: 77.77±2.90 vs 86.57±1.42 (P<.0001), emotional dimension: 67.80±4.40 vs 78.75±2.96 (P<.0001), social dimension: 88.80±3.05 vs 95.71±1.52 (P<.0001), and school dimension: 74.58±3.80 vs 85.00±3.51 (P<.0001). Patients with a history of early severe malnutrition, showed significantly lower HRQOL scores compared with controls. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Holocene fire history in Western China - relationships with climate and human impact, and the role of fire in vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Q.

    2015-12-01

    It is well recognised that studies of past fire regimes and their causes (human and/or climatic) are useful to understand the long-term ecological effects of fire on vegetation communities. Further, information on the long-term fire history and its effect on vegetation dynamics may provide useful insights for vegetation management in fragile eco-environment of Western China. The main aim of this study is to quantitatively reconstruct high-resolution fire history in West China based on charcoal records from peatlands in Zoige basin (Tibet) and Altai Mountains (Xinjiang). We investigate the long-term relationships between fire, climate, human-impact and the history of biodiversity based on four Holocene macro- and micro- charcoal records and a synthesis on previously published pollen data and geochemistry data. Three hypotheses based on global charcoal records and former studies on palaeofire carried out in China need to be test by this study: 1) during early-mid Holocene period, fire frequency in the study area is relative low and best explained by the changes of regional climate; 2) during the late Holocene, fire activities in the study area increased might due to impacts of the human activities over the climate changes, and human activities is responsible for the temporal and spatial variations in fire regime; 3) the difference of fire histories can be explained by the difference of vegetation composition at site.

  16. Early type galaxies: Mapping out the two-dimensional space of galaxy star formation histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.

    Early type galaxies form a multi-parameter family, as evidenced by the two- dimensional (2-D) Fundamental Plane relationship. However, their star formation histories are often treated as a one-dimensional mass sequence. This dissertation presents a systematic study of the relationship between the multi- parameter structural properties of early type galaxies and their star formation histoires. We demonstrate that the stellar populations of early type galaxies span a 2-D space, which means that their star formation histories form a two- parameter family. This 2-D family is then mapped onto several familiar early type galaxy scaling relations, including the color-magnitude relation, the Fundamental Plane, and a cross-section through the Fundamental Plane. We find that the stellar population properties, and therefore the star formation histories of early type galaxies depend most strongly on galaxy velocity dispersion (s), rather than on luminosity ( L ), stellar mass ( M [low *] ), or dynamical mass ( M dyn ). Interestingly, stellar populations are independent of the radius ( R e ) of the galaxies. At fixed s, they show correlated residuals through the thickness of the Fundamental Plane (FP) in the surface-brightness ( I e ) dimension, such that low-surface-brightness galaxies are older, less metal-enriched, and more enhanced in Mg relative to Fe than their counterparts at the same s and R e on the FP midplane. Similarly, high- surface-brightness galaxies are younger, more metal-rich, and less Mg-enhanced than their counterparts on the FP midplane. These differences suggest that the duration of star formation varies through the thickness of the FP. If the dynamical mass-to-light ratios of early type galaxies ( M dyn /L ) were constant for all such galaxies, the FP would be equivalent to the plane predicted by the virial relation. However, the observed FP does not exactly match the virial plane. The FP is tilted from the virial plane, indicating that M dyn /L varies

  17. The known knowns, the known unknowns, and beyond: early life history perspective for the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life history research has been crucial for understanding and managing fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes and beyond. Much is known about spawning sites, temperatures at spawning, incubation periods, spawning substrates, and other factors surrounding reproduction for ma...

  18. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  19. Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian psychology: the case of the Kharkov school.

    PubMed

    Yasnitsky, Anton; Ferrari, Michel

    2008-05-01

    Between the death of Vygotsky in 1934 and the discovery of Vygotsky's work in the West in 1962, Vygotskian psychology was developed through research done by the first generation of Vygotsky's students and their followers, primarily associated with the Kharkov School. Surprisingly, these studies carried out in the 1930s, of great importance for the development of virtually all subsequent Vygotskian psychology, still remain largely unknown; this represents a significant gap in understanding the history of Vygotskian psychology as an empirical study of consciousness. This paper provides a systematic overview of the research agenda of the Kharkov group between 1931 and 1941 and provides new insights into the early development of Vygotskian psychology.

  20. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  1. [An early history of Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related diseases and the current development].

    PubMed

    Abe, Koji

    2018-03-28

    The present review focuses an early history of Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related diseases and the current development. In relation to foreign previous reports, five topics are introduced and discussed on ALS with dementia, ALS/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC), familial ALS (FALS), spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and multisystem involvement especially in cerebellar system of ALS including ALS/SCA (spinocerebellar ataxia) crossroad mutation Asidan. This review found the great contribution of Japanese reports on the above five topics, and confirmed the great development of ALS-related diseases over the past 120 years.

  2. Reflexivity, the role of history, and the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter

    2010-11-01

    As part of a wider argument that history is essential to psychological understanding because of the reflexive nature of psychological knowledge, this article examines the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain as an example of how psychological knowledge is both constructive and constructed. It is argued that the shift from "mesmerism" to "hypnotism" was a change in understanding that created a new kind of psychological experience. It is also argued that demonstrations of mesmerism, far from being self-evident facts, could be framed as evidence either for or against the central claims of mesmerism. It is concluded that the case of mesmerism in early Victorian Britain provides a further example of the need for historical understanding within Psychology.

  3. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  4. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  5. Fire history on the California Channel Islands spanning human arrival in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C; Pinter, Nicholas; Anderson, R Scott; Ejarque, Ana; Carter-Champion, Alice; Staff, Richard A

    2016-06-05

    Recent studies have suggested that the first arrival of humans in the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age is associated with marked anthropogenic influences on landscape; in particular, with the use of fire which, would have given even small populations the ability to have broad impacts on the landscape. Understanding the impact of these early people is complicated by the dramatic changes in climate occurring with the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions. Despite these difficulties, we here attempt to test the extent of anthropogenic influence using the California Channel Islands as a smaller, landscape-scale test bed. These islands are famous for the discovery of the 'Arlington Springs Man', which are some of the earliest human remains in the Americas. A unifying sedimentary charcoal record is presented from Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, based on over 20 detailed sedimentary sections from eight key localities. Radiocarbon dating was based on thin, fragile, long fragments of charcoal in order to avoid the 'inbuilt' age problem. Radiocarbon dating of 49 such fragments has allowed inferences regarding the fire and landscape history of the Canyon ca 19-11 ka BP. A significant period of charcoal deposition is identified approximately 14-12.5 ka BP and bears remarkable closeness to an estimated age range of the first human arrival on the islands.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Fire history on the California Channel Islands spanning human arrival in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C.; Pinter, Nicholas; Anderson, R. Scott; Ejarque, Ana; Carter-Champion, Alice; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the first arrival of humans in the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age is associated with marked anthropogenic influences on landscape; in particular, with the use of fire which, would have given even small populations the ability to have broad impacts on the landscape. Understanding the impact of these early people is complicated by the dramatic changes in climate occurring with the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions. Despite these difficulties, we here attempt to test the extent of anthropogenic influence using the California Channel Islands as a smaller, landscape-scale test bed. These islands are famous for the discovery of the ‘Arlington Springs Man’, which are some of the earliest human remains in the Americas. A unifying sedimentary charcoal record is presented from Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, based on over 20 detailed sedimentary sections from eight key localities. Radiocarbon dating was based on thin, fragile, long fragments of charcoal in order to avoid the ‘inbuilt’ age problem. Radiocarbon dating of 49 such fragments has allowed inferences regarding the fire and landscape history of the Canyon ca 19–11 ka BP. A significant period of charcoal deposition is identified approximately 14–12.5 ka BP and bears remarkable closeness to an estimated age range of the first human arrival on the islands. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216524

  7. Evaluating Failures and Near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space.

  8. Evaluating Failures and near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space

  9. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nicolas R.; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A.; Babcock, Russell C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions. PMID:28573015

  10. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development and Early Usage Patterns of a Consumer-Facing Family Health History Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Ranade-Kharkar, Pallavi; Post, Herman; Wood, Grant M.; Williams, Marc S.; Haug, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine will require detailed clinical patient profiles, and a particular focus on capturing data that is useful in forecasting risk. A detailed family health history is considered a critical component of these profiles, insomuch that it has been coined as ‘the best genetic test available’. Despite this, tools aimed at capturing this information for use in electronic health records have been characterized as inadequate. In this manuscript we detail the creation of a patient-facing family health history tool known as OurFamilyHealth, whose long-term emphasis is to facilitate risk assessment and clinical decision support. We present the rationale for such a tool, describe its development and release as a component of Intermountain Healthcare’s patient portal, and detail early usage statistics surrounding the application. Data derived from the tool since its release are also compared against family history charting patterns in Intermountain’s electronic health records, revealing differences in data availability. PMID:22195113

  12. Human History and Environmental Geology: A Match Made in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    I draw on my dual educational background in the geological sciences (PhD) and sociology (BA), with an emphasis on environmental justice, for the inspiration to approach issues in my geology courses that are directly connected to modern policy decisions with the goal of increasing students' self-awareness. I believe that giving students the opportunity for increased understanding of their own beliefs and values with respect to the environment will allow them to be more engaged in discussions and debates about environmental policies at the local, national, and global scales. I designed Environmental Geology of Prince William Forest Park (VA), a one-day Field Studies course offered through Northern Virginia Community College, to motivate students to articulate personal convictions about land use. To provide a social context for discussion of environmental issues, students first gave presentations on the demographics, economics, and methods of land use of the people that used the park over the last 400 years. At locations along Quantico Creek, students presented topics that covered geologic processes at work on the landscape, progressive farming methods promoted by some early Virginians, and agricultural methods to stabilize soil and its nutrients. Finally, at the Cabin Branch Pyrite Mine (active 1889-1920) we discussed laborer work conditions and the environmental impact of tailings, as well as the process and effects of remediation. Students tested pH levels in the creek upstream and downstream of the mine as one concrete way to personally observe the results of recent remediation (since 1994), with neutral pH in both locations indicating success. Students wrapped up the course with written reflections, from their own perspectives with respect to socially and environmentally responsible land use, on the geologic processes and human impacts that shaped the park. Social justice and environmental stewardship are two lenses that allow students to find personal meaning

  13. Visualizing the Anthropocene: Human Land Use History and Environmental Management

    Richard D. Periman

    2006-01-01

    The term “Anthropocene” defines the current, human-dominated, geological epoch of human-caused environmental influences. Some researchers believe that the beginning of this epoch coincides with the inception of the Industrial Revolution (Crutzen and Stoermer 2000). Research is revealing that humans have affected environments on global and local scales for millennia....

  14. How Genes Have Illuminated the History of Early Americans and Latino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The American continent currently accounts for ∼15% of the world population. Although first settled thousands of years ago and fitting its label as “the New World,” the European colonial expansion initiated in the late 15th century resulted in people from virtually every corner of the globe subsequently settling in the Americas. The arrival of large numbers of immigrants led to a dramatic decline of the Native American population and extensive population mixing. A salient feature of the current human population of the Americas is, thus, its great diversity. The genetic variation of the Native peoples that recent immigrants encountered had been shaped by demographic events acting since the initial peopling of the continent. Similarly, but on a compressed timescale, the colonial history of the Americas has had a major impact on the genetic makeup of the current population of the continent. A range of genetic analyses has been used to study both the ancient settlement of the continent and more recent history of population mixing. Here, I show how these two strands of research overlap and make use of results from other scientific disciplines to produce a fuller picture of the settlement of the continent at different time periods. The biological diversity of the Americas also provides prominent examples of the complex interaction between biological and social factors in constructing human identities and of the difficulties in defining human populations. PMID:25256008

  15. Oxygenation history of the Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic and the rise of land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Malcolm W.; Hood, Ashleigh vS.; Shuster, Alice; Greig, Alan; Planavsky, Noah J.; Reed, Christopher P.

    2017-05-01

    There has been extensive debate about the history of Earth's oxygenation and the role that land plant evolution played in shaping Earth's ocean-atmosphere system. Here we use the rare earth element patterns in marine carbonates to monitor the structure of the marine redox landscape through the rise and diversification of animals and early land plants. In particular, we use the relative abundance of cerium (Ceanom), the only redox-sensitive rare earth element, in well-preserved marine cements and other marine precipitates to track seawater oxygen levels. Our results indicate that there was only a moderate increase in oceanic oxygenation during the Ediacaran (average Cryogenian Ceanom = 1.1, average Ediacaran Ceanom = 0.62), followed by a decrease in oxygen levels during the early Cambrian (average Cryogenian Ceanom = 0.90), with significant ocean anoxia persisting through the early and mid Paleozoic (average Early Cambrian-Early Devonian Ceanom = 0.84). It was not until the Late Devonian that oxygenation levels are comparable to the modern (average of all post-middle Devonian Ceanom = 0.55). Therefore, this work confirms growing evidence that the oxygenation of the Earth was neither unidirectional nor a simple two-stage process. Further, we provide evidence that it was not until the Late Devonian, when large land plants and forests first evolved, that oxygen levels reached those comparable to the modern world. This is recorded with the first modern-like negative Ceanom (values <0.6) occurring at around 380 Ma (Frasnian). This suggests that land plants, rather than animals, are the 'engineers' responsible for the modern fully oxygenated Earth system.

  16. Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Anany

    2017-01-01

    The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…

  17. Variations in early life history traits of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the Yangtze River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlong; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Resources of Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) are undergoing dramatic recessions in China as the consequence of intensifying anthropogenic activities. Elucidating the influences of local-scale environmental factors on early life history traits is of great importance to design strategies conserving and restoring the declining anchovy resources. In this research, we studied hatching date and early growth of anchovy in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) using information obtained from otolith microstructure. Onset of hatching season and growth rates of anchovy was compared to populations in Japan and Taiwan. In YRE, the hatching date of anchovy ranged from February 26th to April 6th and mean growth rate ranged from 0.27 to 0.77 mm/d. Anchovies hatching later had higher growth rates than individuals hatching earlier before the 25th day. Among populations, hatching onsets of anchovy from the higher latitude were later than populations in the lower latitude, and growth rates of anchovy in YRE were much lower than populations in Japan and Taiwan. Variations in hatching onsets and early growth patterns of anchovy thus provide important knowledge on understanding the adaptation of anchovy in YRE and designing management strategies on conserving China's anchovy resources.

  18. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-02-25

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

  19. Human Life History Evolution Explains Dissociation between the Timing of Tooth Eruption and Peak Rates of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher; Cole, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167

  20. Population Dynamics of Early Human Migration in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Vahia, Mayank N.; Ladiwala, Uma; Mahathe, Pavan; Mathur, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background Early human migration is largely determined by geography and human needs. These are both deterministic parameters when small populations move into unoccupied areas where conflicts and large group dynamics are not important. The early period of human migration into the British Isles provides such a laboratory which, because of its relative geographical isolation, may allow some insights into the complex dynamics of early human migration and interaction. Method and Results We developed a simulation code based on human affinity to habitable land, as defined by availability of water sources, altitude, and flatness of land, in choosing the path of migration. Movement of people on the British island over the prehistoric period from their initial entry points was simulated on the basis of data from the megalithic period. Topographical and hydro-shed data from satellite databases was used to define habitability, based on distance from water bodies, flatness of the terrain, and altitude above sea level. We simulated population movement based on assumptions of affinity for more habitable places, with the rate of movement tempered by existing populations. We compared results of our computer simulations with genetic data and show that our simulation can predict fairly accurately the points of contacts between different migratory paths. Such comparison also provides more detailed information about the path of peoples’ movement over ~2000 years before the present era. Conclusions We demonstrate an accurate method to simulate prehistoric movements of people based upon current topographical satellite data. Our findings are validated by recently-available genetic data. Our method may prove useful in determining early human population dynamics even when no genetic information is available. PMID:27148959

  1. Missing Pages from the Human Story: World History According to Texas Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noboa, Julio

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, the world history course taught in the public high schools of Texas has provided the only comprehensive overview of the story of humanity to millions of students, most of whom are of Mexican descent. The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills curriculum standard for world history has been foundational for textbook selection,…

  2. History Classroom Interactions and the Transmission of the Recent Memory of Human Rights Violations in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oteíza, Teresa; Henríquez, Rodrigo; Pinuer, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine history classroom interactions in Chilean secondary schools in relation to the transmission of historical memories of human rights violations committed by Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship from 1973 to 1990. Corpora of this research are comprised of history lessons filmed in the two types of public schools…

  3. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. EARLY IMPACT MELTING AND SPACE EXPOSURE HISTORY OF THE PAT91501 LCHONDRITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2004-01-01

    Collisions probably occurred frequently in the early history of the asteroid belt. Their effects, which should be recorded in meteorites, must have included heating and melting along with shock alteration of mineral textures. Some non-chondritic meteorite types e.g., eucrites and IIE and IAB irons - do indeed give evidence of extensive impact heating more than 3.4 Gyr ago. The ordinary chondrites, in contrast, show little evidence of early impact heating. The Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of ordinary chondrites that experienced intense shock are for the most part relatively young, many less than 1.5 Gyr. The numerous L-chondrites with Ar- Ar ages clustering near 0.5 Gy are a well-known example. One of them, the 105-kg Chico Lchondrite, shows the effects of unusually intense heating. It is approximately 60% impact melt and likely formed as a dyke beneath a large crater when the L-chondrite parent body underwent a very large impact approximately 0.5 Gyr ago. In rare instances, older shock dates are indicated for ordinary chondrites. Dixon et al show early impact resetting of Ar-Ar ages of a few LL-chondrites including MIL 99301 at 4.23 0.03 Gyr, but in none of these stones did shock lead to extensive melting. As of 2003, searches for chondritic melts attributable to early shock had turned up only the Shaw L-chondrite, which has an Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.42 Gyr. PAT91501 is an 8.55-kg L-chondrite containing vesicles and metal-troilite nodules. It is a unique, near-total impact melt, unshocked, depleted in siderophile and chalcophile elements, and contains only approximately 10% relic chondritic material. The authors conclude that PAT91501 crystallized rapidly and from a much more homogeneous melt than did Shaw. They suggest that PAT resembles Chico and likely formed as an impact melt vein within an impact crater. To define the history of PAT, we have determined its Ar-39-Ar-40 age and measured several radioactive and stable nuclides produced during its space exposure to

  5. Some consequences of a liquid water saturated regolith in early Martian history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, A. O.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Flooding of low-lying areas of the Martian regolith may have occurred early in the planet's history when a comparatively dense primitive atmosphere existed. If this model is valid, the following are some pedogenic and mineralogical consequences to be expected. Fluctuation of the water table in response to any seasonal or longer term causes would have resulted in precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides with the development of a vesicular duricrust (or hardpan). Disruption of such a crust by scarp undercutting or frost heaving accompanied by wind deflation of fines could account for the boulders visible on Utopia Planitia in the vicinity of the second Viking lander site. Laboratory and field evidence on earth suggests that under weakly oxidizing conditions lepidocrocite (rather than goethite) would have preferentially formed in the Martian regolith from the weathering of ferrous silicates, accompanied by montmorillonite, nontronite, and cronstedtite. Maghemite may have formed as a low-temperature dehydrate of lepidocrocite or directly from ferrous precursors.

  6. A history of the early days of personality testing in American industry: an obsession with adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gibby, Robert E; Zickar, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Objective personality testing began with Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet in 1917. That test was developed to identify soldiers prone to nervous breakdowns during enemy bombardment in World War I (WWI). Soon after, many competing personality tests were developed for use in industry. Many of these tests, like Woodworth's, focused on the construct of employee maladjustment and were deemed important in screening out applicants who would create workplace disturbances. In this article, the authors review the history of these early personality tests, especially the Bernreuter Personality Inventory and the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale, and discuss the implications of personality testers' obsession with the construct of employee maladjustment. In addition, the authors discuss the industry's obsession with emotional maladjustment and how this obsession coincided with a cultural shift in norms relating to cultural expression.

  7. DNA fingerprinting on trial: the dramatic early history of a new forensic technique.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jay D

    2005-09-01

    The early history of "DNA fingerprinting" in the UK might have been different were it not for the accounts of two dramatic courtroom trials, made by the participants and the media, in the mid-1980s. But these reports, which misrepresented the importance DNA evidence had in the trials, left a strong impression on the British public and on judges on both sides of the Atlantic. These trials, widely considered to be the first "victories" for DNA fingerprinting, have been frequently cited as proof of the utility and reliability of the technique, in both the UK and beyond. But in reality, it was the threat of DNA evidence being used rather than the integrity or validity of it that resolved these cases. At that time, DNA fingerprinting was still in its infancy, an untried and untested technology.

  8. Early Thermal History of Rhea: The Role of Serpentinization and Liquid State Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Łosiak, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Early thermal history of Rhea is investigated. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, tini, duration of accretion, tac, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, η0, activation energy in the formula for viscosity, E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ksil, ammonia content, XNH3, and energy of serpentinization, cserp. We found that tini and tac are crucial for evolution. All other parameters are also important, but no dramatic differences are found for realistic values. The process of differentiation is also investigated. It is found that liquid state convection could delay the differentiation for hundreds of My. The results are confronted with observational data from Cassini spacecraft. It is possible that differentiation is fully completed but the density of formed core is close to the mean density. If this interpretation is correct, then Rhea could have accreted any time before 3-4 My after formation of CAI.

  9. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  10. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  11. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  12. Maternal dental history and child’s birth outcome and early cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, JL; Rowland, AS; Longnecker, MP; Crawford, P; Golding, J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prenatal exposure to high levels of mercury, radiation, and inflammation have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as increases in preterm delivery, low birthweight, and delayed neurodevelopment. Few data are available to evaluate the potential effects of prenatal low-level exposure to these factors as might occur during dental care. We evaluated maternal dental history prior to and during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and early communicative development among offspring in a large cohort (n=7375) of British children born in 1991–1992. Dental history was assessed by questionnaire. The child’s communicative development was assessed using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 15 months of age. Total mercury was measured in umbilical cord tissue for a subset of the children. Overall, dental care, including amalgam fillings, was not associated with birth outcomes or language development. Having x-rays taken during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight measured continuously (β=14.7, p=0.4), but was associated with slightly increased odds of having a term, low birthweight baby (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0–3.4). More detailed evaluation of the potential adverse effects of elective dental treatment during pregnancy, particularly dental x-rays, may be warranted. PMID:17697075

  13. Early Lactation and Infant Feeding Practices Differ by Maternal Gestational Diabetes History.

    PubMed

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Moreland, Jennifer J; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-11-01

    Detailed data on lactation practices by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) history are lacking, precluding potential explanations and targets for interventions to improve lactation intensity and duration and, ultimately, long-term maternal and child health. This study aimed to examine breastfeeding practices through 12 months postpartum by GDM history. Women who delivered a singleton, liveborn infant at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (Columbus, OH), in 2011 completed a postal questionnaire to assess lactation and infant feeding practices and difficulties. Bivariate and multivariate associations between GDM history and lactation and infant feeding practices were examined. The sample included 432 women (62% response rate), including 7.9% who had GDM during the index pregnancy. Women with GDM initiated breastfeeding (at-the-breast or pumping) as often as women without any diabetes but were more likely to report introduction of formula within the first 2 days of life (79.4% vs 53.8%, P < .01; adjusted odds ratio: 3.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-8.26). Women with GDM initiated pumping 4 days earlier than women without diabetes ( P < .05), which was confirmed in adjusted analyses. There was no difference in the proportion of women reporting breastfeeding difficulty (odds ratio: 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-5.52). However, there was a trend toward women with GDM reporting more formula feeding and less at-the-breast feeding as strategies to address difficulty compared with women without diabetes. Additional research is needed to understand why women with GDM engage in different early lactation and infant feeding practices, and how best to promote and sustain breastfeeding among these women.

  14. Early history of subplate and interstitial neurons: from Theodor Meynert (1867) to the discovery of the subplate zone (1974)

    PubMed Central

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil

    2010-01-01

    In this historical review, we trace the early history of research on the fetal subplate zone, subplate neurons and interstitial neurons in the white matter of the adult nervous system. We arrive at several general conclusions. First, a century of research clearly testifies that interstitial neurons, subplate neurons and the subplate zone were first observed and variously described in the human brain – or, in more general terms, in large brains of gyrencephalic mammals, characterized by an abundant white matter and slow and protracted prenatal and postnatal development. Secondly, the subplate zone cannot be meaningfully defined using a single criterion – be it a specific population of cells, fibres or a specific molecular or genetic marker. The subplate zone is a highly dynamic architectonic compartment and its size and cellular composition do not remain constant during development. Thirdly, it is important to make a clear distinction between the subplate zone and the subplate (and interstitial) neurons. The transient existence of the subplate zone (as a specific architectonic compartment of the fetal telencephalic wall) should not be equated with the putative transient existence of subplate neurons. It is clear that in rodents, and to an even greater extent in humans and monkeys, a significant number of subplate cells survive and remain functional throughout life. PMID:20979585

  15. Searching for human oncoviruses: Histories, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Li, Dawei

    2018-06-01

    Oncoviruses contribute significantly to cancer burden. A century of tumor virological studies have led to the discovery of seven well-accepted human oncoviruses, cumulatively responsible for approximately 15% of human cancer cases. Virus-caused cancers are largely preventable through vaccination. Identifying additional oncoviruses and virus-caused tumors will advance cancer prevention and precision medicine, benefiting affected individuals, and society as a whole. The historic success of finding human oncoviruses has provided a unique lesson for directing new research efforts in the post-sequencing era. Combing the experiences from these pioneer studies with emerging high-throughput techniques will certainly accelerate new discovery and advance our knowledge of the remaining human oncoviruses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. history.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Anne-Marie

    The choice of the expression «History of the Maghreb Pasteur institutes» is suggestive of a post-colonial approach and raises questions about the shared future of those centres. The author offers a comparative view of the past of the Institutes in Tunis, Algiers and Casablanca, relying on recent research in social sciences and the development of oral history. The Institutes were created separately at different times but more or less followed a single model linking research, production, and teaching. Fighting infectious diseases was part of the colonial heritage, but it was above all the promise of modernisation linked to participation in the Pastorian Revolution that explains why the three Institutes never discontinued their activities in the three Southern Mediterranean capitals At the turn of the 21th century, the Pasteur Institutes of the Maghreb, in common with the mother Institute in Paris, were faced by new challenges in a changing political and epidemiological context. The International Pasteur Institutes Network was formally established in 2003. What is the future of the Maghreb Institutes? Will they form a separate entity? And what links will they create with the rest of the world, especially the Arab World? These questions are both scientific and political.

  18. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  20. Reversal of Fortune: Increased Star Formation Efficiencies in the Early Histories of Dwarf Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  1. A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Prugnolle, Franck; Manica, Andrea; Balloux, François

    2006-01-01

    Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa. However, this is where the near consensus on human settlement history ends, and considerable uncertainty clouds any more detailed aspect of human colonization history. Here, we present a dynamic genetic model of human settlement history coupled with explicit geographical distances from East Africa, the likely origin of modern humans. We search for the best-supported parameter space by fitting our analytical prediction to genetic data that are based on 52 human populations analyzed at 783 autosomal microsatellite markers. This framework allows us to jointly estimate the key parameters of the expansion of modern humans. Our best estimates suggest an initial expansion of modern humans ∼56,000 years ago from a small founding population of ∼1,000 effective individuals. Our model further points to high growth rates in newly colonized habitats. The general fit of the model with the data is excellent. This suggests that coupling analytical genetic models with explicit demography and geography provides a powerful tool for making inferences on human-settlement history. PMID:16826514

  2. Early history of Vesta: implications for the surface morphology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.; Coradini, A.; Formisano, M.; Carli, C.; Magni, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Dawn mission inserted into orbit around Vesta on 15 July 2011 and is presently gathering data on the morphology and the composition of the asteroid. In order to fully exploit the data that the Dawn mission is supplying to probe the ancient past of our Solar System, we need to be able to understand how the present state of Vesta is linked to its origin and its secular evolution. The spectral connection between Vesta and the Howardite-Eurcrite-Diogenite (HED) suite of meteorites suggests that Vesta formed very early in the history of the Solar System and differentiated on a Ma-long timescale due to the decay of short-lived radioactive nuclides (see Keil 2002 and references therein). Short after the differentiation process ended, Vesta started to cool down quickly, so that on a 10 Ma timescale its molten mantle would be topped by a thick solid layer (Formisano et al. 2011). Across the same timespan, Jupiter and the other giant planets would form in the outer Solar System and trigger a primordial phase of bombardment on the other already formed planetary bodies (Turrini et al. 2011, Coradini et al. 2011). Such primordial bombardment is expected to excavate the solid crust of Vesta and to cause local to regional effusive phenomena (Turrini et al. 2011). Moreover, due to the relatively high escape speed from Vesta, most of the excavated material would fall back on the asteroid as an ejecta blanket. Here we discuss the timescale of the formation and evolution of Vesta and the implications for the interpretation of the data that the Dawn mission is collecting while orbiting the asteroid. Bibliography 1. Coradini A., Turrini D., Federico C., Magni G. (2011). Vesta and Ceres: crossing the history of the Solar System. Space Science Reviews, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-011-9792-x. 2. Formisano M., Federico C., Coradini A. (2011). Vesta Thermal Models. EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, Nantes, France. 3. Keil K. (2002). Geological History of Asteroid 4 Vesta: The Smallest Terrestrial

  3. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  4. Human and ape: the legend, the history and the DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diamandopoulos, AA; Goudas, CP

    2007-01-01

    A vast amount of papers is published every year about species evolution, the most interesting being those recently published in the journal "Nature", concerning the human-ape relationship. The results and the new theories generated from this research are sometimes astonishing, rising not only biological, but also social, religious and cultural questions. One of the new questions concerns the role of species interbreeding as a means of evolution. In the subject of species interbreeding between human and ape we found some interesting historical and mythical information that sort of back-up this theory of interbreeding, with a historical and cultural side of view. PMID:19582186

  5. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-08-03

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance.

  6. [Coffee, its legend, history, and influence on human health].

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, H; Blahos, J; Janatová, J

    2009-01-01

    In the introductory part of this article the history/legend of coffee as well as its spread to different parts of the world including Europe is discussed. Data sofar available in literature do not give any convincing evidence regarding clear relationship between coffee and the etiopathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, osteoporosis, neurologic disorders and colorectal cancer. Favorable (protective) effects of coffee consumption against hepatocellular cancer have been repeatedly described. The autors discuss on todate findings about relationship between blood cholesterol and uric acid in literature and remind their own experience with different population groups in Harar, Ethiopia, where consumption of coffee is habitual in daily life of the inhabitants.

  7. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  8. Recent human history governs global ant invasion dynamics

    Cleo Bertelsmeier; Sébastien Ollier; Andrew Liebhold; Laurent Keller

    2017-01-01

    Human trade and travel are breaking down biogeographic barriers, resulting in shifts in the geographical distribution of organisms, yet it remains largely unknown whether different alien species generally follow similar spatiotemporal colonization patterns and how such patterns are driven by trends in global trade. Here, we analyse the global distribution of 241 alien...

  9. Learning History through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Pineda, Martha Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Although adolescent students often do not have knowledge of specific laws, they usually have a keen sense of justice and fairness. In this article, the author discusses the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a powerful tool to channel students' sense of fairness into visible actions. Adopted in December 1948 by the General Assembly of…

  10. A review on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza.

    PubMed

    Punpanich, Warunee; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza, including risk factors for severe disease, and to identify the knowledge gap in this area. We searched the MEDLINE database of the recent literature for the period January 2009 to August 17, 2011 with regard to the abovementioned aspects of human influenza, focusing on A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza. The clinical spectrum and outcomes of cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have been mild and rather indistinguishable from those of seasonal influenza. Sporadic cases covering a wide range of neurological complications have been reported. Underlying predisposing conditions considered to be high-risk for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections are generally similar to those of seasonal influenza, but with two additional risk groups: pregnant women and the morbidly obese. Co-infections with bacteria and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome have also been reported to be significant factors associated with the severity of disease. The current knowledge gap includes: (1) a lack of clarification regarding the relatively greater severity of the Mexican A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in the early phase of the pandemic; (2) insufficient data on the clinical impact, risk factors, and outcomes of human infections caused by resistant strains of influenza; and (3) insufficient data from less developed countries that would enable them to prioritize strategies for influenza prevention and control. Clinical features and risk factors of A(H1N1)pdm09 are comparable to those of seasonal influenza. Emerging risk factors for severe disease with A(H1N1)pdm09 include morbid obesity, pregnancy, bacterial co-infections, and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ≈33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  12. The Human Side of 18th-Century French History: Unique Readings for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roselle, Daniel, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Nine short stories and excerpts are presented relating to 18th-Century French History. The purpose of the readings are to: 1) increase student sensitivity to conditions in 18th-Century France; 2) add to their appreciation of the variety of human experiences; and 3) strengthen student insight into the nature of human beings. (Author/JR)

  13. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  14. CCA 3101/4101 Environmental Humanities: The History of a Unit through an Ecopedagogical Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the author taught, for the first time, the well-established unit CCA3101/4101 Environmental Humanities in the School of Communications and Arts at ECU (Edith Cowan University) in Western Australia. The unit has a 20-year history through associate professor Rod Giblett and parallels the development of the environmental humanities as a field…

  15. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  16. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-04

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  17. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Parisot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  18. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  19. The history behind successful uterine transplantation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Castellón, Luis Arturo Ruvalcaba; Amador, Martha Isolina García; González, Roberto Enrique Díaz; Eduardo, Montoya Sarmiento Jorge; Díaz-García, César; Kvarnström, Niclas; Bränström, Mats

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the basic aspects of uterine transplant (UTx) research in humans, including preliminary experiences in rodents and domestic species. Studies in rats, domestic species, and non-human primates validated and optimized the UTx procedure in terms of its surgical aspects, immunosuppression, rejection diagnosis, peculiarities of pregnancy in immunosuppressed patients, and patients with special uterine conditions. In animal species, the first live birth from UTx was achieved in a syngeneic mouse model in 2003. Twenty-five UTx procedures have been performed in humans. The first two cases were unsuccessful, but established the need for rigorous research to improve success rates. As a result of a controlled clinical study under a strictly designed research protocol, nine subsequent UTx procedures have resulted in six healthy live births, the first of them in 2014. Further failed UTx procedures have been performed in China, Czech Republic, Brazil, Germany, and the United States, most of which using living donors. Albeit still an experimental procedure in, UTx is the first potential alternative for the treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). PMID:28609280

  20. Family history of psychosis moderates early auditory cortical response abnormalities in non-psychotic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jordan P; Ethridge, Lauren E; Shapiro, John R; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Thaker, Gunvant K; Clementz, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar I disorder is a disabling illness affecting 1% of people worldwide. Family and twin studies suggest that psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) represents a homogenous subgroup with an etiology distinct from non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP) and partially shared with schizophrenia. Studies of auditory electrophysiology [e.g., paired-stimulus and oddball measured with electroencephalography (EEG)] consistently report deviations in psychotic groups (schizophrenia, BDP), yet such studies comparing BDP and BDNP are sparse and, in some cases, conflicting. Auditory EEG responses are significantly reduced in unaffected relatives of psychosis patients, suggesting that they may relate to both psychosis liability and expression. Methods While 64-sensor EEGs were recorded, age- and gender-matched samples of 70 BDP, 35 BDNP {20 with a family history of psychosis [BDNP(+)]}, and 70 psychiatrically healthy subjects were presented typical auditory paired-stimuli and auditory oddball paradigms. Results Oddball P3b reductions were present and indistinguishable across all patient groups. P2s to paired-stimuli were abnormal only in BDP and BDNP(+). Conversely, N1 reductions to stimuli in both paradigms and P3a reductions were present in both BDP and BDNP(−) groups but were absent in BDNP(+). Conclusions While nearly all auditory neural response components studied were abnormal in BDP, BDNP abnormalities at early- and mid-latencies were moderated by family psychosis history. The relationship between psychosis expression, heritable psychosis risk, and neurophysiology within bipolar disorder, therefore, may be complex. Consideration of such clinical disease heterogeneity may be important for future investigations of the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disturbance. PMID:23941660

  1. Novel cardiovascular biomarkers in women with a history of early preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Drost, José T; Maas, Angela H E M; Holewijn, Suzanne; Joosten, Leo A B; van Eyck, Jim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. Determination of cardiovascular biomarkers may be useful to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of cardiovascular disease development in these women. We performed an analysis in the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales study, a retrospective cohort consisting of 339 women with a history of early preeclampsia and 332 women after normotensive pregnancy. Women attended a follow-up visit ten years after the index pregnancy. A subset of 8 different cardiovascular biomarkers was investigated, reflecting inflammatory, metabolic, thrombotic and endothelial function markers. Associations between PE and these novel biomarkers were analyzed by linear regression analysis and adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Mean age of 671 women of the PREVFEM cohort was 39 years and women were on average 10 years post index pregnancy. Women post preeclampsia had significantly higher levels of SE-selectin (adjusted difference 4.55, 99%CI 0.37; 8.74) and PAPPA (adjusted difference 19.08; 99%CI 13.18; 24.99), whereas ApoB (adjusted difference -0.23 99%CI -0.32; -0.14) was inversely associated with preeclampsia, compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. Adiponectin, leptin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and PAI-1 were not different between both groups. We demonstrated an independent association of preeclampsia with SE-selectin and PAPPA (markers of vascular dysfunction), which may contribute to future cardiovascular events in women post preeclampsia. However, ApoB (an apolipoprotein) was significantly lower and could point at a protective mechanism in our PE study women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J.; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M.; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000–65,000 years ago. Here, we analyze the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and of modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously reported. PMID:26886800

  3. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2015-12-01

    As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35). Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations

    PubMed Central

    Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Indap, Amit R.; Marth, Gabor T.; Clark, Andrew G.; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Altshuler, David L.; Durbin, Richard M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bentley, David R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G.; Collins, Francis S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Donnelly, Peter; Egholm, Michael; Flicek, Paul; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Lander, Eric S.; Lehrach, Hans; Mardis, Elaine R.; McVean, Gil A.; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Peltonen, Leena; Schafer, Alan J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Wang, Jun; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Deiros, David; Metzker, Mike; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeff; Wheeler, David; Wang, Jun; Li, Jingxiang; Jian, Min; Li, Guoqing; Li, Ruiqiang; Liang, Huiqing; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zheng, Huisong; Lander, Eric S.; Altshuler, David L.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Bloom, Toby; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Jaffe, David B.; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Bentley, David R.; Gormley, Niall; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Koko-Gonzales, Paula; Stone, Jennifer; McKernan, Kevin J.; Costa, Gina L.; Ichikawa, Jeffry K.; Lee, Clarence C.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Borodina, Tatiana A.; Dahl, Andreas; Davydov, Alexey N.; Marquardt, Peter; Mertes, Florian; Nietfeld, Wilfiried; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Soldatov, Aleksey V.; Timmermann, Bernd; Tolzmann, Marius; Egholm, Michael; Affourtit, Jason; Ashworth, Dana; Attiya, Said; Bachorski, Melissa; Buglione, Eli; Burke, Adam; Caprio, Amanda; Celone, Christopher; Clark, Shauna; Conners, David; Desany, Brian; Gu, Lisa; Guccione, Lorri; Kao, Kalvin; Kebbel, Andrew; Knowlton, Jennifer; Labrecque, Matthew; McDade, Louise; Mealmaker, Craig; Minderman, Melissa; Nawrocki, Anne; Niazi, Faheem; Pareja, Kristen; Ramenani, Ravi; Riches, David; Song, Wanmin; Turcotte, Cynthia; Wang, Shally; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Weinstock, George; Durbin, Richard M.; Burton, John; Carter, David M.; Churcher, Carol; Coffey, Alison; Cox, Anthony; Palotie, Aarno; Quail, Michael; Skelly, Tom; Stalker, James; Swerdlow, Harold P.; Turner, Daniel; De Witte, Anniek; Giles, Shane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wu, Honglong; Zheng, Hancheng; Zheng, Xiaole; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Huang, Weichun; Indap, Amit; Kural, Deniz; Lee, Wan-Ping; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; Daly, Mark J.; DePristo, Mark A.; Altshuler, David L.; Ball, Aaron D.; Banks, Eric; Bloom, Toby; Browning, Brian L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Grossman, Sharon R.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hanna, Matt; Hartl, Chris; Jaffe, David B.; Kernytsky, Andrew M.; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Maguire, Jared R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKenna, Aaron; Nemesh, James C.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Poplin, Ryan E.; Price, Alkes; Rivas, Manuel A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Shefler, Erica; Shlyakhter, Ilya A.; Cooper, David N.; Ball, Edward V.; Mort, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew D.; Stenson, Peter D.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Boyko, Adam; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Gravel, Simon; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Kaganovich, Mark; Keinan, Alon; Lacroute, Phil; Ma, Xin; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Herrero, Javier; Keenen, Stephen; Kulesha, Eugene; Leinonen, Rasko; McLaren, William M.; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Smith, Richard E.; Zalunin, Vadim; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Humphray, Sean; Bauer, Markus; Cheetham, R. Keira; Cox, Tony; Eberle, Michael; James, Terena; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Hyland, Fiona C. L.; Manning, Jonathan M.; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Sakarya, Onur; Sun, Yongming A.; Tsung, Eric F.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav S.; Herwig, Ralf; Parkhomchuk, Dimitri V.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Agarwala, Richa; Khouri, Hoda M.; Morgulis, Aleksandr O.; Paschall, Justin E.; Phan, Lon D.; Rotmistrovsky, Kirill E.; Sanders, Robert D.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Auton, Adam; Iqbal, Zamin; Lunter, Gerton; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myers, Simon; Tumian, Afidalina; Desany, Brian; Knight, James; Winer, Roger; Craig, David W.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Steve M.; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet A.; Pearson, John V.; Sinari, Shripad A.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Haussler, David; Hinrichs, Angie S.; Katzman, Sol J.; Kern, Andrew; Kuhn, Robert M.; Przeworski, Molly; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Howie, Bryan; Kelley, Joanna L.; Melton, S. Cord; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Li, Yun; Anderson, Paul; Blackwell, Tom; Chen, Wei; Cookson, William O.; Ding, Jun; Kang, Hyun Min; Lathrop, Mark; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Scheet, Paul; Sidore, Carlo; Snyder, Matthew; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zöllner, Sebastian; Awadalla, Philip; Casals, Ferran; Idaghdour, Youssef; Keebler, John; Stone, Eric A.; Zilversmit, Martine; Jorde, Lynn; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Sudmant, Peter H.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; Koboldt, Daniel C.; McLellan, Mike D.; Dooling, David; Weinstock, George; Wallis, John W.; Wendl, Michael C.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Durbin, Richard M.; Albers, Cornelis A.; Ayub, Qasim; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Carter, David M.; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F.; Danecek, Petr; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Hu, Min; Huang, Ni; Hurles, Matt E.; Jin, Hanjun; Jostins, Luke; Keane, Thomas M.; Le, Si Quang; Lindsay, Sarah; Long, Quan; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Parts, Leopold; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Bjornson, Robert; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Habegger, Lukas; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Kural, Deniz; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; McCarroll, Steven A.; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hartl, Chris; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Nemesh, James C.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Kaganovich, Mark; Clarke, Laura; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Humphray, Sean; Cheetham, R. Keira; Eberle, Michael; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Peckham, Heather E.; Sun, Yongming A.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Xiao, Chunlin; Iqbal, Zamin; Desany, Brian; Blackwell, Tom; Snyder, Matthew; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; McLellan, Mike D.; Wallis, John W.; Hurles, Matt E.; Conrad, Donald F.; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Coafra, Cristian; Dinh, Huyen; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandy; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne; Reid, Jeff; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Indap, Amit; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Hartl, Chris; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Wilkinson, Jane; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon; Grubert, Fabian; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Sherry, Stephen T.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Paschall, Justin E.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Katzman, Sol J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Blackwell, Tom; Mardis, Elaine R.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Durbin, Richard M.; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Coffey, Allison; Keane, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Palotie, Aarno; Scott, Carol; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Gerstein, Mark B.; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gharani, Neda; Gibbs, Richard A.; Jorde, Lynn; Kaye, Jane S.; Kent, Alastair; Li, Taosha; McGuire, Amy L.; McVean, Gil A.; Ossorio, Pilar N.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Su, Yeyang; Toji, Lorraine H.; TylerSmith, Chris; Brooks, Lisa D.; Felsenfeld, Adam L.; McEwen, Jean E.; Abdallah, Assya; Juenger, Christopher R.; Clemm, Nicholas C.; Collins, Francis S.; Duncanson, Audrey; Green, Eric D.; Guyer, Mark S.; Peterson, Jane L.; Schafer, Alan J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Altshuler, David L.; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D.; Durbin, Richard M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Hurles, Matt E.; McVean, Gil A.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

  5. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Indap, Amit R; Marth, Gabor T; Clark, Andrew G; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2011-07-19

    High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2-4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence.

  6. Human population history revealed by a supertree approach

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Pavel; Jan Zrzavý

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades numerous new trees of modern human populations have been published extensively but little attention has been paid to formal phylogenetic synthesis. We utilized the “matrix representation with parsimony” (MRP) method to infer a composite phylogeny (supertree) of modern human populations, based on 257 genetic/genomic, as well as linguistic, phylogenetic trees and 44 admixture plots from 200 published studies (1990–2014). The resulting supertree topology includes the most basal position of S African Khoisan followed by C African Pygmies, and the paraphyletic section of all other sub-Saharan peoples. The sub-Saharan African section is basal to the monophyletic clade consisting of the N African–W Eurasian assemblage and the consistently monophyletic Eastern superclade (Sahul–Oceanian, E Asian, and Beringian–American peoples). This topology, dominated by genetic data, is well-resolved and robust to parameter set changes, with a few unstable areas (e.g., West Eurasia, Sahul–Melanesia) reflecting the existing phylogenetic controversies. A few populations were identified as highly unstable “wildcard taxa” (e.g. Andamanese, Malagasy). The linguistic classification fits rather poorly on the supertree topology, supporting a view that direct coevolution between genes and languages is far from universal. PMID:27431856

  7. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  8. The ancient history of the structure of ribonuclease P and the early origins of Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonuclease P is an ancient endonuclease that cleaves precursor tRNA and generally consists of a catalytic RNA subunit (RPR) and one or more proteins (RPPs). It represents an important macromolecular complex and model system that is universally distributed in life. Its putative origins have inspired fundamental hypotheses, including the proposal of an ancient RNA world. Results To study the evolution of this complex, we constructed rooted phylogenetic trees of RPR molecules and substructures and estimated RPP age using a cladistic method that embeds structure directly into phylogenetic analysis. The general approach was used previously to study the evolution of tRNA, SINE RNA and 5S rRNA, the origins of metabolism, and the evolution and complexity of the protein world, and revealed here remarkable evolutionary patterns. Trees of molecules uncovered the tripartite nature of life and the early origin of archaeal RPRs. Trees of substructures showed molecules originated in stem P12 and were accessorized with a catalytic P1-P4 core structure before the first substructure was lost in Archaea. This core currently interacts with RPPs and ancient segments of the tRNA molecule. Finally, a census of protein domain structure in hundreds of genomes established RPPs appeared after the rise of metabolic enzymes at the onset of the protein world. Conclusions The study provides a detailed account of the history and early diversification of a fundamental ribonucleoprotein and offers further evidence in support of the existence of a tripartite organismal world that originated by the segregation of archaeal lineages from an ancient community of primordial organisms. PMID:20334683

  9. Sedimentary archives of fire, vegetation history, and human impacts during the late Holocene in the eastern lowland of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Chi

    2017-04-01

    The Hualien Plain is one of the richest prehistoric sites in eastern Taiwan, and the reconstruction of late Holocene environment on the basis of the lacustrine sediments near Hualien Plain can benefit to the understandings of human-climate-environment interactions in past. The multi-decadal records of vegetation history, agriculture evidences and fire events in Liyu Lake of eastern Taiwan were reconstructed by using palynological and charcoal analysis of lake sediments. A 2.8 m sediment core covering a time period from 2,680 cal BP to the present was used to investigate the alterations in the landscape with respect to human activities and climate change. During 2680-2410 cal yr BP, frequent burning and high preservation of cultivated Poaceae pollen indicated the early cultivation during the late Neolithic period. There followed a warm climate during 2,410-1,510 cal yr BP, and the increase of lowland forest pollen showed a period of forest recovery as a consequence of reducing human activity. Following a phase of recolonization of prehistory human during 1510-560 cal yr BP, a slightly increasing trend of cultivated Poacease indicated the human activities, but the human population was low. The last 560 years record showed an intense trend of deforestation and cultivation which may correlate to a rapid increase in the human population in this area.

  10. CHROMOSOME 11 ABERRATIONS IN SMALL COLONY L5178Y TK-/-MUTANTS EARLY IN THEIR CLONAL HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a cytogenetic technique that allows observation of chromosome rearrangements associated with TK-/- mutagenesis of the L5178Y/TK+/-3.7.2C cell line early in mutant clonal history. For a series of mutagenic treatments they show that the major proportion (...

  11. Parents' and Teachers' Views on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Students with and without a History of Early Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Andri I.; Papachristou, Eleni M.; Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2017-01-01

    The study compared teachers' and parents' views about elementary school children's psychosocial adjustment with and without a history of early grade retention. The sample included retained and non-retained students currently in Grades Two and Four (age range 7.5 to 11.6 years) in Cypriot public schools. The retained students experienced early…

  12. The relevance of the early history of probability theory to current risk assessment practices in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Large, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Probability theory is at the base of modern concepts of risk assessment in mental health. The aim of the current paper is to review the key developments in the early history of probability theory in order to enrich our understanding of current risk assessment practices.

  13. Retaining Meanings of Quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy History: Perspectives from Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Helen

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents lesser known accounts from policy makers whose experiences as elite informants span 40 or so years in Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy history between 1972 and 2009. Drawing on a post-structuralist theoretical frame, this paper employs a Foucauldian-influenced approach to discourse analysis. Given the…

  14. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  15. Ecosystem variability and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    The role of savannas during the course of early human evolution has been debated for nearly a century, in part because of difficulties in characterizing local ecosystems from fossil and sediment records. Here, we present high-resolution lipid biomarker and isotopic signatures for organic matter preserved in lake sediments at Olduvai Gorge during a key juncture in human evolution about 2.0 Ma--the emergence and dispersal of Homo erectus (sensu lato). Using published data for modern plants and soils, we construct a framework for ecological interpretations of stable carbon-isotope compositions (expressed as δ(13)C values) of lipid biomarkers from ancient plants. Within this framework, δ(13)C values for sedimentary leaf lipids and total organic carbon from Olduvai Gorge indicate recurrent ecosystem variations, where open C(4) grasslands abruptly transitioned to closed C(3) forests within several hundreds to thousands of years. Carbon-isotopic signatures correlate most strongly with Earth's orbital geometry (precession), and tropical sea-surface temperatures are significant secondary predictors in partial regression analyses. The scale and pace of repeated ecosystem variations at Olduvai Gorge contrast with long-held views of directional or stepwise aridification and grassland expansion in eastern Africa during the early Pleistocene and provide a local perspective on environmental hypotheses of human evolution.

  16. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Langley, Michelle C; Moore, Mark W; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-04-18

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.

  17. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  18. Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor.

    PubMed

    Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain (c.100 km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecosystem variability and early human habitats in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of savannas during the course of early human evolution has been debated for nearly a century, in part because of difficulties in characterizing local ecosystems from fossil and sediment records. Here, we present high-resolution lipid biomarker and isotopic signatures for organic matter preserved in lake sediments at Olduvai Gorge during a key juncture in human evolution about 2.0 Ma—the emergence and dispersal of Homo erectus (sensu lato). Using published data for modern plants and soils, we construct a framework for ecological interpretations of stable carbon-isotope compositions (expressed as δ13C values) of lipid biomarkers from ancient plants. Within this framework, δ13C values for sedimentary leaf lipids and total organic carbon from Olduvai Gorge indicate recurrent ecosystem variations, where open C4 grasslands abruptly transitioned to closed C3 forests within several hundreds to thousands of years. Carbon-isotopic signatures correlate most strongly with Earth’s orbital geometry (precession), and tropical sea-surface temperatures are significant secondary predictors in partial regression analyses. The scale and pace of repeated ecosystem variations at Olduvai Gorge contrast with long-held views of directional or stepwise aridification and grassland expansion in eastern Africa during the early Pleistocene and provide a local perspective on environmental hypotheses of human evolution. PMID:23267092

  20. Reproductive strategy, spawning induction, spawning temperatures and early life history of captive sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki

    Albers, Janice; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Macrhybopsis reproduction and propagule traits were studied in the laboratory using two temperature regimes and three hormone treatments to determine which methods produced the most spawns. Only sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki spawned successfully although sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida released unfertilized eggs. All temperature and hormone treatments produced M. meeki spawns, but two treatments had similar success rates at 44 and 43%, consisting of a constant daily temperature with no hormone added, or daily temperature fluctuations with hormone added to the water. Spawns consisted of multiple successful demersal circular swimming spawning embraces interspersed with circular swims without embraces. The most spawns observed for one female was four and on average, 327 eggs were collected after each spawn. The water-hardened eggs were semi-buoyant and non-adhesive, the first confirmation of this type of reproductive guild in the Missouri River Macrhybopsis sp. From spawn, larvae swam vertically until 123 accumulated degree days (° D) and 167° D for consumption of first food. Using average water speed and laboratory development time, the predicted drift distance for eggs and larvae could be 468–592 km in the lower Missouri River. Results from this study determined the reproductive biology and early life history of Macrhybopsis spp. and provided insight into their population dynamics in the Missouri River.

  1. Relation of attachment style to family history of alcoholism and alcohol use disorders in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Vungkhanching, Martha; Sher, Kenneth J; Jackson, Kristina M; Parra, Gilbert R

    2004-07-15

    The present study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and attachment style in early adulthood and sought to determine whether attachment style might, at least partially, mediate intergenerational risk for alcoholism. The current report focuses on the cross-sectional relation between family history (FH) of alcoholism, attachment styles, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) when cohort members were, on average, 29 years old (N = 369; 46% male; 51% FH+). Results indicated that FH+ participants were more likely to have insecure attachment, characterized by fearful-avoidant and dismissed-avoidant styles. Additionally, fearful-avoidant and dismissed-avoidant attachment styles were related to the presence of an AUD even after controlling for sex and FH (P < 0.05). There was little evidence, however, that attachment style mediated the relation between paternal alcoholism and AUD in offspring; the FH-AUD association was only negligibly reduced when the effect of attachment style was controlled. Our findings suggest that insecure attachment style is a risk factor for AUD, independent of familial risk for alcoholism.

  2. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  3. Cosmic reionization on computers. II. Reionization history and its back-reaction on early galaxies

    SciT

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kaurov, Alexander A., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov, E-mail: kaurov@uchicago.edu

    We compare the results from several sets of cosmological simulations of cosmic reionization, produced under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, with existing observational data on the high-redshift Lyα forest and the abundance of Lyα emitters. We find good consistency with the observational measurements and previous simulation work. By virtue of having several independent realizations for each set of numerical parameters, we are able to explore the effect of cosmic variance on observable quantities. One unexpected conclusion we are forced into is that cosmic variance is unusually large at z > 6, with both our simulations and, most likely, observationalmore » measurements still not fully converged for even such basic quantities as the average Gunn-Peterson optical depth or the volume-weighted neutral fraction. We also find that reionization has little effect on the early galaxies or on global cosmic star formation history, because galaxies whose gas content is affected by photoionization contain no molecular (i.e., star-forming) gas in the first place. In particular, measurements of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function by the James Webb Space Telescope are unlikely to provide a useful constraint on reionization.« less

  4. Early life history of the yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota

    Pycha, Richard L.; Smith, Lloyd L.

    1955-01-01

    The early life history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at 24 millimeters total length. There is a wide annual varition in first season's growth which is not correlated with growth in older fish. Body-scale relationship is rectilinear from 24 to 280 millimeters. Length-weight relationship during the first year is expressed by the equation W = 0.6198 × 10−5 L3.1251 which is very similar to that describing the relationship in later years. Stomach analysis indicates food is primarily plankton but in some seasons fish may be strongly dependent on bottom forms. Variations in food availability appear to be associated with changes in growth and may have a major influence on survival.

  5. The early history of the lunar inclination. [effect of tidal friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of tidal friction on the inclination of the lunar orbit to the earth's equator for earth-moon distances of less than 10 earth radii is examined. The results obtained bear on a conclusion drawn by Gerstenkorn and others which has been raised as a fatal objection to the fission hypothesis of lunar origin, namely, that the present nonzero inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic implies a steep inclination of the moon's orbit to the earth's equatorial plane in the early history of the earth-moon system. This conclusion is shown to be valid only for particular rheological models of the earth. The earth is assumed to behave like a highly viscous fluid in response to tides raised in it by the moon. The moon is assumed to be tideless and in a circular orbit about the earth. The equations of tidal friction are integrated numerically to give inclination of the lunar orbit as a function of earth-moon distance.

  6. Early Depositional History of the Eocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc, Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, R.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the International Ocean Discovery Program cored an Eocene section at Site U1438 in the Philippine Sea that provides insight into the early history of the Izu-Bonin arc. Subduction here is hypothesized to have initiated spontaneously, leaving a characteristic depositional sequence of post-subduction-initiation localized extension and volcanism. We conducted detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of the cores of the lowermost 100m of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks (Unit IV) directly overlying subduction initiation igneous basement, to identify depositional facies and trends. We subdivided Unit IV into three subunits based on lithologic characteristics. Transitions between the subunits are relatively abrupt, occurring within the length of a single core. The lowermost subunit (IVA) consists of 4 meters of laminated pelagic claystone with thin beds of graded volcaniclastic siltstone, and fine-grained tuff laminae composed of plagioclase feldspar and green-brown amphibole. The middle subunit (IVB) comprises 51 meters of texturally variable, thick-bedded, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits. These are composed of volcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate containing glassy and tachylitic volcanic grains as well as sedimentary lithic fragments, along with traces of shallow-water carbonate bioclasts. Subunit IVB sediments are poorer in feldspar than IVA and contain only trace amphibole. They show variable grain rounding and an upsection increase in vitric components. Tachylite grains range from sub-angular to well rounded throughout, and other volcanic grain types show upward increases in angularity and vesicularity. The abrupt transition from pelagic sediments in subunit IVA to shallow-water-sourced gravity flows in subunit IVB suggests a rapid emergence of shallow-water to subaerial volcanic center early in the arc's development. The upper part of subunit IVB also contains igneous intrusions, providing possible evidence for more proximal

  7. Four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howsepian, A A

    2008-04-01

    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two "blastomeric" twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into existence only when its brain comes into existence? (4) At implantation, does a pre-embryo become a mere part of its mother? I argue that either if things have quidditative properties or if criterialism is false, then queries (1) and (2) can be answered in the affirmative; that in light of recent developments in theories of human death and in light of a more "functional" theory of brains, query (3) can be answered in the negative; and that plausible mereological principles require a negative answer to query (4).

  8. Do People with Intellectual Disability Require Special Human Subjects Research Protections? The Interplay of History, Ethics, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century…

  9. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm · y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change.

  10. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa—Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water–lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C4-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm·y−1 and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change. PMID:23267102

  11. The human genetic history of the Americas: the final frontier.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Dennis H; Raff, Jennifer A

    2010-02-23

    The Americas, the last continents to be entered by modern humans, were colonized during the late Pleistocene via a land bridge across what is now the Bering strait. However, the timing and nature of the initial colonization events remain contentious. The Asian origin of the earliest Americans has been amply established by numerous classical marker studies of the mid-twentieth century. More recently, mtDNA sequences, Y-chromosome and autosomal marker studies have provided a higher level of resolution in confirming the Asian origin of indigenous Americans and provided more precise time estimates for the emergence of Native Americans. But these data raise many additional questions regarding source populations, number and size of colonizing groups and the points of entry to the Americas. Rapidly accumulating molecular data from populations throughout the Americas, increased use of demographic models to test alternative colonization scenarios, and evaluation of the concordance of archaeological, paleoenvironmental and genetic data provide optimism for a fuller understanding of the initial colonization of the Americas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    PubMed

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Relative value of race, family history and prostate specific antigen as indications for early initiation of prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Vertosick, Emily A; Poon, Bing Ying; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines suggest earlier screening for prostate cancer in men at high risk, with risk defined in terms of race and family history. Recent evidence suggests that baseline prostate specific antigen is strongly predictive of the long-term risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We compared the usefulness of risk stratifying early screening by race, family history and prostate specific antigen at age 45 years. Using estimates from the literature we calculated the proportion of men targeted for early screening using family history, black race or prostate specific antigen as the criterion for high risk. We calculated the proportion of prostate cancer deaths that would occur in those men by age 75 years. Screening based on family history involved 10% of men, accounting for 14% of prostate cancer deaths. Using black race as a risk criterion involved 13% of men, accounting for 28% of deaths. In contrast, 44% of prostate cancer deaths occurred in the 10% of men with the highest prostate specific antigen at age 45 years. In no sensitivity analysis for race and family history did the ratio of risk group size to number of prostate cancer deaths in that risk group approach that of prostate specific antigen. Basing decisions for early screening on prostate specific antigen at age 45 years provided the best ratio between men screened and potential cancer deaths avoided. Given the lack of evidence that race or family history affects the relationship between prostate specific antigen and risk, prostate specific antigen based risk stratification would likely include any black men or men with a family history who are destined to experience aggressive disease. Differential screening based on risk should be informed by baseline prostate specific antigen. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the…

  15. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  16. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hegg, Jens C.; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world’s largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region’s largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species’ migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures (87Sr/86Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted 87Sr/86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology of

  17. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  18. Jumpstreet Humanities Project Learning Package. Curriculum Materials for Secondary School Teachers and Students in Language Arts, History and Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Toby H.

    These language arts, U.S. history, and humanities lessons for secondary school students are designed to be used with "From Jumpstreet-A Story of Black Music," a series of 13 half-hour television programs. The colorful and rhythmic series explores the black musical heritage from its African roots to its wide influence in modern American music. Each…

  19. Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Brown, Mary H; Raichlen, David A; Dunsworth, Holly; Hare, Brian; Walker, Kara; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Schoeller, Dale; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Shumaker, Robert W; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-05-19

    Humans are distinguished from the other living apes in having larger brains and an unusual life history that combines high reproductive output with slow childhood growth and exceptional longevity. This suite of derived traits suggests major changes in energy expenditure and allocation in the human lineage, but direct measures of human and ape metabolism are needed to compare evolved energy strategies among hominoids. Here we used doubly labelled water measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal day(-1)) in humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans to test the hypothesis that the human lineage has experienced an acceleration in metabolic rate, providing energy for larger brains and faster reproduction without sacrificing maintenance and longevity. In multivariate regressions including body size and physical activity, human TEE exceeded that of chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas and orangutans by approximately 400, 635 and 820 kcal day(-1), respectively, readily accommodating the cost of humans' greater brain size and reproductive output. Much of the increase in TEE is attributable to humans' greater basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)), indicating increased organ metabolic activity. Humans also had the greatest body fat percentage. An increased metabolic rate, along with changes in energy allocation, was crucial in the evolution of human brain size and life history.

  20. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  1. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  2. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    ) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

  3. Redox History of Early Solar System Planetismals Recorded in the D;Orbigny Angrite

    SciT

    King, P.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Spilde, M.N.

    2012-04-02

    Angrites are ancient basaltic meteorites ({approx}4.56 Ga) that preserve evidence of some of the solar system's earliest melting events. The volcanic-textured angrites such as D'Orbigny were rapidly crystallized and are relatively pristine; lacking shock, brecciation, and parent-body weathering textures. Thus, these angrites provide a unique 'window' into the petrogenesis of planetary bodies in the early solar system. Angrites may be formed by partial melting of CV chondrites under relatively oxidized sources compared to the eucrites, and therefore may document variations in fO{sub 2} conditions on carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Thus, understanding the intrinsic fO{sub 2} conditions of the angrites ismore » needed to determine how different early Solar System basalts form, to model separation of the core, mantle and crust, and to understand magnetic fields on planetary bodies. The D'Orbigny angrite contains a range of textures: (a) crystalline texture containing interlocking crystals of fassaite (pyroxene) with Ti-rich rims, anorthite, and Mg-olivine with Fe-rich rims; (b) cavities with protruding needle-like pyroxene and anorthite dusted by Ca-(Mg)-carbonate; (c) mesostasis with kirschsteinite, ilmenite, troilite, phosphates (e.g., merrilite, whitlockite and Casilicophosphate), rhonite and minor glass; (d) glasses ({approx} angrite composition) in vesicles, as inclusions and as beads, and also cross-cutting crystal-rich portions of the rock; (e) vesicles (e.g., {approx}1.4 vol. %, 0.0219-87.7 mm{sup 3}). Analysis of the textures and Fe{sup 3+}/Fetotal of the cavity pyroxene suggests that the oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}) increased in the D'Orbigny angrite perhaps due to introduction of a gas phase. Here we examine the detailed fO{sub 2} history using micro-analyses that allow us to avoid inclusions that may cause spurious results. We present analyses of both S- and V- oxidation states to complement other work using Fe-oxidation state and to avoid problems

  4. Early Human Evolution in the Western Palaearctic: Ecological Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrión, José S.; Rose, James; Stringer, Chris

    2011-06-01

    This review presents the themes of a special issue dealing with environmental scenarios of human evolution during the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.78 Ma; MIS 103-MIS 19) and early Middle Pleistocene (0.78-0.47 Ma; MIS 19-base of MIS 12) within the western Palaearctic. This period is one of dramatic changes in the climates and the distribution of Palaearctic biota. These changes have played their role in generating adaptive and phyletic patterns within the human ancestry, involving several species such as Homo habilis, "Homo georgicus", Homo erectus, Homo antecessor and Homo heidelbergensis. In the archaeological record, these species include the Oldowan (Mode 1) and Acheulian (Mode 2) lithic technologies. Taphonomic considerations of palaeoecological research in hominin-bearing sites are provided and evaluated. Syntheses are provided for north Africa, western Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, Britain, and continental Europe. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on multidisciplinary data are given for Ain Boucherit, Ain Hanech and El-Kherba in Algeria, Dmanisi in Georgia, Atapuerca, Cueva Negra, and the Orce Basin in Spain, Monte Poggiolo and Pirro Nord in Italy, Pont-de-Lavaud in France, and Mauer in Germany. The state of the art with the Out of Africa 1 dispersal model is reviewed. A source-sink dynamics model for Palaeolithic Europe is described to explain the morphological disparity of H. heidelbergensis (we will sometimes use the informal name "Heidelbergs") and early Neanderthals. Other aspects debated here are the selective value of habitat mosaics including reconstructions based on mammal and avian databases, and the role of geological instability combined with topographic complexity. This review is completed by addressing the question of whether the appearance of evolutionary trends within hominins is concentrated in regions of highest worldwide biological diversity (biodiversity hotspots). It is concluded that the keys for the activation of evolutionary

  5. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as

  6. Prospective study of natural history of deep vein thrombosis: early predictors of poor late outcomes.

    PubMed

    van Rij, André M; Hill, Gerry; Krysa, Jo; Dutton, Samantha; Dickson, Riordon; Christie, Ross; Smillie, Judi; Jiang, Ping; Solomon, Clive

    2013-10-01

    A proportion of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Currently, the only clearly identified risk factors for developing PTS are recurrent ipsilateral DVT and extensive proximal disease. The aim of the study was to assess the natural history of DVT and identify early predictors of poor clinical outcome at 5 years. Patients with suspected acute DVT in the lower limb were assessed prospectively. All patients with a confirmed DVT were asked to participate in this study. Within 7-10 days after diagnosis of DVT, patients underwent a further review, involving clinical, ultrasound, and air plethysmography assessment of both lower limbs. Patients were reassessed at regular intervals for 5 years. One hundred twenty-two limbs in 114 patients were included in this study. Thrombus regression occurred in two phases, with a rapid regression between 10 days and 3 months, and a more gradual regression thereafter. Reflux developed as thrombus regression occurred. Segmental reflux progressed to axial deep reflux and continued to deteriorate in a significant proportion of patients with iliofemoral-popliteal-calf DVT throughout the 5-year study period. Similarly, venous filling index became progressively more abnormal, in this group, over the course of the study. Four risk factors for PTS were identified as best predictors: extensive clot load on presentation; <50% clot regression at 6 months; venous filling index >2.5 mL/sec; and abnormal outflow rate (<0.6). Patients with three or more of these risk factors had a significant risk of developing PTS with sensitivity 100%, specificity 83%, and positive predictive value 67%. Patients scoring 2 or less did not have PTS at 5 years with a negative predictive value of 100%. This is the first study to show that venous assessment at 6 months post-DVT can predict PTS at 5 years. Those who will not develop PTS can be reassured of this at 6 months. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    SciT

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V., E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov, E-mail: avusmanov@gmail.com

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electronmore » temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion.« less

  8. Maternal genetic effects on adaptive divergence between anadromous and resident brook charr during early life history.

    PubMed

    Perry, G M L; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2005-09-01

    The importance of directional selection relative to neutral evolution may be determined by comparing quantitative genetic variation in phenotype (Q(ST)) to variation at neutral molecular markers (F(ST)). Quantitative divergence between salmonid life history types is often considerable, but ontogenetic changes in the significance of major sources of genetic variance during post-hatch development suggest that selective differentiation varies by developmental stage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) populations for early quantitative traits (embryonic size/growth, survival, egg number and developmental time) would be greater than neutral genetic differentiation, but that the maternal genetic basis for differentiation would be higher for pre-resorption traits than post-resorption traits. Quantitative genetic divergence between anadromous (seawater migratory) and resident Laval River (Québec) brook charr based on maternal genetic variance was high (Q(ST) > 0.4) for embryonic length, yolk sac volume, embryonic growth rate and time to first response to feeding relative to neutral genetic differentiation [F(ST) = 0.153 (0.071-0.214)], with anadromous females having positive genetic coefficients for all of the above characters. However, Q(ST) was essentially zero for all traits post-resorption of the yolk sac. Our results indicate that the observed divergence between resident and anadromous brook charr has been driven by directional selection, and may therefore be adaptive. Moreover, they provide among the first evidence that the relative importance of selective differentiation may be highly context-specific, and varies by genetic contributions to phenotype by parental sex at specific points in offspring ontogeny. This in turn suggests that interpretations of Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons may be improved by considering the structure of quantitative genetic

  9. The Role of Residential Early Parenting Services in Increasing Parenting Confidence in Mothers with A History of Infertility.

    PubMed

    Khajehei, Marjan; Finch, Lynette

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of infertility may experience parenting difficulties and challenges. This study was conducted to investigate the role of residential early parenting services in increasing parenting confidence in mothers with a history of infertility. This was a retrospective chart review study using the quantitative data from the clients attending the Karitane Residential Units and Parenting Services (known as Karitane RUs) during 2013. Parenting confidence (using Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale-KPCS), depression, demographics, reproductive and medical history, as well as child's information were assessed from a sample of 27 mothers who had a history of infertility and who attended the Karitane RUs for support and assistance. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. More than half of the women (59.3%) reported a relatively low level of parenting confidence on the day of admission. The rate of low parenting confidence, however, dropped to 22.2% after receiving 4-5 days support and training in the Karitane RUs. The mean score of the KPCS increased from 36.9 ± 5.6 before the intervention to 41.1 ± 3.4 after the intervention, indicating an improvement in the parenting confidence of the mothers after attending the Karitane RUs (P<0.0001). No statistically significant association was found between maternal low parenting confidence with parental demographics (including age, country of birth, and employment status), a history of help-seeking, symptoms of depression, as well as child's information [including gender, age, siblings, diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and use of medication]. Having a child after a period of infertility can be a stressful experience for some mothers. This can result in low parenting confidence and affect parent-child attachment. Our findings emphasized on the role of the residential early parenting services in promoting the level of parenting confidence and highlighted the need for early recognition and

  10. History of human papillomavirus, warts and cancer: what do we know today?

    PubMed

    Onon, Toli S

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus has been a cause of infection in humans for thousands of years. The history of papillomaviruses, knowledge of their causative role in benign and malignant disease, and their structural characteristics have led to the development of vaccines to prevent cervical and anogenital cancers. Many questions remain unanswered before HPV vaccines can be optimised; however, the concept of virtual eradication of cervical cancer is not impossible, and remains a realistic aspiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  12. History matching of a complex epidemiological model of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by using variance emulation.

    PubMed

    Andrianakis, I; Vernon, I; McCreesh, N; McKinley, T J; Oakley, J E; Nsubuga, R N; Goldstein, M; White, R G

    2017-08-01

    Complex stochastic models are commonplace in epidemiology, but their utility depends on their calibration to empirical data. History matching is a (pre)calibration method that has been applied successfully to complex deterministic models. In this work, we adapt history matching to stochastic models, by emulating the variance in the model outputs, and therefore accounting for its dependence on the model's input values. The method proposed is applied to a real complex epidemiological model of human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda with 22 inputs and 18 outputs, and is found to increase the efficiency of history matching, requiring 70% of the time and 43% fewer simulator evaluations compared with a previous variant of the method. The insight gained into the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus model, and the constraints placed on it, are then discussed.

  13. Early asthma prophylaxis, natural history, skeletal development and economy (EASE): a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, A D; Helms, P J; Russell, G; Grant, A; Ross, S; Cairns, J A; Ritchie, L; Taylor, R; Reid, D M; Osman, L M; Robins, S; Fletcher, M E

    2000-01-01

    (1) To establish recruitment rates of newly presenting asthmatic children. (2) To establish acceptability of study protocols. (3) To pilot age-specific quality of life (QoL) assessment. (4) To assess short-term (6 months) outcomes of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment. (5) To refine sample size calculations for a definitive study. A randomised pragmatic longitudinal trial design was used, with no blinding or placebo, to examine early ICS introduction similar to its use in practice. Subjects were assessed at entry, 3 and 6 months. Subjects were recruited from six general practices. Children under 6 years were assessed at the Craig Research and Investigation Unit, Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, or their family home, and subjects 6 years and over were assessed at their general practice. Children (aged 6 months-16 years) with symptoms suggestive of asthma/wheeze that had commenced no longer than 12 months before were identified retrospectively and prospectively from general practices. Subjects were also required to be naïve to prophylactic therapy with no other lung disease/concomitant illness. Subjects were randomised to ss2-agonist (ss2-only group) or ss2-agonist and ICS (ICS group) for 6 months. Physicians could later prescribe ICS in controls if needed. (1) Pulmonary function. (2) Asthma symptom diary. (3) Symptomatic health status questionnaire. (4) Caregiver's and child's QoL. (5) Growth. (6) Bone mass. (7) Bone turnover. (8) Economic issues. Of over 15,000 children yielded from general practice records, 11% had symptoms suggestive of asthma/wheeze, and two-thirds of these already used ICS. Of the remaining, 141 subjects met the criterion of early asthma, and 86 were randomised. Two-thirds of those randomised were < 6 years old, the males:females ratio was 2:1, and 67% had a family history of atopy. RESULTS - PHYSIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: Pulmonary function did not significantly improve in the older children. Although tidal breathing measures in the pre

  14. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  15. HOW HUMAN HISTORY HAS INFLUENCED GEOGRAPHY AND GENETICS OF PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Human beings have radically altered agricultural landscapes, establishing a limited repertoire of plants and animals over vast expanses. Here, I consider what impact such a history may have had on the distribution and diversity of animal parasite, hypothesizing that certain parasites may have been '...

  16. Ancient DNA and the rewriting of human history: be sparing with Occam's razor.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-11

    Ancient DNA research is revealing a human history far more complex than that inferred from parsimonious models based on modern DNA. Here, we review some of the key events in the peopling of the world in the light of the findings of work on ancient DNA.

  17. Thinking and Caring about Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights: Swedish Students Writing History beyond Scholarly Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to national and international guidelines, schools should promote historical thinking and foster moral values. Scholars have debated, but not analysed in depth in practice, whether history education can and should hold a normative dimension. This study analyses current human rights education in two Swedish senior high school groups, in…

  18. Themes for Teaching U.S. History: Conflict and Change. GPE Humanities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    The lessons in this handbook may be incorporated into individual courses in social studies, humanities, language arts, and science, or used as a basis for multidisciplinary or team teaching. The book is aimed at the middle grade level. With only minor changes, it can easily be adapted for grade 5 U.S. history or even for the 11th grade course. An…

  19. UVA phototransduction drives early melanin synthesis in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Nadine L; Chan, Jason W; Najera, Julia A; Ciriello, Jonathan M; Oancea, Elena

    2011-11-22

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful carcinogen [1] comprising ~95% ultraviolet A (UVA) and ~5% ultraviolet B (UVB) at the Earth's surface, promotes melanin synthesis in epidermal melanocytes [2, 3], which protects skin from DNA damage [4, 5]. UVB causes DNA lesions [6] that lead to transcriptional activation of melanin-producing enzymes, resulting in delayed skin pigmentation within days [7]. In contrast, UVA causes primarily oxidative damage [8] and leads to immediate pigment darkening (IPD) within minutes, via an unknown mechanism [9, 10]. No receptor protein directly mediating phototransduction in skin has been identified. Here we demonstrate that exposure of primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs) to UVA causes calcium mobilization and early melanin synthesis. Calcium responses were abolished by treatment with G protein or phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors or by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. We show that the visual photopigment rhodopsin [11] is expressed in HEMs and contributes to UVR phototransduction. Upon UVR exposure, significant melanin production was measured within one hour; cellular melanin continued to increase in a retinal- and calcium-dependent manner up to 5-fold after 24 hr. Our findings identify a novel UVA-sensitive signaling pathway in melanocytes that leads to calcium mobilization and melanin synthesis and may underlie the mechanism of IPD in human skin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  1. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  2. Preventing early child maltreatment: implications from a longitudinal study of maternal abuse history, substance use problems, and offspring victimization.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J; Rosanbalm, Katherine D; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-06-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers' childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants' target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab] = .07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size = .26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab] = .05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size = .19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment.

  3. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  4. A Life History Assessment of Early Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Life history theory provided a framework for examining the relations among child sexual abuse (CSA), childhood adversity, and patterns of reproductive development and behavior. A community survey that assessed CSA, life history variables (e.g., age of menarche), and social and family background was administered to 623 women (mean age=26.9 years).…

  5. Fluctuating asymmetry and human male life-history traits in rural Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Waynforth, D

    1998-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), used as a measure of phenotypic quality, has proven to be a useful predictor of human life-history variation, but nothing is known about its effects in humans living in higher fecundity and mortality conditions, typical before industrialization and the demographic transition. In this research, I analyse data on male life histories for a relatively isolated population in rural Belize. Some of the 56 subjects practise subsistence-level slash-and-burn farming, and others are involved in the cash economy. Fecundity levels are quite high in this population, with men over the age of 40 averaging over eight children. Low FA successfully predicted lower morbidity and more offspring fathered, and was marginally associated with a lower age at first reproduction and more lifetime sex partners. These results indicate that FA may be important in predicting human performance in fecundity and morbidity in predemographic transition conditions. PMID:9744105

  6. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  7. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  8. Glycoconjugate distribution in early human notochord and axial mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Götz, W; Quondamatteo, F

    2001-02-01

    Glycosylation patterns of cells and tissues give insights into spatially and temporally regulated developmental processes and can be detected histochemically using plant lectins with specific affinities for sugar moieties. The early development of the vertebral column in man is a process which has never been investigated by lectin histochemistry. Therefore, we studied binding of several lectins (AIA, Con A, GSA II, LFA, LTA, PNA, RCA I, SBA, SNA, WGA) in formaldehyde-fixed sections of the axial mesenchyme of 5 human embryos in Carnegie stages 12-15. During these developmental stages, an unsegmented mesenchyme covers the notochord. Staining patterns did not show striking temporal variations except for SBA which stained the cranial axial mesenchyme only in the early stage 12 embryo and for PNA, of which the staining intensity in the mesenchyme decreased with age. The notochord appeared as a highly glycosylated tissue. Carbohydrates detected may correspond to adhesion molecules or to secreted substances like proteoglycans or proteins which could play an inductive role, for example, for the neural tube. The axial perinotochordal unsegmented mesenchyme showed strong PNA binding. Therefore, its function as a PNA-positive "barrier" tissue is discussed. The endoderm of the primitive gut showed a lectin-binding pattern that was similar to that of the notochord, which may correlate with interactions between these tissues during earlier developmental stages.

  9. A karyometric note on nucleoli in human early granulocytic precursors.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Mikulenková, D; Jirásková, I; Klamová, H

    2006-01-01

    The diameter of nucleoli was measured in human bone marrow early granulocytic precursors after visualization by a simple cytochemical method for demonstration of RNA. Such method facilitated to clearly see nucleolar bodies without perinucleolar chromatin, including those of micronucleoli. The bone marrow of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemia (untreated with cytostatics) provided a satisfactory number of both myeloblasts and promyelocytes for nucleolar measurements because of prevailing granulopoiesis. The direct nucleolar measurement was carried out on digitized and processed images on the screen at magnification 4,300x. It seems to be likely that the nucleolar size is directly related to the number of nucleoli per cell. The largest nucleoli were present in both myeloblasts and promyelocytes that possessed a single nucleolus. In contrast, the nucleolar diameter was significantly smaller in cells with multiple nucleoli. However, in cells with small multiple nucleoli, one of them was always larger and dominant with a large number of AgNORs. Such large nucleoli are possibly visible in specimens stained with panoptic procedures or methods staining nuclear chromatin or DNA. It should also be mentioned that both myeloblasts and promyelocytes mostly possessed two nucleoli with the mean diameter close to 1.5 microm. The incidence of early granulocytic precursors classified according to the nucleolar number and size strongly suggested that the various nucleolar number and nucleolar size in these cells might be related to the different stage of the cell cycle and might also explain their heterogeneity.

  10. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rearing history and allostatic load in adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in human care.

    PubMed

    Edes, Ashley N; Wolfe, Barbara A; Crews, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014. AL estimates were calculated using biomarkers obtained during previous anesthetic events. Biomarkers in the high-risk quartile were counted toward a gorilla's AL. Rearing history was categorized as mother-reared, nursery-reared, and wild-caught. Using ANCOVA, rearing history and AL are significantly associated when age and sex are entered as covariates. Wild-caught gorillas have significantly higher AL than mother-reared gorillas. Neither wild-caught nor mother-reared gorillas are significantly different from nursery-reared gorillas. When examined by sex, males of all rearing histories have significantly lower AL than females. We suggest males face few stressors in human care and ill effects of rearing history do not follow. Wild-caught females have significantly higher AL than mother-reared females, but neither is significantly different from nursery-reared females. Combined with our previous work on AL in this group, wherein females had twofold higher AL than males, we suggest females in human care face more stressors than males. Disrupted rearing history may exacerbate effects of these stressors. Providing opportunities for females to choose their distance from males may help reduce their AL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Brain alcohol detectability in human subjects with and without a paternal history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tak-Ming; Mendelson, Jack H; Sholar, Michelle B; Mutschler, Nicole H; Wines, James D; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Mello, Nancy K

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the putative effects of a paternal history of alcoholism on the apparent detectability of brain alcohol in human subjects. Brain to blood ethanol ratios in two cohorts of men were determined, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in a brain voxel (2 x 2 x 2 cm) containing the putamen. The men were light drinkers with a positive (n = 8) or a negative (n = 8) paternal history of alcoholism and were given an alcohol dose of 0.8 g/kg body weight. In both groups, brain alcohol detectability was less than 100%. No significant difference (p = .37) was found in the brain/blood ethanol ratios of the two groups. However, subjective assessments of feeling the extreme effects of alcohol and the extent of intoxication ("how drunk") were highly correlated with a paternal history of alcoholism, with the paternal history negative group reporting significantly more intense feelings of intoxication. A review of existing literature evidence and data obtained in this study indicate that brain alcohol detectability via magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is less than 100%. There were no significant differences in brain alcohol detectability between paternal history positive and paternal history negative men. Differences in the Subjective High Assessment Scale ratings between the two groups, however, indicate the importance of a genetic influence on the subjective response to alcohol.

  13. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, but it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with history of severe prematurity. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all PCR-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool age children (≤5 yrs.) with and without history of severe prematurity (<32 weeks gestation). Respiratory distress scores were developed to examine the clinical severity of HMPV infections. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from reviewing electronic medical records (EMR). Results A total of 571 pre-school children were identified by PCR-confirmed viral respiratory tract infection during the study period. HMPV was identified as a causative organism in 63 cases (11%). Fifty–eight (n=58) preschool age children with HMPV infection were included in this study after excluding those with significant co-morbidities. Our data demonstrated that 32.7% of children admitted with HMPV had history of severe prematurity. Preschool children with history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity and history of asthma. Conclusion Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. PMID:26117550

  14. A Comparative Framework for Studying the Histories of the Humanities and Science.

    PubMed

    Bod, Rens

    2015-06-01

    While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and compared. This is at the level of underlying methods, especially at the level of formalisms and rule systems used by different disciplines. The essay formally compares linguistics and computer science by noting that the same grammar formalism was used in the 1950s for describing both human and. programming languages. Additionally, it examines the influence of philology on molecular biology, and vice versa, by recognizing that the tree-formalism and rule system used for text reconstruction was also employed in DNA genetics. It also shows that rule systems for source criticism in history are used in forensic science, evidence-based medicine, and jurisprudence. This paper thus opens up a new comparative approach within which the histories of the humanities and the sciences can be examined on a common level.

  15. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Early life history pelagic exposure profiles of selected commercially important fish species in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2016-10-01

    A synthesis of nearly four decades of ichthyoplankton survey data from the Gulf of Alaska was undertaken to provide the most comprehensive information available on the early life history ecology of five focal species: Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), and Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias). This analysis of historical data, along with information from published studies, is presented here in the form of ecological reviews of the species during their planktonic phase. The reviews include descriptions of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to the environment, and interpretation regarding associated sensitivities to environmental forcing. On a temporal scale, patterns in abundance of eggs and larvae are synthesized that characterize seasonal exposure to the pelagic environment, and interannual variation that is presumed to incorporate responses to long-term environmental forcing. Spatial patterns are synthesized to identify horizontal and vertical extent of egg and larval distributions, delineate areas of primary larval habitat, and illuminate egg and larval drift pathways. The observed patterns are discussed with respect to characterizing species early life history strategies, identifying long-term adaptations to the Gulf of Alaska environment, and associated resilience and vulnerability factors that may modulate early life responses to environmental forcing in this region. For each species, gaps in knowledge are identified and are concerned primarily with the period of transition between the larval and juvenile stage, and feeding habits and ecology across seasons, habitats and sub-intervals of early ontogeny. These early life history reviews advance our ecological understanding of the pelagic phase, and fine-tune our focus for the investigation of potential response mechanisms to environmental forcing at appropriate, species-specific temporal

  17. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  18. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Early-Stage Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ashley; de Pablo, Juan

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, or human amylin) is implicated in the development of type II diabetes. hIAPP is known to aggregate into amyloid fibrils; however, it is prefibrillar oligomeric species, rather than mature fibrils, that are proposed to be cytotoxic. In order to better understand the role of hIAPP aggregation in the onset of disease, as well as to design effective diagnostics and therapeutics, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of early-stage hIAPP aggregation. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with multiple advanced sampling techniques to examine the formation of the hIAPP dimer and trimer. Metadynamics calculations reveal a free energy landscape for the hIAPP dimer, which suggest multiple possible transition pathways. We employ finite temperature string method calculations to identify favorable pathways for dimer and trimer formation, along with relevant free energy barriers and intermediate structures. Results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms and energetics of hIAPP aggregation. In addition, this work demonstrates that the finite temperature string method is an effective tool in the study of protein aggregation. Funded by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  1. Early thermal history of Rhea: the role of serpentinization and liquid state convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Losiak, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Intorduction: Thermal history of Rhea from the beginning of accretion is investigated. The numerical model of convection combined with the parameterized theory is developed. Melting of the satellite's matter, gravitational differentiation and serpentinization of silicates are included. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, duration of accretion, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, activation energy in the formula for viscosity E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ammonia content X, and energy of serpentinization. 1. Numerical model: In our calculations we use numerical model developed by Czechowski (2012) (see e.g. description in [1]). The model is based on parameterized theory of convection combined with 1-dimensional equation of the heat transfer in spherical coordinates: δT(r,t)- ρcp δt = div(k(r,T ) gradT (r,t))+ Q(r,T), where r is the radial distance (spherical coordinate), ρ is the density [kg m-3], cp [J kg1 K-1 ] is the specific heat, Q [W kg-1] is the heating rate, and k[W m-1 K-1] is the thermal conductivity. Q(r,t) includes sources and sinks of the heat. The equation is solved in time dependent region [0, R(t)]. During accretion the radius R(t) increases in time according to formula: R(t) = atfor tini tac , i.e. after the accretion (see e.g. [2]), where tinidenotes beginning of accretion and tac denotes duration of this process. If the Rayleigh number in the considered layer exceeds its critical value Racr then convection starts. It leads to effective heat transfer. The full description of convection is given by a velocity field and temperature distribution. However, we are interested in convection as a process of heat transport only. For solid state convection (SSC) heat transport can be described by dimensionless Nusselt number Nu. We use the following definition of the Nu: Nu= (True total surface heat flow)/(Total heat flow without convection). The heat transport by

  2. Long livestock farming history and human landscape shaping revealed by lake sediment DNA.

    PubMed

    Giguet-Covex, Charline; Pansu, Johan; Arnaud, Fabien; Rey, Pierre-Jérôme; Griggo, Christophe; Gielly, Ludovic; Domaizon, Isabelle; Coissac, Eric; David, Fernand; Choler, Philippe; Poulenard, Jérôme; Taberlet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of human-driven, Earth-shaping dynamics is important for understanding past human/environment interactions and for helping human societies that currently face global changes. However, it is often challenging to distinguish the effects of the climate from human activities on environmental changes. Here we evaluate an approach based on DNA metabarcoding used on lake sediments to provide the first high-resolution reconstruction of plant cover and livestock farming history since the Neolithic Period. By comparing these data with a previous reconstruction of erosive event frequency, we show that the most intense erosion period was caused by deforestation and overgrazing by sheep and cowherds during the Late Iron Age and Roman Period. Tracking plants and domestic mammals using lake sediment DNA (lake sedDNA) is a new, promising method for tracing past human practices, and it provides a new outlook of the effects of anthropogenic factors on landscape-scale changes.

  3. Interview with Paul W. Kruse on the Early History of HgCdTe, Conducted on October 22, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reine, Marion B.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an interview with Dr Paul W. Kruse (1927-2012) on the early history of the semiconductor alloy mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or Hg1- x Cd x Te) at the Honeywell Corporate Research Center near Minneapolis, Minnesota. Conducted on October 22, 1980, the interview covers two main areas. One area is the story of how the HgCdTe research effort came about at the Honeywell Research Center in the early 1960s, what technical choices were made and when, and what technical challenges were overcome and how. The other area is the organization, culture, environment and personnel at the Honeywell Research Center that made the early HgCdTe research programs so successful. HgCdTe has emerged as the highest-performance, most widely applicable infrared detector material. HgCdTe continues to satisfy a broad variety of advanced military and space applications. It is illustrative to look back on the early history of this remarkable semiconductor alloy to help to understand why its technological development as an infrared detector has been so successful.

  4. Family history: an opportunity for early interventions and improved control of hypertension, obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211

  5. A New Model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History in the Northern Qinling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhao; Qu, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling Orogenic Belt extends from the Qinling Mountains in the west to the Dabie Mountains in the east. It lies between the North China and South China Blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Zhang et al., 2000). The Qinling Orogenic Belt itself is divided into the North and South Qinling Terranes by the Shangdan suture zone. Although the Shangdan zone is thought to represent the major suture separating the two blocks, there still exists debate about the timing and mechanism of convergence between these two blocks. For instance, some authors suggested an Early Paleozoic collision between the North China Block and South China Block (Ren et al., 1991; Kroner et al., 1993; Zhai et al., 1998). Others postulated left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Shangdan suture at ca. 315 Ma and inferred a pre-Devonian collision between the two blocks (Mattauer et al., 1985; Xu et al., 1988). Geochemistry of fine-grained sediments in the Qinling Mountains was used to argue for a Silurian-Devonian collision (Gao et al., 1995). A Late Triassic collision has also been proposed (Sengor, 1985; Hsu et al., 1987; Wang et al., 1989), based on the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the easternmost part of the Qinling Orogenic Belt at ~230 Ma (e.g., Li et al., 1993; Ames et al., 1996). Paleomagnetic data favor a Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic amalgamation of the North China and South China Blocks (Zhao and Coe, 1987; Enkin et al., 1992). It is clear that most authors thought that the Qinling Mountains are a collisional orogen, even they have different methods about the timing of the orogeny. Based on new detailed investigations, we propose a new model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History between the North China and South China Blocks along the Shangdan Suture. The Shangdan suture is marked by a great number of ophiolites, island-arc volcanic rocks and other related rock

  6. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  7. Sources of information for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination history among young women.

    PubMed

    Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R

    2014-05-23

    Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Astronomical Theory of Early Human Migration (Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Our climate system varies on a wide range of timescales, from seasons to several millions of years. A large part of this variability is internally generated as a result of instabilities of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-carbon cycle system. Other modes of variability, such as glacial cycles, are caused by astronomical forcings with periods of 20, 40, 100 thousand years. These so-called Milankovitch Cycles are associated with earth's axis wobble, axis obliquity and shifts in the eccentricity of earth's orbit around the sun, respectively. When these cycles conspire, they can cause the climate system to plunge into an ice-age. This happened last time 110,000 years ago, when Northern Hemisphere summer radiation decreased substantially and ice-sheets started to form as a result. Around 100,000 years ago northern Hemisphere summer moved again closer to the sun and Homo sapiens started to leave Africa across vegetated corridors in Northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This first migration wave must have been relatively weak, but it left unequivocal traces in the fossil and archaeological record. Why Homo sapiens embarked on its grand journey across our planet during glacial climate conditions has been subject of an intense debate in various scientific communities. Moreover, the archaeological records of an early exodus around 100 thousand years ago seem to be at odds with paleo-genetic evidences, that place the first dispersal out of Africa around 70-60 thousand years ago. To elucidate what role climate and environmental conditions played in the dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans out of Africa, we have developed and applied one of the first integrated climate/human migration computer models. The model simulates ice-ages, abrupt climate change, the "peopling" of our planet and captures the arrival time of Homo sapiens in the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, Southern China and Australia in close agreement with paleo climate reconstructions, fossil and

  9. Inferring human population size and separation history from multiple genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Durbin, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The availability of complete human genome sequences from populations across the world has given rise to new population genetic inference methods that explicitly model ancestral relationships under recombination and mutation. So far, application of these methods to evolutionary history more recent than 20,000-30,000 years ago and to population separations has been limited. Here we present a new method that overcomes these shortcomings. The multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent (MSMC) analyzes the observed pattern of mutations in multiple individuals, focusing on the first coalescence between any two individuals. Results from applying MSMC to genome sequences from nine populations across the world suggest that the genetic separation of non-African ancestors from African Yoruban ancestors started long before 50,000 years ago and give information about human population history as recent as 2,000 years ago, including the bottleneck in the peopling of the Americas and separations within Africa, East Asia and Europe.

  10. Ecological volatility and human evolution: a novel perspective on life history and reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-11-01

    Humans are characterized by a suite of traits that seem to differentiate them profoundly from closely related apes such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orang-utan. These traits include longevity, cooperative breeding, stacking of offspring, lengthy maturation, and a complex life-course profile of adiposity. When, how, and why these traits emerged during our evolutionary history is currently attracting considerable attention. Most approaches to life history emphasize dietary energy availability and the risk of mortality as the two key stresses shaping life-history variability between and within species. The high energy costs of the large Homo brain are also seen as the central axis around which other life-history traits were reorganized. I propose that ecological volatility may have been a key stress, selecting in favor of the suite of traits in order to tolerate periods of energy scarcity, and increase reproductive output during periods of good conditions. Theses life-history adaptations may have preceded and enabled the trend toward encephalization. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  12. The Role of Residential Early Parenting Services in Increasing Parenting Confidence in Mothers with A History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Khajehei, Marjan; Finch, Lynette

    2016-01-01

    Background Mothers with a history of infertility may experience parenting difficulties and challenges. This study was conducted to investigate the role of residential early parenting services in increasing parenting confidence in mothers with a history of infertility. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective chart review study using the quantitative data from the clients attending the Karitane Residential Units and Parenting Services (known as Karitane RUs) during 2013. Parenting confidence (using Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale-KPCS), depression, demographics, reproductive and medical history, as well as child’s information were assessed from a sample of 27 mothers who had a history of infertility and who attended the Karitane RUs for support and assistance. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results More than half of the women (59.3%) reported a relatively low level of parenting confidence on the day of admission. The rate of low parenting confidence, however, dropped to 22.2% after receiving 4-5 days support and training in the Karitane RUs. The mean score of the KPCS increased from 36.9 ± 5.6 before the intervention to 41.1 ± 3.4 after the intervention, indicating an improvement in the parenting confidence of the mothers after attending the Karitane RUs (P<0.0001). No statistically significant association was found between maternal low parenting confidence with parental demographics (including age, country of birth, and employment status), a history of help-seeking, symptoms of depression, as well as child’s information [including gender, age, siblings, diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and use of medication]. Conclusion Having a child after a period of infertility can be a stressful experience for some mothers. This can result in low parenting confidence and affect parent-child attachment. Our findings emphasized on the role of the residential early parenting services in promoting the level of parenting confidence

  13. Intracranial baroreflex yielding an early cushing response in human.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E A; Czosnyka, Z; Momjian, S; Czosnyka, M; Bech, R A; Pickard, J D

    2005-01-01

    The Cushing response is a pre-terminal sympatho-adrenal systemic response to very high ICP. Animal studies have demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response. Infusion studies are routine procedures to investigate, by infusing CSF space with saline, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biophysics in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. Our study aims at assessing systemic and cerebral haemodynamic changes during moderate rise of ICP in human. Infusion studies were performed in 34 patients. This is a routine test perform in patients presenting with symptoms of NPH during their pre-shunting assessment. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) were non-invasively monitored with photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. The rise in ICP (8.2 +/- 5.1 mmHg to 25 +/- 8.3 mmHg) was followed by a significant rise in ABP (106.6 +/- 29.7 mmHg to 115.2 +/- 30.1 mmHg), drop in CPP (98.3 +/- 29 mmHg to 90.2 +/- 30.7 mmHg) and decrease in FV (55.6 +/- 17 cm/s to 51.1 +/- 16.3 cm/s). Increasing ICP did not alter heart rate (70.4 +/- 10.4/min to 70.3 +/- 9.1/min) but augmented the heart rate variance (0.046 +/- 0.058 to 0.067 +/- 0.075/min). In a population suspected of hydrocephalus, our study demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response, demonstrating an early Cushing response in human and a putative intracranial baroreflex.

  14. Suicidal Ideation and Its Recurrence in Boys and Men from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood: An Event History Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee. D.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    Occurrence and recurrences of suicidal ideation (SI) were modeled among boys/men assessed annually from ages 12 to 29 years. Multiple-spell discrete-time event history analyses permitted (a) determination of whether risk for SI escalates with prior experiences of SI (Spell effects), (b) while accounting for changes in risk with time (Period effects), and (c) controlling for vulnerability factors. Self-reported SI (presence/absence in past week), depressive symptoms, alcohol/substance use, and antisocial behavior, and official arrest records were collected annually from 205 boys recruited on the basis of community risk for delinquency. Parents’ self-reported psychopathology and SES were collected in childhood. Period effects supported decreasing risk for SI over time. Spell and time-varying, 1-year lagged substance use and depressive symptoms independently predicted increased risk for SI. Models involving SI with intent were explored. Consistent with interpersonal psychological theory, risk for young men’s SI increases with past experience of SI, even with key propensities controlled; however, risk also decays over time. Targeting conditions that confer risk for SI is essential. Preventing and delaying SI occurrence and recurrence may represent independent mechanisms by which prevention efforts operate. PMID:18729614

  15. An Organismal CNV Mutator Phenotype Restricted to Early Human Development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Yuan, Bo; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Wuster, Arthur; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Ling; Gambin, Tomasz; Chong, Zechen; Campbell, Ian M; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Gelowani, Violet; Writzl, Karin; Bacino, Carlos A; Lindsay, Sarah J; Withers, Marjorie; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Scull, Jennifer; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Ken; Gibbs, Richard A; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Cheung, Sau Wai; Smith, Janice; Breman, Amy; Shaw, Chad A; Patel, Ankita; Hurles, Matthew E; Lupski, James R

    2017-02-23

    De novo copy number variants (dnCNVs) arising at multiple loci in a personal genome have usually been considered to reflect cancer somatic genomic instabilities. We describe a multiple dnCNV (MdnCNV) phenomenon in which individuals with genomic disorders carry five to ten constitutional dnCNVs. These CNVs originate from independent formation incidences, are predominantly tandem duplications or complex gains, exhibit breakpoint junction features reminiscent of replicative repair, and show increased de novo point mutations flanking the rearrangement junctions. The active CNV mutation shower appears to be restricted to a transient perizygotic period. We propose that a defect in the CNV formation process is responsible for the "CNV-mutator state," and this state is dampened after early embryogenesis. The constitutional MdnCNV phenomenon resembles chromosomal instability in various cancers. Investigations of this phenomenon may provide unique access to understanding genomic disorders, structural variant mutagenesis, human evolution, and cancer biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An organismal concept for Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov. - morphology and natural history of an Early Devonian lycophyte.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kelly K S; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-05-01

    Fossil plants are found as fragmentary remains and understanding them as natural species requires assembly of whole-organism concepts that integrate different plant parts. Such concepts are essential for incorporating fossils in hypotheses of plant evolution and phylogeny. Plants of the Early Devonian are crucial to reconstructing the initial radiation of tracheophytes, yet few are understood as whole organisms. This study assembles a whole-plant concept for the Early Devonian lycophyte Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov., based on morphometric data and taphonomic observations from >1000 specimens collected in the Beartooth Butte Formation (Wyoming, USA). Sengelia radicans occupies a key position between stem-group and derived lycophyte lineages. Sengelia had a rooting system of downward-growing root-bearing stems, formed dense monotypic mats of prostrate shoots in areas that experienced periodic flooding, and was characterized by a life-history strategy adapted for survival after floods, dominated by clonality, and featuring infrequent sexual reproduction. Sengelia radicans is the oldest among the very few early tracheophytes for which a detailed, rigorous whole-plant concept integrates morphology, growth habit, life history and growth environment. This plant adds to the diversity of body plans documented among lycophytes and may help elucidate patterns of morphological evolution in the clade. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. An organismal concept for Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov. – morphology and natural history of an Early Devonian lycophyte

    PubMed Central

    Tomescu, Alexandru M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Fossil plants are found as fragmentary remains and understanding them as natural species requires assembly of whole-organism concepts that integrate different plant parts. Such concepts are essential for incorporating fossils in hypotheses of plant evolution and phylogeny. Plants of the Early Devonian are crucial to reconstructing the initial radiation of tracheophytes, yet few are understood as whole organisms. Methods This study assembles a whole-plant concept for the Early Devonian lycophyte Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov., based on morphometric data and taphonomic observations from >1000 specimens collected in the Beartooth Butte Formation (Wyoming, USA). Key Results Sengelia radicans occupies a key position between stem-group and derived lycophyte lineages. Sengelia had a rooting system of downward-growing root-bearing stems, formed dense monotypic mats of prostrate shoots in areas that experienced periodic flooding, and was characterized by a life-history strategy adapted for survival after floods, dominated by clonality, and featuring infrequent sexual reproduction. Conclusions Sengelia radicans is the oldest among the very few early tracheophytes for which a detailed, rigorous whole-plant concept integrates morphology, growth habit, life history and growth environment. This plant adds to the diversity of body plans documented among lycophytes and may help elucidate patterns of morphological evolution in the clade. PMID:28334100

  18. The history of the early years of metamaterials in USA and UK defense agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derov, John S.; Hammond, Richard; Youngs, Ian J.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the historical events that occurred in the early years of metamaterials leading to the current development of metamaterials in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, and Ministry of Defence.

  19. A perspective on the history and evolution of an Oceans and Human Health "metadiscipline" in the USA.

    PubMed

    Sandifer, Paul A; Trtanj, Juli M; Collier, Tracy K

    2013-05-01

    We review recent history and evolution of Oceans and Human Health programs and related activities in the USA from a perspective within the Federal government. As a result of about a decade of support by the US Congress and through a few Federal agencies, notably the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, robust Oceans and Human Health (OHH) research and application activities are now relatively widespread, although still small, in a number of agencies and academic institutions. OHH themes and issues have been incorporated into comprehensive federal ocean research plans and are reflected in the new National Ocean Policy enunciated by Executive Order 13547. In just a decade, OHH has matured into a recognized "metadiscipline," with development of a small, but robust and diverse community of science and practice, incorporation into academic educational programs, regular participation in ocean and coastal science and public health societies, and active engagement with public health decision makers. In addition to substantial increases in scientific information, the OHH community has demonstrated ability to respond rapidly and effectively to emergency situations such as those associated with extreme weather events (e.g., hurricanes, floods) and human-caused disasters (e.g., the Deep Water Horizon oil spill). Among many other things, next steps include development and implementation of agency health strategies and provision of specific services, such as ecological forecasts to provide routine early warnings for ocean health threats and opportunities for prevention and mitigation of these risks.

  20. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  1. Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

  2. "A Scientific Library of Some Value": An Early History of the Australian Museum Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Museum, Sydney, is Australia's oldest museum, internationally recognised for its longstanding scientific contributions. Less well-known is the Museum's fine collection of monographs and journals relating to natural history and anthropology, which has been used to support the work of Museum staff and external enquirers since the late…

  3. Early National Education: 1776-1830. Studies in the History of American Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, David

    This book gives an original analysis and interpretation of the development of formal and informal agencies of education during 1776-1830. It is part of a series consisting of five volumes that present, chronologically and topically, the history of American education from the beginning to the present day. The book begins with an overview of events…

  4. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  5. The Legacy of Early Insecurity Histories in Shaping Adolescent Adaptation to Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the mediational pathway involving interparental conflict, adolescent emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems was altered by their earlier childhood histories of insecurity. Participants included 230 families, with the first of the five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade…

  6. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (<32 weeks gestation). Respiratory distress scores were developed to examine the clinical severity of HMPV infections. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from reviewing electronic medical records. A total of 571 preschool children were identified using polymerase chain reaction-confirmed viral respiratory tract infection during the study period. HMPV was identified as a causative organism in 63 cases (11%). Fifty-eight (n = 58) preschool-age children with HMPV infection were included in this study after excluding those with significant comorbidities. Our data demonstrated that 32.7% of children admitted with HMPV had a history of severe prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed on Percina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, or Gambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  8. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard L.; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate <1%. We characterize P. jonesi as a host-fish specialist that fractionally releases conglutinates from late January to early June. Intact P. jonesi conglutinates resemble simuliid fly larvae attached to an egg-like structure, but most conglutinates were released as segments representing separate egg or larva mimics. Viability of glochidia encased within a conglutinate was >90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  9. The history and development of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Grant R

    2008-08-01

    The Human Genetics Society of Australasia is a vibrant professional society with more than 900 members that promotes and regulates the practice of human and medical genetics in Australia and New Zealand. The growth of human genetics was stimulated by the development of diagnostic clinical cytogenetics laboratories in the early to mid 1960s. This coincided with the recognition by medical specialists, mainly pediatricians, that genetic disorders, especially inborn errors of metabolism and birth defects, were of clinical interest and potentially challenging areas for their skills. The organization of professionals in human genetics was slow to evolve. There was an early Western Australian Human Genetics Society, and the cytogenetics community had begun to meet annually from about 1966 but was coordinated by a mailing list rather than as a formal organization. In 1976, as part of the celebrations of the Centenary Year of the Adelaide Children's Hospital, a clinical genetics meeting involving several high profile international speakers and most of the senior medical geneticists in Australia and New Zealand along with the annual meeting of the loose-knit cytogeneticists group agreed that a small working group be charged with setting up a Human Genetics Society. The society was formally incorporated in South Australia in 1977.

  10. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Human cranial anatomy and the differential preservation of population history and climate signatures.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Weaver, Timothy D

    2006-12-01

    Cranial morphology is widely used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships, but its reliability in reflecting phylogeny and population history has been questioned. Some cranial regions, particularly the face and neurocranium, are believed to be influenced by the environment and prone to convergence. Others, such as the temporal bone, are thought to reflect more accurately phylogenetic relationships. Direct testing of these hypotheses was not possible until the advent of large genetic data sets. The few relevant studies in human populations have had intriguing but possibly conflicting results, probably partly due to methodological differences and to the small numbers of populations used. Here we use three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics methods to test explicitly the ability of cranial shape, size, and relative position/orientation of cranial regions to track population history and climate. Morphological distances among 13 recent human populations were calculated from four 3D landmark data sets, respectively reflecting facial, neurocranial, and temporal bone shape; shape and relative position; overall cranial shape; and centroid sizes. These distances were compared to neutral genetic and climatic distances among the same, or closely matched, populations. Results indicate that neurocranial and temporal bone shape track neutral genetic distances, while facial shape reflects climate; centroid size shows a weak association with climatic variables; and relative position/orientation of cranial regions does not appear correlated with any of these factors. Because different cranial regions preserve population history and climate signatures differentially, caution is suggested when using cranial anatomy for phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. History dependence of human muscle-fiber conduction velocity during voluntary isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    McGill, Kevin C; Lateva, Zoia C

    2011-09-01

    The conduction velocity (CV) of a muscle fiber is affected by the fiber's discharge history going back ∼1 s. We investigated this dependence by measuring CV fluctuations during voluntary isometric contractions of the human brachioradialis muscle. We recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals simultaneously from multiple intramuscular electrodes, identified potentials belonging to the same motor unit using EMG decomposition, and estimated the CV of each discharge from the interpotential interval. In 12 of 14 subjects, CV increased by ∼10% during the first second after recruitment and then fluctuated by about ±2% in a way that mirrored the fluctuations in the instantaneous firing rate. The CV profile could be precisely described in terms of the discharge history by a simple mathematical model. In the other two subjects, and one subject retested after cooling the arm, the CV fluctuations were inversely correlated with instantaneous firing rate. In all subjects, CV was additionally affected by very short interdischarge intervals (<25 ms): it was increased in doublets at recruitment, but decreased in doublets during continuous firing and after short interdischarge intervals in doubly innervated fibers. CV also exhibited a slow trend of about -0.05%/s that did not depend on the immediate discharge history. We suggest that measurements of CV fluctuations during voluntary contractions, or during stimulation protocols that involve longer and more complex stimulation patterns than are currently being used, may provide a sensitive approach for estimating the dynamic characteristics of ion channels in the human muscle-fiber membrane.

  13. History dependence of human muscle-fiber conduction velocity during voluntary isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Lateva, Zoia C.

    2011-01-01

    The conduction velocity (CV) of a muscle fiber is affected by the fiber's discharge history going back ∼1 s. We investigated this dependence by measuring CV fluctuations during voluntary isometric contractions of the human brachioradialis muscle. We recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals simultaneously from multiple intramuscular electrodes, identified potentials belonging to the same motor unit using EMG decomposition, and estimated the CV of each discharge from the interpotential interval. In 12 of 14 subjects, CV increased by ∼10% during the first second after recruitment and then fluctuated by about ±2% in a way that mirrored the fluctuations in the instantaneous firing rate. The CV profile could be precisely described in terms of the discharge history by a simple mathematical model. In the other two subjects, and one subject retested after cooling the arm, the CV fluctuations were inversely correlated with instantaneous firing rate. In all subjects, CV was additionally affected by very short interdischarge intervals (<25 ms): it was increased in doublets at recruitment, but decreased in doublets during continuous firing and after short interdischarge intervals in doubly innervated fibers. CV also exhibited a slow trend of about −0.05%/s that did not depend on the immediate discharge history. We suggest that measurements of CV fluctuations during voluntary contractions, or during stimulation protocols that involve longer and more complex stimulation patterns than are currently being used, may provide a sensitive approach for estimating the dynamic characteristics of ion channels in the human muscle-fiber membrane. PMID:21565985

  14. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  15. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  17. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  18. Onset and establishment of diazotrophs and other bacterial associates in the early life history stages of the coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Lema, Kimberley A; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L

    2014-10-01

    Early establishment of coral-microbial symbioses is fundamental to the fitness of corals, but comparatively little is known about the onset and succession of bacterial communities in their early life history stages. In this study, bacterial associates of the coral Acropora millepora were characterized throughout the first year of life, from larvae and 1-week-old juveniles reared in laboratory conditions in the absence of the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium to field-outplanted juveniles with established Symbiodinium symbioses, and sampled at 2 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Using an amplicon pyrosequencing approach, the diversity of both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of bacterial communities overall was assessed through analysis of nifH and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. The consistent presence of sequences affiliated with diazotrophs of the order Rhizobiales (23-58% of retrieved nifH sequences; 2-12% of 16S rRNA sequences), across all samples from larvae to 12-month-old coral juveniles, highlights the likely functional importance of this nitrogen-fixing order to the coral holobiont. Dominance of Roseobacter-affiliated sequences (>55% of retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) in larvae and 1-week-old juveniles, and the consistent presence of sequences related to Oceanospirillales and Altermonadales throughout all early life history stages, signifies their potential importance as coral associates. Increased diversity of bacterial communities once juveniles were transferred to the field, particularly of Cyanobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, demonstrates horizontal (environmental) uptake of coral-associated bacterial communities. Although overall bacterial communities were dynamic, bacteria with likely important functional roles remain stable throughout early life stages of Acropora millepora. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Human outposts on Mars: engineering and scientific lessons learned from history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2014-06-01

    There are several planned projects that aim to send humans to Mars which are currently developed by the ESA, the NASA or by initiatives from the private sector (e.g. The Mars One Project). Some of these projects include long-term stays or even permanent human outposts on the red planet. To achieve the necessary habitats on Mars, a vast amount of different engineering and scientific problems has to be solved. This paper identifies some of the most important issues by analyzing a similar endeavor from human history—the colonization of the American continent by the Europeans. This might seem to be an unconventional approach, but some valuable insights can be gathered by studying the significant dangers and drawbacks experienced by the early settlers in America. These historical records can help scientists and engineers to set up some guidelines for avoiding some of the risks for the first human beings on Mars.

  20. Early Histories of School-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Balestrino, Maria D.; Phelps, Randall A.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Paradise, Jack L.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2008-01-01

    In a prospective study of developmental outcomes in relation to early-life otitis media, behavioral, cognitive, and language measures were administered to a large, diverse sample of children at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9-11 years of age (N = 741). At 9-11 years of age, 9% of the children were categorized as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  1. History of early bridge specifications : a reprint of a paper by J. N. Clary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    This report is a reprint of an informed review of the specifications for iron and steel bridges, both railroad and highway structures, dating from the mid-19th through the early 20th centuries. It is reprinted with only minor editing as a companion t...

  2. Teaching about the Influence of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment on Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)

  3. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  4. A History of the Founding and Early Development of the "Journal of School Psychology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.; Jack, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Historical aspects of the founding and early development of the "Journal of School Psychology" are discussed. Emphases are placed on the first decade of the journal, the factors in its founding and development, persons who have served as editors and members of the editorial boards and corporate leadership, and the journal's changing formats. The…

  5. Early Years Teachers and the Influence of Piaget: Evidence from Oral History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In studying the historical development of early years provision, a clear factor in raising its profile was the growth in scientific study of children, especially the reception and interpretation of Piaget's research. For an understanding of how the mediation of new thinking and new discoveries influenced students and teachers, textbooks provide an…

  6. Early Childhood Education and Care in China: History, Current Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Xiaofei; Melhuish, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in China. The historical context from 1900 is summarised, and then developments from the 1980s up to the present kindergarten expansion movement, starting in 2010, are covered in detail. The review shows that ECEC development in China has undergone great changes both…

  7. Prehistory and early history of the Malpai Borderlands: Archaeological synthesis and recommendations

    Paul R. Fish; Suzanne K. Fish; John H. Madsen

    2006-01-01

    Prehispanic and early historic archaeological information for the Malpai Borderlands of southwest New Mexico and southeast Arizona is reviewed using data derived from field reconnaissance, discussion with relevant scholars, archival resources from varied agencies and institutions, and published literature. Previous regional research has focused on late prehistory (A.D...

  8. A History of Early Childhood Education in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, governments began to develop specialized educational programs--kindergartens and infant or nursery schools--to give children a head start in life. These programs hinged on new visions of childhood that originated in England and Europe, but what happened when they were transported to the colonies? This book unwinds…

  9. Uncovering Hidden Dimensions of Australian Early Childhood Policy History: Insights from Interviews with Policy "Elites"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Helen; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the value of elite interviews as a frequently overlooked methodology in investigations of policymaking in early childhood education and care (ECEC). We contextualise the discussion within a study that examines constructions of quality in Australian ECEC policymaking between 1972 and 2009. We conclude that, despite their…

  10. Early light deprivation effects on human cone-driven retinal function.

    PubMed

    Esposito Veneruso, Paolo; Ziccardi, Lucia; Magli, Giulia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Falsini, Benedetto; Magli, Adriano

    2017-03-01

    To assess whether the early light deprivation induced by congenital cataract may influence the cone-driven retinal function in humans. Forty-one patients affected by congenital cataract (CC) who had undergone uncomplicated cataract extraction surgery and intraocular lens implant, and 14 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological and orthoptic evaluations and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement; light-adapted full-field electroretinograms (ERG) and photopic negative responses (PhNR) were recorded to obtain a reliable measurement of the outer/inner retinal function and of the retinal ganglion cells' function respectively. Mean values of light-adapted ERG a- and b-wave and PhNR amplitude of CC eyes were significantly reduced and photopic ERG b-wave implicit time mean values were significantly delayed when compared to HS ones. When studying photopic ERG mean amplitudes at 5 ms, significant differences were found when comparing CC and control eyes. In CC eyes, statistically significant correlations were found between a- and b- wave amplitudes and PhNR amplitudes. No significant correlations were found between ERG parameters and BCVA, as well as between the age of CC patients at surgery and the time elapsed from lens extraction. No significant differences were found when functional parameters of bilateral and unilateral congenital cataract (uCC) eyes were compared, however uCC eyes showed significant differences when compared with contralateral healthy eyes. We found a significant impairment of cone-driven retinal responses in patients with a history of congenital cataract. These changes might result from the long-lasting effects of early light deprivation on the cone retinal pathways. Our findings support the relevance of retinal involvement in deficits induced by early light deprivation. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, from shallow to mesophotic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Wong, Kevin H.; Becker, Danielle M.; Glennon, Keegan; de Putron, Samantha J.

    2018-06-01

    Early life history traits of brooding corals are often affected by the environmental conditions experienced by parental colonies. Such parental effects can impact offspring survival, which influences the overall success of a population as well as resilience to environmental challenges. This study examines the reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral Porites astreoides across a depth gradient in Bermuda. Fecundity, larval size, larval Symbiodinium density, and settlement success, as well as post-metamorphic juvenile survival, growth, and Symbiodinium density were compared across three reef sites representing an inshore patch reef (2-5 m), an offshore rim reef (8-10 m), and an upper-mesophotic reef (30-33 m). Although fecundity did not differ across sites, larvae produced by colonies on the patch reef site were smaller, had lower Symbiodinium densities, and had lower rates of settlement and juvenile survival compared to larvae from colonies on the rim and upper-mesophotic reef sites. Larvae produced by colonies from the rim and upper-mesophotic sites did not differ in size or Symbiodinium densities; however, rates of settlement, growth, and survival were higher for larvae from the upper-mesophotic site compared to those from the rim reef site. These results indicate that offspring quality and success vary among sites with differing environmental conditions and may imply higher recruitment potential and resilience for upper-mesophotic corals.

  12. A Qualitative Application of the Belsky Model to Explore Early Care and Education Teachers' Mealtime History, Beliefs, and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Taren M; Patterson, Zachary; Boden, Carrie J

    Studies on factors associated with nutrition practices in early care and education settings often focus on sociodemographic and programmatic characteristics. This qualitative study adapted and applied Belsky's determinants of parenting model to inform a broader exploration of Early Care and Education Teachers (ECETs) practices. Qualitative cross-sectional study with ECETs. The researchers interviewed ECETs in their communities across a Southern state. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit ECETs (n = 28) from Head Start or state-funded centers serving low-income families. Developmental histories of ECETs regarding food and nutrition, beliefs about child nutrition, and teaching interactions related to food. Qualitative interviews were coded using a deductive content analysis approach. Three distinct interrelationships were observed across the themes. First, rules and routines regarding food and mealtime in the educators' childhood often aligned with educator beliefs and behaviors at meals in their classroom. Second, some ECETs described motivations to leave a healthy food legacy for children in their class. Finally, an experience of food insecurity appeared in narratives that also emphasized making sure children got enough through various strategies. The influence of ECET developmental histories and their related beliefs can be addressed through professional development and ongoing support. Future study should quantify model constructs in a larger sample and study their relationships over time. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influences of spawning timing, water temperature, and climatic warming on early life history phenology in western Alaska sockeye salmon

    Sparks, Morgan M.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Bartz, Krista K.; Young, Daniel B.; Westley, Peter A. H.

    2018-01-01

    We applied an empirical model to predict hatching and emergence timing for 25 western Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in four lake-nursery systems to explore current patterns and potential responses of early life history phenology to warming water temperatures. Given experienced temperature regimes during development, we predicted hatching to occur in as few as 58 d to as many as 260 d depending on spawning timing and temperature. For a focal lake spawning population, our climate-lake temperature model predicted a water temperature increase of 0.7 to 1.4 °C from 2015 to 2099 during the incubation period, which translated to a 16 d to 30 d earlier hatching timing. The most extreme scenarios of warming advanced development by approximately a week earlier than historical minima and thus climatic warming may lead to only modest shifts in phenology during the early life history stage of this population. The marked variation in the predicted timing of hatching and emergence among populations in close proximity on the landscape may serve to buffer this metapopulation from climate change.

  14. Impact of human population history on distributions of individual-level genetic distance

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Summaries of human genomic variation shed light on human evolution and provide a framework for biomedical research. Variation is often summarised in terms of one or a few statistics (eg FST and gene diversity). Now that multilocus genotypes for hundreds of autosomal loci are available for thousands of individuals, new approaches are applicable. Recently, trees of individuals and other clustering approaches have demonstrated the power of an individual-focused analysis. We propose analysing the distributions of genetic distances between individuals. Each distribution, or common ancestry profile (CAP), is unique to an individual, and does not require a priori assignment of individuals to populations. Here, we consider a range of models of population history and, using coalescent simulation, reveal the potential insights gained from a set of CAPs. Information lies in the shapes of individual profiles -- sometimes captured by variance of individual CAPs -- and the variation across profiles. Analysis of short tandem repeat genotype data for over 1,000 individuals from 52 populations is consistent with dramatic differences in population histories across human groups. PMID:15814064

  15. Accounting for measurement error in human life history trade-offs using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Helle, Samuli

    2018-03-01

    Revealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct. As a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. In humans, lifetime energetic resources allocated in reproduction are almost impossible to quantify with precision and, thus, typically used measures of lifetime reproductive effort (e.g., lifetime reproductive success and parity) are likely to be plagued by measurement error. These results are contrasted with those obtained from a traditional regression approach where the single best proxy of lifetime reproductive effort available in the data is used for inference. As expected, the inability to account for measurement error in women's lifetime reproductive effort resulted in the underestimation of its underlying effect size on post-reproductive survival. This article emphasizes the advantages that the SEM framework can provide in handling measurement error via multiple-indicator latent variables in human life history studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Van Broeck, J; Taminiau, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-08-01

    Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, R; Edwards, C J; Alt, K W; Burger, J; Bradley, D G

    2006-03-22

    We present an extensive ancient DNA analysis of mainly Neolithic cattle bones sampled from archaeological sites along the route of Neolithic expansion, from Turkey to North-Central Europe and Britain. We place this first reasonable population sample of Neolithic cattle mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in context to illustrate the continuity of haplotype variation patterns from the first European domestic cattle to the present. Interestingly, the dominant Central European pattern, a starburst phylogeny around the modal sequence, T3, has a Neolithic origin, and the reduced diversity within this cluster in the ancient samples accords with their shorter history of post-domestic accumulation of mutation.

  18. Gathering the forgotten voices: An oral history of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's early years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, M. B.; Bryson, L.

    2008-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were the progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6-m telescopes in the world and one that remains at the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  19. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  20. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  1. Technological and organizational diversity and technical advance in the early history of the American semiconductor industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W.; Holbrook, D.; Klepper, S.

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the early years of the semiconductor industry and focuses on the roles played by different size firms in technologically innovative processes. A large and diverse pool of firms participated in the growth of the industry. Three related technological areas were chosen for in-depth analysis: integrated circuits, materials technology, and device packaging. Large business producing vacuum tubes dominated the early production of semiconductor devices. As the market for new devices grew during the 1950's, new firms were founded and existing firms from other industries, e.g. aircraft builders and instrument makers, began to pursue semiconductor electronics. Small firms began to cater to the emerging industry by supplying materials and equipment. These firms contributed to the development of certain aspects of one thousand firms that were playing some part in the semiconductor industry.

  2. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-02

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  3. The role of impacts in the history of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Bevan M.

    1991-01-01

    The significant conclusions of a conference called 'Meteorite Impact and the Early Earth' are reported including data which support the notion that extraterrestrial impacts greatly influenced the development of the earth. The cratering of other planetary surfaces is discussed, and the energy added by meteorite impacts is characterized. The primary effects of large impacts are set forth in terms of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological considerations which suggest that the ramifications would have been significant. Contentious issues include the variation of impact rate with time in the early universe, the interpretation of the record of intense bombardment in the lunar highlands, and the effects related to alternative scenarios. Directions of future study are mentioned including the identification of terrestrial impact structures, conducting searches in the Archean, and assessing ancient impact rates.

  4. Clues in the rare gas isotopes to early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the radioactive dating and the discovery of gas-rich meteorites on the Moon surface are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the extinct radioactivity iodine-129. This radioactivity is produced by r-process of nucleosynthesis and it decays with a half-life of 17 m.y. It provides a clock sensitive to small changes in the early years of the solar system.

  5. [The art cabinet and its current significance. Museum establishment of natural history in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Felfe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.

  6. The Oldest Actinopterygian Highlights the Cryptic Early History of the Hyperdiverse Ray-Finned Fishes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Giles, Sam; Friedman, Matt; den Blaauwen, Jan L; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-20

    Osteichthyans comprise two divisions, each containing over 32,000 living species [1]: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). Recent discoveries from China highlight the morphological disparity of early sarcopterygians and extend their origin into the late Silurian [2-4]. By contrast, the oldest unambiguous actinopterygians are roughly 30 million years younger, leaving a long temporal gap populated by fragments and rare body fossils of controversial phylogenetic placement [5-10]. Here we reinvestigate the enigmatic osteichthyan Meemannia from the Early Devonian (∼415 million years ago) of China, previously identified as an exceptionally primitive lobe-finned fish [3, 7, 11, 12]. Meemannia combines "cosmine"-like tissues taken as evidence of sarcopterygian affinity with actinopterygian-like skull roof and braincase geometry, including endoskeletal enclosure of the spiracle and a lateral cranial canal. We report comparable histological structures in undoubted ray-finned fishes and conclude that they are general osteichthyan features. Phylogenetic analysis places Meemannia as an early-diverging ray-finned fish, resolving it as the sister lineage of Cheirolepis [13] plus all younger actinopterygians. This brings the first appearance of ray-fins more in line with that of lobe-fins and fills a conspicuous faunal gap in the otherwise diverse late Silurian-earliest Devonian vertebrate faunas of the South China Block [4]. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Cystic fibrosis identified by neonatal screening: incidence, genotype, and early natural history.

    PubMed

    Green, M R; Weaver, L T; Heeley, A F; Nicholson, K; Kuzemko, J A; Barton, D E; McMahon, R; Payne, S J; Austin, S; Yates, J R

    1993-04-01

    The incidence of cystic fibrosis over the last 10 years in East Anglia (a region of the United Kingdom with a population of 2.1 million) has halved. This has happened during the establishment of a neonatal screening programme, which has enabled early diagnosis, genetic counselling, and lately the option of prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies. One hundred and seven children were born with cystic fibrosis between 1981 and 1990, eight of whom were siblings. The Guthrie blood spots of 82 infants detected by neonatal immunoreactive trypsin screening between 1981 and 1990 were examined for the presence of the most common cystic fibrosis gene mutation (delta F508). It was present in 135 (82%) of the 164 cystic fibrosis genes analysed with 54 (66%) cases being homozygous and 27 (33%) heterozygous. Sixty nine per cent of infants were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis regardless of genotype. No association was found between the early clinical or biochemical features of the disease and homozygosity or heterozygosity for this mutation. Screening for cystic fibrosis using the blood immunoreactive trypsin assay alone remains an effective method of identifying infants with the disease soon after birth, thereby allowing early therapeutic intervention. Genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis have contributed to a reduction in the number of children born with cystic fibrosis, but may not entirely explain the decreasing incidence of the disease.

  8. A personal history of the human exploration initiative with commentary on the pivotal role for life support research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    1990-01-01

    The author relates the history of the human exploration initiative from a personal perspective from the 1961 J. F. Kennedy initiative to land a man on the moon up to 1986 when a memo was circulated from NASA Headquarters to its employees which stated as a major goal the expansion of the human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. The pivotal role of life support research is woven into this personalized history.

  9. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  10. Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity NIH rare disease consortium: A review of natural history study.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Kimonis, Virginia; Dykens, Elisabeth; Gold, June A; Miller, Jennifer; Tamura, Roy; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    We describe the National Institutes of Health rare disease consortium for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) developed to address concerns regarding medical care, diagnosis, growth and development, awareness, and natural history. PWS results from errors in genomic imprinting leading to loss of paternally expressed genes due to 15q11-q13 deletion, maternal disomy 15 or imprinting defects. The 8 year study was conducted at four national sites on individuals with genetically confirmed PWS and early-onset morbid obesity (EMO) with data accumulated to gain a better understanding of the natural history, cause and treatment of PWS. Enrollment of 355 subjects with PWS and 36 subjects with EMO began in September 2006 with study completion in July 2014. Clinical, genetic, cognitive, behavior, and natural history data were systematically collected along with PWS genetic subtypes, pregnancy and birth history, mortality, obesity, and cognitive status with study details as important endpoints in both subject groups. Of the 355 individuals with PWS, 217 (61%) had the 15q11-q13 deletion, 127 (36%) had maternal disomy 15, and 11 (3%) had imprinting defects. Six deaths were reported in our PWS cohort with 598 cumulative years of study exposure and one death in the EMO group with 42 years of exposure. To our knowledge, this description of a longitudinal study in PWS represents the largest and most comprehensive cohort useful for investigators in planning comparable studies in other rare disorders. Ongoing studies utilizing this database should have a direct impact on care and services, diagnosis, treatment, genotype-phenotype correlations, and clinical outcomes in PWS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Kashuba, Natalija; Yaka, Reyhan; Sümer, Arev Pelin; Yüncü, Eren; Shergin, Dmitrij; Ivanov, Grigorij Leonidovich; Kichigin, Dmitrii; Pestereva, Kjunnej; Volkov, Denis; Mandryka, Pavel; Kharinskii, Artur; Tishkin, Alexey; Ineshin, Evgenij; Kovychev, Evgeniy; Stepanov, Aleksandr; Alekseev, Aanatolij; Fedoseeva, Svetlana Aleksandrovna; Somel, Mehmet; Jakobsson, Mattias; Krzewińska, Maja; Storå, Jan; Götherström, Anders

    2018-06-12

    Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c.13,790 BP and c.1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region. We observed a decrease in genetic diversity over time and a reduction of maternal effective population size (N e ) approximately seven thousand years before present. Coalescent simulations were consistent with genetic continuity between present day individuals and individuals dating to 7,000 BP, 4,800 BP or 3,000 BP. Meanwhile, genetic differences observed between 7,000 BP and 3,000 BP as well as between 4,800 BP and 3,000 BP were inconsistent with genetic drift alone, suggesting gene flow into the region from distant gene pools or structure within the population. These results indicate that despite some level of continuity between ancient groups and present-day populations, the region exhibits a complex demographic history during the Holocene.

  12. The thermal history of human fossils and the likelihood of successful DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin I; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Riley, Michael S; Stringer, Chris; Collins, Matthew J

    2003-09-01

    Recent success in the amplification of ancient DNA (aDNA) from fossil humans has led to calls for further tests to be carried out on similar material. However, there has been little systematic research on the survival of DNA in the fossil record, even though the environment of the fossil is known to be of paramount importance for the survival of biomolecules over archaeological and geological timescales. A better understanding of aDNA survival would enable research to focus on material with greater chances of successful amplification, thus preventing the unnecessary loss of material and valuable researcher time. We argue that the thermal history of a fossil is a key parameter for the survival of biomolecules. The thermal history of a number of northwest European Neanderthal cave sites is reconstructed here and they are ranked in terms of the relative likelihood of aDNA survival at the sites, under the assumption that DNA depurination is the principal mechanism of degradation. The claims of aDNA amplification from material found at Lake Mungo, Australia, are also considered in the light of the thermal history of this site.

  13. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose.

    PubMed

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A

    2018-01-01

    A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  14. From Kratzenstein to Wheatstone: Episodes in the early history of free reed acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, James P.

    2002-05-01

    In 1780 C. G. Kratzenstein published a paper in St. Petersburg describing a machine which produced vowel sounds using free reeds with resonators of various shapes. This marks a convenient, if arbitrary, starting point for the history of the free reed musical instruments of European origin. These instruments developed rapidly, and by 1850 the accordion, concertina, harmonica, reed organ, and harmonium all had been invented and developed into more or less final form. A key figure in this period is Charles Wheatstone, who not only published papers on acoustical research but was also an inventor and commercially successful manufacturer of musical instruments, most notably the Wheatstone English concertina. Much of Wheatstone's research in acoustics and almost all of his work as an inventor of musical instruments involved free reeds. This paper presents some episodes in the development of the free reed instruments and some examples of acoustical research involving free reeds during the 18th and 19th centuries.

  15. Early evolution of the earth - Accretion, atmosphere formation, and thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Matsui, Takafumi

    1986-01-01

    The thermal and atmospheric evolution of the earth growing planetesimal impacts are studied. The generation of an H2O protoatmosphere is examined, and the surface temperatures are estimated. The evolution of an impact-induced H2O atmosphere is analyzed. Consideration is given to the formation time of a 'magma ocean'and internal water budgets. The thermal history of an accreting earth is reviewed. The wet convection and greenhouse effects are discussed, and the role of Fe oxidation on the evolution of an impact-induced H2O atmopshere is described. The relationship between differentiation processes and core segregation, the H2O and FeO content of the mantle, and the origin of the hydrosphere is also examined.

  16. The Legacy of Early Insecurity Histories in Shaping Adolescent Adaptation to Interparental Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study tested whether the mediational pathway involving interparental conflict, adolescent emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems was altered by their earlier childhood histories of insecurity. Participants included 230 families, with the first of the five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade (Mean age = 7 years). Results indicated that interparental conflict was associated with increases in adolescent emotional insecurity which, in turn, predicted subsequent increases in their psychological problems. Childhood insecurity predicted adolescent maladjustment five years later even after considering contemporaneous family experiences. Moderator findings revealed that adolescents with relatively higher levels of insecurity in childhood evidenced disproportionately greater and reduced levels of insecurity in the context of high and low levels of interparental conflict, respectively. PMID:23647368

  17. The star formation history of early-type galaxies as a function of mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, M. S.; Bressan, A.; Nikolic, B.; Alexander, P.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.

    2006-08-01

    Using the third data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we have rigorously defined a volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.005 < z <= 0.1. We have defined the density of the local environment for each galaxy using a method which takes account of the redshift bias introduced by survey boundaries if traditional methods are used. At luminosities greater than our absolute r-band magnitude cut-off of -20.45, the mean density of environment shows no trend with redshift. We calculate the Lick indices for the entire sample and correct for aperture effects and velocity dispersion in a model-independent way. Although we find no dependence of redshift or luminosity on environment, we do find that the mean velocity dispersion, σ, of early-type galaxies in dense environments tends to be higher than in low-density environments. Taking account of this effect, we find that several indices show small but very significant trends with environment that are not the result of the correlation between indices and velocity dispersion. The statistical significance of the data is sufficiently high to reveal that models accounting only for α-enhancement struggle to produce a consistent picture of age and metallicity of the sample galaxies, whereas a model that also includes carbon enhancement fares much better. We find that early-type galaxies in the field are younger than those in environments typical of clusters but that neither metallicity, α-enhancement nor carbon enhancement are influenced by the environment. The youngest early-type galaxies in both field and cluster environments are those with the lowest σ. However, there is some evidence that the objects with the largest σ are slightly younger, especially in denser environments. Independent of environment both the metallicity and α-enhancement grow monotonically with σ. This suggests that the typical length of the star formation episodes which formed the stars of early-type galaxies

  18. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  19. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-10-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  20. Domain Specificity in Relationship History, Social-Information Processing, and Violent Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data, we tested 5 hypotheses: (a) that the relation between earlier developmental experiences (peer social rejection and victimization in a romantic relationship) and adult violent behavior toward peers and romantic partners is specific to relationship domain; (b) that the relation between social-information processing (SIP) biases and subsequent violence is also specific to relational domain (romantic partner vs. peer); (c) that the relation between developmental experiences and SIP biases is domain specific; (d) that domain-specific SIP mediates the impact of earlier developmental experiences on later violent behavior; and (e) that harsh parenting early in life is a domain-general predictor of SIP and later violent behavior. Harsh parenting was assessed through interviews with parents when their children were age 5 years. Classroom sociometric assessments indexing peer rejection were completed in elementary school, and self-report of victimization by romantic partners was provided at age 18 years. SIP was assessed via interview at age 22 years, and violent behavior was measured via self-and partner report at ages 23 years and 24 years. Structural equation analyses revealed specificity in the relation between developmental experiences and violence and in the prediction to and from SIP in the peer domain, but not in the romantic-relationship domain. The impact of early harsh treatment on violence toward peers was mediated by SIP biases in the peer domain. These findings provide support for domain specificity in the peer domain but for cross-domain generality in the romantic relationship domain in the development of violent behavior in early adulthood. PMID:20085394

  1. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.

    2012-12-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809

  2. Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Jay

    2013-01-01

    As the leading proponent of psychoanalysis, Jung made trips to New York in 1912 and 1913. The first was to give his Fordham lectures, the second has escaped notice but was crucial in the early dissemination of Jungian psychology in the U.S. This paper will elaborate on this development by highlighting the career and influence of Beatrice Hinkle, the country’s first Jungian psychoanalyst. She was an M.D. and ardent feminist who introduced Jung to her Greenwich Village circle, translated his magnum opus Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, and helped establish the institutional basis of Jungian psychology in America. PMID:25379251

  3. A history of the founding and early development of the Journal of School Psychology.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Thomas K; Jack, Sabrina L

    2012-12-01

    Historical aspects of the founding and early development of the Journal of School Psychology are discussed. Emphases are placed on the first decade of the journal, the factors in its founding and development, persons who have served as editors and members of the editorial boards and corporate leadership, and the journal's changing formats. The publication's relationships to the Journal of School Psychology, Inc. and later to the Society for the Study of School Psychology are briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lovers, enemies, and friends: The complex and coded early history of lesbian comic strip characters.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Caitlin

    2018-05-31

    This article seeks to recuperate four previously unexamined early newspaper comic strip characters that could lay the groundwork for queer comic studies. The titular characters in Lucy and Sophie Say Goodbye (1905), Sanjak in Terry and the Pirates (1939) by Milton Caniff, and Hank O'Hair in Brenda Starr, Reporter (1940) by Dale Messick are analyzed through close readings, supporting archival material, and interviews. The article also theorizes the identification of the creator of Lucy and Sophie Say Goodbye as George O. Frink, and offers an overview of LGBTQ comics holdings at institutions in North America.

  5. The early universe history from contraction-deformation of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The elementary particles evolution in the early Universe from Plank time up to several milliseconds is presented. The developed theory is based on the high-temperature (high-energy) limit of the Standard Model which is generated by the contractions of its gauge groups. At the infinite temperature all particles lose masses. Only massless neutral -bosons, massless Z-quarks, neutrinos and photons are survived in this limit. The weak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents, quarks have only one color degree of freedom.

  6. Reading skills in young adolescents with a history of Specific Language Impairment: The role of early semantic capacity.

    PubMed

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reading skills of 19 Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched control children. Children with SLI have difficulties with oral language comprehension, which may affect later reading acquisition. We conducted a longitudinal study examining reading acquisition in these children between 8 and 12 years old and we relate this data with early oral language acquisition at 6 years old. Compared to the control group, the SLI group presented impaired decoding and comprehension skills at age 8, as evidenced by poor scores in all the assessed tasks. Nevertheless, only text comprehension abilities appeared to be impaired at age 12. Individual analyses confirmed the presence of comprehension deficits in most of the SLI children. Furthermore, early semantic verbal fluency at age 6 appeared to significantly predict the reading comprehension capacity of SLI participants at age 12. Our results emphasize the importance of semantic capacity at early stages of oral language development over the consolidation of reading acquisition at later stages. Readers will recognize the relevance of prior oral language impairment, especially semantic capacity, in children with a history of SLI as a risk factor for the development of later reading difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. At the feet of the dinosaurs: the early history and radiation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Evans, Susan E

    2003-11-01

    Lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians together constitute the Squamata, the largest and most diverse group of living reptiles. Despite their current success, the early squamate fossil record is extremely patchy. The last major survey of squamate palaeontology and evolution was published 20 years ago. Since then, there have been major changes in systematic theory and methodology, as well as a steady trickle of new fossil finds. This review examines our current understanding of the first 150 million years of squamate evolution in the light of the new data and changing ideas. Contrary to previous reports, no squamate fossils are currently documented before the Jurassic. Nonetheless, indirect evidence predicts that squamates had evolved by at least the middle Triassic, and had diversified into existing major lineages before the end of this period. There is thus a major gap in the squamate record at a time when key morphological features were evolving. With the exception of fragmentary remains from Africa and India, Jurassic squamates are known only from localities in northern continents (Laurasia). The situation improves in the Early Cretaceous, but the southern (Gondwanan) record remains extremely poor. This constrains palaeobiogeographic discussion and makes it difficult to predict centres of origin for major squamate clades on the basis of fossil evidence alone. Preliminary mapping of morphological characters onto a consensus tree demonstrates stages in the sequence of acquisition for some characters of the skull and postcranial skeleton, but many crucial stages--most notably those relating to the acquisition of squamate skull kinesis--remain unclear.

  8. [Cotyla quid? On the early history of late medieval medical volume calculations].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    As can be made evident chiefly by their comparative numerical examination, the Egyptian pyramids (the step pyramids being excluded for the present purpose) have been, from the beginning up to the Egyptian fashion in early Imperial Rome, designed and built with the additional intention of physically manifesting a volume of pi x 10k x (average value) 0.96824 cm3, where k is either a positive integer or zero, and where pi is a short product, following very restrictive formation rules which to some extent are traceable in the papyrus Rhind, of prime numbers. Conceptually (but not really as to the Hin at least) this establishes the capacity units 1 [2]Heqat = 9682.4 cm3 and 1 Hin = 484.12 cm3 already for the Old Kingdom. It is shown further that the Attic Medimnos as introduced in the course of finishing Solon's reforms is identical with the Egyptian volume system's standard unification: pisigma = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 23, and k = 0, so that 1 Medimnos = about 51443 cm3. Accordingly and by means of some adjacent considerations a Kotyle / Cotyla of 269 cm3 +/- 1 cm3 is established for the Hellenistic, early Arabic, and Medieval Latin medicine.

  9. [Cognitive functions of school children with normal IQ and histories of severe and early malnutrition].

    PubMed

    Perales, C G; Heresi, E; Pizarro, F; Colombo, M

    1996-12-01

    This is a cross section study designed to evaluate the long lasting consequences of early and severe undernutrition on the development of basic cognitive functions. Attention, memory and problem-solving capacity were assessed in a group of 16 school children, who were severely undernourished during the first two years of age. They were compared with a group of 16 children with a normal growth. All subjects, age 8 to 10, had a normal intellectual coefficient and they belonged to the me same socioeconomical level. Memory was measured with a modified version of subtest of digits from WISC; attention was evaluated with a modified version of the Continuous Performance Task and problem-solving was measured with the Anstey Domino Test. A personal computer was used to assess the cognitive functions. The children who were undernourished during infancy presented lower scores in memory (number of the digits) and in problems solving (number of correct answers). They also had a worse performance than the control group in the same response time, when attention was evaluated. These results suggest that early severe undernutrition had deletereous effects on basic cognitive functions.

  10. Revisiting Einstein's Happiest Thought: On Ernst Mach and the Early History of Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Richard

    2016-03-01

    This paper argues we should distinguish three phases in the formation of relativity. The first involved relational approaches to perception, and physiological and geometrical space and time in the 1860s and 70s. The second concerned electrodynamics and mechanics (special relativity). The third concerned mechanics, gravitation, and physical and geometrical space and time. Mach's early work on the Doppler effect, together with studies of visual and motor perception linked physiology, physics and psychology, and offered new approaches to physiological space and time. These informed the critical conceptual attacks on Newtonian absolutes that Mach famously outlined in The Science of Mechanics. Subsequently Mach identified a growing group of ``relativists,'' and his critiques helped form a foundation for later work in electrodynamics (in which he did not participate). Revisiting Mach's early work will suggest he was still more important to the development of new approaches to inertia and gravitation than has been commonly appreciated. In addition to what Einstein later called ``Mach's principle,'' I will argue that a thought experiment on falling bodies in Mach's Science of Mechanics also provided a point of inspiration for the happy thought that led Einstein to the equivalence principle.

  11. A history of fish immunology and vaccination I. The early days.

    PubMed

    Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

    2008-10-01

    This historic review describes the people that were involved in studying some aspect of fish immunology and vaccination from as early as 1854. Between 1850 and 1940, most scientists were looking at fish from the angle of comparative anatomy, embryology, physiology, taxonomy and fish diseases. Most publications from this early period are describing the morphology of blood cells and hemopoietic or lymphoid organs. The first publications on specific immune responses and vaccination of fish were found in the period 1935-1938. However, the immune mechanisms behind protective immunization were largely unknown in those days. In the period after 1940, the first researchers can be found devoting their whole career to fish immunology. This paper has been organized largely by individuals and not so much by accomplishments. It is not the intent of this review to evaluate the scientific merit of the work discussed, but to provide the reader with information that was - at least in part - lost to the scientific community. Publications from before 1940 or in languages other than English (e.g. Russian) are usually not found by today's database searches on the Internet.

  12. On the early history of field emission including attempts of tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, C.

    1993-04-01

    Field emission is certainly one of the oldest surface science techniques, its roots reaching back about 250 years to the time of enlightenment. An account of very early studies and of later work is given but mostly restricted to Leipzig and to pre-Müllerian investigations. Studies of field emission from metal tips were carried out in the 18th century by Johann Heinrich Winkler who used vacuum pumps built by Jacob Leupold, a famous Leipzig mechanic. A short account of the career of Winkler will be given and his field emission experiments are illustrated. Field emission was investigated again in Leipzig much later by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld who worked on the improvement of X-ray tubes. He coined the terms ‘autoelektronische Entladung’ of ‘Äona-Effekt’ in 1922, and developed degassing procedures which are very similar to modern ultra-high vacuum processing. A pre-quantum mechanical explanation of the field emission phenomena was undertaken by Walter Schottky. Cunradi (1926) tried to measure temperature changes during field emission. Franz Rother, in a thesis (1914) suggested by Otto Wiener, dealt with the distance dependence of currents in vacuum between electrodes down to 20 nm. His habilitation in 1926 was an extension of his early work but now with field emission tips as a cathode. We might look at his measurements of the field emission characteristics in dependence on distance as a precursor to modern tunneling spectroscopy as well.

  13. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  14. Discriminating signal from noise in the fossil record of early vertebrates reveals cryptic evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Robert S.; Randle, Emma; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of early vertebrates has been influential in elucidating the evolutionary assembly of the gnathostome bodyplan. Understanding of the timing and tempo of vertebrate innovations remains, however, mired in a literal reading of the fossil record. Early jawless vertebrates (ostracoderms) exhibit restriction to shallow-water environments. The distribution of their stratigraphic occurrences therefore reflects not only flux in diversity, but also secular variation in facies representation of the rock record. Using stratigraphic, phylogenetic and palaeoenvironmental data, we assessed the veracity of the fossil records of the jawless relatives of jawed vertebrates (Osteostraci, Galeaspida, Thelodonti, Heterostraci). Non-random models of fossil recovery potential using Palaeozoic sea-level changes were used to calculate confidence intervals of clade origins. These intervals extend the timescale for possible origins into the Upper Ordovician; these estimates ameliorate the long ghost lineages inferred for Osteostraci, Galeaspida and Heterostraci, given their known stratigraphic occurrences and stem–gnathostome phylogeny. Diversity changes through the Silurian and Devonian were found to lie within the expected limits predicted from estimates of fossil record quality indicating that it is geological, rather than biological factors, that are responsible for shifts in diversity. Environmental restriction also appears to belie ostracoderm extinction and demise rather than competition with jawed vertebrates. PMID:25520359

  15. Molecular Evolution of Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Proteins in the Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Andam, Cheryl P.; Alm, Eric J.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) consist of several families of functionally conserved proteins essential for translation and protein synthesis. Like nearly all components of the translation machinery, most aaRS families are universally distributed across cellular life, being inherited from the time of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). However, unlike the rest of the translation machinery, aaRS have undergone numerous ancient horizontal gene transfers, with several independent events detected between domains, and some possibly involving lineages diverging before the time of LUCA. These transfers reveal the complexity of molecular evolution at this early time, and the chimeric nature of genomes within cells that gave rise to the major domains. Additionally, given the role of these protein families in defining the amino acids used for protein synthesis, sequence reconstruction of their pre-LUCA ancestors can reveal the evolutionary processes at work in the origin of the genetic code. In particular, sequence reconstructions of the paralog ancestors of isoleucyl- and valyl- RS provide strong empirical evidence that at least for this divergence, the genetic code did not co-evolve with the aaRSs; rather, both amino acids were already part of the genetic code before their cognate aaRSs diverged from their common ancestor. The implications of this observation for the early evolution of RNA-directed protein biosynthesis are discussed.

  16. A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Chet C; Subiaul, Francys; Zawidzki, Tadeusz W

    2008-01-01

    Since the last common ancestor shared by modern humans, chimpanzees and bonobos, the lineage leading to Homo sapiens has undergone a substantial change in brain size and organization. As a result, modern humans display striking differences from the living apes in the realm of cognition and linguistic expression. In this article, we review the evolutionary changes that occurred in the descent of Homo sapiens by reconstructing the neural and cognitive traits that would have characterized the last common ancestor and comparing these with the modern human condition. The last common ancestor can be reconstructed to have had a brain of approximately 300–400 g that displayed several unique phylogenetic specializations of development, anatomical organization, and biochemical function. These neuroanatomical substrates contributed to the enhancement of behavioral flexibility and social cognition. With this evolutionary history as precursor, the modern human mind may be conceived as a mosaic of traits inherited from a common ancestry with our close relatives, along with the addition of evolutionary specializations within particular domains. These modern human-specific cognitive and linguistic adaptations appear to be correlated with enlargement of the neocortex and related structures. Accompanying this general neocortical expansion, certain higher-order unimodal and multimodal cortical areas have grown disproportionately relative to primary cortical areas. Anatomical and molecular changes have also been identified that might relate to the greater metabolic demand and enhanced synaptic plasticity of modern human brain's. Finally, the unique brain growth trajectory of modern humans has made a significant contribution to our species’ cognitive and linguistic abilities. PMID:18380864

  17. Re-evaluating the Glacial Vegetation of the Southern Levant and Early Signs of Human Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, A.; Chen, C.; Litt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing paleoenvironmental conditions is crucial to understand the history of modern humans. The southern Levant functioned as a corridor for human migration processes such as the colonization of Europe and the spread of agriculture. Despite its important role in human history, the Levantine paleoenvironment is still insufficiently investigated. In particular, current reconstructions of the paleovegetation are grounded on poor data bases. Here, we revise former hypotheses about the paleovegetation of the southern Levant during the last glacial based on new palynological results from the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. We further evaluate early signs of anthropogenic influences in the Dead Sea catchment by combining evidence of pollen, micro-charcoal, and spores. The palynological results suggest that drought-adapted herbs, dwarf shrubs, and grasses prevailed in the southern Levant during the last glacial. In contrast to the Holocene, there was no belt of continuous and dense Mediterranean vegetation surrounding the Sea of Galilee during MIS 2. Mediterranean elements such as deciduous oaks only occurred in limited amounts and were probably patchily distributed in the whole study area. The vegetation and moisture gradient was not as strong as today. Since the Lateglacial, the Dead Sea region witnessed several rapid environmental changes. Phases with considerably reduced woodland density, increased fire activity, and enhanced catchment erosion occurred. Although climatic triggers were possible, there is a strong indication of anthropogenic influences due to overall increasing human activities in the region. The study gains new insights into environmental responses of the southern Levant to climate variations in the past. It also contributes towards our understanding of human-environmental interactions during the early Holocene.

  18. Statistical inference on genetic data reveals the complex demographic history of human populations in central Asia.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Friso P; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    The demographic history of modern humans constitutes a combination of expansions, colonizations, contractions, and remigrations. The advent of large scale genetic data combined with statistically refined methods facilitates inference of this complex history. Here we study the demographic history of two genetically admixed ethnic groups in Central Asia, an area characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and a history of recurrent immigration. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation, we infer that the timing of admixture markedly differs between the two groups. Admixture in the traditionally agricultural Tajiks could be dated back to the onset of the Neolithic transition in the region, whereas admixture in Kyrgyz is more recent, and may have involved the westward movement of Turkic peoples. These results are confirmed by a coalescent method that fits an isolation-with-migration model to the genetic data, with both Central Asian groups having received gene flow from the extremities of Eurasia. Interestingly, our analyses also uncover signatures of gene flow from Eastern to Western Eurasia during Paleolithic times. In conclusion, the high genetic diversity currently observed in these two Central Asian peoples most likely reflects the effects of recurrent immigration that likely started before historical times. Conversely, conquests during historical times may have had a relatively limited genetic impact. These results emphasize the need for a better understanding of the genetic consequences of transmission of culture and technological innovations, as well as those of invasions and conquests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ≈4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins. PMID:10377462

  20. Human bony labyrinth is an indicator of population history and dispersal from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Koesbardiati, Toetik; Weissmann, John David; Milella, Marco; Reyna-Blanco, Carlos S.; Suwa, Gen; Kondo, Osamu; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Tim D.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.

    2018-01-01

    The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history. The cavity system of the inner ear (the so-called bony labyrinth) is a good candidate structure for such analyses. It is already fully formed by birth, which minimizes postnatal phenotypic plasticity, and it is generally well preserved in archaeological samples. Here we use morphometric data of the bony labyrinth to show that it is a surprisingly good marker of the global dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Labyrinthine morphology tracks genetic distances and geography in accordance with an isolation-by-distance model with dispersal from Africa. Our data further indicate that the neutral-like pattern of variation is compatible with stabilizing selection on labyrinth morphology. Given the increasingly important role of the petrous bone for ancient DNA recovery from archaeological specimens, we encourage researchers to acquire 3D morphological data of the inner ear structures before any invasive sampling. Such data will constitute an important archive of phenotypic variation in present and past populations, and will permit individual-based genotype–phenotype comparisons. PMID:29610337

  1. The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This review has three main aims: (1) to make specific predictions about the habitat of the hypothetical last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo–human clade; (2) to outline the major trends in environments between 8–6 Ma and the late Pleistocene; and (3) to pinpoint when, and in some cases where, human ancestors evolved to cope with the wide range of habitats they presently tolerate. Several lines of evidence indicate that arboreal environments, particularly woodlands, were important habitats for late Miocene hominids and hominins, and therefore possibly for the last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo–human clade. However, as there is no clear candidate for this last common ancestor, and because the sampling of fossils and past environments is inevitably patchy, this prediction remains a working hypothesis at best. Nonetheless, as a primate, it is expected that the last common ancestor was ecologically dependent on trees in some form. Understanding past environments is important, as palaeoenvironmental reconstructions provide the context for human morphological and behavioural evolution. Indeed, the impact of climate on the evolutionary history of our species has long been debated. Since the mid-Miocene, the Earth has been experiencing a general cooling trend accompanied by aridification, which intensified during the later Pliocene and Pleistocene. Numerous climatic fluctuations, as well as local, regional and continental geography that influenced weather patterns and vegetation, created hominin environments that were dynamic in space and time. Behavioural flexibility and cultural complexity were crucial aspects of hominin expansion into diverse environments during the Pleistocene, but the ability to exploit varied and varying habitats was established much earlier in human evolutionary history. The development of increasingly complex tool technology facilitated re-expansion into tropical forests. These environments are difficult for obligate bipeds

  2. The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Elton, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    This review has three main aims: (1) to make specific predictions about the habitat of the hypothetical last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo-human clade; (2) to outline the major trends in environments between 8-6 Ma and the late Pleistocene; and (3) to pinpoint when, and in some cases where, human ancestors evolved to cope with the wide range of habitats they presently tolerate. Several lines of evidence indicate that arboreal environments, particularly woodlands, were important habitats for late Miocene hominids and hominins, and therefore possibly for the last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo-human clade. However, as there is no clear candidate for this last common ancestor, and because the sampling of fossils and past environments is inevitably patchy, this prediction remains a working hypothesis at best. Nonetheless, as a primate, it is expected that the last common ancestor was ecologically dependent on trees in some form. Understanding past environments is important, as palaeoenvironmental reconstructions provide the context for human morphological and behavioural evolution. Indeed, the impact of climate on the evolutionary history of our species has long been debated. Since the mid-Miocene, the Earth has been experiencing a general cooling trend accompanied by aridification, which intensified during the later Pliocene and Pleistocene. Numerous climatic fluctuations, as well as local, regional and continental geography that influenced weather patterns and vegetation, created hominin environments that were dynamic in space and time. Behavioural flexibility and cultural complexity were crucial aspects of hominin expansion into diverse environments during the Pleistocene, but the ability to exploit varied and varying habitats was established much earlier in human evolutionary history. The development of increasingly complex tool technology facilitated re-expansion into tropical forests. These environments are difficult for obligate bipeds to

  3. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.

  4. Supermassive blackhole growth and the supernovae history in high-z early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    A large variety of feedback models, supported by many galaxy surveys, tentatively relate AGN to star formation by stimulation or quenching. However any accretion process from variable AGNs has never been observed to be turned on or off by star formation. We propose to follow the supernovae explosions through the star formation laws of early-type galaxies with the help of the galaxy evolution model Pégase.3. Applied to the continuous Spectral Energy Distribution, including Herschel data of two z=3.8 radio galaxies (4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316), the comparison with Supermassive BlackHole masses from SDSS opens a new interpretation of the AGN-starburst relation without any need of feedback (Rocca-Volmerange et al, 2015, 2013)

  5. Eruptive history of the Karoo lava flows and their impact on early Jurassic environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.; Marsh, J.; Delpech, G.; Quidelleur, X.; Gérard, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from a 1500 m thick composite section belonging to the Drakensberg group, the thickest remnant of the Karoo lavas in Northern Lesotho. Flow-by-flow analysis of paleomagnetic directions reveals 21 magnetic directional groups, corresponding to single eruptive events, and 16 individual lava flows. The new age determinations of lava flows range from 180.1 ± 1.4 to 182.8 ± 2.6 Ma. These data, combined with previous results, allow us to propose that the main part of the Drakensberg group and the Karoo intrusive complex dated around 181-183 Ma may have been erupted over a period as short as 250 kyr and may have coincided with the two main phases of extinction in the Early Toarcian. This scenario agrees well with the discontinuous rhythm of environmental and biotic perturbations in the Late Pliensbachian-Toarcian interval.

  6. The insertional history of an active family of L1 retrotransposons in humans.

    PubMed

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Entezam, Ali; Young, Lynn; Munson, Peter J; Furano, Anthony V

    2004-07-01

    As humans contain a currently active L1 (LINE-1) non-LTR retrotransposon family (Ta-1), the human genome database likely provides only a partial picture of Ta-1-generated diversity. We used a non-biased method to clone Ta-1 retrotransposon-containing loci from representatives of four ethnic populations. We obtained 277 distinct Ta-1 loci and identified an additional 67 loci in the human genome database. This collection represents approximately 90% of the Ta-1 population in the individuals examined and is thus more representative of the insertional history of Ta-1 than the human genome database, which lacked approximately 40% of our cloned Ta-1 elements. As both polymorphic and fixed Ta-1 elements are as abundant in the GC-poor genomic regions as in ancestral L1 elements, the enrichment of L1 elements in GC-poor areas is likely due to insertional bias rather than selection. Although the chromosomal distribution of Ta-1 inserts is generally a function of chromosomal length and gene density, chromosome 4 significantly deviates from this pattern and has been much more hospitable to Ta-1 insertions than any other chromosome. Also, the intra-chromosomal distribution of Ta-1 elements is not uniform. Ta-1 elements tend to cluster, and the maximal gaps between Ta-1 inserts are larger than would be expected from a model of uniform random insertion. Copyright 2004 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ISSN

  7. Diversity in tooth eruption and life history in humans: illustration from a Pygmy population

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Life history variables (LHV) in primates are closely correlated with the ages of tooth eruption, which are a useful proxy to predict growth and development in extant and extinct species. However, it is not known how tooth eruption ages interact with LHV in polymorphic species such as modern humans. African pygmies are at the one extreme in the range of human size variation. LHV in the Baka pygmies are similar to those in standard populations. We would therefore expect tooth eruption ages to be similar also. This mixed (longitudinal and cross-sectional) study of tooth eruption in Baka individuals of known age reveals that eruption in all tooth classes occurs earlier than in any other human population. Earlier tooth eruption can be related to the particular somatic growth in the Baka but cannot be correlated with LHV. The link between LHV and tooth eruption seems disrupted in H. sapiens, allowing adaptive variations in tooth eruption in response to different environmental constraints while maintaining the unique human life cycle. PMID:27305976

  8. Early Mesozoic history and petroleum potential of formations in Wyoming and northern Utah

    SciT

    Picard, M.D.

    1993-08-01

    During the Triassic and Jurassic, over what is now Wyoming and northern Utah, roughly equal amounts of sediment were being deposited in continental settings-lake, stream, and eolian-and in shallow-marine or deltaic-plain settings-delta, beach, marsh, tidal flat, and shallow shelf. Clastic rocks dominate. In order of decreasing abundance, the rocks are fine-grained clastics (siltstone, claystone, mudstone), sandstone, carbonates, evaporites, and claystone- and carbonate-pebble conglomerate. Approximately four-fifths of the succession contains red beds or variegated layers-purple, maroon, lavender, olive, green. Unconformities bound Jurassic formations in Wyoming-Nugget, Gypsum Spring, Sundance, and Morrison. Unconformities also bound the continental Upper Triassic section-unnamed red bed unit,more » Jelm, Popo Agie-separating it from the underlying shallow-marine formations-Dinwoody, Red Peak, Alcova, Crow Mountain. Within the marine sequence, an unconformity occurs at the top of the Alcova and, quite likely, shorter periods of erosion took place at the top and below the base of the sandy faces that underlies the Alcova. The postulate duration of the principal unconformities totals about 18 m.y., at least one-sixth of early Mesozoic time. The bulk of the remaining 80-100 m.y. may be represented by a large number of smaller unconformities. For the lower Mesozoic, as for most stratigraphic intervals, a few beds contain the story of what has taken place during the abyss of geologic time. Like other places in the world where evaporites occur in the Triassic, the Wyoming section produces little crude oil. No significant sequence in the early Mesozoic shows source-bed characteristics. The Crow Mountain Sandstone contains the best reservoirs. The Lower( ) Jurassic Nugget Sandstone produces the most oil and gas in the thrust belt of southwestern Wyoming and northern Utah. Cretaceous claystones below the thrusts contain the source beds.« less

  9. Early history of the moon: Implications of U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Numes, P. D.; Unruh, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthosite 60015 contains the lowest initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio yet reported for a lunar sample. The initial ratio is equal to that of the achondrite Angra dos Reis and slightly higher than the lowest measured Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio for an inclusion in the C3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende. The Pb-Pb ages of both Angra does Reis and Allende are 4.62 X 10 to the ninth power yr. Thus, the initial Sr/87/Sr-86 ratio found in lunar anorthosite 60015 strongly supports the hypothesis that the age of the Moon is about 4.65 b.y. The U-238/Pb-204 value estimated for the source of the excess lead in "orange soil" 74220 is approximately 35 and lower than the values estimated for the sources of KREEP (600-1000), high-K (300-600), and low-K (100-300) basalts. From these and other physical, chemical and petrographic results it was hypothesized that (1) the moon formed approximately 4.65 b.y. ago; (2) a global-scale gravitational differentiation occurred at the beginning of lunar history; and (3) the differentiation resulted in a radical chemical and mineralogical zoning in which the U-238/Pb-204 ratios increased toward the surface, with the exception of the low U-238/Pb-204 surficial anorthositic layer which "floated" at the beginning of the differentiation relative to the denser pyroxene-rich material.

  10. Principles, exemplars, and uses of history in early 20th century genetics.

    PubMed

    Skopek, Jeffrey M

    2011-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the uses of history in science. It focuses in particular on Anglo-American genetics and on university textbooks--where the canon of a science is consolidated, as the heterogeneous approaches and controversies of its practice are rendered unified for its reproduction. Tracing the emergence and eventual standardization of geneticists' use of a case-based method of teaching in the 1920s-1950s, this paper argues that geneticists created historical environments in their textbooks-spaces in which students developed an understanding of the laws of genetics through simulations of their discovery and use. Witnessing the unfolding of Mendel's and Morgan's experiments and performing genetic crosses on paper, students learned not only the rules that were explicitly taught as such, but also the experientially-based, tacit skills needed to find and follow these rules. This didactic system taught them how to go on when confronting new situations, and in doing so, provided geneticists with an important disciplinary tool, freeing the first steps of their student's enculturation from the physical infrastructure of the laboratory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospital for Special Surgery: origin and early history first site 1863-1870.

    PubMed

    Levine, David B

    2005-09-01

    Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) originated as the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R&C) 142 years ago in New York City. As the first and only orthopaedic hospital of its kind in this country, it was located in the residence of its founder James Knight on Second Avenue, south of Sixth Street, and started with 28 inpatient beds for children but no operating facilities. The history of this institution has been documented in two books and occasionally published and unpublished papers. Many of these accounts have been limited by time, focus on a particular subject, or overall reviews. The emergence of such a specialized facility in the middle of the 19th century during a time of medicine in its infancy, our country at war and the city of New York racked in poverty, disease, civil riots, and political corruption is a story not necessarily appreciated in our day. The vision of one little-known physician and the cooperation and support of a small group of prominent New Yorkers and philanthropists were responsible for the origin of this hospital and particularly for its survival in such troubled times when most small hospitals of this period lasted only for a few years. Fortunately, almost all of the original Annual Reports of the Board of Managers, photographs, manuscripts, personal records, and newspaper clippings have been saved. They are now being collected, preserved, catalogued, and displayed in the newly formed HSS Archives from which this material has been taken.

  12. The incorporation of focused history in checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness and injury.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Namita; Ali, Rashid; Kashyap, Rahul; Bennett, Courtney; Kogan, Alexander; Gajic, Ognjen

    2016-08-31

    Diagnostic error and delay are critical impediments to the safety of critically ill patients. Checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness and injury (CERTAIN) has been developed as a tool that facilitates timely and error-free evaluation of critically ill patients. While the focused history is an essential part of the CERTAIN framework, it is not clear how best to choreograph this step in the process of evaluation and treatment of the acutely decompensating patient. An un-blinded crossover clinical simulation study was designed in which volunteer critical care clinicians (fellows and attendings) were randomly assigned to start with either obtaining a focused history choreographed in series (after) or in parallel to the primary survey. A focused history was obtained using the standardized SAMPLE model that is incorporated into American College of Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS). Clinicians were asked to assess six acutely decompensating patients using pre - determined clinical scenarios (three in series choreography, three in parallel). Once the initial choreography was completed the clinician would crossover to the alternative choreography. The primary outcome was the cognitive burden assessed through the NASA task load index. Secondary outcome was time to completion of a focused history. A total of 84 simulated cases (42 in parallel, 42 in series) were tested on 14 clinicians. Both the overall cognitive load and time to completion improved with each successive practice scenario, however no difference was observed between the series versus parallel choreographies. The median (IQR) overall NASA TLX task load index for series was 39 (17 - 58) and for parallel 43 (27 - 52), p = 0.57. The median (IQR) time to completion of the tasks in series was 125 (112 - 158) seconds and in parallel 122 (108 - 158) seconds, p = 0.92. In this clinical simulation study assessing the incorporation of a focused history

  13. Sex differences in the consequences of early-life exposure to epidemiological stress--a life-history approach.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to infectious disease in early life has been suggested to have a negative effect on later-life survival,possibly through the induction of inflammatory responses. Although a life-course perspective emphasizes the importance of both survival and reproduction for individual fitness, to date, no studies have investigated whether early-life exposure to infectious disease has an impact on reproduction as it has been suggested for later survival. To address this question, I have used family reconstitution data from a historical (18th and 19th century) human population in the Krummhörn (Germany) comparing survival and reproduction between an exposed and a non-exposed group. The exposed group comprised those exposed to a high-infectious disease load during prenatal and early postnatal development. The results show a marked sex difference in the impact of early-life exposure to infectious disease. Exposed females show no effect on their life expectancy but significantly reduced fertility (number of children). For exposed males, however, the effect on survival is opponent over time: mortality is increased during childhood but decreased in late adulthood. Above that, exposed males reproduce earlier and have a smaller proportion of surviving children. This study does not support former studies indicating a negative association between early-life disease load and later survival. I argue that due to differences in male and female life strategies, males in general are more vulnerable especially early in life. Hence, adverse environmental conditions may have a stronger effect on male survivability and reproductive performance.

  14. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo

    DOE PAGES

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz; ...

    2017-03-22

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual’s life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and theirmore » contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. As a result, this study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.« less

  15. Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo

    SciT

    Ju, Young Seok; Martincorena, Inigo; Gerstung, Moritz

    Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual’s life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and theirmore » contributions to adult tissues. Although it is known that gross chromosomal abnormalities are remarkably common in early human embryos, our understanding of early embryonic somatic mutations is very limited. Here we use whole-genome sequences of normal blood from 241 adults to identify 163 early embryonic mutations. We estimate that approximately three base substitution mutations occur per cell per cell-doubling event in early human embryogenesis and these are mainly attributable to two known mutational signatures. We used the mutations to reconstruct developmental lineages of adult cells and demonstrate that the two daughter cells of many early embryonic cell-doubling events contribute asymmetrically to adult blood at an approximately 2:1 ratio. As a result, this study therefore provides insights into the mutation rates, mutational processes and developmental outcomes of cell dynamics that operate during early human embryogenesis.« less

  16. Early Differentiation within the Animate Domain: Are Humans Something Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauen, Sabina

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether preverbal infants distinguish between humans and mammals. Study 1 found that 7-, 9-, and 11-month-olds distinguished humans from mammals in an object-examination task. Study 2 found that 7-month-olds but not 5-month-olds showed evidence for category discrimination with the 2-dimensional color photos of toy…

  17. Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sebastien; Guillard, Bertrand; Hem, Sopheak; Brisse, Sylvain; Dieye, Fatou Bintou; Huerre, Michel; Oung, Chakravuth; Raymond, Josette; Sreng Tan, Tek; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vong, Sirenda; Monchy, Didier; Linz, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    The human population history in Southeast Asia was shaped by numerous migrations and population expansions. Their reconstruction based on archaeological, linguistic or human genetic data is often hampered by the limited number of informative polymorphisms in classical human genetic markers, such as the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various countries in Southeast Asia and we provide evidence that H. pylori accompanied at least three ancient human migrations into this area: i) a migration from India introducing hpEurope bacteria into Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia; ii) a migration of the ancestors of Austro-Asiatic speaking people into Vietnam and Cambodia carrying hspEAsia bacteria; and iii) a migration of the ancestors of the Thai people from Southern China into Thailand carrying H. pylori of population hpAsia2. Moreover, the H. pylori sequences reflect iv) the migrations of Chinese to Thailand and Malaysia within the last 200 years spreading hspEasia strains, and v) migrations of Indians to Malaysia within the last 200 years distributing both hpAsia2 and hpEurope bacteria. The distribution of the bacterial populations seems to strongly influence the incidence of gastric cancer as countries with predominantly hspEAsia isolates exhibit a high incidence of gastric cancer while the incidence is low in countries with a high proportion of hpAsia2 or hpEurope strains. In the future, the host range expansion of hpEurope strains among Asian populations, combined with human motility, may have a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence in Asia. PMID:21818291

  18. Evolutionary history of Helicobacter pylori sequences reflect past human migrations in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Breurec, Sebastien; Guillard, Bertrand; Hem, Sopheak; Brisse, Sylvain; Dieye, Fatou Bintou; Huerre, Michel; Oung, Chakravuth; Raymond, Josette; Tan, Tek Sreng; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vong, Sirenda; Monchy, Didier; Linz, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    The human population history in Southeast Asia was shaped by numerous migrations and population expansions. Their reconstruction based on archaeological, linguistic or human genetic data is often hampered by the limited number of informative polymorphisms in classical human genetic markers, such as the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various countries in Southeast Asia and we provide evidence that H. pylori accompanied at least three ancient human migrations into this area: i) a migration from India introducing hpEurope bacteria into Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia; ii) a migration of the ancestors of Austro-Asiatic speaking people into Vietnam and Cambodia carrying hspEAsia bacteria; and iii) a migration of the ancestors of the Thai people from Southern China into Thailand carrying H. pylori of population hpAsia2. Moreover, the H. pylori sequences reflect iv) the migrations of Chinese to Thailand and Malaysia within the last 200 years spreading hspEasia strains, and v) migrations of Indians to Malaysia within the last 200 years distributing both hpAsia2 and hpEurope bacteria. The distribution of the bacterial populations seems to strongly influence the incidence of gastric cancer as countries with predominantly hspEAsia isolates exhibit a high incidence of gastric cancer while the incidence is low in countries with a high proportion of hpAsia2 or hpEurope strains. In the future, the host range expansion of hpEurope strains among Asian populations, combined with human motility, may have a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence in Asia.

  19. Effects of coal contamination on early life history processes of a reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Brinkman, Diane L; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-01-15

    Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments. Fertilisation was the most sensitive reproductive process tested. Embryo survivorship decreased with increasing suspended coal concentrations and exposure duration, effects on larval settlement varied between treatments, while effects on juvenile survivorship were minimal. Leachate exposures had negligible effects on fertilisation and larval settlement. These results indicate that coral recruitment could be affected by spills that produce plumes of suspended coal particles which interact with gametes and embryos soon after spawning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciT

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools basedmore » on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.« less

  1. Genomic validation of the differential preservation of population history in modern human cranial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Local Adaptation at the Transcriptome Level in Brown Trout: Evidence from Early Life History Temperature Genomic Reaction Norms

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D.; Frydenberg, Jane; Larsen, Peter Foged; Bekkevold, Dorte; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences in gene expression profiles for three brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations, one resident and two anadromous, experiencing different temperature regimes in the wild. The study was based on an F2 generation raised in a common garden setting. A previous study of the F1 generation revealed different reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees C) representing conditions encountered in the local environments. Global gene expression for fry at the stage of first feeding was analysed using a 32k cDNA microarray. The results revealed differences in gene expression between populations and temperatures and population × temperature interactions, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations. These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level of phenotypic plasticity at the transcriptome level. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptome approaches to identify genes with different temperature reaction norms. The

  3. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  4. Evaluating Failures and Near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of studies done in the past drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. Generally, the systemic causes and proximate causes for fatal events have both been examined in considerable detail. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents and failures that narrowly missed being fatal could be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Additionally, review of risk factors for upcoming or future programs will often look at trending statistics, generally focusing on failure/success statistics. Unfortunately, doing so can give a skewed or misleading view of past reliability or a reliability that cannot be presumed to apply to a new program. One reason for this might be that failure/success criteria aren't the same across programs, but also that apparent success can hide systemic faults that, under other circumstances, can be fatal to a program with different parameters. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure and provide very misleading data if it is not examined in detail. This is particularly true for a manned space program where failure/success includes more than making a particular orbit. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. Even more importantly, a thorough understanding of these near miss events can identify conditions that prevented fatalities. Those conditions may be key to a programs reliability, but, without insight to the repercussions if such conditions were not in place, their importance may not be readily clear. As programs mature and political and fiscal responsibilities come to the fore, often there is considerable incentive to eliminate unnecessary

  5. Early life history of three pelagic-spawning minnows Macrhybopsis spp. in the lower Missouri River

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Miller, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. AllMacrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0·22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0·02) and M. gelida (B = 0·09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0·62 to 0·97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0·79 mm day−1 for M. meeki to 1·39 mm day−1 for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0·985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions.

  6. Microanatomy and life history in Palaeopleurosaurus (Rhynchocephalia: Pleurosauridae) from the Early Jurassic of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M.

    2017-02-01

    The tuatara ( Sphenodon punctatus) from New Zealand is often—erroneously—identified as a `living fossil', although it is the lone survivor of a large, successful radiation of Rhynchocephalia, sister taxon to squamates (lizards and snakes), that thrived through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and experienced an intricate evolution of life histories and feeding habits. Within Rhynchocephalia, only Pleurosauridae are thought to be marine and piscivorous. Here, we present bone histological data of the Jurassic pleurosaurid Palaeopleurosaurus, showing osteosclerosis (i.e. bone mass increase) in its gastralia, and some osteosclerosis in its rib but no increase in bone mass in the femur, supporting a gradual skeletal specialization for an aquatic way of life. Similar to Sphenodon, the bone tissue deposited in Palaeopleurosaurus is lamellar zonal bone. The femoral growth pattern in Palaeopleurosaurus differs from that of terrestrial Sphenodon in a more irregular spacing of growth marks and deposition of non-annual (i.e. non-continuous) rest lines, indicating strong dependency on exogenous factors. The annual growth mark count in adult but not yet fully grown Palaeopleurosaurus is much lower when compared to adult individuals of Sphenodon, which could indicate a lower lifespan for Palaeopleurosaurus. Whereas the gastral ribs of Palaeopleurosaurus and Sphenodon are similar in composition, the ribs of Sphenodon differ profoundly in being separated into a proximal tubular rib part with a thick cortex, and an elliptical, flared ventral part characterised by extremely thin cortical bone. The latter argues against a previously inferred protective function of the ventral rib parts for the vulnerable viscera in Sphenodon.

  7. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  8. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  9. Japan 1945-1989: Re-Creating a Modern Nation. A Humanities Approach to Japanese History, Part IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    This curriculum unit is the final volume of a four-part series. Noting that the humanities reveal the values and beliefs that underlie social, political, and economic institutions, the unit contends that the study of other countries and their histories may be greatly enriched by a humanities approach that draws on the fields of literature,…

  10. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Cau, Andrea; Dong-Yu, Hu; Escuillié, François; Wenhao, Wu; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-06-20

    The recent discovery of small paravian theropod dinosaurs with well-preserved feathers in the Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province (northeastern China) has challenged the pivotal position of Archaeopteryx, regarded from its discovery to be the most basal bird. Removing Archaeopteryx from the base of Avialae to nest within Deinonychosauria implies that typical bird flight, powered by the forelimbs only, either evolved at least twice, or was subsequently lost or modified in some deinonychosaurians. Here we describe the complete skeleton of a new paravian from the Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Including this new taxon in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for basal Paraves does the following: (1) it recovers it as the basal-most avialan; (2) it confirms the avialan status of Archaeopteryx; (3) it places Troodontidae as the sister-group to Avialae; (4) it supports a single origin of powered flight within Paraves; and (5) it implies that the early diversification of Paraves and Avialae took place in the Middle-Late Jurassic period.

  11. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  12. Factors Regulating Early Life History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ryan R. E.; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Gregory, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day−1 with a net mortality of 27%•day–1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10–20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic. PMID:24058707

  13. Early and Middle Pleistocene vegetation history of the Médoc region, southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, C. E.; Jones, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    Pleistocene deposits, together with their pollen, plant macrofossil, foraminiferal, dinoflagellate and coleopteran remains, from five sites along the Atlantic coast of the Médoc Peninsula are described and discussed. Sediments making up the Négade Formation are shown to have been laid down under either estuarine or lagoonal conditions when closed Quercus-Pinus-Tsuga canadensis regional woodland existed. Comparison with plant records from The Netherlands indicates that these deposits are most likely attributable to either the Early Pleistocene Bavel Interglacial (marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 31), or an interglacial of the Waalian (MIS 37-49) or Tiglian (MIS 63-79). In addition, clays assigned to the Argiles du Gurp sensu stricto, were similarly deposited in either an estuary or lagoon, which subsequently was cut off from the sea. A freshwater lake with vegetation dominated by Azolla filiculoides then developed. This was succeeded by reedswamp and an organic mud (termed Lignite in the corresponding French stratigraphical records) formed. Regional Quercus-Abies woodland was replaced by one with Pinus dominant and Pterocarya a minor component. Comparison with plant records from France and other parts of Europe suggest that the clays and organic mud might be correlated with the Holsteinian (Praclaux) Interglacial (MIS 11c). Copyright

  14. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD)

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Hadi, Tamer M; Salman, Ali; Vasuki, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green). During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal) green iris or (diseased) green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna) wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. PMID:25673972

  15. Prevalence of early childhood caries in a population of children with history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Rojas, Nancy; Lawrence, Herenia P; Goodman, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in a population of maltreated children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The sample consisted of preschool-aged children (2 to 6 years) admitted to the care of the Children's Aid Society of Toronto (CAST) between 1991 and 2004. Data were collected by reviewing the dental and social workers' records of CAST ECC was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled deciduous teeth (dmft) index. The type and severity of maltreatment were obtained from the Eligibility Spectrum. The study included 66 children: 37 (56 percent) boys and 29 (44 percent) girls, with an average age of 4.1 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.2]. Four (6 percent) children had evidence of dental injury, and none had teeth filled or extracted as a result of decay ECC was observed in 58 percent of the abused children. Of these, the mean decayed teeth ("dt") value was 5.63 (SD = 4.17, n = 38) and 3.24 (SD= 4.21) for the whole sample (n = 66). The proportion of children with untreated caries was 57 percent among "neglected" children (n = 53) and 62 percent in physically/sexually abused cases (n = 13). Logistic regression revealed that children in permanent CAST care and those in its care more than once were significantly less likely to have experienced caries. Abused and neglected young children had higher levels of tooth decay than the general population of 5-year-olds in Toronto (30 percent prevalence, mean dt= 0.42, SD = 1.20, n = 3185). However, this study did not find any difference in ECC prevalence between children with different types of maltreatment. The study did find that CAST services had a protective effect on children's oral health, which supports the recommendation that child protection services should investigate possible dental neglect in physical/sexual abuse and neglect cases.

  16. Climatic and human controls on the late Holocene fire history of northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Nishri, A.; Street, J. H.; Paytan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term fire histories provide insight into the effects of climate, ecology and human influence on fire activity. Fire records can be expanded beyond the period of historical record using accumulation rates of large charcoal particles and soot black carbon (BC) in lacustrine sediments: charcoal accumulation peaks indicate local to regional fire events, while increased deposition of BC may document regional-scale burning. To determine which factors exert the greatest control over changes in fire frequency at different times, this study compares late Holocene fire records from Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), Israel to local and regional records of climate and human activity. We show that fire frequency decreased during the past 3010 years from 3-4 fire events per 400 years between 3010 - 2620 y.b.p. to 0-2 fire events per 400 years from 750 y.b.p. to present. Human modification of the landscape during periods of high population (e.g. forest clearing, agriculture, settlement expansion and industry) appears to have been the greatest contributor to increased fire activity in the semi-arid southern Levant region during the late Holocene, though aridity may also have contributed to higher fire activity. However, during much of the study period, climate and human activity were interrelated, so while human activity may have been the greater control on fire activity, the effect of climate may have been both direct and indirect (through climate-related changes in population), making it sometimes difficult to distinguish the two controls. Projections of increasing aridification of the region combined with a heavy impact on the landscape from a large modern population suggest that increased fire activity may occur in the region in the near future.

  17. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  18. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    PubMed

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  19. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  20. Early Childhood Education Curricula: Human Rights and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sounoglou, Marina; Michalopoulou, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the human rights and the notion of citizenship under the prism of pedagogical science. The methodology that was followed was the experimental method. In a sample of 100 children-experimental group and control group held an intervention program with deepening axes of human rights and the concept of citizenship. The analysis of…

  1. Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adrian C; Hill, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B3 / nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the ‘de novo’ tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide ‘immune tolerance’ pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation) correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital. PMID:28579800

  2. A Diversity of Divisions: Tracing the History of the Demarcation between the Sciences and the Humanities.

    PubMed

    Bouterse, Jeroen; Karstens, Bart

    2015-06-01

    Throughout history, divides between the sciences and the humanities have been drawn in many different ways. This essay shows that the notion of a divide became more urgent and pronounced in the second half of the nineteenth century. While this shift has several causes, the essay focuses on the rise of the social sciences, which is interpreted as posing a profound challenge to the established disciplines of the study of humankind. This is demonstrated by zooming in on linguistics, one of the key traditional disciplines of the humanities. Through the assumption of a correspondence between mental and linguistic categories, psychology became of central importance in the various conceptions of linguistics that emerged in the nineteenth century. Both linguistics and psychology were very much engaged in a process of discipline formation, and opinions about the proper directions of the fields varied considerably. Debates on these issues catalyzed the construction of more radical divisions between the sciences and the humanities. Both Wilhelm Dilthey's dichotomy between understanding and explanation and Wilhelm Windelband's dichotomy between nomothetic and idiographic sciences respond to these debates. While their constructions are often lumped together, the essay shows that they actually meant very different things and have to be treated accordingly.

  3. Fire history and human activity in last 2000 years reconstructed from varved lake sediments (N Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Pienczewska, A.; Obremska, M.; Ott, F.; Dietze, E.; Feurdean, A.; Theuerkauf, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Humans in the last two thousand years affect profound changes to ecosystem structure and function sometimes causing fire regimes. The aim of the study was to reconstruct fire history and human activity in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 2000 years. The robust chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). Pollen and microscopic charcoal data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of consistently 5 years and 10 years. Data from Czechowskie lake suggest next to climate change that increased human activity was one of the main factors that influenced fire frequency (e.g. 50-450 AD and 900-1200 AD). This is particularly evident between 1776-1905 AD, when intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests (fire-prone vegetation). Using high-resolution pollen and charcoal data we aim to identify the most probable causes of changes during the last 2000 years. Finally, we discuss the observed fire frequency and vegetation change in relation to climate changes and the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 and 2015/17/B/ST10/03430).

  4. Genomic structure of the native inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo suggests complex human population history in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Yew, Chee-Wei; Lu, Dongsheng; Deng, Lian; Wong, Lai-Ping; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoji; Yunus, Yushimah; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Hoque, Mohammad Zahirul; Voo, Christopher Lok-Yung; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Bhak, Jong; Phipps, Maude E; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Hoh, Boon-Peng

    2018-02-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. The analysis of time of divergence suggested that ancestors of Negrito were the earliest settlers in the Malay Peninsula, whom first separated from the Papuans ~ 50-33 thousand years ago (kya), followed by East Asian (~ 40-15 kya), while the divergence time frame between North Borneo and East Asia populations predates the Austronesian expansion period implies a possible pre-Neolithic colonization. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia. Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component.

  5. Early-season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection

    Guptill, S.C.; Julian, K.G.; Campbell, G.L.; Price, S.D.; Marfin, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of 2001 and 2002 West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data shows that counties that report WNV-infected dead birds early in the transmission season are more likely to report subsequent WNV disease cases in humans than are counties that do not report early WNV-infected dead birds.

  6. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  7. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  8. The Natural History of Oral Human Papillomavirus in Young Costa Rican Women.

    PubMed

    Beachler, Daniel C; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Hildesheim, Allan; Cortes, Bernal; Sampson, Joshua; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2017-07-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link. Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%). Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.

  9. Early life history of the northern pikeminnow in the lower Columbia River basin

    Gadomski, D.M.; Barfoot, C.A.; Bayer, J.M.; Poe, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    The northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a large, native cyprinid in the Columbia River basin that has persisted in spite of substantial habitat alterations. During the months of June to September 1993-1996, we investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of northern pikeminnow spawning, along with describing larval drift and characterizing larval and early juvenile rearing habitats in the lower Columbia River (the John Day and Dalles reservoirs and the free-flowing section downstream of Bonneville Dam) as well as in the lower sections of two major tributaries (the John Day and Deschutes rivers). The density of newly emerged drifting larvae was higher in dam tailraces (a mean of 7.7 larvae/100 m3 in surface tows) than in the lower reservoirs (0.3 larvae/100 m3), indicating that tailraces were areas of more intense spawning. Density was particularly high in the Bonneville Dam tailrace (15.1 larvae/100 m3), perhaps because adult northern pikeminnow are abundant below Bonneville Dam and this is the first tailrace and suitable main-stem spawning habitat encountered during upriver spawning migrations. Spawning also occurred in both of the tributaries sampled but not in a backwater. Spawning in the Columbia River primarily took place during the month of June in 1993 and 1994, when the water temperature rose from 14??C to 18??C, but occurred about 2 weeks later in 1995 and 1996, possibly because of cooler June water temperature (14-15??C) in these years. The period of drift was brief (about 1-3 d), with larvae recruiting to shallow, low-velocity shorelines of main-channel and backwater areas to rear. Larvae reared in greatest densities at sites with fine sediment or sand substrates and moderate- to high-density vegetation (a mean density of 92.1 larvae/10 m3). The success of northern pikeminnow in the Columbia River basin may be partly attributable to their ability to locate adequate spawning and rearing conditions in a variety of main-stem and tributary

  10. Thermal and collisional history of Tishomingo iron meteorite: More evidence for early disruption of differentiated planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jijin; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Michael, Joseph R.; Kotula, Paul G.; Grimberg, Ansgar; Leya, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Tishomingo is a chemically and structurally unique iron with 32.5 wt.% Ni that contains 20% residual taenite and 80% martensite plates, which formed on cooling to between -75 and -200 °C, probably the lowest temperature recorded by any meteorite. Our studies using transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (AEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show that martensite plates in Tishomingo formed in a single crystal of taenite and decomposed during reheating forming 10-100 nm taenite particles with ∼50 wt.% Ni, kamacite with ∼4 wt.%Ni, along with martensite or taenite with 32 wt.% Ni. EBSD data and experimental constraints show that Tishomingo was reheated to 320-400 °C for about a year transforming some martensite to kamacite and to taenite particles and some martensite directly to taenite without composition change. Fizzy-textured intergrowths of troilite, kamacite with 2.7 wt.% Ni and 2.6 wt.% Co, and taenite with 56 wt.% Ni and 0.15 wt.% Co formed by localized shock melting. A single impact probably melted the sub-mm sulfides, formed stishovite, and reheated and decomposed the martensite plates. Tishomingo and its near-twin Willow Grove, which has 28 wt.% Ni, differ from IAB-related irons like Santa Catharina and San Cristobal that contain 25-36 wt.% Ni, as they are highly depleted in moderately volatile siderophiles and enriched in Ir and other refractory elements. Tishomingo and Willow Grove therefore resemble IVB irons but are chemically distinct. The absence of cloudy taenite in these two irons shows that they cooled through 250 °C abnormally fast at >0.01 °C/yr. Thus this grouplet, like the IVA and IVB irons, suffered an early impact that disrupted their parent body when it was still hot. Our noble gas data show that Tishomingo was excavated from its parent body about 100 to 200 Myr ago and exposed to cosmic rays as a meteoroid with a radius of ∼50-85 cm.

  11. Scabies in animals and humans: history, evolutionary perspectives, and modern clinical management.

    PubMed

    Currier, Russell W; Walton, Shelley F; Currie, Bart J

    2011-08-01

    Scabies, a mite infestation frequently sexually transmitted, dates back to antiquity but remains a challenging parasite for study in clinical practice and community settings. Its history is one of centuries of slow progress to recognize the mite and to finally establish its nexus to the clinical syndrome of pruritis with several protean manifestations and different epidemiological patterns. Contemporary methods of management are briefly reviewed, with the future promise of improved evolutionary knowledge associated with the advent of molecular and genetic technology. Current information indicates that humans and earlier protohumans were most likely the source of animal scabies, first of dogs, and later of other species with subsequent spread to wildlife. Morphologically identical variants of Sarcoptes scabiei are nonetheless host specific, as determined by recent DNA studies, and invite future investigations into the dynamics of this troublesome sexually transmissible agent, with the goal of improved recognition and control. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Human bony labyrinth is an indicator of population history and dispersal from Africa.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Marcia S; Koesbardiati, Toetik; Weissmann, John David; Milella, Marco; Reyna-Blanco, Carlos S; Suwa, Gen; Kondo, Osamu; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Tim D; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2018-04-17

    The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history. The cavity system of the inner ear (the so-called bony labyrinth) is a good candidate structure for such analyses. It is already fully formed by birth, which minimizes postnatal phenotypic plasticity, and it is generally well preserved in archaeological samples. Here we use morphometric data of the bony labyrinth to show that it is a surprisingly good marker of the global dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Labyrinthine morphology tracks genetic distances and geography in accordance with an isolation-by-distance model with dispersal from Africa. Our data further indicate that the neutral-like pattern of variation is compatible with stabilizing selection on labyrinth morphology. Given the increasingly important role of the petrous bone for ancient DNA recovery from archaeological specimens, we encourage researchers to acquire 3D morphological data of the inner ear structures before any invasive sampling. Such data will constitute an important archive of phenotypic variation in present and past populations, and will permit individual-based genotype-phenotype comparisons. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  14. Phylodynamics of Merkel-cell polyomavirus and human polyomavirus 6: A long-term history with humans.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina; Barrios, Melina Elizabeth; Cammarata, Robertina Viviana; Victoria, Matías; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Colina, Rodney; Blanco Fernández, María Dolores; Mbayed, Viviana Andrea

    2018-04-20

    New human polyomaviruses have been described in the last years, including the Merkel-cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; Human polyomavirus 5) and the Human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6). Although their infection is usually asymptomatic, in immunocompromised host can cause life-threatening pathologies, such as the Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive skin neoplasia associated to the MCPyV. Despite being prevalent viruses in population, epidemiological data from South America are scarce, as well as the characterization of the viral types circulating and their origin. The aims of this work were to describe MCPyV and HPyV6 from environmental samples with different geographical origin and to analyze their phylogenetic and evolutionary histories, particularly for MCPyV. Partial and complete genome sequences were obtained from sewage samples from Argentina, Uruguay and Spain. A total number of 87 sequences were obtained for MCPyV and 33 for HPyV6. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MCPyV sequences distributed according to their geographic origin in Europe/North America, Africa, Asia, South America and Oceania groups, suggesting that viral diversification might have followed human migrations across the globe. In particular, viruses from Argentina associated with Europe/North America and South America genotypes, whereas those from Uruguay and Spain also grouped with Africa genotype, reflecting the origin of the current population in each country, which could arrive not only during ancient human migration but also during recent migratory events. In addition, the South American group presented a high level of clusterization, showing internal clusters that could be related to specific locations, such as French Guiana and Brazil or the Southern region into South America, such as Argentina and Uruguay, suggesting a long term evolutionary process in the region. Additionally, in this work, we carried out the first analysis about the evolutionary history of MCPyV trough the integration of

  15. "Teaching Physics as one of the humanities": The history of (harvard) project Physics, 1961-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshoulam, David

    In the United States after World War II, science had come to occupy a central place in the minds of policy makers, scientists, and the public. Negotiating different views between these groups proved a difficult task and spilled into debates over the role and scope of science education. To examine this process, this dissertation traces the history of Harvard Project Physics (HPP), a high-school physics curriculum from the 1960s that incorporated a humanistic and historical approach to teaching science. The narrative begins with the rise of General Education in the 1940s. Under the leadership of Harvard president James Conant, faculty at Harvard developed several Natural Science courses that connected science to history as a way to teach students about science and its relationship to culture. By the late 1950s this historical approach faced resistance from scientists who viewed it as misrepresenting their disciplines and called for students to learn specialized subject matter. With the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), in the early 1960s scientists' vision of science education emerged in high-school classrooms across the country. By the mid 1960s, with the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the Daddario Amendment to the NSF, the political and education landscape began to change. These laws transformed the goals of two of the NSF and the Office of Education (USOE). These organizations faced demands to work together to develop projects that would speak to domestic concerns over equity and diversity. Their first joint educational venture was HPP. In order to succeed, HPP had to speak to the needs of disciplinary-minded scientists at the NSF, equity-minded educators at the USOE, and results-focused politicians in Congress. This work argues that HPP succeeded because it met the needs of these various stakeholders regarding the roles of science and education in American society.

  16. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ˜5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ˜5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ˜2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ˜6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  17. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  18. Gut microbial functional maturation and succession during human early life.

    PubMed

    Cerdó, Tomás; Ruiz, Alicia; Acuña, Inmaculada; Jáuregui, Ruy; Jehmlich, Nico; Haange, Sven-Bastian; von Bergen, Martin; Suárez, Antonio; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-04-24

    The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional diversity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and fermentation strategies from milk and mucin-derived monosaccharide catabolism feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food-derived hexoses fuelling butanoate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of a Human Neurovascular Unit Organotypic Systems Model of Early Brain Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to model human brain and blood-brain barrier development in vitro poses a major challenge in studies of how chemicals impact early neurogenic periods. During human development, disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling is related to adverse morphological effects ...

  20. The long sediment record of lake Challa: a unique equatorial archive, potentially crucial for understanding early human dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Moernaut, Jasper; De Batist, Marc; Verschuren, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Kenya/Tanzania) is located in a key site for reconstructing the climate and landscape history of equatorial East Africa and hence, climatic influences on the living environment of early modern humans, Homo sapiens. Seismic-reflection data from this crater lake reveal a ~210-m thick sedimentary infill containing distinct seismic-stratigraphic signatures of late-Quaternary lake-level fluctuations. Extrapolation of a well-constrained age model on the cored upper part of the sequence shows that the signatures of these lake-level fluctuations represent a detailed record of climatic moisture-balance variation in equatorial East Africa, continuous over at least the last 140 kyr and encompassing in total ~250 kyr. The most severe aridity occurred during peak Penultimate glaciation immediately before 130 kyr BP (coeval with Heinrich event 11) and during a Last Interglacial 'megadrought' period between ~115 and ~98 kyr BP; in comparison, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) aridity was modest. The LGM was preceded by ~75,000 years of relatively stable and moist climate conditions interrupted by eleven short-lived dry spells, five of which match the timing of Heinrich events 2 to 6. Also in the lower part of the sedimentary infill the seismic stratigraphy provides evidence for short-lived dry spells, but artefacts and changes in basin geometry complicate their detailed interpretation and dating, respectively. The ICDP deep-drilling project DeepCHALLA aims to core the entire sedimentary sequence, which will allow reconstructing regional climate and ecological dynamics for the past ~250 kyr, i.e., the entire documented existence of anatomically modern humans in East Africa. Knowledge of climate history in this equatorial region, where the northeasterly and southeasterly monsoons strongly interact, is crucial for documenting the severity and geographical distribution of prolonged drought episodes across tropical Africa, and thus for understanding the early